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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
BRAF mutation analysis is a valid tool to implement in Lynch syndrome diagnosis in patients classified according to the Bethesda guidelines.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Lynch syndrome (LS) is clinically defined by the Amsterdam criteria (AC) and by germline mutations in mismatch-repair (MMR) genes leading to microsatellite instability (MSI) at the molecular level. Patients who do not fulfil AC are considered suspected-Lynch according to the less stringent Bethesda guidelines (BG) and should be tested for MSI and MMR germline mutations. BRAF mutations have been proposed as a marker to exclude LS because they are generally absent in LS patients and present in sporadic colorectal cancer (sCRC) with MSI due to promoter hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene. Our aim was to verify whether BRAF mutations may improve the criteria to select patients for germline MMR mutation assessment.
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HER2 in solid tumors: more than 10 years under the microscope; where are we now?
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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HER2 is a well-recognized mediator of the cancerogenic process. It is dysregulated in a wide range of solid tumors, mainly via protein overexpression and/or gene amplification, thus making HER2 an attractive target for tailored treatment. The anti-HER2 therapy trastuzumab was approved for the treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients more than 10 years ago. Since then, trastuzumab and other HER2-inhibitors have been entered into clinical practice for the treatment of breast cancer and, more recently, have been approved to treat HER2-positive metastatic gastric cancers. Currently, HER2-targeted therapies are under evaluation in other tumor types. Due to the relevance of proper patient selection, the accurate assessment of HER2 status is fundamental. This review will discuss the established knowledge and novel insights into the HER2 story, mainly focusing on breast, gastric and colorectal cancers, as well as providing a brief overview of salivary gland, bladder, ovarian and lung tumors.
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Circulating free DNA in a screening program for early colorectal cancer detection.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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The quantification and molecular characterization of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) have attracted much interest as new and promising, noninvasive means of detecting and monitoring the presence of surgical resectable colorectal cancer (CRC). Instead, the role of cfDNA in the early detection of malignant and premalignant colorectal lesions is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive power of the quantification and KRAS status of cfDNA in detecting early colorectal lesions in plasma from healthy high-risk subjects.
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Well-Differentiated Follicular Tumors of the Thyroid With High-Grade Features Can Metastasize in the Absence of Capsular or Vascular Invasion: Report of a Case.
Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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We report a case of an encapsulated, noninvasive, follicular thyroid neoplasia with high-grade features in a 59-year-old man who developed multiple metastases. The 5-cm lesion was originally categorized by thyroid fine-needle aspiration as "suspicious for a follicular lesion" and as a "follicular adenoma" on the subsequent hemithyroidectomy specimen. The high-grade features were represented by foci of solid, trabecular, and insular pattern (10% of the tumor), necrosis (< 5% of the tumor), and up to 14 mitoses per 10 high-power fields in the solid areas. No immunohistochemical and molecular markers associated to thyroid malignancy were observed. Although encapsulated noninvasive follicular tumors are usually regarded as benign lesions that never metastasize or recur, our case was characterized mainly by an elevated number of mitoses, and the patient progressed to widespread metastatic disease. This uncommon lesion should most likely be considered as an early form of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma with a dismal prognosis.
