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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Progress on genetic basis of primary aldosteronism].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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It has been proven that familial aldosteronism type I is related to 11-beta hydroxylase (CYP11B1)/aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) chimeric genes. In recent years, accumulated evidences indicate that the genetic basis of primary aldosteronism may involve chromosome 7p22 candidate genes, polymorphisms of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes, mutations of ion channel- related KCNJ5, ATP1A1, CACNA1D genes. The article reviews the progress on genetic basis of primary aldosteronism.
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Development of 107 SSR markers from whole genome shotgun sequences of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) and their application in seedling identification.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) is one of the important subtropical fruit crops native to the South of China and Asian countries. In this study, 107 novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers, a powerful tool for genetic diversity studies, cultivar identification, and linkage map construction, were developed and characterized from whole genome shotgun sequences. M13 tailing for forward primers was applied as a simple method in different situations. In total, 828 alleles across 45 accessions were detected, with an average of 8 alleles per locus. The number of effective alleles ranged from 1.22 to 10.41 with an average of 4.08. The polymorphic information content (PIC) varied from 0.13 to 0.89, with an average of 0.63. Moreover, these markers could also be amplified in their related species Myrica cerifera (syn. Morella cerifera) and Myrica adenophora. Seventy-eight SSR markers can be used to produce a genetic map of a cross between 'Biqi' and 'Dongkui'. A neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed to assess the genetic relationships among accessions, and the elite accessions 'Y2010-70', 'Y2012-140', and 'Y2012-145', were characterized as potential new genotypes for cultivation.
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Endophytic fungi with antitumor activities: Their occurrence and anticancer compounds.
Crit. Rev. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Abstract Plant endophytic fungi have been recognized as an important and novel resource of natural bioactive products, especially in anticancer application. This review mainly deals with the research progress on the production of anticancer compounds by endophytic fungi between 1990 and 2013. Anticancer activity is generally associated with the cytotoxicity of the compounds present in the endophytic fungi. All strains of endophytes producing antitumor chemicals were classified taxonomically and the genera of Pestalotiopsis and Aspergillus as well as the taxol producing endophytes were focused on. Classification of endophytic fungi producing antitumor compounds has received more attention from mycologists, and it can also lead to the discovery of novel compounds with antitumor activity due to phylogenetic relationships. In this review, the structures of the anticancer compounds isolated from the newly reported endophytes between 2010 and 2013 are discussed including strategies for the efficient production of the desired compounds. The purpose of this review is to provide new directions in endophytic fungi research including integrated information relating to its anticancer compounds.
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Motorized Janus metal organic framework crystals.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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We describe Janus metal organic framework crystals that are propelled by bubble ejection. The Janus crystals are prepared by selective epitaxial growth of ZIF-67 on ZIF-8. The Janus crystals catalyse the decomposition of H2O2 into H2O and O2 on the ZIF-67 surface but not on the zinc containing ZIF-8 surface, resulting in propulsion of the Janus crystals.
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The schizophrenia susceptibility gene dysbindin regulates dendritic spine dynamics.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Dysbindin is a schizophrenia susceptibility gene required for the development of dendritic spines. The expression of dysbindin proteins is decreased in the brains of schizophrenia patients, and neurons in mice carrying a deletion in the dysbindin gene have fewer dendritic spines. Hence, dysbindin might contribute to the spine pathology of schizophrenia, which manifests as a decrease in the number of dendritic spines. The development of dendritic spines is a dynamic process involving formation, retraction, and transformation of dendritic protrusions. It has yet to be determined whether dysbindin regulates the dynamics of dendritic protrusions. Here we address this question using time-lapse imaging in hippocampal neurons. Our results show that dysbindin is required to stabilize dendritic protrusions. In dysbindin-null neurons, dendritic protrusions are hyperactive in formation, retraction, and conversion between different types of protrusions. We further show that CaMKII? is required for the stabilization of mushroom/thin spines, and that the hyperactivity of dendritic protrusions in dysbindin-null neurons is attributed in part to decreased CaMKII? activity resulting from increased inhibition of CaMKII? by Abi1. These findings elucidate the function of dysbindin in the dynamic morphogenesis of dendritic protrusions, and reveal the essential roles of dysbindin and CaMKII? in the stabilization of dendritic protrusions during neuronal development.
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[Effects of amino acid on growth and secondary metabolites contents of adventitious roots of Tripterygium wilfordii].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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The adventitious root of Tripterygium wilfordii was used as experiment material to study effects of various concentration of aspartic acid, isoleucine, cysteine and arginine in MS medium on the growth and triptolide, wilforgine, wilforine contents of the adventitious roots. The results showed that compared with the control, supplemented with 0.25 mmol x L(-1) aspartic acid at 3rd week, the growth of the adventitious roots only accounted for 80%, but the content of triptolide of the adventitious roots and the medium was 1.36, 1.30 times, the content of wilforgine was 1.16, 1.37 times, the content of wilforine was 1.22, 1.63 times, respectively. At 3rd week 0.05 mmol x L(-1) isoleucine, the growth of adventitious roots was 97.3%, wilforgine of adventitious roots and medium 1.02, 1.27 times, wilforine 1.36 times and 1.15 times. At 1st week 0.25 mmol x L(-1) cysteine, the growth of the adventitious roots comprised 77.5% of the control, while content of triptolide of adventitious roots reached 1.87 times. At 2nd week 1.00 mmol x L(-1) cysteine, the growth of adventitious roots was 44.6% of the control, the content of wilforine in medium was 2.97 times. At 3rd week 0.50 mmol x L(-1) arginine, the growth of adventitious roots was 124.2%, the content of wilforgine and wilforine was 1.3, 1.4 times, respectively.
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[Study on the choice of functional monomer before preparation of myclobutanil molecularly imprinted polymer].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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To prepare myclobutanil molecularly imprinted polymer, a method was established for the choice of the appropriate functional monomer and its dosage. UV spectra was applied to study the combination form, the effect intensity, the optimal concentration ratio and the numbers of binding sites between myclobutanil and methyl acrylic acid (MAA) or acrylamide (AM) functional monomer. The results showed that hydrogen-bonding interaction could be formed between myclobutanil and methyl acrylic acid (MAA) or acrylamide (AM) functional monomer. The pi electron of the triazole ring conjugated double bond in my clobutanil could transit to pi* conjugate antibonding orbital when it absorbed energy. The formation of hydrogen bond could make pi-->pi* absorption band transit. Maximum absorption wavelength produced red shift with the increase in the functional monomer concentration in the system. The research revealed that the optimal concentration ratios between myclobutanil and the two monomers were c(M):c(MAA) = 1:4, c(M):c(AM) = 1:2. Myclobutanil and the both the functional monomers had the bonding ability, and strong bonding force. The prepared molecularly imprinted polymer using AM as a functional monomer had better stability and specificity of recognition for myclobutanil.
