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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Diet and exercise influence on the proteomic profile of an athlete population].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Nutrition has emerged as a fundamental tool included in the training program of athletes. Body composition seeks different objectives depending on type of sport, position, or time of the season. Furthermore, analysis proteomics allows us to know the structure and function of proteins.
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Evaluation of the combination of a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method with micellar electrokinetic chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry for the determination of estrogenic compounds in milk and yogurt.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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In this work, the suitability of a methodology based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been evaluated for the extraction of four endoestrogens (estriol, 17?-estradiol, 17?-estradiol and estrone), an exoestrogen (17?-etynylestradiol) and a mycotoxin (zearalenone), together with some of their major metabolites (2-methoxyestradiol, ?-zearalanol, ?-zearalanol, ?-zearalenol and ?-zearalenol) from different types of milk (whole and skimmed cow milk and semi-skimmed goat milk) and whole natural yogurt. The methodology includes a previous protein precipitation with acidified acetonitrile and a defatting step with n-hexane. Separation of the analytes, determination and quantification were developed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) using a background electrolyte containing an aqueous solution of ammonium perfluorooctanoate as MS friendly surfactant. Calibration, precision and accuracy studies of the described DLLME-MEKC-MS/MS method were evaluated obtaining a good linearity and limits of detection in the low ?g/L range. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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A home-based treadmill training reduced epicardial and abdominal fat in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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The current study was designed to determine the effect of home-based treadmill training on epicardial and abdominal adipose tissue in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS). A secondary objective was to identify significant correlations between imaging and conventional anthropometric parameters.
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DNA methyltransferases 3a and 3b are differentially expressed in the early stages of a rat liver carcinogenesis model.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Carcinogenesis is driven by the accumulation of mutations and abnormal DNA methylation patterns, particularly the hypermethylation of tumor?suppressor genes. Changes in genomic DNA methylation patterns are established by the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) family: DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b. The DNMTs are known to be overexpressed in tumors. However, when the DNMTs expression profile is altered in earlier stages of carcinogenesis remains to be elucidated. The resistant hepatocyte model (RHM) allows the analysis of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from the formation of altered cell foci to the appearance of tumors in rats. To investigate the DNMTs expression in this model, we first observed that timp3, rassf1a and p16 genes became methylated during cancer development by methylation?specific PCR (MSP) and the bisulphate sequencing PCR (BSP) of timp3. The differential expression at the RNA and protein level of the three DNMTs was also assessed. dnmt1 expression was higher in tumors than in normal and early cancer stages. However, no evident overexpression of the enzyme was identified by immunohistochemistry. By contrast, DNMT3a and DNMT3b were consistently subexpressed in tumors. In the present study, we report a carcinogenesis model that does not feature the overexpression of DNMT1 but exhibits a transient expression of DNMT3a and DNMT3b.
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Use of ammonium formate in QuEChERS for high-throughput analysis of pesticides in food by fast, low-pressure gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) approach to sample preparation is widely applied in pesticide residue analysis, but the use of magnesium sulfate and other nonvolatile compounds for salting out in the method is not ideal for mass spectrometry. In this study, we developed and evaluated three new different versions of the QuEChERS method using more volatile salts (ammonium chloride and ammonium formate and acetate buffers) to induce phase separation and extraction of 43 representative pesticide analytes of different classes. Fast low-pressure gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS were used for analysis. The QuEChERS AOAC Official Method 2007.01 was also tested for comparison purposes. Of the studied methods, formate buffering using 7.5g of ammonium formate and 15mL of 5% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile for the extraction of 15g of sample (5g for wheat grain) provided the best performance and practical considerations. Method validation was carried out with and without the use of dispersive solid-phase extraction for cleanup, and no significant differences were observed for the majority of pesticides. The method was demonstrated in quantitative analysis for GC- and LC-amenable pesticides in 4 representative food matrices (apple, lemon, lettuce, and wheat grain). With the typical exceptions of certain pH-dependent and labile pesticides, 90-110% recoveries and <10% RSD were obtained. Detection limits were mostly <5ng/g, which met the general need to determine pesticide concentrations as low as 10ng/g for monitoring purposes in food applications.
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Metabolic effects of the contraceptive skin patch and subdermal contraceptive implant in Mexican women: a prospective study.
Reprod Health
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The contraceptive skin patch (CSP) accepted by the U.S. FDA in 2001 includes ethinylestradiol and norelgestromine, whereas the subdermal contraceptive implant (SCI) has etonogestrel and is also approved by the FDA. In Mexico, both are now widely used for contraception but their effects on Mexican population are unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate if these treatments induce metabolic changes in a sample of indigenous and mestizo Mexican women.
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Estrogenic compounds determination in water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and micellar electrokinetic chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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In this work, a group of 12 estrogenic compounds, i.e., four natural sexual hormones (estrone, 17?-estradiol, 17?-estradiol and estriol), an exoestrogen (17?-ethynylestradiol), a synthetic stilbene (dienestrol), a mycotoxin (zearalenone) and some of their major metabolites (2-methoxyestradiol, ?-zearalanol, ?-zearalanol, ?-zearalenol and ?-zearalenol) have been separated and determined by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) coupled to electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry. For this purpose, a background electrolyte containing an aqueous solution of 45 mM of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) adjusted to pH 9.0 with an ammonia solution, as MS friendly surfactant, and methanol (10% (v/v)), as organic modifier, was used. To further increase the sensitivity, normal stacking mode was applied by injecting the sample dissolved in an aqueous solution of 11.5mM of ammonium PFO (APFO) at pH 9.0 containing 10% (v/v) of methanol for 25s. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, using 110 ?L of chloroform and 500 ?L of acetonitrile as extraction and dispersion solvents, respectively, was employed to extract and preconcentrate the target analytes from different types of environmental water samples (mineral, run-off and wastewater) containing 30% (w/v) NaCl and adjusted to pH 3.0 with 1M HCl. The limits of detection achieved were in the range 0.04-1.10 ?g/L. The whole method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, recovery and matrix effect for each type of water, showing determination coefficients higher than 0.992 for matrix-matched calibration and absolute recoveries in the range 43-91%.
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Dopamine mobilizes mesenchymal progenitor cells through D2-class receptors and their PI3K/AKT pathway.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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As the nervous system exerts direct and indirect effects on stem cells mobilization and catecholamines mobilize hematopoietic stem cells, we hypothesized that dopamine might induce mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) mobilization. We show that dopamine induced in vitro MPCs migration through D2-class receptors, and their alternative phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathways. Also, administration of catecholamines induced in vivo mobilization of colony-forming unit-fibroblast in mice. In contrast, in vitro and in vivo MPCs migration was suppressed by D2-class receptors antagonists and blocking antibodies, consistent with dopamine signaling pathway implication. In humans, patients treated with L-dopa or catecholaminergic agonists showed a significant increase of a MPC-like population (CD45-CD31-CD34-CD105+) in their peripheral blood. These findings reveal a new link between catecholamines and MPCs mobilization and suggest the potential use of D2-class receptors agonists for mobilization of MPCs in clinical settings.
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An approach to the histomorphological and histochemical variations of the humerus cortical bone through human ontogeny.
