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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Human TLR10 is an anti-inflammatory pattern-recognition receptor.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Toll-like receptor (TLR)10 is the only pattern-recognition receptor without known ligand specificity and biological function. We demonstrate that TLR10 is a modulatory receptor with mainly inhibitory effects. Blocking TLR10 by antagonistic antibodies enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production, including IL-1?, specifically after exposure to TLR2 ligands. Blocking TLR10 after stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pam3CSK4 (Pam3Cys) led to production of 2,065 ± 106 pg/mL IL-1? (mean ± SEM) in comparison with 1,043 ± 51 pg/mL IL-1? after addition of nonspecific IgG antibodies. Several mechanisms mediate the modulatory effects of TLR10: on the one hand, cotransfection in human cell lines showed that TLR10 acts as an inhibitory receptor when forming heterodimers with TLR2; on the other hand, cross-linking experiments showed specific induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, 16 ± 1.7 ng/mL, mean ± SEM). After cross-linking anti-TLR10 antibody, no production of IL-1? and other proinflammatory cytokines could be found. Furthermore, individuals bearing TLR10 polymorphisms displayed an increased capacity to produce IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 upon ligation of TLR2, in a gene-dose-dependent manner. The modulatory effects of TLR10 are complex, involving at least several mechanisms: there is competition for ligands or for the formation of heterodimer receptors with TLR2, as well as PI3K/Akt-mediated induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1Ra. Finally, transgenic mice expressing human TLR10 produced fewer cytokines when challenged with a TLR2 agonist. In conclusion, to our knowledge we demonstrate for the first time that TLR10 is a modulatory pattern-recognition receptor with mainly inhibitory properties.
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Autophagy Controls BCG-Induced Trained Immunity and the Response to Intravesical BCG Therapy for Bladder Cancer.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The anti-tuberculosis-vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most widely used vaccine in the world. In addition to its effects against tuberculosis, BCG vaccination also induces non-specific beneficial effects against certain forms of malignancy and against infections with unrelated pathogens. It has been recently proposed that the non-specific effects of BCG are mediated through epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes, a process called trained immunity. In the present study we demonstrate that autophagy contributes to trained immunity induced by BCG. Pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy blocked trained immunity induced in vitro by stimuli such as ?-glucans or BCG. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the autophagy genes ATG2B (rs3759601) and ATG5 (rs2245214) influenced both the in vitro and in vivo training effect of BCG upon restimulation with unrelated bacterial or fungal stimuli. Furthermore, pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of autophagy blocked epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes at the level of H3K4 trimethylation. Finally, we demonstrate that rs3759601 in ATG2B correlates with progression and recurrence of bladder cancer after BCG intravesical instillation therapy. These findings identify a key role of autophagy for the nonspecific protective effects of BCG.
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Hyperferritinaemia in dengue virus infected patients is associated with immune activation and coagulation disturbances.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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During a dengue outbreak on the Caribbean island Aruba, highly elevated levels of ferritin were detected in dengue virus infected patients. Ferritin is an acute-phase reactant and hyperferritinaemia is a hallmark of diseases caused by extensive immune activation, such as haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hyperferritinaemia in dengue patients was associated with clinical markers of extensive immune activation and coagulation disturbances.
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Epigenetic programming of monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and trained innate immunity.
Science
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Monocyte differentiation into macrophages represents a cornerstone process for host defense. Concomitantly, immunological imprinting of either tolerance or trained immunity determines the functional fate of macrophages and susceptibility to secondary infections. We characterized the transcriptomes and epigenomes in four primary cell types: monocytes and in vitro-differentiated naïve, tolerized, and trained macrophages. Inflammatory and metabolic pathways were modulated in macrophages, including decreased inflammasome activation, and we identified pathways functionally implicated in trained immunity. ?-glucan training elicits an exclusive epigenetic signature, revealing a complex network of enhancers and promoters. Analysis of transcription factor motifs in deoxyribonuclease I hypersensitive sites at cell-type-specific epigenetic loci unveiled differentiation and treatment-specific repertoires. Altogether, we provide a resource to understand the epigenetic changes that underlie innate immunity in humans.
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mTOR- and HIF-1?-mediated aerobic glycolysis as metabolic basis for trained immunity.
Science
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Epigenetic reprogramming of myeloid cells, also known as trained immunity, confers nonspecific protection from secondary infections. Using histone modification profiles of human monocytes trained with the Candida albicans cell wall constituent ?-glucan, together with a genome-wide transcriptome, we identified the induced expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Trained monocytes display high glucose consumption, high lactate production, and a high ratio of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to its reduced form (NADH), reflecting a shift in metabolism with an increase in glycolysis dependent on the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) through a dectin-1-Akt-HIF-1? (hypoxia-inducible factor-1?) pathway. Inhibition of Akt, mTOR, or HIF-1? blocked monocyte induction of trained immunity, whereas the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator metformin inhibited the innate immune response to fungal infection. Mice with a myeloid cell-specific defect in HIF-1? were unable to mount trained immunity against bacterial sepsis. Our results indicate that induction of aerobic glycolysis through an Akt-mTOR-HIF-1? pathway represents the metabolic basis of trained immunity.
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Recognition of Coxiella burnetii by Toll-like Receptors and Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain-like Receptors.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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?Infection with Coxiella burnetii can lead to acute and chronic Q fever. Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1), TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptor 1 (NOD1), NOD2, and the mitogen-activated protein kinases are central in the innate immune response against microorganisms, but little is known about their role in the recognition of C. burnetii in humans.
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Deficiency of Interleukin-1 Receptor-associated Kinase 4 Presenting as Fatal Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteremia in Two Siblings.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency of innate immunity. This is the case of a previous healthy toddler and his sibling, who both died of fulminant sepsis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Subsequent genetic analysis demonstrated IRAK-4 deficiency with compound heterozygous splice mutations. Fulminant fatal Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis may be the first manifestation of IRAK-4 deficiency.
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Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau: A Randomized-controlled Trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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?Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia.
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Mucosal barrier injury, fever and infection in neutropenic patients with cancer: introducing the paradigm febrile mucositis.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Infection remains one of the most prominent complications after cytotoxic treatment for cancer. The connection between neutropenia and both infections and fever has long been designated as 'febrile neutropenia', but treatment with antimicrobial agents and haematopoietic growth factors has failed to significantly reduce its incidence. Moreover, emerging antimicrobial resistance is becoming a concern that necessitates the judicious use of available antimicrobial agents. In addition to neutropenia, patients who receive cytotoxic therapy experience mucosal barrier injury (MBI) or 'mucositis'. MBI creates a port-de-entrée for resident micro-organisms to cause blood stream infections and contributes directly to the occurrence of fever by disrupting the highly regulated host-microbe interactions, which, even in the absence of an infection, can result in strong inflammatory reactions. Indeed, MBI has been shown to be a pivotal factor in the occurrence of inflammatory complications after cytotoxic therapy. Hence, the concept 'febrile neutropenia' alone may no longer suffice and a new concept 'febrile mucositis' should be recognized as the two are at least complementary. This review we summarizes the existing evidence for both paradigms and proposes new therapeutic approaches to tackle the perturbed host-microbe interactions arising from cytotoxic therapy-induced tissue damage in order to reduce fever in neutropenic patients with cancer.
