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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Long-term effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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To compare a sample of adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) treated with either ECT or antipsychotics (AP) alone at long-term follow-up. Patients diagnosed with SSD (n = 21) treated with ECT due to resistance to AP or catatonia under the age of 18 years (ECT group), were compared to a randomly selected group of patients with SSD treated only with AP (non-ECT group) (n = 21) and matched for age, gender, diagnosis and duration of illness. Baseline data were gathered retrospectively from medical records. Subjects were assessed at follow-up (mean of follow-up period = 5.5 years; range 2-9 years) using several clinical scales such as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Improvement in PANSS positive, negative, general, total and CGI and GAF scores between baseline and follow-up assessment did not differ significantly between groups. At follow-up, no differences were observed for the PANSS negative, CGI and GAF scores between groups, but patients in the ECT group still had higher PANSS total, positive and general scores. ECT treatment followed by AP medication in treatment-resistant SSD or catatonia is at least as effective in the long term as AP alone in non-resistant patients.
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Replication of previous genome-wide association studies of psychiatric diseases in a large schizophrenia case-control sample from Spain.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Genome wide association studies (GWAS) has allowed the discovery of some interesting risk variants for schizophrenia (SCZ). However, this high-throughput approach presents some limitations, being the most important the necessity of highly restrictive statistical corrections as well as the loss of statistical power inherent to the use of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis approach. These problems can be partially solved through the use of a polygenic approach. We performed a genotyping study in SCZ using 86 previously associated SNPs identified by GWAS of SCZ, bipolar disorder (BPD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. The sample consisted of 3063 independent cases with DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of SCZ and 2847 independent controls of European origin from Spain. A polygenic score analysis was also used to test the overall effect on the SCZ status. One SNP, rs12290811, located in the ODZ4 gene reached statistical significance (p=1.7×10(-4), Allelic odds ratio=1.21), a value very near to those reported in previous GWAS of BPD patients. In addition, 4 SNPs were close to the significant threshold: rs3850333, in the NRXN1 gene; rs6932590, at MHC; rs2314398, located in an intergenic region on chromosome 2; and rs1006737, in the CACNA1C gene. We also found that 74% of the studied SNPs showed the same tendency (risk or protection alleles) previously reported in the original GWAS (p<0.001). Our data strengthen the polygenic component of susceptibility to SCZ. Our findings show ODZ4 as a risk gene for SCZ, emphasizing the existence of common vulnerability in psychosis.
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Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of reboxetine and citalopram as adjuncts to atypical antipsychotics for negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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In this study, we assessed the efficacy of 2 pharmacodynamically different antidepressants, citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and reboxetine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), as adjunctive therapy to risperidone and olanzapine for the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
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Identifying gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia: contemporary challenges for integrated, large-scale investigations.
, Jim van Os, Bart P Rutten, Inez Myin-Germeys, Philippe Delespaul, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Catherine van Zelst, Richard Bruggeman, Ulrich Reininghaus, Craig Morgan, Robin M Murray, Marta Di Forti, Philip McGuire, Lucia R Valmaggia, Matthew J Kempton, Charlotte Gayer-Anderson, Kathryn Hubbard, Stephanie Beards, Simona A Stilo, Adanna Onyejiaka, François Bourque, Gemma Modinos, Stefania Tognin, Maria Calem, Michael C O'Donovan, Michael J Owen, Peter Holmans, Nigel Williams, Nicholas Craddock, Alexander Richards, Isla Humphreys, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, F Markus Leweke, Heike Tost, Ceren Akdeniz, Cathrin Rohleder, J Malte Bumb, Emanuel Schwarz, Koksal Alptekin, Alp Üçok, Meram Can Saka, E Cem Atbaşoğlu, Sinan Guloksuz, Güvem Gümüş-Akay, Burçin Cihan, Hasan Karadag, Haldan Soygür, Eylem Şahin Cankurtaran, Semra Ulusoy, Berna Akdede, Tolga Binbay, Ahmet Ayer, Handan Noyan, Gülşah Karadayı, Elçin Akturan, Halis Ulas, Celso Arango, Mara Parellada, Miguel Bernardo, Julio Sanjuan, Julio Bobes, Manuel Arrojo, Jose Luis Santos, Pedro Cuadrado, José Juan Rodríguez Solano, Angel Carracedo, Enrique García Bernardo, Laura Roldán, Gonzalo Lopez, Bibiana Cabrera, Sabrina Cruz, Eva Ma Díaz Mesa, María Pouso, Estela Jiménez, Teresa Sanchez, Marta Rapado, Emiliano González, Covadonga Martínez, Emilio Sanchez, Ma Soledad Olmeda, Lieuwe de Haan, Eva Velthorst, Mark van der Gaag, Jean-Paul Selten, Daniella van Dam, Elsje van der Ven, Floor van der Meer, Elles Messchaert, Tamar Kraan, Nadine Burger, Marion Leboyer, Andrei Szoke, Franck Schürhoff, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Stéphane Jamain, Andrea Tortelli, Flora Frijda, Jeanne Vilain, Anne-Marie Galliot, Grégoire Baudin, Aziz Ferchiou, Jean-Romain Richard, Ewa Bulzacka, Thomas Charpeaud, Anne-Marie Tronche, Marc