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Screening for the FIG-ROS1 fusion in biliary tract carcinomas by nested PCR.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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ROS1 rearrangements have been detected in a variety of tumors and are considered as suitable targets of anticancer therapies. We developed a new, quick, specific, and sensitive PCR test to screen for the FIG-ROS1 fusion and applied it to a series of Italian patients with bile duct carcinoma (BTC). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, derived from 65 Italian BTC patients, and six cell lines were analyzed by nested PCR to investigate the prevalence of a previously reported FIG-ROS1 fusion. The specificity and sensitivity of nested PCR were investigated in FIG-ROS1 positive U118MG cells in reconstitution experiments with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found that six out of 65 (9%) BTC patients were positive for the FIG-ROS1 fusion, comprising two out of 14 (14%) gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) patients and four out of 25 (16%) extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) patients. None of the 26 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cases harbored the FIG-ROS1 fusion. All the cell lines were negative for this variant. In conclusion, 14-16% of GBC and ECC were positive for FIG-ROS1. This may have clinical implications, since these patients will potentially benefit from the treatment with specific ROS1 inhibitors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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APC alterations are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, mainly through gene loss and promoter hypermethylation.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Genetic and epigenetic alterations involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) are poorly characterized, including the frequency and role of gene-specific hypermethylation, chromosome aberrations, and copy number alterations (CNAs). A subset of ACCs is known to show alterations in the APC/?-catenin pathway which includes mutations of APC gene. However, it is not known whether, in addition to mutation, loss of APC gene function can occur through alternative genetic and epigenetic mechanisms such as gene loss or promoter methylation. We investigated the global methylation profile of 34 tumor suppressor genes, CNAs of 52 chromosomal regions, and APC gene alterations (mutation, methylation, and loss) together with APC mRNA level in 45 ACCs and related peritumoral pancreatic tissues using methylation-specific multiplex ligation probe amplification (MS-MLPA), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), mutation analysis, and reverse transcription-droplet digital PCR. ACCs did not show an extensive global gene hypermethylation profile. RASSF1 and APC were the only two genes frequently methylated. APC mutations were found in only 7 % of cases, while APC loss and methylation were more frequently observed (48 and 56 % of ACCs, respectively). APC mRNA low levels were found in 58 % of cases and correlated with CNAs. In conclusion, ACCs do not show extensive global gene hypermethylation. APC alterations are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of ACCs mainly through gene loss and promoter hypermethylation, along with reduction of APC mRNA levels.
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Functions and Regulation of the PTEN Gene in Colorectal Cancer.
Front Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Phosphatase and TENsin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor gene located at chromosome 10q23.31, encoding for a 403-amino acid protein that possesses both lipid and protein phosphatase activities. The main function of PTEN is to block the PI3K pathway by dephosphorylating phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3,4,5-triphosphate to PI-4,5-bisphosphate thus counteracting PI3K function. PTEN inactivation is a frequent event in many cancer types and can occur through various genetic alterations including point mutations, large chromosomal deletions, and epigenetic mechanisms. In colorectal cancer (CRC) PTEN is altered through mixed genetic/epigenetic mechanisms (typically: mutations and promoter hypermethylation or 10q23 LOH and promoter hypermethylation), which lead to the biallelic inactivation of the protein in 20-30% of cases. The role of PTEN as a prognostic and predictive factor in CRC has been addressed by relatively few works. This review is focused on the report and on the discussion of the studies investigating these aspects. Overall, at the moment, there are conflicting results and, therefore it has not been clarified whether PTEN might play a prognostic role in CRC. The same is valid also for the predictive role, leading to the fact that PTEN evaluation cannot be used in routinely diagnosis for the early identification of patients who might be addressed to the treatment with EGFR-targeted therapies, at odds with other genetic alterations belonging to EGFR-downstream pathways. The reason of discordant results may be attributable to several issues: (1) the size of the analyzed cohort, (2) patients inclusion criteria, (3) the methods of assessing PTEN alteration. In particular, there are no standardized methods to evaluate this marker, especially for immunohistochemistry, a technique suffering of intra and inter-observer variability due to the semi-quantitative character of such an analysis. In conclusion, much work, especially in large and homogeneous cohorts of cases from different laboratories, has to be done before the establishment of PTEN as prognostic or predictive marker in CRC.
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EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA characterization in squamous cell anal cancer.
Histol. Histopathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Background: Combined chemoradiation therapy is the gold standard in the treatment of squamous cell anal cancer (SCAC). However, even if the response rate is very high, many patients eventually relapse or experience a reoccurrence, thus requiring an invasive surgical procedure that has severe side effects. Most SCAC tumors overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); therefore, it is reasonable to consider anti-EGFR drugs as a new treatment option, as demonstrated by anecdotal reports. Promising results obtained from other solid tumors, both squamous and non-squamous, have revealed that an increase in the EGFR gene copy number may predict the efficacy of anti-EGFR therapies, while the presence of mutations in downstream members of the EGFR pathway may confer resistance. These markers have been only sporadically considered in SCAC. Methods: We investigated the status of the EGFR gene using FISH and examined KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA hot-spots mutations using sequencing analysis in a cohort of 84 patients affected by SCAC. Results: Twenty-eight patients (34%) showed an increase in EGFR gene copy number due to amplification (4%) or to polysomy (30%). KRAS and PIK3CA gene mutations were found in 4 (5%) and 13 patients (16%), respectively. No mutations were found in the BRAF gene. Conclusions: The characterization of the EGFR pathway may help in identifying different subgroups of SCAC that have specific molecular features, which may have implications in what targeted therapies are used to treat each patient.