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IL-37 protects against obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Cytokines of the IL-1 family are important modulators of obesity-induced inflammation and the development of systemic insulin resistance. Here we show that IL-1 family member IL-37, recently characterized as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, ameliorates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Mice transgenic for human IL-37 (IL-37tg) exhibit reduced numbers of adipose tissue macrophages, increased circulating levels of adiponectin and preserved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after 16 weeks of HFD. In vitro treatment of adipocytes with recombinant IL-37 reduces adipogenesis and activates AMPK signalling. In humans, elevated steady-state IL-37 adipose tissue mRNA levels are positively correlated with insulin sensitivity and a lower inflammatory status of the adipose tissue. These findings reveal IL-37 as an important anti-inflammatory modulator during obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in both mice and humans, and suggest that IL-37 is a potential target for the treatment of obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
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Multivariate inference of pathway activity in host immunity and response to therapeutics.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Developing a quantitative view of how biological pathways are regulated in response to environmental factors is central for understanding of disease phenotypes. We present a computational framework, named Multivariate Inference of Pathway Activity (MIPA), which quantifies degree of activity induced in a biological pathway by computing five distinct measures from transcriptomic profiles of its member genes. Statistical significance of inferred activity is examined using multiple independent self-contained tests followed by a competitive analysis. The method incorporates a new algorithm to identify a subset of genes that may regulate the extent of activity induced in a pathway. We present an in-depth evaluation of specificity, robustness, and reproducibility of our method. We benchmarked MIPA's false positive rate at less than 1%. Using transcriptomic profiles representing distinct physiological and disease states, we illustrate applicability of our method in (i) identifying gene-gene interactions in autophagy-dependent response to Salmonella infection, (ii) uncovering gene-environment interactions in host response to bacterial and viral pathogens and (iii) identifying driver genes and processes that contribute to wound healing and response to anti-TNF? therapy. We provide relevant experimental validation that corroborates the accuracy and advantage of our method.
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Black yeasts and their filamentous relatives: principles of pathogenesis and host defense.
Clin. Microbiol. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Among the melanized fungi, the so-called "black yeasts" and their filamentous relatives are particularly significant as agents of severe phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and mycetoma in humans and animals. The pathogenicity and virulence of these fungi may differ significantly between closely related species. The factors which probably are of significance for pathogenicity include the presence of melanin and carotene, formation of thick cell walls and meristematic growth, presence of yeast-like phases, thermo- and perhaps also osmotolerance, adhesion, hydrophobicity, assimilation of aromatic hydrocarbons, and production of siderophores. Host defense has been shown to rely mainly on the ingestion and elimination of fungal cells by cells of the innate immune system, especially neutrophils and macrophages. However, there is increasing evidence supporting a role of T-cell-mediated immune responses, with increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) and low levels of gamma interferon (IFN-?) being deleterious during the infection. There are no standardized therapies for treatment. It is therefore important to obtain in vitro susceptibilities of individual patients' fungal isolates in order to provide useful information for selection of appropriate treatment protocols. This article discusses the pathogenesis and host defense factors for these fungi and their severity, chronicity, and subsequent impact on treatment and prevention of diseases in human or animal hosts.
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Innate immunity networks during infection with Borrelia burgdorferi.
Crit. Rev. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Abstract The recognition of Borrelia species represents a complex process in which multiple components of the immune system are involved. In this review, we summarize the interplay between the host innate system and Borrelia spp., from the recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to the induction of a complex network of proinflammatory mediators. Several PRR families are crucial for recognition of Borrelia spp., including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs). TLR-2 is crucial for the recognition of outer surface protein (Osp)A from Borrelia spp. and together with TLR8 mediates phagocytosis of the microorganism and production of type I interferons. Intracellular receptors such as TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 on the one hand and the NLR receptor NOD2 on the other hand, represent the second major recognition system of Borrelia. PRR-dependent signals induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 and T-helper-derived cytokines, which are thought to mediate the inflammation during Lyme disease. Understanding the regulation of host defense mechanisms against Borrelia has the potential to lead to the discovery of novel immunotherapeutic targets to improve the therapy against Lyme disease.
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Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces long-term proinflammatory cytokine production and foam cell formation via epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Although the role of monocytes in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is well established, the persistent vascular inflammation remains largely unexplained. Recently, our group reported that stimulation of monocytes with various microbial products can induce a long-lasting proinflammatory phenotype via epigenetic reprogramming, a process termed trained immunity. We now hypothesize that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) also induces a long-lasting proinflammatory phenotype in monocytes, which accelerates atherosclerosis by proinflammatory cytokine production and foam cell formation.
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Mendelian genetics of human susceptibility to fungal infection.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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A recent surge in newly described inborn errors of immune function-related genes that result in susceptibility to fungal disease has greatly enhanced our understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of antifungal immune responses. Characterization of single-gene defects that predispose to various combinations of superficial and deep-seated infections caused by yeasts, molds, and dimorphic fungi has unmasked the critical role of novel molecules and signaling pathways in mucosal and systemic antifungal host defense. These experiments of nature offer a unique opportunity for developing new knowledge in immunological research and form the foundation for devising immune-based therapeutic approaches for patients infected with fungal pathogens.
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Cytokine production assays reveal discriminatory immune defects in adults with recurrent infections and noninfectious inflammation.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Cytokine production assays have been primarily used in research settings studying novel immunodeficiencies. We sought to determine the diagnostic value of cytokine production assays in patients with recurrent and/or severe infectious diseases (IDs) without known immunodeficiencies and unclassified noninfectious inflammatory disorders (NIIDs). We retrospectively examined cytokine production in whole-blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from 157 adult patients. A cytokine production rate of <5% of that of healthy controls was considered defective. While monocyte-derived cytokine (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?], interleukin-1? [IL-1?], and IL-6) production was rarely affected, 30% of all included patients had deficient production of interferon gamma (IFN-?), IL-17A, or IL-22. Twenty-five percent of the NIID patients displayed defective IFN-? production, whereas IL-17A production was generally unaffected. In the group of ID patients, defective IFN-? production was found in 19% and 14% of the patients with viral and bacterial infections, respectively, and in 38%, 24%, and 50% of patients with mycobacterial, mucocutaneous, and invasive fungal infections, respectively. Defective IL-17A and IL-22 production was mainly confined to ID patients with mucocutaneous fungal infections. In conclusion, cytokine production assays frequently detect defective Th1 responses in patients with mycobacterial or fungal infections, in contrast to patients with respiratory tract infections or isolated bacterial infections. Defective IL-17A and IL-22 production was primarily found in patients with fungal infections, while monocyte-derived cytokine production was unaffected. Thus, lymphocyte-derived cytokine production assays are helpful in the diagnostic workup of patients with recurrent infections and suspected immunodeficiencies and have the potential to reveal immune defects that might guide adjunctive immunomodulatory therapy.
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The interplay between central metabolism and innate immune responses.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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A growing body of recent studies bring into light an important cross-talk between immune response and metabolism not only at the level of the organism as a whole, but also at the level of the individual cells. Cellular bioenergetics functions not only as a power plant to fuel up the cells, but the intermediate metabolites are shown to play an important role to modulate cellular responses. It is especially the pathways through which a cell metabolizes glucose that have been recently shown to influence both innate and adaptive immune responses, with oxidative phosphorylation used by resting or tolerant cells, while aerobic glycolysis (also termed 'Warburg effect') fueling activated cells. In this review we will address how the center metabolism shifts upon activation in the innate immune cells and how the intermediate metabolites modulate the function of immune cells.
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Metabolism impacts upon Candida immunogenicity and pathogenicity at multiple levels.
Trends Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Metabolism is integral to the pathogenicity of Candida albicans, a major fungal pathogen of humans. As well as providing the platform for nutrient assimilation and growth in diverse host niches, metabolic adaptation affects the susceptibility of C. albicans to host-imposed stresses and antifungal drugs, the expression of key virulence factors, and fungal vulnerability to innate immune defences. These effects, which are driven by complex regulatory networks linking metabolism, morphogenesis, stress adaptation, and cell wall remodelling, influence commensalism and infection. Therefore, current concepts of Candida-host interactions must be extended to include the impact of metabolic adaptation upon pathogenicity and immunogenicity.
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The Carpathian range represents a weak genetic barrier in South-East Europe.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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In the present study we have assessed whether the Carpathian Mountains represent a genetic barrier in East Europe. Therefore, we have analyzed the mtDNA of 128 native individuals of Romania: 62 of them from the North of Romania, and 66 from South Romania.
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Pattern recognition pathways leading to a Th2 cytokine bias in ABPA patients.
Clin. Exp. Allergy
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is characterized by an exaggerated Th2 response to Aspergillus fumigatus, but the immunological pathways responsible for this effect are unknown.