De Hert, Ruud van Winkel, Jeroen Decoster, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Nikos C Stefanis, Gabriele Sachs, Harald Aschauer, Iris Lasser, Bernadette Winklbaur, Monika Schlögelhofer, Anita Riecher-Rossler, Stefan Borgwardt, Anna Walter, Fabienne Harrisberger, Renata Smieskova, Charlotte Rapp, Sarah Ittig, Fabienne Soguel-dit-Piquard, Erich Studerus, Joachim Klosterkötter, Stephan Ruhrmann, Julia Paruch, Dominika Julkowski, Desiree Hilboll, Pak C Sham, Stacey S Cherny, Eric Y H Chen, Desmond D Campbell, Miaoxin Li, Carlos María Romeo-Casabona, Aitziber Emaldi Cirión, Asier Urruela Mora, Peter Jones, James Kirkbride, Mary Cannon, Dan Rujescu, Ilaria Tarricone, Domenico Berardi, Elena Bonora, Marco Seri, Thomas Marcacci, Luigi Chiri, Federico Chierzi, Viviana Storbini, Mauro Braca, Maria Gabriella Minenna, Ivonne Donegani, Angelo Fioritti, Daniele La Barbera, Caterina Erika La Cascia, Alice Mulè, Lucia Sideli, Rachele Sartorio, Laura Ferraro, Giada Tripoli, Fabio Seminerio, Anna Maria Marinaro, Patrick McGorry, Barnaby Nelson, G Paul Amminger, Christos Pantelis, Paulo R Menezes, Cristina M Del-Ben, Silvia H Gallo Tenan, Rosana Shuhama, Mirella Ruggeri, Sarah Tosato, Antonio Lasalvia, Chiara Bonetto, Elisa Ira, Merete Nordentoft, Marie-Odile Krebs, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Paula Cristóbal, Thomas R Kwapil, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo A Bressan, Ary Gadelha, Nadja P Maric, Sanja Andric, Marina Mihaljevic, Tijana Mirjanic.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual molecular genetic variants is small. There are now also a limited number of studies that have investigated molecular genetic candidate gene-environment interactions (G × E), however, so far, thorough replication of findings is rare and G × E research still faces several conceptual and methodological challenges. In this article, we aim to review these recent developments and illustrate how integrated, large-scale investigations may overcome contemporary challenges in G × E research, drawing on the example of a large, international, multi-center study into the identification and translational application of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap in phenotype.
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Schizophrenia and cerebrovascular disease. A description of a series and bibliographic reivew.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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The state of health of patients with schizophrenia is a field of growing interest that has probably not received sufficient attention in the past. It is currently held that physical health should form a part of the overall therapeutic strategy in these patients since reference is made to certain treatable conditions that may affect the final prognosis. One example is cardiovascular disease and its associated reduction in life expectancy.
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Comparison of serum BDNF levels in deficit and nondeficit chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The aim of this study was to compare serum BDNF levels of chronic schizophrenic patients, with or without deficit syndrome, and healthy controls. A comparative study of serum BDNF levels, determined by ELISA, was performed in 47 chronic patients with schizophrenia matched with 47 healthy controls. A part of the chronic schizophrenic sample was further divided into patients with a deficit (n=14) and a nondeficit syndrome (n=20), according to the Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome Scale. A significant difference was observed in decreased serum BDNF levels between chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls. No statistical significant differences in BDNF levels between deficit and nondeficit chronic schizophrenic patients were found. Our study confirms differences of serum BDNF levels of chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls, which correspond to the clinical progression of the disease. Our results do not support a relation between deficit profile in chronic schizophrenia and lower serum BDNF levels.
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Phase I study of elisidepsin (Irvalec®) in combination with carboplatin or gemcitabine in patients with advanced malignancies.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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To determine the maximum tolerated dose and the recommended dose (RD) for phase II trials of elisidepsin (Irvalec®) in combination with carboplatin or gemcitabine.
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Brain metabolism during hallucination-like auditory stimulation in schizophrenia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are typically characterized by rich emotional content. Despite the prominent role of emotion in regulating normal perception, the neural interface between emotion-processing regions such as the amygdala and auditory regions involved in perception remains relatively unexplored in AVH. Here, we studied brain metabolism using FDG-PET in 9 remitted patients with schizophrenia that previously reported severe AVH during an acute psychotic episode and 8 matched healthy controls. Participants were scanned twice: (1) at rest and (2) during the perception of aversive auditory stimuli mimicking the content of AVH. Compared to controls, remitted patients showed an exaggerated response to the AVH-like stimuli in limbic and paralimbic regions, including the left amygdala. Furthermore, patients displayed abnormally strong connections between the amygdala and auditory regions of the cortex and thalamus, along with abnormally weak connections between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by limbic-thalamic structures might be involved in the pathophysiology of AVH and may potentially account for the emotional features that characterize hallucinatory percepts in schizophrenia.