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ERCC1 predicts outcome in patients with gastric cancer treated with adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Adjuvant chemotherapy is gaining an increasing role in resectable gastric cancer. Customizing chemotherapy on the basis of chemosensitivity may improve outcome, and putative predictive molecular markers have been mostly evaluated in Asian patients. We profiled key DNA and damage signaling factors and correlated them with outcome, in a European cohort.
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Mixed lineage kinase MLK4 is activated in colorectal cancers where it synergistically cooperates with activated RAS signaling in driving tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Colorectal cancers (CRC) are commonly classified into those with microsatellite instability and those that are microsatellite stable (MSS) but chromosomally unstable. The latter are characterized by poor prognosis and remain largely intractable at the metastatic stage. Comprehensive mutational analyses have revealed that the mixed lineage kinase 4 (MLK4) protein kinase is frequently mutated in MSS CRC with approximately 50% of the mutations occurring in KRAS- or BRAF-mutant tumors. This kinase has not been characterized previously and the relevance of MLK4 somatic mutations in oncogenesis has not been established. We report that MLK4-mutated alleles in CRC are constitutively active and increase the transformation and tumorigenic capacity of RAS-mutated cell lines. Gene expression silencing or targeted knockout of MLK4 impairs the oncogenic properties of KRAS- and BRAF-mutant cancer cells both in vitro and in xenograft models. In establishing the role of MLK4 in intracellular signaling, we show it directly phosphorylates MEK1 (MAP2K1) and that MEK/ERK (MAPK1) signaling is impaired in MLK4 knockout cells. These findings suggest that MLK4 inhibitors may be efficacious in KRAS- and BRAF-mutated CRCs and may provide a new opportunity for targeting such recalcitrant tumors.
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Standardisation of EGFR FISH in colorectal cancer: results of an international interlaboratory reproducibility ring study.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) can discriminate among KRAS wild-type patients those with better outcome to EGFR-targeted therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer, further enhancing selection of patients. Nevertheless, enumeration of gene copies is challenging and the lack of analytical standardisation has limited incorporation of the test into the clinical practice. We therefore assessed EGFR FISH interlaboratory consensus among five molecular diagnostic reference centres.
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Increased detection sensitivity for KRAS mutations enhances the prediction of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody resistance in metastatic colorectal cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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KRAS mutations represent the main cause of resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We evaluated whether highly sensitive methods for KRAS investigation improve the accuracy of predictions of anti-EGFR MoAbs efficacy.
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Association of KRAS p.G13D mutation with outcome in patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2010
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Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have KRAS codon 12- or KRAS codon 13-mutated tumors are presently excluded from treatment with the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody cetuximab.
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Molecular characterization and response to cetuximab in a patient with refractory squamous cell anal carcinoma.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2010
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There are no standard chemotherapeutic options for patients with squamous cell anal carcinoma, relapsing and progressing on palliative cisplatin-based regimens. Similarly to other malignant conditions, monoclonal antibodies directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor may represent an attractive therapeutic strategy. Here we describe a patient who, based on molecular profile, benefited from the combination of irinotecan and cetuximab.
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Tumor budding predicts response to anti-EGFR therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2010
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To investigate whether the evaluation of tumor budding can complement K-RAS analysis to improve the individualized prediction of response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor based therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients.
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Effects of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective consortium analysis.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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Following the discovery that mutant KRAS is associated with resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies, the tumours of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer are now profiled for seven KRAS mutations before receiving cetuximab or panitumumab. However, most patients with KRAS wild-type tumours still do not respond. We studied the effect of other downstream mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab in, to our knowledge, the largest cohort to date of patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab plus chemotherapy in the pre-KRAS selection era.
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Deregulation of the PI3K and KRAS signaling pathways in human cancer cells determines their response to everolimus.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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Personalized cancer medicine is based on the concept that targeted therapies are effective on subsets of patients whose tumors carry specific molecular alterations. Several mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are in preclinical or clinical trials for cancers, but the molecular basis of sensitivity or resistance to these inhibitors among patients is largely unknown. Here we have identified oncogenic variants of phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide (PIK3CA) and KRAS as determinants of response to the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. Human cancer cells carrying alterations in the PI3K pathway were responsive to everolimus, both in vitro and in vivo, except when KRAS mutations occurred concomitantly or were exogenously introduced. In human cancer cells with mutations in both PIK3CA and KRAS, genetic ablation of mutant KRAS reinstated response to the drug. Consistent with these data, PIK3CA mutant cells, but not KRAS mutant cells, displayed everolimus-sensitive translation. Importantly, in a cohort of metastatic cancer patients, the presence of oncogenic KRAS mutations was associated with lack of benefit after everolimus therapy. Thus, our results demonstrate that alterations in the KRAS and PIK3CA genes may represent biomarkers to optimize treatment of patients with mTOR inhibitors.