J. Anat.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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For many years, clinical and non-clinical investigations have investigated cortical bone structure in an attempt to address questions related to normal bone development, mineralisation, pathologies and even evolutionary trends in our lineage (adaptations). Research in the fields of medicine, materials science, physical anthropology, palaeontology, and even archaeobiology has contributed interesting data. However, many questions remain regarding the histomorphological and histochemical variations in human cortical bone during different stages of life. In the present work, we describe a study of long bone cortex transformations during ontogeny. We analysed cross-sections of 15 human humeri histomorphologically and histochemically from perinatal to adult age, marking and quantifying the spatial distribution of bone tissue types using GIS software and analysing the mineral composition and crystallinity of the mineralised cortex using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our results allowed us to propose that human cortical bone undergoes three main 'events' through ontogeny that critically change the proportions and structure of the cortex. In early development, bone is not well mineralised and proportionally presents a wide cortex that narrows through the end of childhood. Before reaching complete maturity, the bone mineral area increases, allowing the bone to nearly reach the adult size. The medullary cavity is reduced, and the mineral areas have a highly ordered crystalline structure. The last event occurs in adulthood, when the 'oldest' individuals present a reduced mineralised area, with increasing non-mineralised cavities (including the medullary cavity) and reduced crystalline organisation.
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Comparison of the interfacial activity between homogeneous and Janus gold nanoparticles by pendant drop tensiometry.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The interfacial activity of 3.5 nm homogeneous (HPs) and amphiphilic Janus gold nanoparticles (JPs) was characterized by pendant drop tensiometry for water/air and water/decane interfaces. This technique requires a smaller quantity of nanoparticles than the traditional Langmuir balance technique. The direct deposition at the interface of the nanoparticles dispersed in a spreading solvent also requires smaller quantities of sample than does adsorption from the bulk. From the growing and shrinking of the pendant drops, the interfacial activity of the nanoparticles can be evaluated and compared within a wide range of area per particle. In this work, the JPs exhibited a higher interfacial activity than did the HPs in all cases. A hard disk model fits the piecewise compression isotherm of the HPs, yet this model underestimates the interactions between the JPs adsorbed at the interface.
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Out of the blue: the spectral sensitivity of hummingbird hawkmoths.
J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural. Behav. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The European hummingbird hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum is a diurnal nectar forager like the honeybee, and we expect similarities in their sensory ecology. Using behavioural tests and electroretinograms (ERGs), we studied the spectral sensitivity of M. stellatarum. By measuring ERGs in the dark-adapted eye and after adaptation to green light, we determined that M. stellatarum has ultraviolet (UV), blue and green receptors maximally sensitive at 349, 440 and 521 nm, and confirmed that green receptors are most frequent in the retina. To determine the behavioural spectral sensitivity (action spectrum) of foraging moths, we trained animals to associate a disk illuminated with spectral light, with a food reward, and a dark disk with no reward. While the spectral positions of sensitivity maxima found in behavioural tests agree with model predictions based on the ERG data, the sensitivity to blue light was 30 times higher than expected. This is different from the honeybee but similar to earlier findings in the crepuscular hawkmoth Manduca sexta. It may indicate that the action spectrum of foraging hawkmoths does not represent their general sensory capacity. We suggest that the elevated sensitivity to blue light is related to the innate preference of hawkmoths for blue flowers.
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Determination of estrogens in environmental water samples using 1,3-dipentylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid as extraction solvent in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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In this work, the potential of a symmetric dialkyl-substituted ionic liquid (IL), 1,3-dipenthylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([PPIm][PF6 ]), as extraction solvent in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been studied for the analysis of a group of three natural (estriol, 17?-estradiol, and 17?-estradiol) and four synthetic (17?-ethynylestradiol, diethylstibestrol, dienestrol, and hexestrol) estrogenic compounds as well as one mycotoxin with estrogenic activity (zearalenone) in different types of water samples (Milli-Q, mineral, and wastewater). Separation, determination, and quantification were developed by HPLC-DAD and a fluorescence detector (FD) connected in series. Factors influencing the IL-DLLME procedure (sample pH, amount of IL, type and volume of disperser solvent, ionic strength, and assistance of vortex agitation) were investigated and optimized by means of a step-by-step approach. Once the optimum extraction conditions were established (10 mL of water at pH 8, 60 mg of [PPIm][PF6 ], 500 ?L of ACN as disperser solvent and vortex agitation for 1 min), the calibration curves of the whole method (IL-DLLME-HPLC-DAD/FD) were obtained and precision and accuracy were evaluated. It was demonstrated that the developed methodology was repeatable, accurate, and selective with limits of detection in the 0.30-0.57 ?g/L and 13.8-37.1 ?g/L range for FD and DAD, respectively. Relative recovery values were higher than 85% for the different types of water samples and the Student's t test demonstrated that there were not significant differences between the added and the found concentration.
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Body Size, Extinction Risk and Knowledge Bias in New World Snakes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Extinction risk and body size have been found to be related in various vertebrate groups, with larger species being more at risk than smaller ones. We checked whether this was also the case for snakes by investigating extinction risk-body size relationships in the New World's Colubroidea species. We used the IUCN Red List risk categories to assign each species to one of two broad levels of threat (Threatened and Non-Threatened) or to identify it as either Data Deficient or Not-Evaluated by the IUCN. We also included the year of description of each species in our analysis as this could affect the level of threat assigned to it (earlier described species had more time to gather information about them, which might have facilitated their evaluation). Also, species detectability could be a function of body size, with larger species tending to be described earlier, which could have an impact in extinction risk-body size relationships. We found a negative relationship between body size and description year, with large-bodied species being described earlier. Description year also varied among risk categories, with Non-Threatened species being described earlier than Threatened species and both species groups earlier than Data Deficient species. On average, Data Deficient species also presented smaller body sizes, while no size differences were detected between Threatened and Non-Threatened species. So it seems that smaller body sizes are related with species detectability, thus potentially affecting both when a species is described (smaller species tend to be described more recently) as well as the amount of information gathered about it (Data Deficient species tend to be smaller). Our data also indicated that if Data Deficient species were to be categorized as Threatened in the future, snake body size and extinction risk would be negatively related, contrasting with the opposite pattern commonly observed in other vertebrate groups.
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Using data crawlers and semantic Web to build financial XBRL data generators: the SONAR extension approach.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Precise, reliable and real-time financial information is critical for added-value financial services after the economic turmoil from which markets are still struggling to recover. Since the Web has become the most significant data source, intelligent crawlers based on Semantic Technologies have become trailblazers in the search of knowledge combining natural language processing and ontology engineering techniques. In this paper, we present the SONAR extension approach, which will leverage the potential of knowledge representation by extracting, managing, and turning scarce and disperse financial information into well-classified, structured, and widely used XBRL format-oriented knowledge, strongly supported by a proof-of-concept implementation and a thorough evaluation of the benefits of the approach.
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Nutri-Metabolomics: Subtle Serum Metabolic Differences in Healthy Subjects by NMR-Based Metabolomics after a Short-Term Nutritional Intervention with Two Tomato Sauces.
OMICS
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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Abstract Postgenomics research and development is witnessing novel intersections of omics data intensive technology and applications in health and personalized nutrition. Chief among these is the nascent field of nutri-metabolomics that harnesses metabolomics platforms to discern person-to-person variations in nutritional responses. To this end, differences in the origin and ripening stage of fruits might have a strong impact on their phytochemical composition, and consequently, on their potential nutri-metabolomics effects on health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week cross-over nutritional intervention on the metabolic status of 24 young healthy subjects. The intervention was carried out with two tomato sauces differing in their natural lycopene content, which was achieved by using tomatoes harvested at different times. Blood samples were drawn from each subject before and after each intervention period. Aqueous and lipid extracts from serum samples were analyzed by (1)H-NMR metabolic profiling combined with analysis of variance simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) and multilevel simultaneous component analysis (MSCA). These methods allowed the interpretation of the variation induced by the main factors of the study design (sauce treatment and time). The levels of creatine, creatinine, leucine, choline, methionine, and acetate in aqueous extracts were increased after the intervention with the high-lycopene content sauce, while those of ascorbic acid, lactate, pyruvate, isoleucine, alanine were increased after the normal-lycopene content sauce. In conclusion, NMR-based metabolomics of aqueous and lipid extracts allowed the detection of different metabolic changes after the nutritional intervention. This outcome might partly be due to the different ripening state of the fruits used in production of the tomato sauces. The findings presented herein collectively attest to the emergence of the field of nutri-metabolomics as a novel subspecialty of postgenomics integrative biology.