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Reproductive variables and gynaecological service use in delusional disorder outpatients.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Oestrogens have been hypothesized to have a protective effect in psychotic disorders. Women with schizophrenia have a later age of menarche, fewer pregnancies and earlier age of menopause. However, little information is available focusing on delusional disorder (DD). We aimed to evaluate gynaecological variables and psychopathology, and rates of gynaecological service use in female DD outpatients.
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Peripheral endocannabinoid system dysregulation in first-episode psychosis.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Several hypotheses involving alterations of the immune system have been proposed among etiological explanations for psychotic disorders. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has a homeostatic role as an endogenous neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory system. Alterations of this system have been associated with psychosis. Cannabis use is a robust risk factor for these disorders that could alter the ECS signalling. In this study, 95 patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) and 90 healthy controls were recruited. Protein expression of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), the protein levels of the main endocannabinoid synthesizing enzymes N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase (NAPE) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), and of degradation enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) were determined by western blot analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Patients with a FEP showed a decreased expression of CB2 and of both endocannabinoids synthesizing enzymes (NAPE and DAGL) in comparison to healthy controls. After controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and cannabis use, NAPE and DAGL expression remained significantly decreased, whereas FAAH and MAGL expression were increased. On the other hand, FEP subjects with history of severe cannabis use showed a larger ECS dysregulation compared with healthy controls. These results indicate an ECS dysregulation in PBMC of FEP patients. The alteration of the ECS presented at the initial phases of psychosis could be contributing to the pathophysiology of the disease and constitutes a possible biomarker of psychotic disorders and an interesting pharmacological target to take into account for therapeutic purposes.
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[Clinical significance of suicidal behaviour in delusional disorder: A 44 case-series descriptive study.]
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Suicidal behaviour in delusional disorder (DD) has been poorly studied. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of clinically significant depression, suicidal ideation and behaviour in these patients, and to relate them with psychotic or depressive symptoms. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A cross-sectional study including 44 outpatients with DD (DSM-IV-TR) was conducted. Demographic and clinical data, as well as scores in clinical assessment scales: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Personal and Social Performance Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17-item version) and Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale, were recorded. The sample was divided into 2 groups according to presence or absence of comorbid depression (CD). RESULTS: Fifteen patients (34.1%) had CD, 14 (31.8%) suicidal ideation and 7 (15.9%) suicidal behaviour in the previous 2 years. Patients with CD had an earlier age at onset and for a first psychiatric appointment, and had higher scores on the PANSS general subscale (p=0,043) and in intensity of suicidal ideation (p=0,001). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, patients with DD and CD have more frequently suicidal ideation and behaviour than those without CD.
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The screen for cognitive impairment in psychiatry: diagnostic-specific standardization in psychiatric ill patients.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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BACKGROUND: The Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP) is a simple and easy to administer scale developed for screening cognitive deficits. This study presents the diagnostic-specific standardization data for this scale in a sample of schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder patients. METHODS: Patients between 18 and 55 years who are in a stable phase of the disease, diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, or bipolar I disorder were enrolled in this study. RESULTS: The SCIP-S was administered to 514 patients (57.9% male), divided into two age groups (18--39 and 40--55 years) and two educational level groups (less than and secondary or higher education). The performance of the patients on the SCIP-S is described and the transformed scores for each SCIP-S subtest, as well as the total score on the instrument, are presented as a percentile, z-score, T-scores, and IQ quotient. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first jointly developed benchmarks for a cognitive screening test exploring functional psychosis (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), which provide increased information about patients cognitive abilities. Having guidelines for interpreting SCIP-S scores represents a step forward in the clinical utility of this instrument and adds valuable information for its use.
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Pro-/Anti-inflammatory Dysregulation in Patients With First Episode of Psychosis: Toward an Integrative Inflammatory Hypothesis of Schizophrenia.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Background:Schizophrenia is a chronic syndrome of unknown etiology, predominantly defined by signs of psychosis. The onset of the disorder occurs typically in late adolescence or early adulthood. Efforts to study pathophysiological mechanisms in early stages of the disease are crucial in order to prompt intervention.Methods:Case-control study of first-episode psychotic (FEP) patients and matched controls. We recruited 117 patients during the first year after their FEP according to the DSM-IV criteria and recruited 106 gender-, race-, and age-matched controls between September 2010 and June 2011.Results:Biochemical studies carried out in peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PMBC) and plasma evidence a significant increase in intracellular components of a main proinflammatory pathway, along with a significant decrease in the anti-inflammatory ones. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified the expression of inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase in PMBC and homocysteine plasma levels as the most reliable potential risk factors and the inhibitor of the inflammatory transcription factor NF?B, I?B?, and the anti-inflammatory prostaglandin 15d-PGJ2 as potential protection factors.Discussion:Taken as a whole, the results of this study indicate robust phenotypical differences at the cellular machinery level in PMBC of patients with FEP. Although more scientific evidence is needed, the determination of multiple components of pro- and anti-inflammatory cellular pathways including the activity of nuclear receptors has interesting potential as biological markers and potential risk/protective factors for FEP. Due to its soluble nature, a notable finding in this study is that the anti-inflammatory mediator 15d-PGJ2 might be used as plasmatic biomarker for first episodes of psychosis.