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Combined analysis of specific KRAS mutation, BRAF and microsatellite instability identifies prognostic subgroups of sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Confounding effects of specific KRAS gene alterations on colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis stratified by microsatellite instability (MSI) and BRAF(V600E) have not yet been investigated. The aim of our study was to evaluate the combined effects of MSI, BRAF(V600E) and specific KRAS mutation (Gly ? Asp; G12D, Gly ? Asp, G13D; Gly ? Val; G12V) on prognosis in 404 sporadic and 94 hereditary CRC patients. MSI status was determined according to the Bethesda guidelines. Mutational status of KRAS and BRAF(V600E) was assessed by direct DNA sequencing. In sporadic CRC, KRAS G12D mutations had a negative prognostic effect compared to G13D and wild-type cancers (p = 0.038). With MSI, specific KRAS and BRAF(V600E) mutations, 3 distinct prognostic subgroups were observed in univariate (p = 0.006) and multivariable (p = 0.051) analysis: patients with (i) KRAS mutation G12D, G12V or BRAF(V600E) mutation, (ii) KRAS/BRAF(V600E) wild-type or KRAS G13D mutations in MSS/MSI-L and (iii) MSI-H and KRAS G13D mutations. Moreover, none of the sporadic MSI-H or hereditary patients with KRAS G13 mutations had a fatal outcome. Specific KRAS mutation is an informative prognostic factor in both sporadic and hereditary CRC and applied in an algorithm with BRAF(V600E) and MSI may identify sporadic CRC patients with poor clinical outcome.
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Multi-determinants analysis of molecular alterations for predicting clinical benefit to EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibodies in colorectal cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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KRAS mutations occur in 35-45% of metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRC) and preclude responsiveness to EGFR-targeted therapy with cetuximab or panitumumab. However, less than 20% patients displaying wild-type KRAS tumors achieve objective response. Alterations in other effectors downstream of the EGFR, such as BRAF, and deregulation of the PIK3CA/PTEN pathway have independently been found to give rise to resistance. We present a comprehensive analysis of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA mutations, and PTEN expression in mCRC patients treated with cetuximab or panitumumab, with the aim of clarifying the relative contribution of these molecular alterations to resistance.
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Mutational profile of GNAQQ209 in human tumors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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Frequent somatic mutations have recently been identified in the ras-like domain of the heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunit (GNAQ) in blue naevi 83%, malignant blue naevi (50%) and ocular melanoma of the uvea (46%). The mutations exclusively affect codon 209 and result in GNAQ constitutive activation which, in turn, acts as a dominant oncogene.
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PIK3CA mutations in colorectal cancer are associated with clinical resistance to EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibodies.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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The monoclonal antibodies (moAb) panitumumab and cetuximab target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and have proven valuable for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). EGFR-mediated signaling involves two main intracellular cascades: on one side KRAS activates BRAF, which in turn triggers the mitogen-activated protein kinases. On the other, membrane localization of the lipid kinase PIK3CA counteracts PTEN and promotes AKT1 phosphorylation, thereby activating a parallel intracellular axis. Constitutive activation of KRAS bypasses the corresponding signaling cascade and, accordingly, patients with mCRC bearing KRAS mutations are clinically resistant to therapy with panitumumab or cetuximab. We hypothesized that mutations activating PIK3CA could also preclude responsiveness to EGFR-targeted moAbs through a similar mechanism. Here, we present the mutational analysis of PIK3CA and KRAS and evaluation of the PTEN protein status in a cohort of 110 patients with mCRC treated with anti-EGFR moAbs. We observed 15 (13.6%) PIK3CA and 32 (29.0%) KRAS mutations. PIK3CA mutations were significantly associated with clinical resistance to panitumumab or cetuximab; none of the mutated patients achieved objective response (P = 0.038). When only KRAS wild-type tumors were analyzed, the statistical correlation was stronger (P = 0.016). Patients with PIK3CA mutations displayed a worse clinical outcome also in terms of progression-free survival (P = 0.035). Our data indicate that PIK3CA mutations can independently hamper the therapeutic response to panitumumab or cetuximab in mCRC. When the molecular status of the PIK3CA/PTEN and KRAS pathways are concomitantly ascertained, up to 70% of mCRC patients unlikely to respond to EGFR moAbs can be identified.