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Activation of ?-opioid receptor exerts the glucose-homeostatic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Opioid and its receptors play important roles in glucose homeostasis. However, few reports were available for the study of ?-opioid receptor in glucose regulation. In our study, we found that the blood glucose of diabetic mice dropped significantly following the treatment with U50,488H (a selective ?-opioid receptor agonist). This phenomenon was time-dependent and associated with the coincident alteration of Glut4 translocation in the skeleton muscles. U50,488H increased the serum adiponectin, but not serum insulin in diabetic mice. U50,488H increased the AdipoR1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. It also promoted AMPK phosphorylation and Glut4 translocation. All these effects were abolished by nor-BNI (a selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist). These findings suggest that activation of ?-opioid receptor reduces hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. This effect is associated with the translocation of Glut4 and might be relevant to increased adiponectin , AdipoR1 and AMPK phosphorylation. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Fission yeast Pxd1 promotes proper DNA repair by activating Rad16XPF and inhibiting Dna2.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Structure-specific nucleases play crucial roles in many DNA repair pathways. They must be precisely controlled to ensure optimal repair outcomes; however, mechanisms of their regulation are not fully understood. Here, we report a fission yeast protein, Pxd1, that binds to and regulates two structure-specific nucleases: Rad16XPF-Swi10ERCC1 and Dna2-Cdc24. Strikingly, Pxd1 influences the activities of these two nucleases in opposite ways: It activates the 3' endonuclease activity of Rad16-Swi10 but inhibits the RPA-mediated activation of the 5' endonuclease activity of Dna2. Pxd1 is required for Rad16-Swi10 to function in single-strand annealing, mating-type switching, and the removal of Top1-DNA adducts. Meanwhile, Pxd1 attenuates DNA end resection mediated by the Rqh1-Dna2 pathway. Disabling the Dna2-inhibitory activity of Pxd1 results in enhanced use of a break-distal repeat sequence in single-strand annealing and a greater loss of genetic information. We propose that Pxd1 promotes proper DNA repair by differentially regulating two structure-specific nucleases.
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Molecular regulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonads axis in males.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) plays vital roles in reproduction and steroid hormone production in both sexes. The focus of this review is upon gene structures, receptor structures and the signaling pathways of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The hormones' functions in reproduction as well as consequences resulting from mutations are also summarized. Specific characteristics of hormones such as the pulsatile secretions of GnRH are also covered. The different regulators of the HPG axis are introduced including kisspeptin, activin, inhibin, follistatin, androgens and estrogen. This review includes not only their basic information, but also their unique function in the HPG axis. Here we view the HPG axis as a whole, so relations between ligands and receptors are well described crossing different levels of the HPG axis. Hormone interactions and transformations are also considered. The major information of this article is depicted in three figures summarizing the current discoveries on the HPG axis. This article systematically introduces the basic knowledge of the HPG axis and provides information of the current advances relating to reproductive hormones.
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Serum Sema3A is in a weak positive association with bone formation marker osteocalcin but not related to bone mineral densities in postmenopausal women.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Context: The chemorepellent semaphorin3A (Sema3A) was shown to favor bone metabolism in mice, but its bone effects in humans are not described. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between serum Sema3A, bone biochemical markers and bone mineral densities (BMDs) in women. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a cross-sectional study involving 1012 pre- and postmenopausal women. Main Outcome Measures: Fasting serum Sema3A, osteocalcin (Ocn), and cross-linked C-telopeptide of type-1 collagen (CTX) were measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed to determine the BMDs at lumbar spine and femoral neck. History of osteoporotic fractures was reported by the participants. Results: In postmenopausal women (n=860), a significant positive association between Sema3A and Ocn levels was demonstrated (r=0.077, P=0.025) when age was adjusted. Serum Ocn level was significantly higher in the fourth quartile of serum Sema3A as compared with the first quartile (21.09±0.56ng/ml vs. 19.45±0.44ng/ml, P=0.018). Serum Sema3A concentrations were similar in subjects with normal BMD, osteopenia or osteoporosis, and those with and without osteoporotic fractures. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that CTX, body mass index, creatinine, Sema3A, L1-4 BMDs and age were determinants of Ocn (adjusted R(2) for the model =0.532, p<0.001) . Conclusions: The positive correlation between Sema3A and bone formation marker Ocn revealed in this human study partly supports the recently findings in mice studies. However, the general effects of Sema3A on bone metabolism are weak and not clear as evidenced by lack of association between this parameter and BMDs and osteoporotic fractures.
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Corticosterone mitigates the stress response in an animal model of PTSD.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Activation of glucocorticoid receptor signaling in the stress response to traumatic events has been implicated in the pathogenesis of stress-associated psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Elevated startle response and hyperarousal are hallmarks of PTSD, and are generally considered to evince fear (DSM V). To further examine the efficacy of corticosterone in treating hyperarousal and elevated fear, the present study utilized a learned helplessness stress model in which rats are restrained and subjected to tail shock for three days. These stressed rats develop a delayed long-lasting exaggeration of the acoustic startle response (ASR) and retarded body weight growth, similar to symptoms of PTSD patients (Myers et al., 2005; Speed et al., 1989). We demonstrate that both pre-stress and post-stress administration of corticosterone (3 mg/kg/day) mitigates a subsequent exaggeration of the ASR measured 14 days after cessation of the stress protocol. Furthermore, the mitigating efficacy of pre-stress administration of corticosterone (3 mg/kg/day for three days) appeared to last significantly longer, up to 21 days after the cessation of the stress protocol, in comparison to that of post-stress administration of corticosterone. However, pre-stress administration of corticosterone at 0.3 mg/kg/day for three days did not mitigate stress-induced exaggeration of the ASR measured at both 14 and 21 days after the cessation of the stress protocol. In addition, pre-stress administration of corticosterone (3 mg/kg/day for three days) mitigates the retardation of body weight growth otherwise resulting from the stress protocol. Congruently, co-administration of the corticosterone antagonist RU486 (40 mg/kg/day for three days) with corticosterone (3 mg/kg/day) prior to stress diminished the mitigating efficacy of the exogenous corticosterone on exaggerated ASR and stress-retarded body weight. The relative efficacy of pre versus post administration of corticosterone and high versus low dose of corticosterone on stress-induced exaggeration of innate fear response and stress-retarded body weight growth indicate that exogenous corticosterone administration within an appropriate time window and dosage are efficacious in diminishing traumatic stress induced pathophysiological processes. Clinical implications associated with the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic corticosterone therapy for mitigating symptoms of PTSD are discussed, particularly in relation to diminishing hyperarousal and exaggerated innate fear response.
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Synthesis, antibacterial activities, and theoretical studies of dicoumarols.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Four dicoumarols (DC, 2-PyDC, 3-PyDC and 4-PyDC) were synthesized and characterized via IR, (1)H NMR, HRMS, and single crystal X-ray crystallography. Two classical intramolecular O-H···O hydrogen bonds (HBs) stabilized their structures. The total HB energies in DC, 2-PyDC, 3-PyDC and 4-PyDC were calculated with the density functional theory (DFT) [B3LYP/6-31G*] method. The in vitro antibacterial activity of DC, 2-PyDC, 3-PyDC and 4-PyDC against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 29213), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA XJ 75302), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (Mu50 ATCC 700699), and USA 300 (Los Angeles County clone, LAC) was evaluated by observing the minimum inhibitory concentration and time-kill curves. The results showed that among all the compounds, 2-PyDC exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity.
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Pseudohypoparathyroidism with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Turner syndrome: a case report.