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Screening for substance use disorders in first-episode psychosis: implications for readmission.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Screening of substance use may prove useful to prevent readmission after the first episode of psychosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of drug use on readmission risk in a first-episode psychosis sample, and to determine whether the cannabis/cocaine subscale of the Dartmouth Assessment of Lifestyle Inventory (DALI) is a better predictive instrument than urinary analysis.
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Treatment patterns and health care resource utilization in a 1-year observational cohort study of outpatients with schizophrenia at risk of nonadherence treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics.
Patient Prefer Adherence
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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To describe (1) the clinical profiles and the patterns of use of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia at risk of nonadherence with oral antipsychotics, and in those who started treatment with LAI antipsychotics, (2) health care resource utilization and associated costs.
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Two-year follow-up of cognitive functions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders of adolescent patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a sample of adolescent patients in whom schizophrenia spectrum disorders were diagnosed.
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A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of plitidepsin in children with advanced solid tumours: an Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer (ITCC) study.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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To determine the maximum tolerated dose, the recommended dose (RD) for phase II studies, dose-limiting toxicities and pharmacokinetics (PK) for plitidepsin administered as a 3-h intravenous infusion every 2weeks (one cycle) to children with refractory or relapsed solid tumours.
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Testosterone in newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naive men with nonaffective psychosis: a test of the accelerated aging hypothesis.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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Schizophrenia has been associated with age-related abnormalities, including abnormal glucose tolerance, increased pulse pressure, increased inflammation, abnormal stem cell signaling, and shorter telomere length. These metabolic abnormalities and other findings suggest that schizophrenia and related disorders might be associated with accelerated aging. Testosterone activity has a progressive decline with increasing age.
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Relapse and therapeutic interventions in a 1-year observational cohort study of nonadherent outpatients with schizophrenia.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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To evaluate the incidence rate of relapse, the clinical profiles, and the therapeutic interventions employed for patients with schizophrenia deemed as likely nonadherers to oral antipsychotic drugs.
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Comparison between young siblings and offspring of subjects with schizophrenia: clinical and neuropsychological characteristics.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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High rates of psychopathology and worse performance in cognitive areas have been described in high risk (HR) first degree relatives of subjects with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine clinical and neuropsychological characteristics in two different groups of first degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia - one of siblings (HRs), and one of offspring (HRo) - and compare them with healthy controls (HC).
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Plitidepsin has a safe cardiac profile: a comprehensive analysis.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Plitidepsin is a cyclic depsipeptide of marine origin in clinical development in cancer patients. Previously, some depsipeptides have been linked to increased cardiac toxicity. Clinical databases were searched for cardiac adverse events (CAEs) that occurred in clinical trials with the single-agent plitidepsin. Demographic, clinical and pharmacological variables were explored by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Forty-six of 578 treated patients (8.0%) had at least one CAE (11 patients (1.9%) with plitidepsin-related CAEs), none with fatal outcome as a direct consequence. The more frequent CAEs were rhythm abnormalities (n = 31; 5.4%), mostly atrial fibrillation/flutter (n = 15; 2.6%). Of note, life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias did not occur. Myocardial injury events (n = 17; 3.0%) included possible ischemic-related and non-ischemic events. Other events (miscellaneous, n = 6; 1.0%) were not related to plitidepsin. Significant associations were found with prostate or pancreas cancer primary diagnosis (p = 0.0017), known baseline cardiac risk factors (p = 0.0072), myalgia present at baseline (p = 0.0140), hemoglobin levels lower than 10 g/dL (p = 0.0208) and grade ?2 hypokalemia (p = 0.0095). Treatment-related variables (plitidepsin dose, number of cycles, schedule and/or total cumulative dose) were not associated. Electrocardiograms performed before and after plitidepsin administration (n = 136) detected no relevant effect on QTc interval. None of the pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed had a significant impact on the probability of developing a CAE. In conclusion, the most frequent CAE type was atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter, although its frequency was not different to that reported in the age-matched healthy population, while other CAEs types were rare. No dose-cumulative pattern was observed, and no treatment-related variables were associated with CAEs. Relevant risk factors identified were related to the patients condition and/or to disease-related characteristics rather than to drug exposure. Therefore, the current analysis supports a safe cardiac risk profile for single-agent plitidepsin in cancer patients.
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QTc prolongation: is clozapine safe? Study of 82 cases before and after clozapine treatment.
Hum Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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The most feared cardiological consequence of clozapine is sudden cardiac death. A potential marker of it is QTc interval (QTc) prolongation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of QTc prolongation in patients before and after 18 weeks of clozapine treatment and to detect predictors of QTc prolongation.
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[Systematic review of the Genomewide Association Studies (GWAS) in schizophrenia].
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Heritability in schizophrenia can reach up to 80% and the risk in families is 5-10 times higher than in the general population. The large contribution of genetics in this disorder has led to a growing interest in its study.
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Prolactin concentrations in newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naïve patients with nonaffective psychosis.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Previous studies have found increased prolactin concentrations in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia. However, the roles of other hormones, and of potentially confounding variables such as gender and smoking, have not been considered.