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Early clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a new frontier in prevention.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Early clearance (EC) is the successful eradication of inhaled Mycobacterium tuberculosis before an adaptive immune response develops. Evidence for EC comes from case contact studies that consistently show that a proportion of heavily exposed individuals do not develop M. tuberculosis infection. Further support for the existence of this phenotype comes from genetic loci associated with tuberculin reactivity. In this review we discuss aspects of the innate response that may underpin EC and hypotheses that can be tested through field laboratory link studies in M. tuberculosis case contacts. Specifically, we consider mechanisms whereby alveolar macrophages recognize and kill intracellular M. tuberculosis, and how other cell types, such as neutrophils, natural killer T cells, mucosa-associated invariant T cells and cd T cells may assist. How EC may be impaired by HIV infection or vitamin D deficiency is also explored. As EC is a form of protective immunity, further study may advance the development of vaccines and immunotherapies to prevent M. tuberculosis infection.
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Role of autophagy genetic variants for the risk of Candida infections.
Med. Mycol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Candida albicans can cause candidemia in neutropenic and critically ill patients and oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with low CD4(+) counts. Because all patients at risk do not develop Candida infections, it is possible that a patient's genetic background might play a role in his or her susceptibility to infection. Autophagy mediates pathogen clearance and modulation of inflammation. Our aim was to assess the effect of genetic variations in the ATG16L1 and IRGM autophagy genes on the susceptibility of patients with candidemia and oropharyngeal candidiasis. We assessed genetic variations in the ATG16L1 and IRGM genes in a cohort of candidemia patients of both African and European origin. In addition, we evaluated the effect of these polymorphisms on the susceptibility to oropharyngeal candidiasis of an HIV-positive cohort from Tanzania. Functional studies have been performed to assess the effect of the ATG16L1 and IRGM genetic variants on both in vitro and in vivo cytokine production. The results indicate that ATG16L1 variants modulate production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but not other cytokines, while no effects were seen in the presence of IRGM polymorphisms. In addition, no significant associations between the single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the ATG16L1 and IRGM genetic variants and the incidence of candidemia or oropharyngeal candidiasis were identified. Despite moderate effects on the modulation of proinflammatory cytokine production, genetic variation in the autophagy genes ATG16L1 and IRGM has a minor impact on the susceptibility to both mucosal and systemic Candida infections.
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mTOR Inhibition promotes TTF1-dependent redifferentiation and restores iodine uptake in thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Redifferentiation of thyroid carcinoma cells has the potential to increase the efficacy of radioactive iodine therapy in treatment-refractory, nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (TC), leading to an improved disease outcome. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of cell fate affecting survival and differentiation, with autophagy and inflammation as prominent downstream pathways.
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Fungal chitin dampens inflammation through IL-10 induction mediated by NOD2 and TLR9 activation.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Chitin is an essential structural polysaccharide of fungal pathogens and parasites, but its role in human immune responses remains largely unknown. It is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose and its derivatives today are widely used for medical and industrial purposes. We analysed the immunological properties of purified chitin particles derived from the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which led to the selective secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. We identified NOD2, TLR9 and the mannose receptor as essential fungal chitin-recognition receptors for the induction of this response. Chitin reduced LPS-induced inflammation in vivo and may therefore contribute to the resolution of the immune response once the pathogen has been defeated. Fungal chitin also induced eosinophilia in vivo, underpinning its ability to induce asthma. Polymorphisms in the identified chitin receptors, NOD2 and TLR9, predispose individuals to inflammatory conditions and dysregulated expression of chitinases and chitinase-like binding proteins, whose activity is essential to generate IL-10-inducing fungal chitin particles in vitro, have also been linked to inflammatory conditions and asthma. Chitin recognition is therefore critical for immune homeostasis and is likely to have a significant role in infectious and allergic disease.
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Interferon-gamma as adjunctive immunotherapy for invasive fungal infections: a case series.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Invasive fungal infections are very severe infections associated with high mortality rates, despite the availability of new classes of antifungal agents. Based on pathophysiological mechanisms and limited pre-clinical and clinical data, adjunctive immune-stimulatory therapy with interferon-gamma (IFN-?) may represent a promising candidate to improve outcome of invasive fungal infections by enhancing host defence mechanisms.
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Differential role of NK cells against Candida albicans infection in immunocompetent or immunocompromised mice.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Little is known regarding the role of NK cells during primary and secondary disseminated Candida albicans infection. We assessed the role of NK cells for host defense against candidiasis in immunocompetent, as well as immunodeficient, hosts. Surprisingly, depletion of NK cells in immunocompetent WT mice did not increase susceptibility to systemic candidiasis, suggesting that NK cells are redundant for antifungal defense in otherwise immunocompetent hosts. NK-cell-depleted mice were found to be protected as a consequence of attenuation of systemic inflammation. In contrast, the absence of NK cells in T/B/NK-cell-deficient NSG (NOD SCID gamma) mice led to an increased susceptibility to both primary and secondary systemic C. albicans infections compared with T/B-cell-deficient SCID mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that NK cells are an essential and nonredundant component of anti-C. albicans host defense in immunosuppressed hosts with defective T/B-lymphocyte immunity, while contributing to hyperinflammation in immunocompetent hosts. The discovery of the importance of NK cells in hosts with severe defects of adaptive immunity might have important consequences for the design of adjunctive immunotherapeutic approaches in systemic C. albicans infections targeting NK-cell function.
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Immunogenicity of the Q fever skin test.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The Q fever skin test is used to measure cell-mediated immunity to Coxiella burnetii in pre-vaccination screening to exclude individuals with pre-existing immunity. We investigated whether this in-vivo test influences subsequent measurements of immune response.
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A polysaccharide virulence factor from Aspergillus fumigatus elicits anti-inflammatory effects through induction of Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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The galactosaminogalactan (GAG) is a cell wall component of Aspergillus fumigatus that has potent anti-inflammatory effects in mice. However, the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of GAG remain to be elucidated. In the present study we used in vitro PBMC stimulation assays to demonstrate, that GAG inhibits proinflammatory T-helper (Th)1 and Th17 cytokine production in human PBMCs by inducing Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine that blocks IL-1 signalling. GAG cannot suppress human T-helper cytokine production in the presence of neutralizing antibodies against IL-1Ra. In a mouse model of invasive aspergillosis, GAG induces IL-1Ra in vivo, and the increased susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis in the presence of GAG in wild type mice is not observed in mice deficient for IL-1Ra. Additionally, we demonstrate that the capacity of GAG to induce IL-1Ra could also be used for treatment of inflammatory diseases, as GAG was able to reduce severity of an experimental model of allergic aspergillosis, and in a murine DSS-induced colitis model. In the setting of invasive aspergillosis, GAG has a significant immunomodulatory function by inducing IL-1Ra and notably IL-1Ra knockout mice are completely protected to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. This opens new treatment strategies that target IL-1Ra in the setting of acute invasive fungal infection. However, the observation that GAG can also protect mice from allergy and colitis makes GAG or a derivative structure of GAG a potential treatment compound for IL-1 driven inflammatory diseases.
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The bacteriome-mycobiome interaction and antifungal host defense.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Large communities of microorganisms, collectively termed the microbiome, inhabit our body surfaces. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the diversity and abundance of these communities are being unravelled. Besides an imporant role in metabolic processes, the microbiome is essential for proper functioning of our immune system, including the defense against fungi. Despite the progress of the past years, studies aimed at characterizing our fungal colonizers (the mycobiome) are limited; nevertheless fungi are important players of the microbiome, either as a cofactor in disease or as potential pathogens. In this review, we describe the role of the bacterial microbiome in antifungal host defense. On the one hand, bacteria provide colonization resistance to fungi, inhibit Candida virulence by preventing yeast-hyphal transition and contribute to epithelial integrity, all factors are important for the pathogenesis of invasive fungal disease. On the other hand, several bacterial species modulate mucosal (antifungal) immune responses. Murine studies demonstrate important effects of the microbiome on the antifungal responses of T-helper 17 cells, regulatory T cells and innate lymphoid cells. Inferred from these studies, perturbation of the healthy microbiome should be avoided and microbiome manipulation and interventions based on bacteria-derived pathways involved in immunomodulation are attractive options for modulating antifungal host defense.