Gynecol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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To report the case of an individual with PHP, Turner syndrome and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
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Peer support for patients with type 2 diabetes in rural communities of China: protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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The prevalence of diabetes has been growing rapidly in developing countries. This causes devastating economic burdens and increases demands on the health care system. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find a cost-effective and multi-faceted approach for diabetes care. Peer support models provide a potentially low-cost, flexible means which complements the current existing health care services. In this way, trained peer leaders can become qualified extensions to a formal healthcare system, capable of assisting education delivery and bolstering the efforts of professional staff. As such, creating a cultural specific peer support program and determining whether it is acceptable and cost-effective in rural communities of China is crucial. This study aims to implement and evaluate biophysical and psychosocial outcomes of peer support program for people with type 2 diabetes in rural communities, and to explore the program's feasibility and sustainability in China.
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Serum and amygdala microRNA signatures of posttraumatic stress: fear correlation and biomarker potential.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Exposure to acute traumatic stress can cause permanent changes in neurological circuitry and may lead to the development of an anxiety disorder known as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Current diagnosis of PTSD is based on clinical or behavioral symptom assessment, however, these are not definitive due to overlapping symptoms with other psychiatric disorders or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). No FDA approved diagnostic tests or biomarkers are currently available for diagnosis of PTSD. Recently, circulating miRNAs have emerged as novel biomarkers of many diseases. In this study, we have examined the altered expression of serum and amygdala miRNAs in an animal model of PTSD. Differentially expressed and statistically significant miRNAs in serum were validated for their presence in amygdala of corresponding animals. A panel of nine stress-responsive miRNAs viz., miR-142-5p, miR-19b, miR-1928, miR-223-3p, miR-322?, miR-324, miR-421-3p and miR-463? and miR-674? were identified, and may have potential as biomarker(s) for PTSD. Further validations by bioinformatics and system biology approaches indicate that five miRNAs such as miR-142-5p, miR-19b, miR-1928, miR-223 and miR-421-3p may play a potential role in the regulation of genes associated with delayed and exaggerated fear. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the plausibility of using circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of PTSD.
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Risk factors for postoperative stricture after endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial esophageal carcinoma.
Endoscopy
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is accepted as an established treatment modality for superficial esophageal carcinoma (SEC). The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for postoperative stricture after ESD for SEC.
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Posterior iliac crescent fracture-dislocation: is it only rotationally unstable?
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Posterior iliac crescent fracture-dislocation is generally considered rotationally unstable and vertically stable. The current study (1) investigated whether vertical instability may occur in posterior iliac crescent fracture-dislocation and (2) analyzed the clinical features of vertically unstable iliac crescent fracture-dislocation as well as treatment strategies. Patients with pelvic fracture who were treated in the authors' department from June 2009 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. This study analyzed the clinical features, including incidence, hemodynamic state, associated injuries, injury severity score, and treatment methods for vertically unstable iliac crescent fracture-dislocation. Four patients had vertically unstable fracture-dislocation, accounting for 12.9% of all iliac crescent fracture-dislocations. All 4 patients were hemodynamically unstable on admission and had complications of associated injuries with a higher injury severity score. In 3 of the 4 patients, iliac crescent fracture-dislocations were reduced via the posterior approach at the initial stage and these patients underwent fixation with a plate. The remaining patient was initially given transcondylar traction because of severe complications and underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) via a posterior approach at a later stage. The outcomes of all 4 patients were rated as good or excellent by the Kobbe rating system at the last follow-up. Vertical instability may occur in iliac crescent fracture-dislocation. The authors propose ORIF of the fracture-dislocation via a posterior approach. When initial surgery is not possible because of severe associated organ injuries, the authors propose transcondylar traction to allow reduction of the sacroiliac joint and ORIF at a later stage.
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[Application of semi-supervised sparse representation classifier based on help training in EEG classification].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Electroencephalogram (EEG) classification for brain-computer interface (BCI) is a new way of realizing human-computer interreaction. In this paper the application of semi-supervised sparse representation classifier algorithms based on help training to EEG classification for BCI is reported. Firstly, the correlation information of the unlabeled data is obtained by sparse representation classifier and some data with high correlation selected. Secondly, the boundary information of the selected data is produced by discriminative classifier, which is the Fisher linear classifier. The final unlabeled data with high confidence are selected by a criterion containing the information of distance and direction. We applied this novel method to the three benchmark datasets, which were BCI I, BCI II_IV and USPS. The classification rate were 97%, 82% and 84.7%, respectively. Moreover the fastest arithmetic rate was just about 0. 2 s. The classification rate and efficiency results of the novel method are both better than those of S3VM and SVM, proving that the proposed method is effective.
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Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates neuronal ischemia-reperfusion injury by protecting mitochondrial function in rats.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Hydrogen, a popular antioxidant gas, can selectively reduce cytotoxic oxygen radicals and has been found to protect against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of multiple organs. Acute neuronal death during I/R has been attributed to loss of mitochondrial permeability transition coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction. This study was designed to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of hydrogen-rich saline on neuronal mitochondrial injury from global cerebral I/R in rats.
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Association between initial morphine intake and body weight change, acoustic startle reflex and drug seeking in rats.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Although chronic use of opiates can induce physical dependence and addiction, individual differences contributing to these symptoms are largely unknown.
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Enzymatic amplification detection of peanut allergen Ara h1 using a stem-loop DNA biosensor modified with a chitosan-mutiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite and spongy gold film.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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In this paper, a highly sensitive biosensor was constructed for peanut allergen Ara h1 detection. The biosensor was constructed by coating a glassy carbon electrode with a chitosan-mutiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite and then adding a spongy gold film via electro-deposition to increase the effective area. The probe switched from an "on" to an "off" state in the presence of target DNA, which detached biotin from the electrode surface. This also detached streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (HRP-SA), which was bound to the electrode via specific interaction with biotin. The HRP-SA catalyzed chemical oxidation of hydroquinone by H2O2 to form benzoquinone, and when it was detached, electrochemical reduction of the signal of benzoquinone could be used to monitor DNA hybridization via chronoamperometry. Under optimum conditions, a wide dynamic detection range (3.91 × 10(-17)-1.25 × 10(-15) mol L(-1)) and a low detection limit (1.3 × 10(-17) mol L(-1)) were achieved for the complementary sequence. Furthermore, the DNA biosensor exhibited an excellent ability to discriminate between a complementary target and a one-base mismatch or non-complementary sequence. The sensor was successfully applied to Ara h1 analysis in peanuts.
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Reversion of antibiotic resistance by inhibiting mecA in clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococci by antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide.