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A 4-year dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging study in neuroleptic-naive first episode schizophrenia patients.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Alterations in the dopaminergic system have long been implicated in schizophrenia. A key component in dopaminergic neurotransmission is the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT). To date, there have been no longitudinal studies evaluating the course of DAT in schizophrenia. A 4-year follow-up study was therefore conducted in which single photon emission computed tomography was used to measure DAT binding in 14 patients and 7 controls. We compared the difference over time in [(123)I] FP-CIT striatal/occipital uptake ratios (SOUR) between patients and controls and the relationship between this difference and both symptomatology and functional outcome at follow-up. We also calculated the relationship between baseline SOUR, symptoms and functional outcome at follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences between patients SOUR changes over time and those of controls. A significant negative correlation was observed between patients SOUR changes over time and negative symptomatology at follow-up. A significant negative correlation was also found between baseline SOUR in patients and negative symptomatology, and there was a significant association between lower SOUR at baseline and poor outcome. Although the study found no overall differences in DAT binding during follow-up between schizophrenia patients and controls, it demonstrated that differences in DAT binding relate to patients characteristics at follow-up.
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Brief cognitive assessment instruments in schizophrenia and bipolar patients, and healthy control subjects: a comparison study between the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool for Schizophrenia (B-CATS) and the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SC
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and psychosis is ubiquitous and acknowledged as a core feature of clinical expression, pathophysiology, and prediction of functioning. However, assessment of cognitive functioning is excessively time-consuming in routine practice, and brief cognitive instruments specific to psychosis would be of value. Two screening tools have recently been created to address this issue, i.e., the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool for Schizophrenia (B-CATS) and the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP). The aim of this research was to examine the comparative validity of these two brief instruments in relation to a global cognitive score. 161 patients with psychosis (96 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 65 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder) and 76 healthy control subjects were tested with both instruments to examine their concurrent validity relative to a more comprehensive neuropsychological assessment battery. Scores from the B-CATS and the SCIP were highly correlated in the three diagnostic groups, and both scales showed good to excellent concurrent validity relative to a Global Cognitive Composite Score (GCCS) derived from the more comprehensive examination. The SCIP-S showed better predictive value of global cognitive impairment than the B-CATS. Partial and semi-partial correlations showed slightly higher percentages of both shared and unique variance between the SCIP-S and the GCCS than between the B-CATS and the GCCS. Brief instruments for assessing cognition in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, such as the SCIP-S and B-CATS, seem to be reliable and promising tools for use in routine clinical practice.
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Metabolic effects of olanzapine in patients with newly diagnosed psychosis.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Antipsychotic medications are associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Previous studies have also found an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the relatives of schizophrenia probands. The aim of this study was to explore the metabolic adverse effects of olanzapine in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed psychosis and minimal or no exposure to antipsychotics. Patients with newly diagnosed psychosis (n = 30) were enrolled in a 16-week open trial of olanzapine. Body mass index, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, fasting insulin, IL-6, and a fasting lipid profile were measured at baseline and at 4-week intervals. There was a significant, linear increase over time in fasting glucose (P = 0.043), weight (P < 0.001), body mass index (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P = 0.005), triglycerides (P = 0.003), and low-density lipoprotein (P = 0.013), but not hemoglobin A1c (P = 0.691), fasting insulin (P = 0.690), IL-6 (P = 0.877), or high-density lipoprotein (P = 0.446). An abnormal baseline IL-6 was a significant predictor of a greater increase in both total cholesterol (P < 0.01) and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.01). Otherwise, neither parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus nor baseline IL-6 predicted changes in metabolic measures. Changes in metabolic measures with olanzapine treatment can be detected early in the treatment of patients who are previously antipsychotic naive. The absence of a change in fasting insulin suggests a failure of pancreatic islet cells to compensate for the increase in fasting glucose.
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Differential brain glucose metabolic patterns in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia with and without auditory verbal hallucinations.
J Psychiatry Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a core symptom of schizophrenia. Previous reports on neural activity patterns associated with AVHs are inconsistent, arguably owing to the lack of an adequate control group (i.e., patients with similar characteristics but without AVHs) and neglect of the potential confounding effects of medication.
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Population pharmacokinetics of PM00104 (Zalypsis(®)) in cancer patients.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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The aim of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of PM00104 (Zalypsis(®)) in cancer patients.
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Clinical experience using electroconvulsive therapy in adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in adolescent patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD).
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Is abnormal glucose tolerance in antipsychotic-naive patients with nonaffective psychosis confounded by poor health habits?
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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Some but not all previous studies have found abnormal glucose tolerance or fasting glucose concentrations in antipsychotic-naïve patients with nonaffective psychosis. Our finding of abnormal glucose tolerance in patients with nonaffective psychosis could not be attributed to confounding by age, ethnicity, gender, smoking, socioeconomic status (SES), hypercortisolemia, or body mass index (BMI). However, other factors merit consideration as potential confounders of this association.