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PPAR-alpha dependent regulation of vanin-1 mediates hepatic lipid metabolism.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) is a key regulator of hepatic fat oxidation that serves as an energy source during starvation. Vanin-1 has been described as a putative PPAR? target gene in liver, but its function in hepatic lipid metabolism is unknown.
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IL-1 receptor blockade restores autophagy and reduces inflammation in chronic granulomatous disease in mice and in humans.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have a mutated NADPH complex resulting in defective production of reactive oxygen species; these patients can develop severe colitis and are highly susceptible to invasive fungal infection. In NADPH oxidase-deficient mice, autophagy is defective but inflammasome activation is present despite lack of reactive oxygen species production. However, whether these processes are mutually regulated in CGD and whether defective autophagy is clinically relevant in patients with CGD is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that macrophages from CGD mice and blood monocytes from CGD patients display minimal recruitment of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) to phagosomes. This defect in autophagy results in increased IL-1? release. Blocking IL-1 with the receptor antagonist (anakinra) decreases neutrophil recruitment and T helper 17 responses and protects CGD mice from colitis and also from invasive aspergillosis. In addition to decreased inflammasome activation, anakinra restored autophagy in CGD mice in vivo, with increased Aspergillus-induced LC3 recruitment and increased expression of autophagy genes. Anakinra also increased Aspergillus-induced LC3 recruitment from 23% to 51% (P < 0.01) in vitro in monocytes from CGD patients. The clinical relevance of these findings was assessed by treating CGD patients who had severe colitis with IL-1 receptor blockade using anakinra. Anakinra treatment resulted in a rapid and sustained improvement in colitis. Thus, inflammation in CGD is due to IL-1-dependent mechanisms, such as decreased autophagy and increased inflammasome activation, which are linked pathological conditions in CGD that can be restored by IL-1 receptor blockade.
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The discriminative capacity of soluble Toll-like receptor (sTLR)2 and sTLR4 in inflammatory diseases.
BMC Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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BackgroundThe extracellular domains of cytokine receptors are released during inflammation, but little is known about the shedding of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and whether they can be used as diagnostic biomarkers.MethodsThe release of sTLR2 and sTLR4 was studied in in-vitro stimulations, as well as in-vivo during experimental human endotoxemia (n¿=¿11, 2 ng/kg LPS), and in plasma of 394 patients with infections (infectious mononucleosis, measles, respiratory tract infections, bacterial sepsis and candidemia) or non-infectious inflammation (Crohn¿s disease, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, autoinflammatory syndromes and pancreatitis). Using C-statistics, the value of sTLR2 and sTLR4 levels for discrimination between infections and non-infectious inflammatory diseases, as well as between viral and bacterial infections was analyzed.ResultsIn-vitro, peripheral blood mononuclear cells released sTLR2 and sTLR4 by exposure to microbial ligands. During experimental human endotoxemia, plasma concentrations peaked after 2 hours (sTLR4) and 4 hours (sTLR2). sTLR4 did not correlate with cytokines, but sTLR2 correlated positively with TNF¿ (rs¿=¿0.80, P¿<¿0.05), IL-6 (rs¿=¿0.65, P¿<¿0.05), and IL-1Ra (rs¿=¿0.57, P¿=¿0.06), and negatively with IL-10 (rs¿=¿-0.58, P¿=¿0.06), respectively. sTLR4 had a similar area under the ROC curve [AUC] for differentiating infectious and non-infectious inflammation compared to CRP: 0.72 (95% CI 0.66-0.79) versus 0.74 (95% CI 0.69-0.80) [P¿=¿0.80], while sTLR2 had a lower AUC: 0.60 (95% CI 0.54-0.66) [P¿=¿0.0004]. CRP differentiated bacterial infections better from viral infections than sTLR2 and sTLR4: AUC 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.96) versus 0.58 (95% CI 0.51-0.64) and 0.75 (95% CI 0.70-0.80), respectively [P¿<¿0.0001 for both].ConclusionssTLRs are released into the circulation, and suggest the possibility to use sTLRs as diagnostic tool in inflammatory conditions.
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Innate immune memory: towards a better understanding of host defense mechanisms.
Curr. Opin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Innate immunity is classically defined as unable to build up immunological memory. Recently however, the assumption of the lack of immunological memory within innate immune responses has been reconsidered. Plants and invertebrates lacking adaptive immune system can be protected against secondary infections. It has been shown that mammals can build cross-protection to secondary infections independently of T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that innate immune cells such as NK cells and monocytes can display adaptive characteristics, a novel concept for which the term trained immunity has been proposed. Several mechanisms are involved in mediating innate immune memory, among which epigenetic histone modifications and modulation of recognition receptors on the surface of innate immune cells are likely to play a central role.
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Convergent evolution in European and Rroma populations reveals pressure exerted by plague on Toll-like receptors.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Recent historical periods in Europe have been characterized by severe epidemic events such as plague, smallpox, or influenza that shaped the immune system of modern populations. This study aims to identify signals of convergent evolution of the immune system, based on the peculiar demographic history in which two populations with different genetic ancestry, Europeans and Rroma (Gypsies), have lived in the same geographic area and have been exposed to similar environments, including infections, during the last millennium. We identified several genes under evolutionary pressure in European/Romanian and Rroma/Gipsy populations, but not in a Northwest Indian population, the geographic origin of the Rroma. Genes in the immune system were highly represented among those under strong evolutionary pressures in Europeans, and infections are likely to have played an important role. For example, Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1)/TLR6/TLR10 gene cluster showed a strong signal of adaptive selection. Their gene products are functional receptors for Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, as shown by overexpression studies showing induction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-1?, and IL-6 as one possible infection that may have exerted evolutionary pressures. Immunogenetic analysis showed that TLR1, TLR6, and TLR10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms modulate Y. pestis-induced cytokine responses. Other infections may also have played an important role. Thus, reconstruction of evolutionary history of European populations has identified several immune pathways, among them TLR1/TLR6/TLR10, as being shaped by convergent evolution in two human populations with different origins under the same infectious environment.
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Immunochip SNP array identifies novel genetic variants conferring susceptibility to candidaemia.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Candidaemia is the fourth most common cause of bloodstream infection, with a high mortality rate of up to 40%. Identification of host genetic factors that confer susceptibility to candidaemia may aid in designing adjunctive immunotherapeutic strategies. Here we hypothesize that variation in immune genes may predispose to candidaemia. We analyse 118,989 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 186 loci known to be associated with immune-mediated diseases in the largest candidaemia cohort to date of 217 patients of European ancestry and a group of 11,920 controls. We validate the significant associations by comparison with a disease-matched control group. We observe significant association between candidaemia and SNPs in the CD58 (P = 1.97 × 10(-11); odds ratio (OR) = 4.68), LCE4A-C1orf68 (P = 1.98 × 10(-10); OR = 4.25) and TAGAP (P = 1.84 × 10(-8); OR = 2.96) loci. Individuals carrying two or more risk alleles have an increased risk for candidaemia of 19.4-fold compared with individuals carrying no risk allele. We identify three novel genetic risk factors for candidaemia, which we subsequently validate for their role in antifungal host defence.
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Gene polymorphisms in pattern recognition receptors and susceptibility to idiopathic recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Approximately 5% of women suffer from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). It has been hypothesized that genetic factors play an important role in the susceptibility to RVVC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of genetic variants of genes encoding for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on susceptibility to RVVC.
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The effects of orally administered Beta-glucan on innate immune responses in humans, a randomized open-label intervention pilot-study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To prevent or combat infection, increasing the effectiveness of the immune response is highly desirable, especially in case of compromised immune system function. However, immunostimulatory therapies are scarce, expensive, and often have unwanted side-effects. ?-glucans have been shown to exert immunostimulatory effects in vitro and in vivo in experimental animal models. Oral ?-glucan is inexpensive and well-tolerated, and therefore may represent a promising immunostimulatory compound for human use.