J. Antibiot.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci (MRS), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) have become a challenging problem in nosocomial infections and are connected with high morbidity and mortality rates. This is due to the increasing incidence of resistance to virtually all ?-lactams and a wide variety of antimicrobials. The spread of MRS severely limits therapeutic options and generates the need for novel antibiotics that are able to combat MRS infections. One method of inhibiting bacterial growth is by blocking the expression of conserved bacterial genes and provides potential new avenues for generating a new generation of antimicrobials. The mecA gene is highly conserved among Staphylococcal species, and this makes it an ideal target for antisense inhibition. We had identified a target sequence (854-871?nt) within the mecA mRNA coding region that is particularly sensitive to antisense inhibition. The anti-mecA PS-ODN04 oligonucleotide was encapsulated into an anionic liposome. MRSA01 and MRSE01 clinical strains treated with this antisense sequence became susceptible to existing ?-lactam antibiotics, and their growth was inhibited by oxacillin in vitro and in vivo. PS-ODN04 reduced the bacterial titers in the blood of mice infected with MRSA01 and MRSE01 and significantly improved their survival rate. Our data offer a possible new strategy for treating MRS infections.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 1 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ja.2014.132.
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Photoresponsive liquid marbles and dry water.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Stimuli-responsive liquid marbles for controlled release typically rely on organic moieties that require lengthy syntheses. We report herein a facile, one-step synthesis of hydrophobic and oleophobic TiO2 nanoparticles that display photoresponsive wettability. Water liquid marbles stabilized by these photoresponsive TiO2 particles were found to be stable when shielded from ultraviolet (UV) radiation; however, they quickly collapsed after being irradiated with 302 nm UV light. Oil- and organic-solvent-based liquid marbles could also be fabricated using oleophobic TiO2 nanoparticles and show similar UV-induced collapse. Finally, we demonstrated the formation of the micronized form of water liquid marbles, also known as dry water, by homogenization of the TiO2 nanoparticles with water. The TiO2 dry water displayed a similar photoresponse, whereby the micronized liquid marbles collapsed after irradiation and the dry water turned from a free-flowing powder to a paste. Hence, by exploiting the photoresponsive wettability of TiO2, we fabricated liquid marbles and dry water that display photoresponse and studied the conditions required for their collapse.
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Comparison of restrictive and liberal transfusion strategy on postoperative delirium in aged patients following total hip replacement: a preliminary study.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Few studies have examined the association between perioperative blood transfusion and postoperative delirium (POD) in aged patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery. In this prospective study, 186 patients older than 65 years undergoing elective unilateral total hip replacement surgery were enrolled. Of those, 94 patients were randomly assigned to the restrictive strategy transfusion strategy group, in which red blood cells were transfused in order to maintain 10.0 g/dL>hemoglobin?8.0 g/dL. Ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to the liberal transfusion strategy group, in which red blood cells were transfused in order to maintain hemoglobin?10.0 g/dL. POD was diagnosed by confusion assessment method. The baseline characteristics of patients, the length of hospital stay, the incidence of POD, myocardial infarction, stroke, wound infection, pulmonary embolism, and the transfusion volume were recorded. No difference was observed in the baseline characteristics, the length of hospital stay, and the incidence of POD, myocardial infarction, stroke, wound infection, and pulmonary embolism between the two groups (P>0.05). The proportion of patients transfused with red blood cell and frozen plasma was decreased in the restrictive transfusion group compared with the liberal transfusion group (P<0.05). In conclusion, restrictive transfusion does not influence the incidence of POD but reduces blood transfusion. Thus, restrictive transfusion may serve as an effective and safe strategy for aged patients following total hip replacement.
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Prevalence and associated factors of induced abortion among rural married women: A cross-sectional survey in Anhui, China.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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This study aims to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with induced abortion among married women in rural areas of Anhui Province, China.
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Mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 induced by ROS contributed to cardiomyocyte apoptosis in metabolic syndrome.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis which contributes to cardiac dysfunction after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Nur77, a nuclear orphan receptor, is involved in such various cellular events as apoptosis, proliferation, and glucose and lipid metabolism in several cell types. Apoptosis is positively correlated with mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 in the cancer cells. However, the roles of Nur77 on cardiac myocytes in patients with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether Nur77 may contribute to cardiac apoptosis in patients with metabolic syndrome after I/R injury, and, if so, to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible. We used leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice to make metabolic syndrome models. In this report, we observed that, accompanied by the substantial decline in apoptosis inducer Nur77, MI/R induced cardiac dysfunction was manifested as cardiomyopathy and increased ROS. Using the neonatal rat cardiac myocytes cultured in a high-glucose and high-fat medium, we found that excessive H2O2 led to the significant alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential and translocation of Nur77 from the nucleus to the mitochondria. However, inhibition of the relocation of Nur77 to mitochondria via Cyclosporin A reversed the changes in membrane potential mediated by H2O2 and reduced myocardial cell injury. Therefore, these data provide a potential underlying mechanism for cardiac dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and the suppression of Nur77 translocation may provide an effective approach to reduce cardiac injury in the process.
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Subcutaneous injection is a simple and reproducible option to restore parathyroid function after total parathyroidectomy in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common clinical problem seen in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis. In patients with severe persistent hyperparathyroidism, parathyroidectomies are often required.
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Disruption of hippocampal neuregulin 1-ErbB4 signaling contributes to the hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane in aged mice.
Anesthesiology
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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A prolonged isoflurane exposure may lead to cognitive decline in rodents. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling plays a key role in the modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity through regulating the neurotransmission. The authors hypothesized that hippocampal NRG1-ErbB4 signaling is involved in isoflurane-induced cognitive impairments in aged mice.
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Methylation profiling of ductal carcinoma in situ and its relationship to histopathological features.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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IntroductionDNA methylation is a well-studied biomarker in invasive breast cancer, but its role in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is less well characterized. The aims of this study are to assess the methylation profile in DCIS for a panel of well-characterized genes that are frequently methylated in breast cancer, to investigate the relationship of methylation with pathological features, and to perform a proof-of-principle study to evaluate the practicality of methylation as a biomarker in diagnostic DCIS material.MethodsPromoter CpG island methylation for a panel of 11 breast cancer-related genes was performed by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsies from 72 samples of pure DCIS (DCIS occurring in the absence of synchronous invasive carcinoma), 10 samples of mixed DCIS (DCIS adjacent to invasive carcinoma), and 18 samples of normal breast epithelium adjacent to a DCIS lesion were micro-dissected prior to DNA extraction.ResultsMethylation was seen for all the tested genes except BRCA1. RASSF1A was the most frequently methylated gene (90% of DCIS samples) and its methylation was associated with comedo necrosis (p¿=¿0.018). Cluster analysis based on the methylation profile revealed four groups, the highly methylated cluster being significantly associated with high nuclear grade, HER2 amplification, negative estrogen receptor (ER) ¿ status, and negative progesterone receptor (PgR) status, (p¿=¿0.038, p¿=¿0.018, p¿<¿0.001, p¿=¿0.001, respectively). Methylation of APC (p¿=¿0.017), CDH13 (p¿=¿0.017), and RARß (p¿<¿0.001) was associated with negative ER¿ status. Methylation of CDH13 (p¿<¿0.001), and RARß (p¿=¿0.001) was associated with negative PgR status. Methylation of APC (p¿=¿0.013) and CDH13 (p¿=¿0.026) was associated with high nuclear grade. Methylation of CDH13 (p¿=¿0.009), and RARß (p¿=¿0.042) was associated with HER2-amplification.ConclusionsDNA methylation can be assessed in FFPE-derived samples using suitable methodologies. Methylation of a panel of genes that are known to be methylated in invasive breast cancer was able to classify DCIS into distinct groups and was differentially associated with phenotypic features in DCIS.