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IDH1 mutations at residue p.R132 (IDH1(R132)) occur frequently in high-grade gliomas but not in other solid tumors.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2009
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Systematic sequence profiling of the Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) genome has recently led to the identification of somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene. Interestingly, only the evolutionarily conserved residue R132 located in the substrate binding site of IDH1 was found mutated in GBM. At present, the occurrence and the relevance of p.R132 (IDH1(R132)) variants in tumors other than GBMs is largely unknown. We searched for mutations at position R132 of the IDH1 gene in a panel of 672 tumor samples. These included high-grade glioma, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), melanoma, bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, pancreas, prostate, and thyroid carcinoma specimens. In addition, we assessed a panel of 84 cell lines from different tumor lineages. Somatic mutations affecting the IDH1(R132) residue were detected in 20% (23 of 113) high-grade glioma samples. In addition to the previously reported p.R132H and p.R132S alleles, we identified three novel somatic mutations (p.R132C, p.R132G, and p.R132L) affecting residue IDH1(R132) in GBM. Strikingly, no IDH1 mutations were detected in the other tumor types. These data indicate that cancer mutations affecting IDH1(R132) are tissue-specific, and suggest that it plays a unique role in the development of high-grade gliomas.
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Aberrant promoter methylation of beta-1,4 galactosyltransferase 1 as potential cancer-specific biomarker of colorectal tumors.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
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Epigenetic alterations, such as CpG islands methylation and histone modifications, are recognized key characteristics of cancer. Glycogenes are a group of genes which epigenetic status was found to be changed in several tumors. In this study, we determined promoter methylation status of the glycogene beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (B4GALT1) in colorectal cancer patients. Methylation status of B4GALT1 was assessed in 130 colorectal adenocarcinomas, 13 adenomas, and in paired normal tissue using quantitative methylation specific PCR (QMSP). B4GALT1 mRNA expression was evaluated in methylated/unmethylated tumor and normal specimens. We also investigated microsatellite stability and microsatellite instability status and KRAS/BRAF mutations. Discriminatory power of QMSP was assessed by receiving operating curve (ROC) analysis on a training set of 24 colorectal cancers and paired mucosa. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.737 (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.591-0.881, P = 0.005) with an optimal cutoff value of 2.07 yielding a 54% sensitivity (95% CI: 35.1%-72.1%) and a specificity of 91.7% (95% CI: 74.1%-97.7%). These results were confirmed in an independent validation set where B4GALT1 methylation was detected in 52/106 patients. An inverse correlation was observed between methylation and B4GALT1 mRNA expression levels (r = -0.482, P = 0.037). Significant differences in methylation levels and frequencies was demonstrated in invasive lesions as compared with normal mucosa (P = 0.0001) and in carcinoma samples as compared with adenoma (P = 0.009). B4GALT1 methylation is a frequent and specific event in colorectal cancer and correlates with downregulation of mRNA expression. These results suggest that the glycogene B4GALT1 represent a valuable candidate biomarker of invasive phenotype of colorectal cancer.
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Epidermal growth factor receptor gene analysis with a highly sensitive molecular assay in routine cytologic specimens of lung adenocarcinoma.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutational analysis is critical for guiding the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. In everyday clinical practice, EGFR testing is frequently centralized in referral laboratories that may receive paucicellular cytologic specimens, often fixed in various ways. We conducted a search for EGFR mutations in 108 cytologic samples of lung adenocarcinoma from different hospitals using the TheraScreen EGFR29 kit. These samples included 80 (74.1%) fine-needle aspirations, 13 (12%) pleural/ascitic fluids, 13 (12%) bronchial washings, and 2 bronchial brushings. The samples were fixed in ethanol (n = 79), Duboscq-Brasil (n = 18) or formalin (n = 10); 1 was unfixed. Ninety-two (85.2%) were amplified, 16 (14.8%) were not. Mutations were detected in 22 (23.9%) of 92 amplified samples, 9 containing less than 200 cancer cells, and 4 with less than 50% cancer cells. DNA was amplified in 12 of 18 Duboscq-Brasil-fixed samples. These findings indicate that cytologic specimens are adequate for EGFR testing when a highly sensitive assay is used, even if they are paucicellular or not optimally fixed.