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Role of genetic variants of autophagy genes in susceptibility for non-medullary thyroid cancer and patients outcome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Autophagy is a central process in regulation of cell survival, cell death and proliferation and plays an important role in carcinogenesis, including thyroid carcinoma. Genetic variation in autophagy components has been demonstrated to influence the capacity to execute autophagy and is associated with disease susceptibility, progression and outcome. In the present study, we assessed whether genetic variation in autophagy genes contributes to susceptibility to develop thyroid carcinoma, disease progression and/or patient outcome. The results indicate that patients carrying the ATG5 single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2245214 have a higher probability to develop thyroid carcinoma (OR 1.85 (95% CI 1.04-3.23), P?=?0.042). In contrast, no significant differences could be observed for the other genetic variants studied in terms of thyroid carcinoma susceptibility. Furthermore, none of the selected genetic variants were associated with clinical parameters of disease progression and outcome. In conclusion, genetic variation in ATG5, a central player in the autophagy process, is found to be associated with increased susceptibility for thyroid carcinoma, indicating a role for autophagy in thyroid carcinogenesis.
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Voriconazole or amphotericin B as primary therapy yields distinct early serum galactomannan trends related to outcomes in invasive aspergillosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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An improved number of anti-fungal drugs are currently available for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA). While serial galactomannan index (GMI) measurement can be used to monitor response to treatment, the extent to which different anti-fungal regimens can affect galactomannan levels is unknown. In 147 IA patients receiving either voriconazole (VCZ) or conventional amphotericin B (CAB) in a multicentre clinical trial, we performed post-hoc analyses of GMI trends in relation to outcomes. The generalized estimation equations approach was used to estimate changes in the effect size for GMI over time within patients. Patients who received VCZ primary therapy and had good treatment response 12 weeks later showed earlier decreases in GMI values at Week 1 and Week 2 (p = 0.001 and 0.046 respectively) as compared to patients who only received CAB. At end-of-randomized therapy (EORT), which was a pre-set secondary assessment point for all patients who switched from randomized primary (CAB or VCZ) to an alternative anti-fungal drug, treatment failure was associated with increasing GMI at Weeks 1 and 2 in CAB-primary treated patients (p = 0.022 and 0.046 respectively). These distinct trends highlight the variations in GMI kinetics with the use of different anti-fungal drugs and their implications in relation to IA treatment response.
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MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) affects obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation without systemic effects in humans and in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue often accompanies obesity, leading to insulin resistance and increasing the risk for metabolic diseases. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) is an important signal transductor and activator of pro-inflammatory pathways that has been linked to obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. We used human adipose tissue biopsies to study the relationship of MAP3K8 expression with markers of obesity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8). Moreover, we evaluated obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in mice lacking MAP3K8 and WT mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Individuals with a BMI >30 displayed a higher mRNA expression of MAP3K8 in adipose tissue compared to individuals with a normal BMI. Additionally, high mRNA expression levels of IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8, but not TNF -?, in human adipose tissue were associated with higher expression of MAP3K8. Moreover, high plasma SAA and CRP did not associate with increased MAP3K8 expression in adipose tissue. Similarly, no association was found for MAP3K8 expression with plasma insulin or glucose levels. Mice lacking MAP3K8 had similar bodyweight gain as WT mice, yet displayed lower mRNA expression levels of IL-1?, IL-6 and CXCL1 in adipose tissue in response to the HFD as compared to WT animals. However, MAP3K8 deficient mice were not protected against HFD-induced adipose tissue macrophage infiltration or the development of insulin resistance. Together, the data in both human and mouse show that MAP3K8 is involved in local adipose tissue inflammation, specifically for IL-1? and its responsive cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, but does not seem to have systemic effects on insulin resistance.
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Novel structural features in Candida albicans hyphal glucan provide a basis for differential innate immune recognition of hyphae versus yeast.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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The innate immune system differentially recognizes Candida albicans yeast and hyphae. It is not clear how the innate immune system effectively discriminates between yeast and hyphal forms of C. albicans. Glucans are major components of the fungal cell wall and key fungal pathogen-associated molecular patterns. C. albicans yeast glucan has been characterized; however, little is known about glucan structure in C. albicans hyphae. Using an extraction procedure which minimizes degradation of the native structure, we extracted glucans from C. albicans hyphal cell walls. 1H-NMR data analysis revealed that, when compared to reference (1-3,1-6) beta-linked glucans and C. albicans yeast glucan, hyphal glucan has a unique cyclical or closed chain structure which is not found in yeast glucan. GC/MS analyses showed high abundance of 3- and 6-linked glucose units when compared to yeast beta-glucan. In addition, to the expected (1-3), (1-6) and 3,6 linkages, we also identified a 2,3 linkage which has not been reported previously in C. albicans. Hyphal glucan induced robust immune responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages via a Dectin-1-dependent mechanism. In contrast, C. albicans yeast glucan was a much less potent stimulus. We also demonstrated the capacity of C. albicans hyphal glucan, but not yeast glucan, to induce IL-1beta processing and secretion. This finding provides important evidence for understanding the immune discrimination between colonization and invasion at the mucosal level. When taken together, these data provide a structural basis for differential innate immune recognition of C. albicans yeast versus hyphae.
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The role of Dectin-2 for host defense against systemic infection with Candida glabrata.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Although Candida glabrata is an important pathogenic Candida species, relatively little is known about its innate immune recognition. Here we explore the potential role of Dectin-2 for host defense against C. glabrata. Dectin-2-deficient (Dectin-2(-/-)) mice were found to be more susceptible to C. glabrata infections, showing a defective fungal clearance in kidneys, but not in the liver. The increased susceptibility to infection was accompanied by lower production of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17-derived cytokines by splenocytes of Dectin-2(-/-) mice, while macrophage-derived cytokines were less affected. These defects were associated with a moderate, yet significant, decreased phagocytosis of the fungus by the Dectin-2(-/-) macrophages and neutrophils. Neutrophils of Dectin-2(-/-) mice also displayed a lower production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon challenge with opsonized C. glabrata or C. albicans. This study suggests that Dectin-2 is important in host defense against C. glabrata and provides new insights in the host defense mechanisms against this important fungal pathogen.
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Interleukin-1? in innate inflammation, autophagy and immunity.
Semin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Although IL-1? is the master inflammatory cytokine in the IL-1 family, after more than ten years of continuous breeding, mice deficient in IL-1? exhibit no spontaneous disease. Therefore, one concludes that IL-1? is not needed for homeostasis. However, IL-1?-deficient mice are protected against local and systemic inflammation due to live infections, autoimmune processes, tumor metastasis and even chemical carcinogenesis. Based on a large number of preclinical studies, blocking IL-1? activity in humans with a broad spectrum of inflammatory conditions has reduced disease severity and for many, has lifted the burden of disease. Rare and common diseases are controlled by blocking IL-1?. Immunologically, IL-1? is a natural adjuvant for responses to antigen. Alone, IL-1? is not a growth factor for lymphocytes; rather in antigen activated immunocompetent cells, blocking IL-1 reduces IL-17 production. IL-1? markedly increases in the expansion of naive and memory CD4T cells in response to challenge with their cognate antigen. The response occurs when only specific CD4T cells respond to IL-1? and not to IL-6 or CD-28. A role for autophagy in production of IL-1? has emerged with deletion of the autophagy gene ATG16L1. Macrophages from ATG16L1-deficient mice produce higher levels of IL-1? after stimulation with TLR4 ligands via a mechanism of caspase-1 activation. The implications for increased IL-1? release in persons with defective autophagy may have clinical importance for disease.
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Trained innate immunity and atherosclerosis.
Curr. Opin. Lipidol.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Monocytes/macrophages play a decisive role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It is currently unknown what stimuli initiate and orchestrate the activation of these cells in atherogenesis. In this review, we postulate that the novel concept of trained immunity modulates the development and progression of atherosclerosis.