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Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Previous studies concerning the association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes have provided controversial findings.
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Epigenetic enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathway improves cognitive impairments induced by isoflurane exposure in aged rats.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Isoflurane-induced cognitive impairments are well documented in animal models; yet, the molecular mechanisms remain largely to be determined. In the present study, 22-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received 2 h of 1.5 % isoflurane or 100 % oxygen daily for 3 consecutive days. For the intervention study, the rats were intraperitoneally injected with 1.2 g/kg sodium butyrate 2 h before isoflurane exposure. Our data showed that repeated isoflurane exposure significantly decreased the freezing time to context and the freezing time to tone in the fear conditioning test, which was associated with upregulated histone deacetylase 2, reduced histone acetylation, and increased inflammation and apoptosis in the hippocampus, and impairments of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) and the downstream signaling pathway phospho-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein. These results suggest that isoflurane-induced cognitive impairments are associated with the declines in chromatin histone acetylation and the resulting downregulation of BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway. Moreover, the cognitive impairments and the signaling deficits can be rescued by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate. Therefore, epigenetic enhancement of BDNF-TrkB signaling may be a promising strategy for reversing isoflurane-induced cognitive impairments.
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Expression of TRPV1 in the C57BL/6 mice brain hippocampus and cortex during development.
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel has been found to be expressed in a variety of tissues over the last few years, including the central nervous system (CNS). However, the distribution of TRPV1 in the CNS remains a controversial question. Here, we reveal that the expression of TRPV1 can be detected in the C57BL/6 mouse hippocampus and cortex using real-time PCR and western blot. Beyond that, mRNA and protein expression levels of TRPV1 show dynamic changes during brain development. Compared with the earliest timepoint examined at 2 weeks, the expression levels of mRNA progressively increased at 4 and 8 weeks, peaking at the later timepoint, then declined at 16 weeks but remained elevated. However, compared with 2-week-old mice, the expression levels of the other three groups (4-, 8-, and 16-week-old mice) increased overall. These results indicate that TRPV1 channel expression is detectable in the CNS and it varies during postnatal development.
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Dexmedetomidine alleviates anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive impairments in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disease that has substantial health implications, including high rates of health morbidity and mortality, as well as increased health-related costs. Although many pharmacological agents have proven the effects on the development of PTSD, current pharmacotherapies typically only produce partial improvement of PTSD symptoms. Dexmedetomidine is a selective, short-acting ?2-adrenoceptor agonist, which has anxiolytic, sedative, and analgesic effects. We therefore hypothesized that dexmedetomidine possesses the ability to prevent the development of PTSD and alleviate its symptoms. By using the rat model of PTSD induced by five electric foot shocks followed by three weekly exposures to situational reminders, we showed that the stressed rats displayed pronounced anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive impairments compared to the controls. Notably, repeated administration of 20?g/kg dexmedetomidine showed impaired fear conditioning memory, decreased anxiety-like behaviors, and improved spatial cognitive impairments compared to the vehicle-treated stressed rats. These data suggest that dexmedetomidine may exert preventive and protective effects against anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive impairments in the rats with PTSD after repeated administration.
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Transcriptome and proteomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruits.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Here we used Illumina RNA-seq technology for transcriptome sequencing of a mixed fruit sample from 'Zill' mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit pericarp and pulp during the development and ripening stages. RNA-seq generated 68,419,722 sequence reads that were assembled into 54,207 transcripts with a mean length of 858bp, including 26,413 clusters and 27,794 singletons. A total of 42,515(78.43%) transcripts were annotated using public protein databases, with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5), of which 35,198 and 14,619 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. Functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 23,741(43.79%) transcripts which were mapped to 128 pathways. These pathways revealed many previously unknown transcripts. We also applied mass spectrometry-based transcriptome data to characterize the proteome of ripe fruit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango fruit proteome was using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in an LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Thermo) coupled online to the HPLC. This approach enabled the identification of 7536 peptides that matched 2754 proteins. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of transcriptome during mango fruit development and the most comprehensive fruit proteome to date, which are useful for further genomics research and proteomic studies.
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A systematic review and quantitative assessment of sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Previous investigations have suggested a strong association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. However, the results of the following replication studies were not always concordant. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the more reliable estimate.
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Sequence artefacts in a prospective series of formalin-fixed tumours tested for mutations in hotspot regions by massively parallel sequencing.
BMC Med Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Clinical specimens undergoing diagnostic molecular pathology testing are fixed in formalin due to the necessity for detailed morphological assessment. However, formalin fixation can cause major issues with molecular testing, as it causes DNA damage such as fragmentation and non-reproducible sequencing artefacts after PCR amplification. In the context of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), distinguishing true low frequency variants from sequencing artefacts remains challenging. The prevalence of formalin-induced DNA damage and its impact on molecular testing and clinical genomics remains poorly understood.
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Hepatotoxic constituents and toxicological mechanism of Xanthium strumarium L. fruits.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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In the recent years, the international community has attached increasing importance to possible toxicity associated with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). And hepatotoxicity is one of the major concerns, a fundamental pathological process induced by toxicant. This paper is in an attempt to identify the hepatotoxic components in Xanthium strumarium L. fruits (XSF) and interpret the toxicological mechanism induced by XSF.
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Facile synthesis and characterization of polyethylenimine-coated Fe?O? superparamagnetic nanoparticles for cancer cell separation.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The detection of cancer cells in clinical samples is of great interest for a range of diagnostic applications, and separation and enrichment of cancer cells in low concentrations from complex sample matrices is necessary for efficient cancer diagnostics. In the present study, new surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized for the separation of lung cancer cells by simple precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts in an aqueous ammonia solution, followed by the addition of polyethylenimine (PEI). The modified nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). XRD and TEM revealed that the particles were ~10 nm in diameter, while FTIR and XPS showed that their surfaces were well coated with PEI. VSM results confirmed the superparamagnetic nature of PEI-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The separation and enrichment of lung cancer cells from sputum samples was demonstrated using the synthesized developed PEI-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Exfoliative cytopathology showed that the percentage of positive cells increased from 6.3% (38/600) in untreated sputum samples to 38.5% (231/600) in sputum samples treated with PEI-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposites. This finding indicated that PEI-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposites can be used to efficiently enrich lung cancer cells from sputum for subsequent cytopathological analysis.
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Gibberella moniliformis AH13 with antitumor activity, an endophytic fungus strain producing triolein isolated from Adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi: poaceae).
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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In this study, the isolation of an endophytic fungus from the leaves of the medicinal herb adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is reported for the first time. The fungus produced Triolein (trioleoylglycerol), a major constituent of triacylglycerols (TAGs) of adlay, in rice medium under shake-flask and bench-scale fermentation conditions. The fungus was identified as Gibberella moniliformis (Fusarium verticillioides) by its morphology and authenticated by ITS analysis (ITS1 and ITS2 regions and the intervening 5.8S rDNA region). Triolein was identified by HPLC-ELSD coupled with APCI-MS and confirmed through comparison with authentic standard. The concentration of triolein produced by G. moniliformis AH13 reached 2.536 ± 0.006 mg/g dry weight of mycelium. Moreover, the EtOAc extract of G. moniliformis AH13 showed strong antitumor activity against four types of tumor cells (A549, HCT116, MDA-MB-231, and SW1990). These results suggest that G. moniliformis AH13 in adlay has significant scientific and industrial potential to meet the pharmaceutical demands and sustainable energy requirements for TAGs in a cost-effective, easily accessible, and reproducible way and is also a potential novel source of natural antitumor bioactive agents.