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In vivo ectopic implantation model to assess human mesenchymal progenitor cell potential.
Stem Cell Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Clinical interest on human mesenchymal progenitor cells (hMPC) relies on their potential applicability in cell-based therapies. An in vitro characterization is usually performed in order to define MPC potency. However, in vitro predictions not always correlate with in vivo results and thus there is no consensus in how to really assess cell potency. Our goal was to provide an in vivo testing method to define cell behavior before therapeutic usage, especially for bone tissue engineering applications. In this context, we wondered whether bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) would proceed in an osteogenic microenvironment. Based on previous approaches, we developed a fibrin/ceramic/BMP-2/hBMSCs compound. We implanted the compound during only 2 weeks in NOD-SCID mice, either orthotopically to assess its osteoinductive property or subcutaneously to analyze its adequacy as a cell potency testing method. Using fluorescent cell labeling and immunohistochemistry techniques, we could ascertain cell differentiation to bone, bone marrow, cartilage, adipocyte and fibrous tissue. We observed differences in cell potential among different batches of hBMSCs, which did not strictly correlate with in vitro analyses. Our data indicate that the method we have developed is reliable, rapid and reproducible to define cell potency, and may be useful for testing cells destined to bone tissue engineering purposes. Additionally, results obtained with hMPCs from other sources indicate that our method is suitable for testing any potentially implantable mesenchymal cell. Finally, we propose that this model could successfully be employed for bone marrow niche and bone tumor studies.
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Analysis of oestrogenic compounds in dairy products by hollow-fibre liquid-phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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In this work, the potential of a hollow-fibre liquid-phase microextraction (LPME)-based method has been studied and validated for the extraction of a group of nine oestrogenic compounds four of them being natural (oestriol, 17?-oestradiol, 17?-oestradiol and oestrone), four being synthetic (17?-ethynyloestradiol, diethylstilbestrol, dienestrol and hexestrol) and one metabolite (2-hydroxyoestradiol) in different dairy products (whole and skimmed natural yogurt, a probiotic yogurt-type drink and cheese). The methodology includes a prior protein precipitation with acidified acetonitrile for all samples and an additional defatting step with n-hexane for cheese, the matrix with the highest fat content. Later separation, determination and quantification were done by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and a fluorescence detector set in series. Calibration, sensitivity, precision and accuracy of the method were carried out in the selected matrices, providing good linearity, LODs in the low ?g/kg or ?g/L range, good precision and appropriate accuracy.
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A randomized controlled study to evaluate the immunogenicity of a trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine at two dosages in children 6 to 35 months of age.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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The trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine Fluarix™ is licensed in the US for adults and children from 3 years old. This randomized observer-blind study (NCT00764790) evaluated Fluarix™ at two doses; 0.25 ml (Flu-25) and 0.5 ml (Flu-50) in children aged 6-35 months. The primary objective was to demonstrate immunogenic non-inferiority vs. a control vaccine (Fluzone®; 0.25 ml). Children received Flu-25 (n = 1107), Flu-50 (n = 1106) or control vaccine (n = 1104) at Day 0 and for un-primed children, also on Day 28. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition titers were determined pre-vaccination and at Day 28 (primed) or Day 56 (un-primed). Non-inferiority was assessed by post-vaccination geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio, (upper 95% confidence interval [CI] ? 1.5) and difference in seroconversion rate (upper 95% CI ? 10%). Reactogenicity/safety was monitored. The immune response to Flu-50 met all regulatory criteria. Indicated by adjusted GMT ratios [with 95% CI], the criteria for non-inferiority of Flu-50 vs. control vaccine were reached for the B/Florida strain (1.13 [1.01-1.25]) but not for the A/Brisbane/H1N1 (1.74 [1.54-1.98]) or A/Uruguay/H3N2 (1.72 [1.57-1.89]) strains. In children aged 18-35 months similar immune responses were observed for Flu-50 and the control vaccine. Flu-50 induced a higher response than Flu-25 for all strains. Temperature (? 37.5°C) was reported in 6.2%, 6.4%, and 6.6% of the Flu-25, Flu-50, and control group, respectively. Reactogenicity/safety endpoints were within the same range for all vaccines. In children aged 6-35 months, immune responses with Flu-50 fulfilled regulatory criteria but did not meet the pre-defined criteria for non-inferiority vs. control. This appeared to be due to differences in immunogenicity in children aged<18 months.
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[Absolute power of cortical oscillations and their topographical distribution in a sample of young adults during resting wakefulness and unspecific attention].
Rev. Invest. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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The EEG records neuronal membrane potential oscillations that depend on the morpho-functional characteristics of the membrane and of modifications by postsynaptic excitatory (PSEP) and inhibitory (PSIP) potentials. The quantitative EEG (qEEG) measures the absolute power (AP) of oscillations separated in frequencies, resulting from the interaction among subcortical-cortical-subcortical ensembles. The hypothesis is that neuronal networks function at a given frequency and that their APs are codes that, by becoming synchronized in diverse ensembles, generate behavior.
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-dependent pseudomacrocytosis.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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We investigated the case of a 14-year-old girl with an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent haemagglutination detected by macrocytosis, which was only evident by an abnormal red blood cell (RBC) population in the histogram. Investigations included haemograms with different anticoagulants and experimental conditions. Immunohaematological studies were performed using a gel-based technology. At admission, the patient had a low RBC count and an increased mean corpuscular volume with normal haemoglobin. A double population appeared in the RBC histogram. However, the peripheral blood smear was normal and macrocytosis was absent when heparin or citrate was used instead of EDTA. Later studies revealed that the patients serum was able to induce macrocytosis of control RBC only in the presence of EDTA. An EDTA-dependent panagglutinin was then indentified that produced mixed field agglutination. These findings provide evidence of a haemagglutination induced by EDTA as a source of pseudomacrocytosis.
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Low-dose spinal anesthesia for urgent laparotomy in severe myasthenia gravis.
Saudi J Anaesth
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease with an incidence of 2-10/100,000 cases per year, characterized by muscle weakness secondary to destruction of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors. In these patients, important perioperative issues remain unresolved, namely, optimal administration of cholinesterase inhibitors, risks of regional anesthesia, and prediction of need of postoperative mechanical ventilation. We describe the use of a low-dose spinal anesthesia in a patient with MG who was submitted for emergence exploratory laparotomy. The utilization of low-dose spinal anesthesia allowed us to perform surgery with no adverse respiratory or cardiovascular events in this patient.