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Toward identification of the genetic risk profile for cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected patients.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Cryptococcus spp. are important fungal pathogens that represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient patients. Although cryptococcal disease is one of the major causes of death in HIV-infected patients, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, not all patients at risk with low CD4 counts develop the disease. It has been thus hypothesized that host genetic variation may represent an important susceptibility risk factor for this infection. In their recent study in mBio, Rohatgi et al. [S. Rohatgi et al., mBio 4(5):e00573-13, 2013, doi:10.1128/mBio.00573-13] present an important piece of evidence to support this hypothesis, by demonstrating that the FCGR3A 158 F/V polymorphism has an important impact on susceptibility to cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected patients. The authors present both genetic evidence and immunological validation for the hypothesis that humoral immunity in general and FCGR3A-mediated uptake and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in particular play important roles in the pathogenesis of Cryptococcus infection. Their discovery that the 158V allele of this polymorphism can increase the risk of Cryptococcus infections up to 20-fold in homozygous individuals opens the possibility for risk stratification and personalized treatment of HIV-infected patients.
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TLR2 & Co: a critical analysis of the complex interactions between TLR2 and coreceptors.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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TLRs play a major role in microbe-host interactions and innate immunity. Of the 10 functional TLRs described in humans, TLR2 is unique in its requirement to form heterodimers with TLR1 or TLR6 for the initiation of signaling and cellular activation. The ligand specificity of TLR2 heterodimers has been studied extensively, using specific bacterial and synthetic lipoproteins to gain insight into the structure-function relationship, the minimal active motifs, and the critical dependence on TLR1 or TLR6 for activation. Different from that for specific well-defined TLR2 agonists, recognition of more complex ligands like intact microbes or molecules from endogenous origin requires TLR2 to interact with additional coreceptors. A breadth of data has been published on ligand-induced interactions of TLR2 with additional pattern recognition receptors such as CD14, scavenger receptors, integrins, and a range of other receptors, all of them important factors in TLR2 function. This review summarizes the roles of TLR2 in vivo and in specific immune cell types and integrates this information with a detailed review of our current understanding of the roles of specific coreceptors and ligands in regulating TLR2 functions. Understanding how these processes affect intracellular signaling and drive functional immune responses will lead to a better understanding of host-microbe interactions and will aid in the design of new agents to target TLR2 function in health and disease.
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Low induction of proinflammatory cytokines parallels evolutionary success of modern strains within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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One of the most widespread clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis worldwide, the Beijing genotype family, consists of ancient (atypical) and modern (typical) strains. Modern Beijing strains outcompete ancient strains in terms of prevalence, while reserving a higher degree of genetic conservation. We hypothesize that their selective advantage lies in eliciting a different host immune response. Bead-disrupted lysates of a collection of different M. tuberculosis strains of the modern (n = 7) or ancient (n = 7) Beijing genotype, as well as the Euro-American lineage (n = 6), were used for induction of ex vivo cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 healthy individuals. Hierarchical clustering and multivariate regression analyses were used to study possible differences in production of nine cytokines. Modern and ancient M. tuberculosis Beijing genotypes induced different cytokine signatures. Overall induction of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), gamma interferon (IFN-?), and IL-22 was 38 to 40% lower after stimulation with modern Beijing strains (corrected P values of <0.0001, 0.0288, and 0.0002, respectively). Euro-American reactivation strains induced 2-fold more TNF-? production than both types of Beijing strains. The observed differences in cytokine induction point to a reduction in proinflammatory cytokine response as a possible contributing factor to the evolutionary success of modern Beijing strains.
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Assessment of inflammasome activation in primary human immune cells.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Inflammasomes are central regulators of inflammation, responsible for cleavage of the inactive pro--inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18 into their biologically active counterparts. Several regulatory stages within the pathways responsible for the production of these cytokines have been identified. In this chapter, methods are described for assessing the degree of activity of these regulatory stages, which include mRNA transcription, caspase-1 activation, and secretion of the bioactive proteins.
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Limited humoral and cellular responses to Q fever vaccination in older adults with risk factors for chronic Q fever.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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In the Netherlands, people at risk for chronic Q fever were vaccinated against Coxiella burnetii with the inactivated whole cell vaccine Q-vax®. We aimed to measure the immune responses to C. burnetii six and twelve months after vaccination in this relevant population.
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Corticosteroids block autophagy protein recruitment in Aspergillus fumigatus phagosomes via targeting dectin-1/Syk kinase signaling.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Aspergillus fumigatus is the predominant airborne fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Genetic defects in NADPH oxidase (chronic granulomatous disease [CGD]) and corticosteroid-induced immunosupression lead to impaired killing of A. fumigatus and unique susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis via incompletely characterized mechanisms. Recent studies link TLR activation with phagosome maturation via the engagement of autophagy proteins. In this study, we found that infection of human monocytes with A. fumigatus spores triggered selective recruitment of the autophagy protein LC3 II in phagosomes upon fungal cell wall swelling. This response was induced by surface exposure of immunostimulatory ?-glucans and was mediated by activation of the Dectin-1 receptor. LC3 II recruitment in A. fumigatus phagosomes required spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) kinase-dependent production of reactive oxygen species and was nearly absent in monocytes of patients with CGD. This pathway was important for control of intracellular fungal growth, as silencing of Atg5 resulted in impaired phagosome maturation and killing of A. fumigatus. In vivo and ex vivo administration of corticosteroids blocked LC3 II recruitment in A. fumigatus phagosomes via rapid inhibition of phosphorylation of Src and Syk kinases and downstream production of reactive oxygen species. Our studies link Dectin-1/Syk kinase signaling with autophagy-dependent maturation of A. fumigatus phagosomes and uncover a potential mechanism for development of invasive aspergillosis in the setting of CGD and corticosteroid-induced immunosupression.
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Training innate immunity: the changing concept of immunological memory in innate host defence.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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The inability of innate immunity to build an immunological memory is considered a main difference with adaptive immunity. This concept has been challenged by studies in plants, invertebrates and mammals. Recently, a paradigm shift in our understanding host defence has been triggered by the mounting evidence for innate immune memory, leading to increased responses to secondary infections. Important differences between the cell populations and the molecular mechanisms exist between the adaptive traits of innate host defence on the one hand and immunological memory of adaptive immunity on the other hand. The lasting state of enhanced innate immunity termed trained immunity is mediated by prototypical innate immune cells such as natural killer cells and monocytes/macrophages. It provides protection against reinfection in a T/B-cell-independent manner, with both specific mechanisms and nonspecific epigenetic reprogramming mediating these effects. This concept represents a paradigm change in immunity, and its putative role in resistance to reinfection may represent the next step in the design of future vaccines.
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Innate immune memory: implications for development of pediatric immunomodulatory agents and adjuvanted vaccines.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Unique features of immunity early in life include a distinct immune system particularly reliant on innate immunity, with weak T helper (Th)1-polarizing immune responses, and impaired responses to certain vaccines leading to a heightened susceptibility to infection. To these important aspects, we now add an increasingly appreciated concept that the innate immune system displays epigenetic memory of an earlier infection or vaccination, a phenomenon that has been named "trained immunity." Exposure of neonatal leukocytes in vitro or neonatal animals or humans in vivo to specific innate immune stimuli results in an altered innate immune set point. Given the particular importance of innate immunity early in life, trained immunity to early life infection and/or immunization may play an important role in modulating both acute and chronic diseases.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.214.
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Modulation of granulocyte kinetics by GM-CSF/IFN-? in a human LPS rechallenge model.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Inflammation in response to infection or trauma can lead to CARS, which is characterized by leukocyte dysfunction. In this study, we used a human model system for CARS to study the effect of GM-CSF and IFN-? treatment on this immunoparalyzed state. Healthy human volunteers were treated with GM-CSF (4 ?g/kg), IFN-? (100 ?g), or placebo in between two challenges with Escherichia coli LPS/endotoxin (2 ng/kg). Serial leukocyte blood counts were measured. Neutrophil subsets were discriminated using CD16 and CD62L expression. LPS rechallenge resulted in increased mobilization of mature neutrophils, whereas banded neutrophils decreased. GM-CSF and IFN-? treatment did not restore these changes. GM-CSF treatment did, however, increase the number of CD16(bright)/CD62L(dim) neutrophils that were previously shown be able to suppress T cell proliferation. IFN-? treatment decreased neutrophilia seen after LPS rechallenge. Our study shows that LPS rechallenge was associated with changes in the distribution of neutrophil subsets, whereas no additional changes in kinetics of other granulocyte populations were observed. GM-CSF and IFN-? treatment induced a shift in granulocyte composition toward an anti-inflammatory direction by increasing CD16(bright)/CD62L(dim) cells or decreasing neutrophil counts, respectively.