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Regulation of Kv4.2 A-Type Potassium Channels in HEK-293 Cells by Hypoxia.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We previously observed that A-type potassium currents were decreased and membrane excitability increased in hippocampal dentate granule cells after neonatal global hypoxia associated with seizures. Here, we studied the effects of hypoxia on the function and expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 ? subunit channels, which encode rapidly inactivating A-type K currents, in transfected HEK-293 cells to determine if hypoxia alone could regulate IA in vitro. Global hypoxia in neonatal rat pups resulted in early decreased hippocampal expression of Kv4.2 mRNA and protein with 6 or 12?h post-hypoxia. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings revealed that similar times after hypoxia (1%) in vitro decreased peak currents mediated by recombinant Kv4.2 but not Kv4.3 channels. Hypoxia had no significant effect on the voltage-dependencies of activation and inactivation of Kv4.2 channels, but increased the time constant of activation. The same result was observed when Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 channels were co-expressed in a 1:1 ratio. These data suggested that hypoxia directly modulates A-type potassium channels of the subfamily typically expressed in principal hippocampal neurons, and does so in a manner to decrease function. Given the role of IA to slow action potential firing, these data are consistent with a direct effect of hypoxia to decrease IA as a mechanism of increased neuronal excitability and promotion of seizures.
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Mitochondrial Gene Expression Profiles and Metabolic Pathways in the Amygdala Associated with Exaggerated Fear in an Animal Model of PTSD.
Front Neurol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The metabolic mechanisms underlying the development of exaggerated fear in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are not well defined. In the present study, alteration in the expression of genes associated with mitochondrial function in the amygdala of an animal model of PTSD was determined. Amygdala tissue samples were excised from 10 non-stressed control rats and 10 stressed rats, 14?days post-stress treatment. Total RNA was isolated, cDNA was synthesized, and gene expression levels were determined using a cDNA microarray. During the development of the exaggerated fear associated with PTSD, 48 genes were found to be significantly upregulated and 37 were significantly downregulated in the amygdala complex based on stringent criteria (p?
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Differential Expression of Brain Cannabinoid Receptors between Repeatedly Stressed Males and Females may Play a Role in Age and Gender-Related Difference in Traumatic Brain Injury: Implications from Animal Studies.
Front Neurol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Inconsistent gender differences in the outcome of TBI have been reported. The mechanism is unknown. In a recent male animal study, repeated stress followed by TBI had synergistic effects on brain gene expression and caused greater behavioral deficits. Because females are more likely to develop anxiety after stress and because anxiety is mediated by cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) (CB1 and CB2), there is a need to compare CB1 and CB2 expression in stressed males and females. CB1 and CB2 mRNA expression was determined in the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hypothalamus of adolescent male and female rats after 3?days of repeated tail-shock stress using qPCR. PFC CB1 and CB2 protein levels were determined using Western blot techniques. Both gender and stress had significant effects on brain CB1 mRNA expression levels. Overall, females showed significantly higher CB1 and CB2 mRNA levels in all brain regions than males (p?
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Alpha-2-glycoprotein 1(AZGP1) regulates biological behaviors of LoVo cells by down-regulating mTOR signaling pathway and endogenous fatty acid synthesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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AZGP1 is a multifaceted protein associated with lipid mobilization, a process that is regulated by FASN and other metabolic pathways such as mTOR signaling. The active mTOR signaling pathway has been found to be involved in a variety of tumors. However, it remains unclear whether it is involved in the regulation of AZGP1 and FASN. An AZGP1-expressing plasmid was transfected into a human colorectal cancer cell line (LoVo) with a low expression of AZGP1. The expression of AZGP1, FASN, eIF4E, p-mTOR, p-S6,and S6K1 were measured by Western blot analysis, and target genes were detected by RT-PCR. Cell proliferation was studied using the MTT and colony formation assays. The analysis of apoptosis and the cell cycle phase were assessed by flow cytometry. The capacity of cell migration was investigated using the transwell migration assay. We found that the expression of AZGP1 was up-regulated while the expression of FASN, eIF4E, p-mTOR, p-S6, and S6K1 were down-regulated in LoVo cells after AZGP1 was expressed. The proliferation of malignant cells was reduced in AZGP1-overexpression cells, which is consistent with an increased in the G2-arrest and apoptosis rate. Furthermore, the migration of AZGP1-overexpression cells was decreased. The overexpression of AZGP1 suppressed the activation of the mTOR pathway and endogenous FASN-regulated fatty acid synthesis, mitigating the malignant phenotype of LoVo cells. Herein, we provide evidence that AZGP1 may constitute a novel tumor suppressor for LoVo colorectal cancer cells.
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[Prevention and treatment of complications during and after endoscopic mucosal band ligation for esophageal precancerous lesions and early cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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To investigate the prevention and treatment of complications during and after endoscopic mucosal band ligation(EMBL) for precancerous lesions and early cancer in the esophagus.
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A new diphenyl ether from the endophytic fungus Verticillium sp. isolated from Rehmannia glutinosa.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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To investigate the chemical constituents of the endophytic fungus Verticillium sp. isolated from Rehmannia glutinosa.
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[Effect of miRNA-106a expression on the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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To study the expression of miRNA-106a gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its association with clinicopathological features and prognosis of ESCC patients.
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Tuning omniphobicity via morphological control of metal-organic framework functionalized surfaces.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Fabrication of microstructures for imparting omniphobicity to a surface generally requires the use of lithographic techniques and specialized equipment. We report instead a simple strategy for the synthesis of microstructured surfaces via metal–organic framework (MOF) self-assembly. Our method allows us to localize epitaxial growth of MOF at the tips of needle crystals to create mushroom-shaped structures, thus conferring re-entrant textures to the MOF-functionalized surfaces. These structures synthesized via wet chemistry were found to have omniphobic properties due to the resulting re-entrant texture.
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Elicitors from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma atroviride promote Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root growth and tanshinone biosynthesis.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Biotic elicitors can be used to stimulate the production of secondary metabolites in plants. However, limited information is available on the effects of biotic elicitors from endophytic fungi on their host plant. Trichoderma atroviride D16 is an endophytic fungus isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza and previously reported to produce tanshinone I (T-I) and tanshinone IIA (T-IIA). Here, the effects of extract of mycelium (EM) and the polysaccharide fraction (PSF), produced by T. atroviride D16, on the growth and secondary metabolism of S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots are reported. The results indicated that both EM and PSF promoted hairy root growth and stimulated the biosynthesis of tanshinones in hairy roots. EM slightly suppressed the accumulation of phenolic acids, while PSF had no significant influence on the accumulation of these compounds. When comparing the effects of EM versus PSF, it was concluded that PSF is one of the main active constituents responsible for promoting hairy root growth, as well as stimulating biosynthesis of tanshinones in the hairy root cultures. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of genes involved in the tanshinone biosynthetic pathway increased significantly with PSF treatment. Thus, PSF from endophytic T. atroviride D16 affected the chemical composition of the host plant by influencing the expression of genes related to the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, treatment with PSF can be effectively utilized for large-scale production of tanshinones in the S. miltiorrhiza hairy root culture system.