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Anterior cingulate and paracingulate sulci morphology in patients with schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2010
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The anterior cingulate cortex is a cerebral region engaged in several emotional and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate possible anterior cingulate and paracingulate sulcal abnormalities in schizophrenia. Twenty-three patients with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia were compared with 23 healthy subjects matched for age, gender, and parental socioeconomic status. Magnetic resonance images were used to explore the morphology of these regions, with volume and maximum depth being measured by an automated method of sulcal recognition. Additionally, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to analyze possible reduction in gray and white matter of the anterior cingulate region. A smaller volume of the left anterior cingulate sulcus (ACS) was observed in patients with schizophrenia when compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, female patients showed a reduction in volume of the left ACS and an increase of the right paracingulate sulcus (PCS) compared to female controls. There was also a significant relationship between the depth of right PCS and neuroleptic exposure. VBM analysis showed a reduction in left anterior cingulate gray matter. These findings provide further evidence of left anterior middle frontal cortex abnormalities in schizophrenia. In addition, the results suggest gender differences in the structural abnormalities of the illness.
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Cholesterol and triglycerides in antipsychotic-naive patients with nonaffective psychosis.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2010
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Patients with psychosis have an increased prevalence of hyperlipidemia. We compared fasting concentrations of lipids in newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naïve patients with nonaffective psychosis (N=87) and control subjects (N=92). After accounting for gender, age, smoking, socioeconomic status, and body mass index, there was no significant difference between the two groups in total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, or triglycerides.
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Pulmonary abnormalities in mice with paracoccidioidomycosis: a sequential study comparing high resolution computed tomography and pathologic findings.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Human paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic fungal disease of pulmonary origin. Follow-up of pulmonary lesions by image studies in an experimental model of PCM has not been previously attempted. This study focuses on defining patterns, topography and intensity of lung lesions in experimentally infected PCM mice by means of a comparative analysis between High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) and histopathologic parameters.
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Rituximab-mediated cell signaling and chemo/immuno-sensitization of drug-resistant B-NHL is independent of its Fc functions.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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Rituximab [chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody], alone or combined with chemotherapy, is used in the treatment of non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL). Rituximab binds to CD20 and inhibits intracellular survival/growth pathways leading to chemo/immunosensitization of tumor cells in vitro. The contribution of rituximab Fc-FcR interaction in signaling is not known. This study examined the role of Fc-FcR interactions in rituximab-induced signaling using rituximab (Fab)(2) fragments as well as rituximab devoid of the CH2 Fc-binding domain (CH2(-)).
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Progressive gray matter changes in first episode schizophrenia: a 4-year longitudinal magnetic resonance study using VBM.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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Schizophrenia is a disabling illness, characterized by a heterogeneous course including clinical deterioration and poor outcome. Accumulating findings in schizophrenia suggest that it might involve two pathophysiologic processes, one early in life (neurodevelopmental), and one after onset of the illness (neurodegenerative). Longitudinal imaging studies after onset of the illness may help to clarify these pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia, but so far, probably due to methodological differences, there have been no conclusive results. The present study sets out to investigate longitudinal gray matter changes in patients with first-episode schizophrenia relative to healthy subjects over the first 4 years of the illness and the relation of gray matter changes in patients with functional outcome, using an objective automatic method not biased to one particular structure to analyze gray matter changes.
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Relationship between clinical and neuropsychological characteristics in child and adolescent first degree relatives of subjects with schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2009
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Studies have shown higher rates of psychopathology and cognitive difficulties among relatives of schizophrenia patients than among the general population. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between clinical and neuropsychological characteristics in children and adolescents at high genetic risk for schizophrenia.
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Population pharmacokinetics meta-analysis of plitidepsin (Aplidin) in cancer subjects.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of plitidepsin (Aplidin) in cancer patients.
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Metabolic profile of antipsychotic-naive individuals with non-affective psychosis.
Br J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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Some studies suggest individuals with schizophrenia have an increased risk of diabetes prior to antipsychotic use. Small sample sizes and the potential for confounding by hypercortisolaemia have decreased confidence in those results.
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18FDG PET study of amygdalar activity during facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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The role of the amygdala during facial emotion recognition (FER) tasks as well as its clinical implications in schizophrenia patients remains unclear. While most of authors have reported hypoactivation, recently it has been suggested that patients may also exhibit hyperactivation. We studied amygdalar response during a previously validated FER task using (18)[F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET) technique in ten right-handed healthy volunteers and 11 right-handed non acute patients with schizophrenia. Both groups underwent two scans on different days in a random order; each consisted of 17 1/2 min of continuous emotional and control tasks. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) 2 analysis with a region of interest approach was carried out. Left amygdalar hyperactivation among the schizophrenia group was shown in both emotional and control tasks when compared to healthy subjects. The right amygdala showed no differential activation in any of the tasks. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia exhibit a non-task specific amygdalar hyperactivation during a continuous emotional and non-emotional task when compared to matched healthy controls.
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Neurocognitive diagnosis and cut-off scores of the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP-S).
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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To demonstrate the ability of the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP-S) to discriminate between cognitively-impaired individuals and those with adequate functioning in a sample of schizophrenic and bipolar patients, as well as in a control group.