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Comparison between magnetic and non magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes-dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of sulfonamide antibiotics in water samples.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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In this manuscript, a new method based on the use of off-line dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection was developed to determine 11 sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfanilamide, sulfacetamide, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamerazine, sulfadimidin, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfadoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole and sulfadimethoxine) in mineral waters with different mineral content. For this purpose, pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and magnetic-MWCNTs (m-MWCNTs) were used as sorbents. Magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by means of a solvothermal process, assembled onto CNTs through an "aggregation wrap" mechanism and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Parameters affecting the extraction such as volume and pH of the sample, amount of sorbent and type and volume of eluent were optimized. Once optimum extraction conditions (250 mL of water at pH 6.0 and elution with 25 mL of MeOH) were obtained, the extraction efficiency of the different carbon nanomaterials was compared. Results demonstrated the higher extraction capacity of pristine MWCNTs with recoveries between 61 and 110% (except for sulfacetamide which ranged between 40 and 53%) and between 22 and 77% for m-MWCNTs. Limits of detection lower than 32 ng/L were achieved for all of the analyzed samples.
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Determination of organophosphorus pesticides and metabolites in cereal-based baby foods and wheat flour by means of ultrasound-assisted extraction and hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction prior to gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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A new method based on hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) has been developed for the determination of a group of organophosphorus pesticides, including some of their metabolites, in two commercial cereal-based baby foods and one wheat flour prior to gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection. Samples were first extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetonitrile (ACN) containing 1.25% (v/v) of formic acid. After evaporation and reconstitution in Milli-Q water, the HF-LPME procedure, using 1-octanol as extraction solvent, was applied followed by a desorption step in ACN, which clearly improved the performance of the technique. The effects of sample pH, ionic strength, stirring rate, extraction temperature and time as well as the desorption procedure were investigated. Under the optimum conditions that involved the extraction of the analytes from 10 mL of the water reconstituted extract at pH 7.0 containing 5% (w/v) of NaCl for 45 min at 960 rpm, the method was validated in terms of linearity, precision and accuracy. The limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.29 and 3.20 ?g/kg. The extraction of Milli-Q water, as an example of the applicability of the procedure to aqueous samples, allowed achieving LODs in the range 0.01-0.04 ?g/L. Such values, together with the ones achieved for the rest of the samples, are below or equal to the maximum residue limits specified by the European Union.
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Biomarkers of food intake and metabolite differences between plasma and red blood cell matrices; a human metabolomic profile approach.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Untargeted metabolomic analyses of plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) can provide complementary information on biomarkers of food consumption. To assess blood collection differences in biomarkers, fasting blood was drawn from 10 healthy individuals using sodium citrate and lithium heparin as anticoagulants. Plasma and RBCs were separated into aqueous and lipid fractions to be analyzed using 1D and 2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Polyphenols were extracted from plasma and RBCs by micro-elution solid-phase extraction and analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). (1)H NMR demonstrated higher aqueous metabolites such as glucose in plasma compared to RBCs, while RBCs contained higher ADP-ATP, creatine and acetone than plasma. Lipoproteins and their subclasses were higher in plasma than in RBCs. Percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFA) 16?:?0, 17?:?0, 20?:?0, 24?:?0 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) 22?:?6 n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid) and 20?:?4 n-6 (arachidonic acid) were higher in RBCs than in plasma (p < 0.05), while SFA 14?:?0, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) 14?:?1 n-5, 16?:?1 n-7, 17?:?1 n-7 and 18?:?1 n-9 and PUFA 18?:?3 n-3, 18?:?2 n-6, 18?:?3 n-6 and 20?:?3 n-6 were higher in plasma than in RBCs (p < 0.05). Polyphenols differed in plasma from those of RBCs. Biomarker concentrations were lower in sodium citrate compared to lithium heparin plasma. In conclusion, metabolomic profiles generated by NMR spectroscopy, GC-MS and UPLC-MS/MS analyses of RBCs versus plasma show complementary information on several specific molecular biomarkers that could be applied in nutritional assessment.
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Hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction for the determination of natural and synthetic estrogens in milk samples.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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In this work, a group of nine estrogens, four of them being natural (estriol, 17?-estradiol, 17?-estradiol and estrone), four being synthetic (17?-ethynylestradiol, diethylstibestrol, dienestrol and hexestrol) and one metabolite (2-hydroxyestradiol) have been extracted and preconcentrated from milk samples with different fat content (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed). After protein precipitation with acetonitrile containing acetic acid, evaporation of the supernatant and reconstitution of the residue in water, hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) using 1-octanol as extraction solvent was applied to further preconcentrate the analytes. Separation, determination and quantification were achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and a fluorescence detector set in series. Deproteinization conditions, as well as parameters affecting the extraction efficiency in HF-LPME (pH of the sample, ionic strength, extraction time, stirring speed, temperature and desorption conditions) were investigated and optimized. Calibration, precision and accuracy studies were carried out to validate the methodology in different types of milk providing LODs in the low ?g/L range.
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Analysis of pesticides residues in environmental water samples using multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersive solid-phase extraction.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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In this manuscript, a dispersive SPE method based on the use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes has been developed for the determination of 15 organophosphorus pesticides residues including some of their metabolites (disulfoton sulfoxide, ethoprophos, cadusafos, dimethoate, terbufos, disulfoton, chlorpyrifos-methyl, malaoxon, fenitrothion, pirimiphos-methyl, malathion, chlorpyrifos, terbufos sulfone, disulfoton sulfone, and fensulfothion) from real environmental waters (run-off, mineral and tap water) by GC with nitrogen phosphorus detection. Factors that affect the enrichment efficiency such as sample volume, multiwalled carbon nanotubes amount, and volume of eluent were studied. The optimized method was validated in terms of matrix-matched calibration, recovery, precision, and accuracy for the three analyzed samples. In this last case, the developed Students t test demonstrated that there were no significant differences between real and spiked concentrations. Optimum dispersive SPE conditions (extraction of 200 mL of water, pH 6.0, with 130 mg of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, elution with 25 mL of dichloromethane for run-off and tap water and 30 mL for mineral water) allowed the quantitative extraction of analytes at levels lower than the maximum residues limits legislated by the European Union, with LODs between 1.16 and 93.6 ng/L. Absolute recovery values achieved were in the range of 67-107% (RSD values <10.1%).
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Metabolomics reveals reduction of metabolic oxidation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome after pioglitazone-flutamide-metformin polytherapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a variable disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, body adiposity, low-grade inflammation and increased cardiovascular disease risks. Recently, a new polytherapy consisting of low-dose flutamide, metformin and pioglitazone in combination with an estro-progestagen resulted in the regulation of endocrine clinical markers in young and non-obese PCOS women. However, the metabolic processes involved in this phenotypic amelioration remain unidentified. In this work, we used NMR and MS-based untargeted metabolomics to study serum samples of young non-obese PCOS women prior to and at the end of a 30 months polytherapy receiving low-dose flutamide, metformin and pioglitazone in combination with an estro-progestagen. Our results reveal that the treatment decreased the levels of oxidized LDL particles in serum, as well as downstream metabolic oxidation products of LDL particles such as 9- and 13-HODE, azelaic acid and glutaric acid. In contrast, the radiuses of small dense LDL and large HDL particles were substantially increased after the treatment. Clinical and endocrine-metabolic markers were also monitored, showing that the level of HDL cholesterol was increased after the treatment, whereas the level of androgens and the carotid intima-media thickness were reduced. Significantly, the abundance of azelaic acid and the carotid intima-media thickness resulted in a high degree of correlation. Altogether, our results reveal that this new polytherapy markedly reverts the oxidant status of untreated PCOS women, and potentially improves the pro-atherosclerosis condition in these patients.
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Ice age climate, evolutionary constraints and diversity patterns of European dung beetles.