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CX3CR1-dependent renal macrophage survival promotes Candida control and host survival.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Systemic Candida albicans infection causes high morbidity and mortality and is associated with neutropenia; however, the roles of other innate immune cells in pathogenesis are poorly defined. Here, using a mouse model of systemic candidiasis, we found that resident macrophages accumulated in the kidney, the main target organ of infection, and formed direct contacts with the fungus in vivo mainly within the first few hours after infection. Macrophage accumulation and contact with Candida were both markedly reduced in mice lacking chemokine receptor CX3CR1, which was found almost exclusively on resident macrophages in uninfected kidneys. Infected Cx3cr1-/- mice uniformly succumbed to Candida-induced renal failure, but exhibited clearance of the fungus in all other organs tested. Renal macrophage deficiency in infected Cx3cr1-/- mice was due to reduced macrophage survival, not impaired proliferation, trafficking, or differentiation. In humans, the dysfunctional CX3CR1 allele CX3CR1-M280 was associated with increased risk of systemic candidiasis. Together, these data indicate that CX3CR1-mediated renal resident macrophage survival is a critical innate mechanism of early fungal control that influences host survival in systemic candidiasis.
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Long-Lasting Effects of BCG Vaccination on Both Heterologous Th1/Th17 Responses and Innate Trained Immunity.
J Innate Immun
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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We have recently shown that BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccination in healthy volunteers induces epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes, leading to increased cytokine production in response to nonrelated pathogens for up to 3 months after vaccination. This phenomenon was named trained immunity. In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long-lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination. The production of TNF? and IL-1? to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3 months postvaccination, but these effects were less pronounced 1 year after vaccination. However, monocytes recovered 1 year after vaccination had an increased expression of pattern recognition receptors such as CD14, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mannose receptor, and this correlated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokine production after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. The heterologous production of Th1 (IFN-?) and Th17 (IL-17 and IL-22) immune responses to nonmycobacterial stimulation remained strongly elevated even 1 year after BCG vaccination. In conclusion, BCG induces sustained changes in the immune system associated with a nonspecific response to infections both at the level of innate trained immunity and at the level of heterologous Th1/Th17 responses. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Role of the Candida albicans MNN1 gene family in cell wall structure and virulence.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The Candida albicans cell wall is the first point of contact with the host, and its outer surface is heavily enriched in mannoproteins modified through the addition of N- and O-mannan. Previous work, using mutants with gross defects in glycosylation, has clearly identified the importance of mannan in the host-pathogen interaction, immune recognition and virulence. Here we report the first analysis of the MNN1 gene family, which contains six members predicted to act as ?-1,3 mannosyltransferases in the terminal stages of glycosylation.
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A small jab - a big effect: nonspecific immunomodulation by vaccines.
Trends Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Recent epidemiological studies have shown that, in addition to disease-specific effects, vaccines against infectious diseases have nonspecific effects on the ability of the immune system to handle other pathogens. For instance, in randomized trials tuberculosis and measles vaccines are associated with a substantial reduction in overall child mortality, which cannot be explained by prevention of the target disease. New research suggests that the nonspecific effects of vaccines are related to cross-reactivity of the adaptive immune system with unrelated pathogens, and to training of the innate immune system through epigenetic reprogramming. Hence, epidemiological findings are backed by immunological data. This generates a new understanding of the immune system and about how it can be modulated by vaccines to impact the general resistance to disease.
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Towards a role of interleukin-32 in atherosclerosis.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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IL-32 has been previously shown to promote inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis patients and to contribute to IL-1?-induced ICAM-1 as well as other proinflammatory cytokines synthesis in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). Given the high rate of atherosclerosis in RA, these observations suggest that IL-32 may be involved in the inflammatory pathways of atherosclerosis.
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Skin Microbiome Imbalance in Patients with STAT1/STAT3 Defects Impairs Innate Host Defense Responses.
J Innate Immun
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Background: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) are primary immunodeficiencies mainly caused by mutations in STAT1 and STAT3, respectively. CMC and HIES patients have an increased risk for skin and mucosal infections with fungal pathogens and Staphylococcus aureus. However, it is unknown whether the genetic defects in these patients also affect the skin and mucosal microbiome, which in turn may influence host defense mechanisms. Methods: The skin and oral microbiome of CMC and HIES patients was compared to that of healthy controls at five body sites using 16S rRNA sequencing. The influence of skin colonizers on the immune response was investigated using in vitro experiments. Results: The microbiome of CMC and HIES patients contained more Gram-negative bacteria, especially Acinetobacter spp., and less of the normal Corynebacterium spp. compared to healthy controls. Exposure of human primary leukocytes to Acinetobacter suppressed the cytokine response to Candida albicans and S. aureus, while the normal corynebacteria did not suppress cytokine responses. Discussion: These results demonstrate that central mediators of immune responses like STAT1 and STAT3 not only directly influence immune responses, but also result in changes in the skin microbiome that in turn can amplify the defective immune response against fungal and microbial pathogens.
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TNFR2 is critical for the stabilization of the CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T. cell phenotype in the inflammatory environment.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Several lines of evidence indicate the instability of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). We have therefore investigated means of promoting the stability of Tregs. In this study, we found that the proportion of Tregs in mouse strains deficient in TNFR2 or its ligands was reduced in the thymus and peripheral lymphoid tissues, suggesting a potential role of TNFR2 in promoting the sustained expression of Foxp3. We observed that upon in vitro activation with plate-bound anti-CD3 Ab and soluble anti-CD28 Ab, Foxp3 expression by highly purified mouse Tregs was markedly downregulated. Importantly, TNF partially abrogated this effect of TCR stimulation and stabilized Foxp3 expression. This effect of TNF was blocked by anti-TNFR2 Ab, but not by anti-TNFR1 Ab. Furthermore, TNF was not able to maintain Foxp3 expression by TNFR2-deficient Tregs. In a mouse colitis model induced by transfer of naive CD4 cells into Rag1(-/-) mice, the disease could be inhibited by cotransfer of wild-type Tregs, but not by cotransfer of TNFR2-deficient Tregs. Furthermore, in the lamina propria of the colitis model, most wild-type Tregs maintained Foxp3 expression. In contrast, an increased number of TNFR2-deficient Tregs lost Foxp3 expression. Thus, our data clearly show that TNFR2 is critical for the phenotypic and functional stability of Tregs in the inflammatory environment. This effect of TNF should be taken into account when designing future therapy of autoimmunity and graft-versus-host disease by using TNF inhibitors.
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Macrophage Specific Caspase-1/11 Deficiency Protects against Cholesterol Crystallization and Hepatic Inflammation in Hyperlipidemic Mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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While non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatic steatosis combined with inflammation, the mechanisms triggering hepatic inflammation are unknown. In Ldlr(-/-) mice, we have previously shown that lysosomal cholesterol accumulation in Kupffer cells (KCs) correlates with hepatic inflammation and cholesterol crystallization. Previously, cholesterol crystals have been shown to induce the activation of inflammasomes. Inflammasomes are protein complexes that induce the processing and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1b and IL-18 via caspase-1 activation. Whereas caspase-1 activation is independent of caspase-11 in the canonical pathway of inflammasome activation, caspase-11 was found to trigger caspase-1-dependent IL-1b and IL-18 in response to non-canonical inflammasome activators. So far, it has not been investigated whether inflammasome activation stimulates the formation of cholesterol crystals. We hypothesized that inflammasome activation in KCs stimulates cholesterol crystallization, thereby leading to hepatic inflammation.