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Role of TRPV1 in susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure following repeated hyperthermia challenges in neonatal mice.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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This study was designed to investigate the role of experimental febrile seizures in the induction of generalized clonic seizures and the involvement of heat-sensitive channel TRPV1. Pentylenetetrazol-induced clonic seizure was used as the seizure model, and Trpv1 gene knock-out and wild-type C57/BL6 mice were used as experimental subjects. Electroencephalograph and seizure behavior were recorded for the evaluation of the severity of seizures. Increased frequency of the experimental febrile seizures facilitated PTZ-induced generalized clonic seizures. Trpv1 gene deficiency decreased the properties of generalized clonic seizure. The intensity of experimental febrile seizures reduced the threshold to generalized clonic seizure, and Trpv1 gene deficiency decreased the susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures following early-life hyperthermia challenges in mice.
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National survey of doctor-reported secondary preventive treatment for patients with acute coronary syndrome in China.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Long-term use of antiplatelet agents, statins, beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are proven therapies for secondary prevention in acute coronary syndrome. However, little is known of physicians opinion about their use in China.
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The Novel Caspase-3 Substrate Gap43 is Involved in AMPA Receptor Endocytosis and Long-Term Depression.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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The cysteine protease caspase-3, best known as an executioner of cell death in apoptosis, also plays a non-apoptotic role in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-dependent long-term depression of synaptic transmission (NMDAR-LTD) and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor endocytosis in neurons. The mechanism by which caspase-3 regulates LTD and AMPA receptor endocytosis, however, remains unclear. Here, we addressed this question by using an enzymatic N-terminal peptide enrichment method and mass spectrometry to identify caspase-3 substrates in neurons. Of the many candidates revealed by this proteomic study, we have confirmed BASP1, Dbn1, and Gap43 as true caspase-3 substrates. Moreover, in hippocampal neurons, Gap43 mutants deficient in caspase-3 cleavage inhibit AMPA receptor endocytosis and LTD. We further demonstrated that Gap43, a protein well-known for its functions in axons, is also localized at postsynaptic sites. Our study has identified Gap43 as a key caspase-3 substrate involved in LTD and AMPA receptor endocytosis, uncovered a novel postsynaptic function for Gap43 and provided new insights into how long-term synaptic depression is induced.
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Key role for the transcriptional factor, osterix, in spine development.
Spine J
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Osterix (Osx) is an important transcriptional factor for bone formation; however, its role in spine development has not been determined.
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R-thanatin inhibits growth and biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis in vivo and in vitro.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most frequent causes of device-associated infections, because it is known to cause biofilms that grow on catheters or other surgical implants. The persistent increasing resistance of S. epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) has driven the need for newer antibacterial agents with innovative therapeutic strategies. Thanatin is reported to display potent antibiotic activities, especially against extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. The present study aimed to investigate whether a shorter derivative peptide (R-thanatin) could be used as a novel antibacterial agent. We found that R-thanatin was highly potent in vitro against coagulase-negative staphylococci, such as S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, and S. hominis, and inhibited biofilm formation at subinhibitory concentrations. Properties of little toxicity to human red blood cells (hRBCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, a low incidence of resistance, and relatively high stability in plasma were confirmed. Excellent in vivo protective effects were also observed using a methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE)-induced urinary tract infection rat model. Electron microscopy and confocal laser-scanning microscopy analyses suggested that R-thanatin disturbed cell division of MRSE severely, which might be the reason for inhibition of MRSE growth. These findings indicate that R-thanatin is active against the growth and biofilm formation of MRSE in vitro and in vivo. R-thanatin might be considered as a specific drug candidate for treating CoNS infections.
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Duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection vs. pancreatoduodenectomy for benign lesions and low-grade malignancies of the pancreatic head.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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To compare the postoperative results of duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) techniques with those of conventional pancreatoduodenectomy (PD).
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Valproic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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Valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in a range of diseases including septic shock. However, the effects of VPA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains not well understood. We found that VPA pretreatment attenuated the LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and wet-to-dry weight ratio in the lung tissues. This was accompanied by the downregulated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) p65, nitric oxide, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the lung tissues and the decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1? in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, VPA reduced the nuclear histone deacetylase (HDAC)3 expression whereas increased the cytoplasmic HDAC3 expression. Our results suggested that VPA attenuates the LPS-induced ALI via inhibiting the NF-?B activation probably through a mechanism depending on HDAC3 redistribution.
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Gender difference in epileptogenic effects of 2-BFI and BU224 in mice.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
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Imidazoline I2 receptors are involved in pain modulation and psychiatric disorders and its ligands may represent a new therapeutic strategy against pain and depression. In particular, 2-BFI and BU224 are the two most widely studied I2 receptor ligands and have antinociceptive and antidepressant-like activities in rodents. However, little is known of the toxicological effects and potential gender differences of these I2 receptor ligands. This study examined the epileptogenic activities of 2-BFI and BU224 in male and female mice and also examined their underlying receptor mechanisms. 2-BFI (10-40 mg/kg, i.p.) and BU224 (10-40 mg/kg) produced epileptic seizures in a dose-related manner, as did the epileptogenic agent, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 15-60 mg/kg). However, female mice were significantly more sensitive than male mice in all the measures. The commonly used I2 receptor antagonist, idazoxan (10mg/kg), did not block the onset and magnitude of the epileptic seizures or lethality induced by 2-BFI and BU224. When studied in combination, PTZ potentiated the epileptogenic effect of 2-BFI and BU224. The lack of antagonism by idazoxan of the epileptogenic activities of 2-BFI and BU224 suggests that the epileptogenic effects of 2-BFI and BU224 are mediated by non-imidazoline I2 receptors and that I2 receptors remain a viable therapeutic target for neurological disorders such as pain.
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Class I histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid reverses cognitive deficits in a mouse model of septic encephalopathy.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Accumulating evidence suggests that histone deacetylase inhibitor exert neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurological diseases. We investigated for the first time whether class I histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) can reverse cognitive deficits in a mouse model of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE). Moreover, the possible mechanisms of protection were also explored. A mouse model of SAE was induced in adult male mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Mice received an administration of saline or VPA (100 mg/kg) once daily for 14 consecutive days starting either immediately or 2 weeks after operation. Furthermore, the TrkB antagonist K252a was used in another group of experiment to investigate whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB signaling pathway is involved in the protection of VPA. Our data suggested that CLP resulted in significant cognitive impairments accompanied by increased expressions in interleukin-1? and caspase-3, and decreased expressions in BDNF, phospho-TrkB (pTrkB), postsynaptic density 95, and synapses, which were reversed by VPA. However, TrkB antagonist K252a abolished the beneficial effects of VPA with regard to cognition and decreased pTrkB expression and synapses in the hippocampus. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggested chronic treatment with VPA reverses cognitive deficits through mechanisms probably via a reduction in inflammation and apoptosis in the brain, as well as the activation of the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway in a mouse model of SAE.