Ecol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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Current climate and Pleistocene climatic changes are both known to be associated with geographical patterns of diversity. We assess their associations with the European Scarabaeinae dung beetles, a group with high dispersal ability and well-known adaptations to warm environments. By assessing spatial stationarity in climate variability since the last glacial maximum (LGM), we find that current scarab richness is related to the location of their limits of thermal tolerance during the LGM. These limits mark a strong change in their current species richness-environment relationships. Furthermore, northern scarab assemblages are nested and composed of a phylogenetically clustered subset of large-range sized generalist species, whereas southern ones are diverse and variable in composition. Our results show that species responses to current climate are limited by the evolution of assemblages that occupied relatively climatically stable areas during the Pleistocene, and by post-glacial dispersal in those that were strongly affected by glaciations.
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[Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma: a diagnostic challenge].
Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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Diagnosis of refractory celiac disease (CD) is based on exclusion of other disorders, persistence of malabsorptive symptoms and villous atrophy, despite a strict gluten-free diet for at least 6-12 months. Detection of alterations in the intraepithelial lymphocyte population is crucial for diagnosis. A subgroup of patients with refractory CD may develop severe complications such as enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL). We present the case of a patient with longstanding silent CD who developed EALT, highlighting the challenge posed by the diagnosis and treatment of this entity.
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Nodulation-gene-inducing flavonoids increase overall production of autoinducers and expression of N-acyl homoserine lactone synthesis genes in rhizobia.
Res. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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Legume-nodulating rhizobia use N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) to regulate several physiological traits related to the symbiotic plant-microbe interaction. In this work, we show that Sinorhizobium fredii SMH12, Rhizobium etli ISP42 and Rhizobium sullae IS123, three rhizobial strains with different nodulation ranges, produced a similar pattern of AHL molecules, sharing, in all cases, production of N-octanoyl homoserine lactone and its 3-oxo and/or 3-hydroxy derivatives. Interestingly, production of AHLs was enhanced when these three rhizobia were grown in the presence of their respective nod-gene-inducing flavonoid, while a new molecule, C14-HSL, was produced by S. fredii SMH12 upon genistein induction. In addition, expression of AHL synthesis genes traI from S. fredii SMH12 and cinI and raiI from R. etli ISP42 increased when induced with flavonoids, as demonstrated by qRT-PCR analysis.
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Oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the dispersive solid-phase extraction of quinolone antibiotics from water samples using capillary electrophoresis and large volume sample stacking with polarity switching.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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In this work, a new method for the determination of eleven quinolone antibiotics (moxifloxacin, lomefloxacin, danofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin, difloxacin, pefloxacin, oxolinic acid and flumequine) in different water samples using dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) and capillary zone electrophoresis with diode-array detection was developed. Oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (o-MWCNTs) were used for the first time as stationary phases for the off-line preconcentration by dSPE of the antibiotics. A 65 mM phosphate buffer at pH 8.5 was found adequate for analyte separation while large volume sample stacking with polarity switching of the analytes dissolved in water containing 10% (v/v) of acetonitrile was carried out in order to improve the sensitivity. dSPE parameters, such as sample volume and pH, o-MWCNT amount, volume and type of eluent in dSPE were optimized. Application of the developed method to the analysis of spiked Milli-Q, mineral, tap, and wastewater samples resulted in good recoveries values ranging from 62.3 to 116% with relative standard deviation values lower than 7.7% in all cases. Limits of detection were in the range of 28-94 ng/L. The proposed method is very fast, simple, repeatable, accurate and highly selective.
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[Consensus on the clinical and microbiologic diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis, and infection prevention. Expert Group on Pertussis Vaccination].
Salud Publica Mex
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Pertussis continues to be responsible for a significant disease burden worldwide. Although immunization practices have reduced the occurrence of the disease among children, waning vaccine- and infection-induced immunity still allows the disease to affect adolescents and adults who, in turn, can transmit the disease to non-immunized or partially immunized infants. This document is the result of a meeting in Mexico City of international experts who analyzed recent medical information in order to establish the current status of the epidemiology, diagnosis and surveillance of pertussis and, especially, the value of the dTpa booster dose in adolescents and adults as a pertussis prevention strategy in Mexico.
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C-reactive protein in the diagnosis of postoperative infection in pediatric patients: a prospective observational study of 103 patients.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Surgical stress elicits a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that contributes to the development of septic complications. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein released in inflammatory states. To analyze the usefulness of CRP as a marker of infection in surgical pediatric patients, we analyzed its kinetics in these patients in comparison with usual markers, such temperature, leukocytes, or fibrinogen.
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[Effect of pharmacist involvement in adherence to medications in patients with high to moderate cardiovascular risk (Study EMDADER-CV-INCUMPLIMIENTO)].
Aten Primaria
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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To evaluate the effect of pharmacist involvement, by means of Pharmacotherapy Follow-Up (PFU) in the improvement of medication adherence and therapeutic outcomes.
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[Cardiac metabolism and perfusion evaluation in a rat model using 18F- FDG,1- 11Cacetate, 13NH3 and micro-positron emission tomography (microPET).]
Arch Cardiol Mex
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2010
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Objective: To standardize an acquisition protocol for the study of myocardial glucolitic and oxidative metabolism and perfusion in a rat model. Methods: Studies were carried out with the three main radiopharmaceuticals used to assess heart function:[18F]-FDG for glucolitic metabolism; [1-11C]-acetate for oxidative metabolism and [13N]-NH3for myocardial perfusion.[18F]-FDG -Five Wistar adult male rats were studied in three different protocols: non-fasting group, fasting group,8 h before the study with water provided ad libitum, and a fasting group by the same time receiving an oral 50%-glucose solution. Thirty-minute scans were performed with a microPET Focus 120, 30 and 60 min after the administration of 370 - 555 MBq 18F-FDG. [1-11C]-Acetate -Eight rats were studied. Four static and four dynamic 30 min acquisitions after a 370 - 555 MBq of [1-11C]-acetate caudal vein administration.[13N]-NH3-Ten static studies were acquired 15 min post-administration of 370- 555 MBq of 13NH3 isofluorane anesthesia. Comparative and visual analyses wy performer by two experts in the field. A semi-quantitative analysis was performa using 3D reconstructions and ROI selections with AMIDE software. Results: The best images were those obtained from the non-fasting group, especially those taken at 60 min after the [18F]-FDG administration. High quality myocardial, static images were obtained with [1-11C]-acetate, and the dynamic adquisitions allowed the identification of myocardial perfusion. The 13NH3images showed a homogeneous distribution of the radiotracer in different segments of the short, long and horizontal axes in the left ventricle. Conclusions: It is possible to standardize the microPET acquisition protocols for the three main radiopharmaceuticals to evaluate the heart function in a rat model. It is feasible to establish a valid protocol for measuring glucolitic and oxidative myocardial metabolism and perfusion for gene, drug or surgical therapy assessment.
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Ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the simultaneous determination of pesticides and metabolites in soils using high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2010
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In this work, an ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) procedure was developed for the extraction of a group of pesticides (carbendazim/benomyl, thiabendazole, fuberidazole, carbaryl and triazophos) and some of their key metabolites in soils (2-aminobenzimidazole, metabolite of carbendazim and 1-naphthol, metabolite of carbaryl) from aqueous soil extracts, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FD). Analytes were previously extracted from four soils with different physicochemical properties (forestal, ornamental, garden and lapilli soils) by ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE). The IL 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([HMIm][PF(6)]) and methanol (MeOH) were used as extraction and dispersion solvent, respectively, for the DLLME procedure. Factors affecting IL-DLLME (sample pH, IL amount, volume of dispersion solvent and sodium chloride percentage) were optimized by means of an experimental design, obtaining the most favorable results when using 117.5 mg of IL and 418 ?L of MeOH to extract the compounds from the aqueous soil extracts at pH 5.20 containing 30% (w/v) NaCl. Calibration of the USE-IL-DLLME-HPLC-FD method was carried out for every type of soil and accuracy and precision studies were developed at two levels of concentration, finding that no significant differences existed between real and spiked concentrations (Students t test). LODs achieved were in the low ng/g range.