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IFN-?-stimulated neutrophils suppress lymphocyte proliferation through expression of PD-L1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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During systemic inflammation different neutrophil subsets are mobilized to the peripheral blood. These neutrophil subsets can be distinguished from normal circulating neutrophils (CD16(bright)/CD62L(bright)), based on either an immature CD16(dim)/CD62L(bright) or a CD16(bright)/CD62L(dim) phenotype. Interestingly, the latter neutrophil subset is known to suppress lymphocyte proliferation ex vivo, but how neutrophils become suppressive is unknown. We performed transcriptome analysis on the different neutrophil subsets to identify changes in mRNA expression that are relevant for their functions. Neutrophil subsets were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from blood of healthy volunteers that were administered a single dose of lipopolysaccharide (2 ng/kg i.v.) and the transcriptome was determined by microarray analysis. Interestingly, the CD16(bright)/CD62L(dim) suppressive neutrophils showed an interferon-induced transcriptome profile. More importantly, IFN-?, but not IFN-? or IFN-? stimulated neutrophils, acquired the capacity to suppress lymphocyte proliferation through the expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). These data demonstrate that IFN-?-induced expression of PD-L1 on neutrophils enables suppression of lymphocyte proliferation. Specific stimulation of neutrophils present at the inflammatory sites might therefore have a pivotal role in regulating lymphocyte-mediated inflammation and autoimmune disease.
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Novel PI3K? mutation in a 44-year-old man with chronic infections and chronic pelvic pain.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A 44-year-old man is presented here with 14 years of chronic purulent sinusitis, a chronic fungal rash of the scrotum, and chronic pelvic pain. Treatment with antifungal therapy resulted in symptom improvement, however he was unable to establish an effective long-term treatment regimen, resulting in debilitating symptoms. He had undergone extensive work-up without identifying a clear underlying etiology, although Candida species were cultured from the prostatic fluid. 100 genes involved in the cellular immune response were sequenced and a missense mutation was identified in the Ras-binding domain of PI3K?. PI3K? is a crucial signaling element in leukotaxis and other leukocyte functions. We hypothesize that his mutation led to his chronic infections and pelvic pain.
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New Insights in the Immunobiology of IL-1 Family Members.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The interleukin-1 (IL 1) family of ligands is associated with acute and chronic inflammation, and plays an essential role in the non-specific innate response to infection. The biological properties of IL 1 family ligands are typically pro-inflammatory. The IL 1 family has 11 family members and can be categorized into subfamilies according to the length of their precursor and the length of the propiece for each precursor (Figure 1). The IL 1 subfamily consists of IL 1?, IL 1?, and IL 33, with the longest propieces of the IL 1 family. IL 18 and IL 37 belong to the IL 18 subfamily and contain smaller propieces than IL 1 and IL-33. Since IL 37 binds to the IL 18R? chain it is part of the IL 18 subfamily, however it remains to be elucidated how the propiece of IL 37 is removed. IL 36?, ?, and ? as well as IL 36 Ra belong to the IL 36 subfamily. In addition, IL 38 likely belongs to this family since it has the ability to bind to the IL 36R. The IL 36 subfamily has the shortest propiece. The one member of the IL 1 family that cannot be categorized in these subfamilies is IL 1 receptor antagonist (IL 1Ra), which has a signal peptide and is readily secreted. In the present review we will describe the biological functions of the IL-1F members and new insights in their biology.
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CLEC4F is an inducible C-type lectin in F4/80-positive cells and is involved in alpha-galactosylceramide presentation in liver.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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CLEC4F, a member of C-type lectin, was first purified from rat liver extract with high binding affinity to fucose, galactose (Gal), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and un-sialylated glucosphingolipids with GalNAc or Gal terminus. However, the biological functions of CLEC4F have not been elucidated. To address this question, we examined the expression and distribution of murine CLEC4F, determined its binding specificity by glycan array, and investigated its function using CLEC4F knockout (Clec4f-/-) mice. We found that CLEC4F is a heavily glycosylated membrane protein co-expressed with F4/80 on Kupffer cells. In contrast to F4/80, CLEC4F is detectable in fetal livers at embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) but not in yolk sac, suggesting the expression of CLEC4F is induced as cells migrate from yolk cells to the liver. Even though CLEC4F is not detectable in tissues outside liver, both residential Kupffer cells and infiltrating mononuclear cells surrounding liver abscesses are CLEC4F-positive upon Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) infection. While CLEC4F has strong binding to Gal and GalNAc, terminal fucosylation inhibits CLEC4F recognition to several glycans such as Fucosyl GM1, Globo H, Bb3?4 and other fucosyl-glycans. Moreover, CLEC4F interacts with alpha-galactosylceramide (?-GalCer) in a calcium-dependent manner and participates in the presentation of ?-GalCer to natural killer T (NKT) cells. This suggests that CLEC4F is a C-type lectin with diverse binding specificity expressed on residential Kupffer cells and infiltrating monocytes in the liver, and may play an important role to modulate glycolipids presentation on Kupffer cells.
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Interleukin 32 (IL-32) contains a typical ?-helix bundle structure that resembles focal adhesion targeting region of focal adhesion kinase-1.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2011
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IL-32 can be expressed in several isoforms. The amino acid sequences of the major IL-32 isoforms were used to predict the secondary and tertiary protein structure by I-TASSER software. The secondary protein structure revealed coils and ?-helixes, but no ? sheets. Furthermore, IL-32 contains an RGD motif, which potentially activates procaspase-3 intracellular and or binds to integrins. Mutation of the RGD motif did not result in inhibition of the IL-32?- or IL-32?-induced cytotoxicity mediated through caspase-3. Although IL-32? interacted with the extracellular part of ?V?3 and ?V?6 integrins, only the ?V?3 binding was inhibited by small RGD peptides. Additionally, IL-32? was able to bind to ?V?3 integrins, whereas this binding was not inhibited by small RGD peptides. In addition to the IL-32/integrin interactions, we observed that IL-32 is also able to interact with intracellular proteins that are involved in integrin and focal adhesion signaling. Modeling of IL-32 revealed a distinct ?-helix protein resembling the focal adhesion targeting region of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Inhibition of FAK resulted in modulation of the IL-32?- or IL-32?-induced cytotoxicity. Interestingly, IL-32? binds to paxillin without the RGD motif being involved. Finally, FAK inhibited IL-32?/paxillin binding, whereas FAK also could interact with IL-32?, demonstrating that IL-32 is a member of the focal adhesion protein complex. This study demonstrates for the first time that IL-32 binds to the extracellular domain of integrins and to intracellular proteins like paxillin and FAK, suggesting a dual role for IL-32 in integrin signaling.
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Low interleukin-17A production in response to fungal pathogens in patients with chronic granulomatous disease.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) cannot produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to a genetic defect in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system. Dysregulation of the L-tryptophan metabolism in mice with defects in NADPH oxidase, resulting in overproduction of interleukin (IL)-17, has been proposed to link ROS defects with hyperinflammation and susceptibility to pulmonary aspergillosis. In this study, we assessed the L-tryptophan metabolism and cytokine profiles in response to fungal pathogens in CGD patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from CGD patients showed increased production of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interferon-? upon stimulation with Aspergillus or Candida species, while IL-17A production was strikingly low compared with healthy controls. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression was similar in PBMCs and neutrophils from CGD patients compared with healthy controls. Conversion of L-tryptophan to L-kynurenine, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, did not differ between CGD patients and healthy controls. Moreover, adding L-kynurenine to the cell cultures did not suppress fungal-induced IL-17A production. Although PBMCs of CGD patients produced more proinflammatory cytokines after stimulation, IL-17A production was strikingly low in response to fungal pathogens when compared with healthy controls. In addition, cells from CGD patients did not display a defective L-tryptophan metabolism.
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Candida albicans morphogenesis and host defence: discriminating invasion from colonization.
Nat. Rev. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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Candida albicans is a common fungal pathogen of humans that colonizes the skin and mucosal surfaces of most healthy individuals. Until recently, little was known about the mechanisms by which mucosal antifungal defences tolerate colonizing C. albicans but react strongly when hyphae of the same microorganism attempt to invade tissue. In this Review, we describe the properties of yeast cells and hyphae that are relevant to their interaction with the host, and the immunological mechanisms that differentially recognize colonizing versus invading C. albicans.
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Cytokine gene polymorphisms and the outcome of invasive candidiasis: a prospective cohort study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2011
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?Candida bloodstream infections cause significant morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Although clinical and microbiological factors affecting prognosis have been identified, the impact of genetic variation in the innate immune responses mediated by cytokines on outcomes of infection remains to be studied.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.