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Differences in glucose tolerance between deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Some studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk of diabetes independently of antipsychotic use. People with deficit schizophrenia, which is characterized by primary (or idiopathic), enduring negative symptoms, differ from those with nondeficit schizophrenia on course of illness, treatment response, risk factors, and biological correlates. We hypothesized that deficit and nondeficit subjects would also differ with regard to glucose tolerance. Newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naïve subjects with nonaffective psychosis and matched control subjects were administered a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (GTT). Two-hour glucose concentrations were significantly higher in the nondeficit patients (N=23; mean [SD] of 121.6 [42.0]) than in deficit (N=23; 100.2 [23.1]) and control subjects (N=59; 83.8 [21.9]); the deficit subjects also had significantly higher two-hour glucose concentrations than did the control subjects. These results provide further support that the deficit group has a distinctive etiopathophysiology.
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Clinical usefulness of the screen for cognitive impairment in psychiatry (SCIP-S) scale in patients with type I bipolar disorder.
Health Qual Life Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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The relevance of persistent cognitive deficits to the pathogenesis and prognosis of bipolar disorders (BD) is understudied, and its translation into clinical practice has been limited by the absence of brief methods assessing cognitive status in Psychiatry. This investigation assessed the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP-S) for the detection of cognitive impairment in BD.
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Telomere length and pulse pressure in newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naive patients with nonaffective psychosis.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Recent studies suggest that in addition to factors such as treatment side effects, suicide, and poor health habits, people with schizophrenia may have an increased risk of diabetes prior to antipsychotic treatment. Diabetes is associated with an increased pulse pressure (PP) and a shortened telomere. We tested the hypothesis that prior to antipsychotic treatment, schizophrenia and related disorders are associated with a shortened telomere, as well as an increased PP.
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Hippocampal underactivation in an fMRI study of word and face memory recognition in schizophrenia.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Schizophrenia is a major mental disorder which is characterized by several cognitive deficits. Investigations of the neural basis of memory dysfunctions using neuroimaging techniques suggest that the hippocampus plays an important role in declarative memory impairment. The goal of this study was to investigate possible dysfunctions in cerebral activation in schizophrenic patients during both word and face recognition memory tasks. We tested 22 schizophrenics and 24 controls matched by gender, age, handedness and parental socioeconomic status. Compared to healthy volunteers, patients with schizophrenia showed decreased bilateral hippocampal activation during word and face recognition tasks. The whole brain analysis also showed a pattern of cortical and subcortical hypoactivation for both verbal and non-verbal recognition. This study provides further evidence of hippocampal involvement in declarative memory impairments of schizophrenia.
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A continuous emotional task activates the left amygdala in healthy volunteers: (18)FDG PET study.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2009
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Human amygdalar activation has been reported during facial emotion recognition (FER) studies, mostly using fast temporal resolution techniques (fMRI, H(2)(15)O PET or MEG). The (18)FDG PET technique has never been previously applied to FER studies. We decided to test whether amygdala response during FER tasks could be assessed with this technique. The study was conducted in 10 healthy right-handed volunteers who underwent two scans on different days in random order. Content of the tasks was either emotional (ET) or neutral (CT) and lasted for 17 (1/2) min. Three SPM2 analyses were completed. The first, an ET-CT contrast, showed left amygdalar activation. The second ruled out order effect as a confounder factor. Finally, the whole brain contrast showed activation of the emotional recognition-related areas. Time responses and errors indicated high rates of accuracy in both tasks. We discuss the results and the role of habituation phenomena and the possibility of applying this technique to samples of patients with psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, our study reveals left amygdalar activation assessed with FDG PET, as well as other major emotion recognition-related brain areas during FER tasks.
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A voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging study of temporal white matter in patients with schizophrenia.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a relatively new technique used to detect changes in the anisotropic diffusion of white matter. The study of the disruption of brain connectivity may increase our understanding of cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Here we analysed DTI data in 25 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and 24 healthy controls. Two complementary measures, fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), were considered and analysed using voxel-based morphometry. Declarative memory functions were also investigated and their associations with DTI data were analysed. FA was significantly reduced, and the ADC increased in the left sub-gyral white matter of the temporal lobe, which involves the posterior part of the fornix. In the schizophrenic group, females had lower FA than males in the genu of the corpus callosum. Memory functions correlate with FA values. These data provide further evidence for the disruption of white matter connectivity in the left medial temporal lobe, and for its contribution to the declarative memory deficit in schizophrenia.
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Abnormal glucose tolerance, white blood cell count, and telomere length in newly diagnosed, antidepressant-naïve patients with depression.
Brain Behav. Immun.