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Anti-proliferative effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on preneoplastic lesions formation in the rat liver.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2010
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Recently, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have been studied with great interest due to their possible effects on human health. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 4.5 mT-120 Hz ELF-EMF on the development of preneoplastic lesions in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis.
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Metabolomic assessment of the effect of dietary cholesterol in the progressive development of fatty liver disease.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is usually related to high-fat, high-cholesterol diets. With the rationale that the identification and quantification of metabolites in different metabolic pathways may facilitate the discovery of clinically accessible biomarkers, we report the use of (1)H NMR metabolomics for quantitative profiling of liver extracts from LDLr(-/-) mice, a well-documented mouse model of fatty liver disease. A total of 55 metabolites were identified, and multivariate analyses in a diet- and time-comparative strategy were performed. Dietary cholesterol increased the hepatic concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and oleic acid but also decreased the [PUFA/MUFA] ratio as well as the relative amount of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. This was also accompanied by variations of the hepatic concentration of taurine, glutathione, methionine, and carnitine. Heat-map correlation analyses demonstrated that hepatic inflammation and development of steatosis correlated with cholesterol and triglyceride NMR derived signals, respectively. We conclude that dietary cholesterol is a causal factor in the development of both liver steatosis and hepatic inflammation.
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[Variability in the measurement of the pharmaceutical prescription quality by autonomous communities].
Aten Primaria
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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To examine how the different Spanish health regions are evaluating pharmaceutical prescription quality and the type of prescribing indicators used.
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Carbon nanotubes: Solid-phase extraction.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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Since the first report in 1991, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great possibilities for a wide variety of processes and applications, which include their use as electrodes, sensors (gas, enzymatic, etc.), nanoprobes, electronic materials, field emitters, etc. The combination of structures, dimensions and topologies has provided physical and chemical attractive properties that are unparalleled by most known materials. Their applications have also reached the Analytical Chemistry field in which CNTs are being used as matrices in matrix assisted laser desorption ionization, stationary phases in either gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography or capillary electrochromatography, also as pseudostationary phases in capillary electrophoresis, etc. as well as new solid-phase extraction (SPE) materials. Concerning this last application the number of works has considerably increased in the last five years. This review article pretends to focus on the most important features and different applications of SPE using CNTs (including matrix solid-phase dispersion and solid-phase microextraction) covering articles published since their introduction up to now (September 2009).
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The Mini-mental State Examination revisited: ceiling and floor effects after score adjustment for educational level in an aging Mexican population.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2009
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The Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely used cognitive test, both in clinical settings and in epidemiological studies. However, correcting its score for education may create ceiling effects when used for poorly educated people and floor effects for those with higher education.
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Pesticide extraction from table grapes and plums using ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of eight multi-class pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox, and fenazaquin) in table grapes and plums. The developed method involves the combination of DLLME and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Samples were first homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in water containing sodium chloride, a quick DLLME procedure that used the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) and methanol was developed. The RTIL dissolved in a very small volume of acetonitrile was directed injected in the chromatographic system. The comparison between the calibration curves obtained from standards and from spiked sample extracts (matrix-matched calibration) showed the existence of a strong matrix effect for most of the analyzed pesticides. A recovery study was also developed with five consecutive extractions of the two types of fruits spiked at three concentration levels. Mean recovery values were in the range of 72-100% for table grapes and 66-105% for plum samples (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 64-75% and 58-66%, respectively). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.651-5.44 microg/kg for table grapes and 0.902-6.33 microg/kg for plums, representing LODs below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union in these fruits. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing 12 commercial fruit samples (six of each type).
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Global richness patterns of venomous snakes reveal contrasting influences of ecology and history in two different clades.
Oecologia
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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Recent studies addressing broad-scale species richness gradients have proposed two main primary drivers: contemporary climate and evolutionary processes (differential balance between speciation and extinction). Here, we analyze the global richness patterns of two venomous snake clades, Viperidae and Elapidae. We used ordinary least squares multiple regression (OLS) and partial regression analysis to investigate to what extent actual evapotranspiration (AET; summarizing current environmental conditions) and biogeographical regions (representing evolutionary effects) were associated with species richness. For viperids, AET explained 45.6% of the variance in richness whereas the effect of this variable for elapids was almost null (0.5%). On the other hand, biogeographic regions were the best predictors of elapid richness (56.5%), against its relatively small effect (25.9%) in viperid richness. Partial regressions also revealed similar patterns for independent effects of climate and history in both clades. However, the independent historical effect in Elapidae decreased from 45.2 to 17.8% when we excluded Australia from the analyses, indicating that the strong historical effect that had emerged for the global richness pattern was reflecting the historical process of elapid radiation into Australia. Even after excluding Australia, the historical signal in elapid richness in the rest of the globe was still significant and much higher than that observed in viperid richness at a global scale (2.7% after controlling for AET effects). Differences in the evolutionary age of these two clades can be invoked to explain these contrasting results, in that viperids probably had more time for diversification, generating richness responses to environmental gradients, whereas the pattern of distribution of elapid richness can be more directly interpreted in an evolutionary context. Moreover, these results show the importance of starting to adopt deconstructive approaches to species richness, since the driving factors of these patterns may vary from group to group according to their evolutionary history.
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Ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the extraction of pesticides from bananas.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2009
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This paper describes a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection capable of quantifying trace amounts of eight pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox and fenazaquin) in bananas. Fruit samples were first homogenized and extracted (1g) with acetonitrile and after suitable evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in 10 mL of water, a DLLME procedure using 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) as extraction solvent was used. Experimental conditions affecting the DLLME procedure (sample pH, sodium chloride percentage, ionic liquid amount and volume of disperser solvent) were optimized by means of an experimental design. In order to determine the presence of a matrix effect, calibration curves for standards and fortified banana extracts (matrix matched calibration) were studied. Mean recovery values of the extraction of the pesticides from banana samples were in the range of 69-97% (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 53-63%) with a relative standard deviation lower than 8.7% in all cases. Limits of detection achieved (0.320-4.66 microg/kg) were below the harmonized maximum residue limits established by the European Union (EU). The proposed method, was also applied to the analysis of this group of pesticides in nine banana samples taken from the local markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RTILs as extraction solvents for DLLME of pesticides from samples different than water.
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Metabolic phenotyping of genetically modified mice: An NMR metabonomic approach.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2009
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Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays a relevant role in macrophage migration but recent findings suggest an additional role in lipid and glucose metabolism. We report the use of (1)H NMR spectroscopy as a useful complementary method to assess the metabolic function of this gene in a comparative strategy. This metabonomic analysis was rapid, simple, quantitative and reproducible, and revealed a suggestive relationship between the expression of the MCP-1 gene and hepatic glucose and taurine concentrations. This approach should be considered in genetically modified mice when a metabolic alteration is suspected, or in routine assessment of metabolic phenotype.