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Age-dependent regulation of synaptic connections by dopamine D2 receptors.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) are G protein-coupled receptors that modulate synaptic transmission and are important for various brain functions, including learning and working memory. Abnormal D2R signaling has been implicated in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Here we report a new function of D2R in dendritic spine morphogenesis. Activation of D2R reduced spine number via GluN2B- and cAMP-dependent mechanisms in mice. Notably, this regulation occurred only during adolescence. During this period, D2R overactivation caused by mutations in the schizophrenia risk gene Dtnbp1 led to spine deficiency, dysconnectivity in the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit and impairment of spatial working memory. Notably, these defects could be ameliorated by D2R blockers administered during adolescence. Our findings suggest an age-dependent function of D2R in spine development, provide evidence that D2R dysfunction during adolescence impairs neuronal circuits and working memory, and indicate that adolescent interventions to prevent aberrant D2R activity protect against cognitive impairment.
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DNA methylation in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor lesion of invasive carcinoma of the breast. Current prognostic markers based on histopathological examination are unable to accurately predict which DCIS cases will progress to invasive carcinoma or recur after surgical excision. Epigenetic changes have been shown to be a significant driver of tumorigenesis, and DNA methylation of specific gene promoters provides predictive and prognostic markers in many types of cancer, including invasive breast cancer. In general, the spectrum of genes that are methylated in DCIS strongly resembles that seen in invasive ductal carcinoma. The identification of specific prognostic markers in DCIS remains elusive and awaits additional work investigating a large panel of methylatable genes by using sensitive and reproducible technologies. This review critically appraises the role of methylation in DCIS and its use as a biomarker.
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[Analysis of the short-term efficacy and safety of endoscopic mucosal band ligation in the treatment of esophageal precancerous lesions and esophageal early cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of endoscopic mucosal band ligation(EMBL) in the treatment of esophageal precancerous lesions and esophageal early cancer.
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Different types of toxins targeting TRPV1 in pain.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1(TRPV1) channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily. Members of this family are expressed in primary sensory neurons and are best known for their role in nociception and sensory transmission. Multiple painful stimuli can activate these channels. In this review, we discussed the mechanisms of different types of venoms that target TRPV1, such as scorpion venom, botulinum neurotoxin, spider toxin, ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). Some of these toxins activate TRPV1; however, some do not. Regardless of TRPV1 inhibition or activation, they occur through different pathways. For example, BoNT/A decreases TRPV1 expression levels by blocking TRPV1 trafficking to the plasma membrane, although the exact mechanism is still under debate. Vanillotoxins from tarantula (Psalmopoeus cambridgei) are proposed to activate TRPV1 via interaction with a region of TRPV1 that is homologous to voltage-dependent ion channels. Here, we offer a description of the present state of knowledge for this complex subject.
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bFGF promotes the differentiation and effectiveness of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in a rotenone model for Parkinsons disease.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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Previous studies have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) engraftment could alleviate motor dysfunction in parkinsonian animal models, but with limited efficacy and few engrafted cells surviving. On the other side, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) reportedly displays many effects including neuroprotection and promoting multipotent cells to expand and differentiate. In this study, we assessed whether a combination of bFGF and human BMSCs (HBMSCs) therapy could enhance the treatment effectiveness in Parkinsons disease (PD) rat models. Specifically, bFGF promoted HBMSCs to transdifferentiate toward neural-like lineages in vitro. In addition, HBMSCs transplantation alleviated the motor functional asymmetry, as well as prevented dopaminergic neuron loss in a PD model, while bFGF administration enhances its neurodifferentiation capacity and therapeutic effect. In conclusion, optimizing culture condition like supplementation of bFGF could significantly improve the output of HBMSCs in vitro, and HBMSCs transplantation with bFGF might represent an improved transplantation approach for PD.
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[ACEI/ARB use among high risk patients with coronary heart disease in China: a cross-sectional study].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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This study investigated current use of ACEI/ARB among high risk patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in China and factors affecting ACEI/ARB use in these patients.
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Self-expandable metallic stent placement plus laparoscopy for acute malignant colorectal obstruction.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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To investigate the clinical advantages of the stent-laparoscopy approach to treat colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with acute colorectal obstruction (ACO).
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A proteome-wide visual screen identifies fission yeast proteins localizing to DNA double-strand breaks.
DNA Repair (Amst.)
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a major threat to genome integrity. Proteins involved in DNA damage checkpoint signaling and DSB repair often relocalize and concentrate at DSBs. Here, we used an ORFeome library of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to systematically identify proteins targeted to DSBs. We found 51 proteins that, when expressed from a strong exogenous promoter on the ORFeome plasmids, were able to form a distinct nuclear focus at an HO endonuclease-induced DSB. The majority of these proteins have known connections to DNA damage response, but few have been visualized at a specific DSB before. Among the screen hits, 37 can be detected at DSBs when expressed from native promoters. We classified them according to the focus emergence timing of the endogenously tagged proteins. Eight of these 37 proteins are yet unnamed. We named these eight proteins DNA-break-localizing proteins (Dbls) and performed preliminary functional analysis on two of them, Dbl1 (SPCC2H8.05c) and Dbl2 (SPCC553.01c). We found that Dbl1 and Dbl2 contribute to the normal DSB targeting of checkpoint protein Rad26 (homolog of human ATRIP) and DNA repair helicase Fml1 (homolog of human FANCM), respectively. As the first proteome-wide inventory of DSB-localizing proteins, our screen result will be a useful resource for understanding the mechanisms of eukaryotic DSB response.
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An autoinhibited conformation of LGN reveals a distinct interaction mode between GoLoco motifs and TPR motifs.
Structure
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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LGN plays essential roles in asymmetric cell divisions via its N-terminal TPR-motif-mediated binding to mInsc and NuMA. This scaffolding activity requires the release of the autoinhibited conformation of LGN by binding of G?(i) to its C-terminal GoLoco (GL) motifs. The interaction between the GL and TPR motifs of LGN represents a distinct GL/target binding mode with an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that two consecutive GL motifs of LGN form a minimal TPR-motif-binding unit. GL12 and GL34 bind to TPR0-3 and TPR4-7, respectively. The crystal structure of a truncated LGN reveals that GL34 forms a pair of parallel ? helices and binds to the concave surface of TPR4-7, thereby preventing LGN from binding to other targets. Importantly, the GLs bind to TPR motifs with a mode distinct from that observed in the GL/G?(i)·GDP complexes. Our results also indicate that multiple and orphan GL motif proteins likely respond to G proteins with distinct mechanisms.
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The role of autophagy in Parkinsons disease: rotenone-based modeling.
Behav Brain Funct
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Autophagy-mediated self-digestion of cytoplasmic inclusions may be protective against neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinsons disease (PD). However, excessive autophagic activation evokes autophagic programmed cell death.
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The changing clinical patterns of primary hyperparathyroidism in Chinese patients: data from 2000 to 2010 in a single clinical center.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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In Western countries, most patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are asymptomatic. The incidence of parathyroid cancer is as low as 1% but is trending upward. The clinical outlook for Chinese patients with PHPT is unclear.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.