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Chronic mood disorders have been associated with a shortened telomere, a marker of increased mortality rate and aging, and impaired cellular immunity. However, treatment may confound these relationships. We examined the relationship of glucose tolerance, white blood cell count and telomere length to depression in newly diagnosed, antidepressant-naïve patients. Subjects with major depression (n=15), and matched healthy control subjects (n=70) underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test and evaluation of blood cell count and telomere content. The depression group had significantly higher two-hour glucose concentrations and a lower lymphocyte count than control subjects (respective means [SD] for two-hour glucose were 125.0mg/dL [67.9] vs 84.6 [25.6] (p<.001); for lymphocyte count 2.1×10(9)/L [0.6] vs 2.5×10(9)/L [0.7] p=.028). Telomere content was significantly shortened in the depression group (87.9 [7.6]) compared to control subjects (101.0 [14.3]; p<0.01). Abnormal glucose tolerance, lymphopenia and a shortened telomere are present early in the course of depression independently of the confounding effect of antidepressant treatment, supporting the concept of major depression as an accelerated aging disease.
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Electroconvulsive therapy and clozapine in adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: is it a safe and effective combination?
J Clin Psychopharmacol
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To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the combination of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and clozapine compared to ECT with other antipsychotics or benzodiazepines in a sample of adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
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Multicenter phase II study of plitidepsin in patients with relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
Haematologica
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This phase II clinical trial evaluated the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of plitidepsin 3.2 mg/m(2) administered as a 1-hour intravenous infusion weekly on days 1, 8 and 15 every 4 weeks in 67 adult patients with relapsed/refractory aggressive non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Patients were divided into two cohorts: those with non-cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma (n=34) and those with other lymphomas (n=33). Efficacy was evaluated using the International Working Group criteria (1999). Of the 29 evaluable patients with non-cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma, six had a response (overall response rate 20.7%; 95% confidence interval, 8.0%-39.7%), including two complete responses and four partial responses. No responses occurred in the 30 evaluable patients with other lymphomas (including 27 B-cell lymphomas). The most common plitidepsin-related adverse events were nausea, fatigue and myalgia (grade 3 in <10% of cases). Severe laboratory abnormalities (lymphopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and increased levels of transaminase and creatine phosphokinase) were transient and easily managed by plitidepsin dose adjustments. The pharmacokinetic profile did not differ from that previously reported in patients with solid tumors. In conclusion, plitidepsin monotherapy has clinical activity in relapsed/refractory T-cell lymphomas. Combinations of plitidepsin with other chemotherapeutic drugs deserve further evaluation in patients with non-cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00884286).
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Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis of neutropenia in cancer patients receiving PM00104 (Zalypsis(®)).
Clin Pharmacokinet
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PM00104 (Zalypsis(®)) is a novel marine-derived compound that has shown antineoplastic activity against a number of human tumour cell lines. Myelosuppression was found to be a PM00104 dose-limiting toxicity during phase I studies. The objective of this study was to characterize the time course of neutropenia after intravenous PM00104 administration in cancer patients.
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Antipsychotic polypharmacy in a regional health service: a population-based study.
BMC Psychiatry
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To analyse the extent and profile of outpatient regular dispensation of antipsychotics, both in combination and monotherapy, in the Barcelona Health Region (Spain), focusing on the use of clozapine and long-acting injections (LAI).
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Use of electroconvulsive therapy in Parkinson disease with residual axial symptoms partially unresponsive to L-dopa: a pilot study.
J ECT
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Mental dysfunction and especially gait disorders, such as freezing and postural instability in "on phase," are partially unresponsive to dopaminergic therapy late in the course of Parkinson disease (PD). Some of them have been related to decreased sensitivity of postsynaptic dopaminergic receptors, and it is known that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) enhances the sensitivity of these receptors. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of ECT in patients with advanced Parkinson disease with symptoms partially unresponsive to L-dopa.
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Utility of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II in schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
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The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II) was developed for assessing disability. This study provides data on the validity and utility of the Spanish version of the WHODAS II in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia.
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Inflammatory markers in antipsychotic-naïve patients with nonaffective psychosis and deficit vs. nondeficit features.
Psychiatry Res
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Newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naïve patients with nonaffective psychosis appear to have increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines. Patients characterized by primary, enduring negative symptoms (deficit symptoms) differ from patients without such features with regard to course of illness, treatment response, risk factors and metabolic disturbances. We hypothesized that they would also differ on concentrations of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naïve patients with nonaffective psychosis were categorized into deficit (N=20) and nondeficit (N=42) groups, and were matched on age, gender, body mass index, smoking, cortisol level, socioeconomic status, and the severity of psychotic symptoms. Fasting concentrations of IL6 were significantly higher in deficit (mean [S.D.]) (8.0 pg/ml [12.7]) than nondeficit patients (0.3 pg/ml [1.3]). CRP levels were also significantly higher in the deficit patients (0.3 mg/dl [0.4]) vs. (0.2 mg/dl [0.4]), respectively. In contrast, 2-h glucose concentrations (2HG) in a glucose tolerance test were lower in the deficit than the nondeficit group. Our results show a double dissociation with regard to glucose intolerance and inflammation: the deficit group has greater inflammation, but less severe glucose intolerance. These results provide further evidence for the validity of the deficit/nondeficit categorization.
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Spanish adaptation of the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) for schizophrenia.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr
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The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale has been designed to evaluate the cognitive insight capacity, that is to say, the practice of self-reflectiveness as a meta-cognitive mechanism for examining and analysing the disorders symptoms, it also permits a continuous re-evaluation of inadequate interpretations.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.