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Recent food safety and food quality applications of CE-MS.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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The first on-line coupling of CE with MS detection more than 20 years ago provided a very powerful technique with a wide variety of applications, among which food analysis is of special interest, especially that dealing with food safety and food quality applications, the major topics of public interest nowadays. With this review article, we would like to show the most recent applications of CE-MS in both fields by recompiling and commenting articles published between January 2004 and October 2008. Although both applications are difficult to separate from each other, we have included in this work two main sections dealing with each specific field. Future trends will also be discussed.
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Fluoroquinolone antibiotic determination in bovine, ovine and caprine milk using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection with ionic liquids as mobile phase additives.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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This paper describes the use of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIm-BF(4)) as mobile phase additive for the analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection of a group of seven basic fluoroquinolone antibiotics (i.e. fleroxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin and difloxacin) in different milk samples. EMIm-BF(4) was found superior to 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate for the separation of the analytes from chromatographic interferences of the sample matrix. The optimized method was applied to the analysis of ovine, caprine and bovine milk, in the last case in either skimmed, semi-skimmed and full-cream milk after suitable acidic deproteination followed by a solid-phase extraction procedure. Recovery values between 73% and 113% were obtained for the three types of bovine milk samples, as well as for ovine and caprine milk (RSDs below 16% in all cases), which clearly demonstrates the applicability of the method to the three types of milk irrespective of the fat content of the samples. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.5-8.1 microg/L (approximately 0.5-25.9 microg/kg), well below the maximum residue limits established for these compounds by the current European legislation. A screening study of 24 different milk samples was also developed. In none of the samples, residues of the selected antibiotics were found.
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Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of 25 sulfonamide and quinolone antibiotics in water samples.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
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In this work, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection was developed to determine 25 antibiotics in mineral and run-off waters. Optimum DLLME conditions (5 mL of water at pH=7.6, 20% (w/v) NaCl, 685 ?L of CHCl? as extractant solvent, and 1250 ?L of ACN as disperser solvent) allowed the repeatable, accurate and selective determination of 11 sulfonamides (sulfanilamide, sulfacetamide, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfadimidin, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfadoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfaquinoxaline) and 14 quinolones (pipemidic acid, marbofloxacin, fleroxacin, levofloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, difloxacin, moxifloxacin, oxolinic acid and flumequine). The method was validated by means of the obtention of calibration curves of the whole method as well as a recovery study at two levels of concentration. The LODs of the method were in the range 0.35-10.5 ?g/L with recoveries between 78% and 117%.
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A (1)H NMR metabolic profiling to the assessment of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B role in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.
Biochimie
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Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of the tyrosine kinase growth factor signaling pathway, which is involved in major physiological mechanisms such as liver regeneration. We investigate early hepatic metabolic events produced by partial hepatectomy (PHx) for PTP1B deficient (PTP1B KO) and wild type (WT) mice using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Metabolic response of the two genotypes produced 24 h upon PHx is compared using magic angle spinning high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-HR-MAS-NMR) on intact liver tissues. In addition, genotype-associated metabolic profile changes were monitored during the first 48 h after PHx using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-HR-NMR) on liver extracts. A marked increase of lipid-related signals in regenerating livers was observed after 24 h PHx in either intact tissues or liver extracts studies. In spite of this common initial metabolic response, results obtained 48 h after PHx on liver extracts indicate a genotype-differential metabolic pattern. This metabolic pattern resulted in line with well known regenerative features such as more sustained cell proliferation, a better management of lipids as energy fuel and lessened liver injury for PTP1B KO mice as compared to WT. Taken together, these findings suggest the metabolic basis to the pivotal role of PTP1B in liver regeneration.
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Safety and anti-HCV effect of prolonged intravenous silibinin in HCV genotype 1 subjects in the immediate liver transplant period.
J. Hepatol.
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Reinfection of the graft is the rule in patients with HCV cirrhosis undergoing liver transplantation, and HCV-RNA reaches pre-transplantation levels within the first month. Short-term intravenous silibinin monotherapy is safe and shows a potent in vivo anti-HCV effect. We aimed at evaluating the safety and antiviral effect of prolonged intravenous silibinin, started immediately before liver transplantation.
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(1)H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis of the effect of moderate wine consumption on subjects with cardiovascular risk factors.
Electrophoresis
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Moderate wine consumption is associated with health-promoting activities. An H-NMR-based metabolomic approach was used to identify urinary metabolomic differences of moderate wine intake in the setting of a prospective, randomized, crossover, and controlled trial. Sixty-one male volunteers with high cardiovascular risk factors followed three dietary interventions (28 days): dealcoholized red wine (RWD) (272mL/day, polyphenol control), alcoholized red wine (RWA) (272mL/day) and gin (GIN) (100mL/day, alcohol control). After each period, 24-h urine samples were collected and analyzed by (1) H-NMR. According to the results of a one-way ANOVA, significant markers were grouped in four categories: alcohol-related markers (ethanol); gin-related markers; wine-related markers; and gut microbiota markers (hippurate and 4-hydroxphenylacetic acid). Wine metabolites were classified into two groups; first, metabolites of food metabolome: tartrate (RWA and RWD), ethanol, and mannitol (RWA); and second, biomarkers that relates to endogenous modifications after wine consumption, comprising branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolite (3-methyl-oxovalerate). Additionally, a possible interaction between alcohol and gut-related biomarkers has been identified. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this approach has been applied in a nutritional intervention with red wine. The results show the capacity of this approach to obtain a comprehensive metabolome picture including food metabolome and endogenous biomarkers of moderate wine intake.
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Hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction for the determination of pesticides and metabolites in soils and water samples using HPLC and fluorescence detection.
Electrophoresis
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A new and simple method has been developed for the determination of a group of four benzimidazole pesticides (carbendazim/benomyl, thiabendazole, and fuberidazole), a carbamate (carbaryl), and an organophosphate (triazophos), together with two of their main metabolites (2-aminobenzimidazole, metabolite of carbendazim/benomyl, and 1-naphthol, metabolite of carbaryl) in soils. First, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was performed, followed by evaporation and reconstitution in water. Then, extraction and preconcentration of the analytes was accomplished by two-phase hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) using 1-octanol as extraction solvent. Parameters that affect the extraction efficiency in HF-LPME technique (organic solvent, pH of the sample, extraction time, stirring speed, temperature, and ionic strength) were deeply investigated. Optimum HF-LPME conditions involved the use of a 2.0 cm polypropylene fiber filled with 1-octanol to extract 10 mL of an aqueous soil extract at pH 9.0 containing 20% (v/v) of NaCl for 30 min at 1440 rpm. Separation and quantification was achieved by HPLC with fluorescence detection (FD). The proposed optimum UAE-HF-LPME-HPLC-FD methodology provided good calibration, precision, and accuracy results for two soils of different physicochemical properties. LODs were in the range 0.001-6.94 ng/g (S/N = 3). With the aim of extending the validation, the HF-LPME method was also applied to different types of waters (Milli-Q, mineral and run-off), obtaining LODs in the range 0.0002-0.57 ?g/L.