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Mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinoma of the nasal cavity: clinico-pathologic and molecular study of a case and review of the literature.
Head Neck Pathol
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Sinonasal intestinal-type adenocarcinomas (ITACs) are rare neoplasms histologically resembling intestinal adenocarcinomas. Although a neuroendocrine differentiation in ITACs has been described, true mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinomas, neoplasms in which each component represents at least 30 % of the lesion, are extremely rare and their molecular alterations are largely unknown. We describe herein the clinico-pathologic features, the methylation profile, chromosomal gains and losses, and mutation analysis of KRAS, BRAF and p53 in a nasal mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinoma resected in a 79-year-old man. The tumor was composed of an ITAC and a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. Both exocrine and neuroendocrine components were CK8, CK20, CDX2 and p53 positive, and CK7 and TTF1 negative. The neuroendocrine component also showed immunoreactivity for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, serotonin and glicentin. Gains and losses were found at following chromosome regions: 17p13 (TP53), 14q24 (MLH3), 19q13 (KLK3), 5q21 (APC), 7q21 (CDK6), 9q34 (DAPK1), 12p13 (TNFRSF 1A, CDKN1B), 13q12 (BRCA2), 17p13.3 (HIC1), 18q21 (BCL2), and 22q12 (TIMP3). Aberrant methylation was detected only in the neuroendocrine component and involved APC and DAPK1 genes. No mutation of KRAS (exons 2-4), BRAF (exon 15), and p53 (exons 4-10) was found in both components. The results suggest a monoclonal origin of the tumor from a pluripotent cell undergoing a biphenotypic differentiation and that the neuroendocrine differentiation may be from an exocrine to an endocrine pathway. We have also reviewed the literature on sinonasal mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinomas to give to the reader a comprehensive overview of these very rare tumor types.
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KRAS mutational test for metastatic colorectal cancer patients: not just a technical problem.
Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn.
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The identification of KRAS and BRAF mutations as predictive molecular alterations of resistance to EGF receptor monoclonal antibody therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer have significantly improved the selection of patients more likely to be eligible for the treatment with these targeted agents. Several methods are available for KRAS and BRAF mutation detection but few studies have compared different techniques, especially in the clinical setting. In this article, we contextualize the wobble-enhanced amplification refractory mutation sequencing method for the identification of KRAS and BRAF mutations with the other methodologies frequently used for the assessment of these alterations in colorectal cancer, discussing advantages and limitations over other frequently used diagnostic methods.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,4-diaryl-2-azetidinones as specific anticancer agents: activation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase and induction of apoptosis.
J. Med. Chem.
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A series of novel 1,4-diaryl-2-azetidinones were synthesized and evaluated for antiproliferative activity, cell cycle effects, and apoptosis induction. Strong cytotoxicity was observed with the best compounds (±)-trans-20, (±)-trans-21, and enantiomers (+)-trans-20 and (+)-trans-21, which exhibited IC(50) values of 3-13 nM against duodenal adenocarcinoma cells. They induced inhibition of tubulin polymerization and subsequent G2/M arrest. This effect was accompanied by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), activation of caspase-3, and induction of apoptosis. Additionally, the most potent compounds displayed antiproliferative activity against different colon cancer cell lines, opening the route to a new class of potential therapeutic agents against colon cancer.
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KRAS and BRAF mutations predict primary resistance to imatinib in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are characterized by gain-of-function mutations in KIT/PDGFRA genes leading to a constitutive receptor activation which is well counteracted by imatinib. However, cases in which imatinib as first-line treatment has no effects are reported (primary resistance). Our purpose is to investigate alterations in downstream effectors, not reported so far in mutated GIST, possibly explaining the primary resistance to targeted treatments.
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Primary follicular lymphoma of the epididymis positive for t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IGH-BCL2 and negative for BCL2 protein expression: a case report.
J Med Case Rep
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) can involve the paratesticular organs as the primary disease, as primary testicular lymphoma that secondarily involves the paratesticular structures, as the initial site of presentation of occult nodal disease or as the result of disease dissemination. Primary follicular lymphoma of the epididymis in an adult is extremely rare. Little is known about primary adult paratesticular/epididimal lymphomas.
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