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Metabolomics approach for analyzing the effects of exercise in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
PLoS ONE
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The beneficial effects of exercise in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are not fully proven, given that it may occasionally induce acute metabolic disturbances. Indeed, the metabolic disturbances associated with sustained exercise may lead to worsening control unless great care is taken to adjust carbohydrate intake and insulin dosage. In this work, pre- and post-exercise metabolites were analyzed using a (1)H-NMR and GC-MS untargeted metabolomics approach assayed in serum. We studied ten men with T1D and eleven controls matched for age, body mass index, body fat composition, and cardiorespiratory capacity, participated in the study. The participants performed 30 minutes of exercise on a cycle-ergometer at 80% VO(2)max. In response to exercise, both groups had increased concentrations of gluconeogenic precursors (alanine and lactate) and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (citrate, malate, fumarate and succinate). The T1D group, however, showed attenuation in the response of these metabolites to exercise. Conversely to T1D, the control group also presented increases in ?-ketoglutarate, alpha-ketoisocaproic acid, and lipolysis products (glycerol and oleic and linoleic acids), as well as a reduction in branched chain amino acids (valine and leucine) determinations. The T1D patients presented a blunted metabolic response to acute exercise as compared to controls. This attenuated response may interfere in the healthy performance or fitness of T1D patients, something that further studies should elucidate.
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Carbon nanotubes applications in separation science: a review.
Anal. Chim. Acta
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Due to the intensive and multidisciplinary research carried out during the last two decades on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the scientific community understands nowadays much better the chemistry, structure and properties of these interesting materials. In fact, they have found their particular place in a wide number of application fields (nanotechnology, electronics, optics, medicine, etc.) among which Analytical Chemistry is becoming more and more important. The aim of this review is to provide an updated report of the most recent manuscripts (years 2009-2011) regarding the use of CNTs in Separation Science. In particular, the use of CNTs as solid-phase extraction and microextraction sorbents, as part of membranes as well as their use in chromatography and electrophoresis will be discussed and commented. Besides, although not as fully related to Separation Science as the previous techniques, the use of CNTs as laser desorption/ionization substrates has also been considered because of its importance in the field.
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Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of pesticides and metabolites from soils using 1,3-dipentylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid as an alternative extraction solvent.
Electrophoresis
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In this work, the use of the ionic liquid (IL) 1,3-dipentylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([PPIm][PF?]) as an alternative extractant for IL dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) of a group of pesticides and metabolites (2-aminobenzimidazole, carbendazim/benomyl, thiabendazole, fuberidazole, carbaryl, 1-naphthol, and triazophos) from soils is described. After performing an initial ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE), the IL-DLLME procedure was applied for the extraction of these organic analytes from soil extracts. Separation and quantification was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FD). Calibration, precision, and accuracy of the described USE-IL-DLLME-HPLC-FD method using [PPIm][PF?] as an alternative extractant was evaluated with two soils of different physicochemical properties. Accuracy percentages were in the range 93-118% with RSD values below 20%. A comparison of the performance of [PPIm][PF?] versus that of the so-common 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([HMIm][PF?]) was accomplished. Results indicate a comparable extraction efficiency with both ILs, being slightly higher with [HMIm][PF?] for the metabolite 2-aminobenzimidazole, and slightly higher with [PPIm][PF?] for triazophos. In all cases, LODs were in the low ng/g range (0.02-14.2 ng/g for [HMIm][PF?] and 0.02-60.5 ng/g for [PPIm][PF?]). As a result, the current work constitutes a starting point for the use of the IL [PPIm][PF?] for further analytical approaches.
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Enrichment of neural-related genes in human mesenchymal stem cells from neuroblastoma patients.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
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Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common pediatric solid tumors and, like most human cancers, is characterized by a broad variety of genomic alterations. Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to interact with cancer cells, the relationship between MSCs and metastatic NB cancer cells in bone marrow (BM) is unknown. To obtain genetic evidence about this interaction, we isolated ??-derived MSCs from children with NB and compared their global expression patterns with MSCs obtained from normal pediatric donors, using the Agilent 44K microarrays. Significance analysis of microarray results with a false discovery rate (FDR) <5% identified 496 differentially expressed genes showing either a 2-fold upregulation or downregulation between both groups of samples. Comparison of gene ontology categories of differentially expressed genes revealed the upregulation of genes categorized as neurological system process, cell adhesion, apoptosis, cell surface receptor linked signal transduction, intrinsic to membrane and extracellular region. Among the downregulated genes, several immunology-related terms were the most abundant. These findings provide preliminary genetic evidence of the interaction between MSCs and NB cancer cells in ?? as well as identify relevant biological processes potentially altered in MSCs in response to NB.
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Mapping human long bone compartmentalisation during ontogeny: a new methodological approach.
J. Struct. Biol.
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Throughout ontogeny, human bones undergo differentiation in terms of shape, size and tissue type; this is a complex scenario in which the variations in the tissue compartmentalisation of the cortical bone are still poorly understood. Currently, compartmentalisation is studied using methodologies that oversimplify the bone tissue complexity. Here, we present a new methodological approach that integrates a histological description and a mineral content analysis to study the compartmentalisation of the whole mineralised and non-mineralised tissues (i.e., spatial distribution in long bone sections). This new methodology, based on Geographical Information System (GIS) software, allows us to draw areas of interest (i.e., tracing vectorial shapes which are quantifiable) in raw images that are extracted from microscope and compared them spatially in a semi-automatic and quantitative fashion. As an example of our methodology, we have studied the tibiae from individuals with different age at death (infant, juvenile and adult). The tibias cortical bone presents a well-formed fibrolamellar bone, in which remodelling is clearly evidenced from early ontogeny, and we discuss the existence of "lines of arrested growth". Concurrent with the histological variation, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy analyses corroborate that the mineral content in the cortical bone changes differentially. The anterior portion of the tibia remains highly pierced and is less crystalline than the rest of the cortex during growth, which is evidence of more active and continuous remodelling. Finally, while porosity and other "non-mineralised cavities" are largely modified, the mineralised portion and the marrow cavity size persist proportionally during ontogeny.
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Effectiveness of Dader Method for pharmaceutical care on control of blood pressure and total cholesterol in outpatients with cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk: EMDADER-CV randomized controlled trial.
J Manag Care Pharm
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Although some studies have demonstrated that pharmacist intervention can improve drug therapy among patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), more evidence derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is needed, including assessment of the effect of community pharmacist interventions in patients with CVD.
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[Quality of life in patients with heart failure: the perspective of primary health care].
Gac Sanit
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To measure and identify the dimensions and determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic heart failure.
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The safety profile of Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY).
Hum Vaccin Immunother
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The safety profile of HibMenCY was compared with licensed Hib conjugate vaccines in a pooled analysis that included more than 8,500 subjects who were administered a four-dose series of HibMenCY or commercially available Hib vaccines at 2, 4, 6 and 12-15 mo of age in two primary vaccination and two fourth dose phase 3 studies. In all studies, HibMenCY or Hib vaccine was co-administered with age-appropriate, routinely recommended vaccines. In one primary and one fourth dose study (n = 4180), local and general symptoms were solicited using diary cards for 4 d after each dose. Serious adverse events (SAEs) and the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) indicating new onset of chronic disease (NOCD), rash, and conditions prompting Emergency Room (ER) visits were reported from dose 1 until 6 mo after dose 4. The incidences of solicited local and general symptoms were similar following HibMenCY and commercially available Hib vaccines. For some solicited symptoms (pain at the injection site and irritability), rates were lower in the HibMenCY group compared with the Hib control group (p value < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the incidences of SAEs, NOCDs, rash, or AEs leading to ER visits, with the exceptions of anemia and viral gastroenteritis, which occurred significantly less frequently in those receiving HibMenCY than those receiving commercially available Hib vaccines. In this pooled safety analysis, the safety profile of HibMenCY was similar to the safety profile of licensed monovalent Hib vaccines, despite the addition of meningococcal antigens. These studies are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00345579 (primary vaccination study), NCT00345683 (fourth dose vaccination study) and NCT00289783 (primary and fourth dose vaccination studies).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.