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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Step-by-Step Fracture of Two-Layer Stacked Graphene Membranes.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Layer-by-layer assembly of graphene has been proven to be an effective way to improve its mechanical properties, but its fracture mechanism, which is crucial for practical device applications, is still not clear and has not been fully studied yet. By consecutive stacking of two graphene monolayers, we fabricate two-layer stacked graphene membranes with a clean interface between the two layers. Fracture behavior of the two-layer stacked graphene membranes is studied using nanoindentation performed by atomic force microscopy. It is found that the fracture force distribution of stacked graphene is very different from that of monolayer graphene. Weibull statistics of fracture forces show that after layer-by-layer stacking of graphene, the membrane becomes less sensitive to the defects during nanoindentation, improving the overall performance of the graphene membranes. Interestingly, a third of our tested membranes show a stepwise fracture, which could serve as a warning message for the mechanical failure of multilayer graphene devices. Our study provides insight into the fracture mechanism of multilayer graphene membranes.
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[Analysis for related factors of upper urinary tract deterioration in patients with spinal cord injury].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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To evaluate the related factors of upper urinary tract deterioration in spinal cord injured patients.
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Vertically Architectured Stack of Multiple Graphene Field-Effect Transistors for Flexible Electronics.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Vertically architectured stack of multiple graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) on a flexible substrate show great mechanical flexibility and robustness. The four GFETs are integrated in the vertical direction, and dually gated GFETs with graphene channel, PMMA dielectrics, and graphene gate electrodes are realized.
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Metabolic acidosis and strong ion gap in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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To determine the influence of physicochemical parameters on survival in metabolic acidosis (MA) and acute kidney injury (AKI) patients.
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Asymmetric Triple Relay Catalysis: Enantioselective Synthesis of Spirocyclic Indolines through a One-Pot Process Featuring an Asymmetric 6? Electrocyclization.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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A rare example of a one-pot process that involves asymmetric triple relay catalysis is reported. The key step is an asymmetric [1,5] electrocyclic reaction of functionalized ketimines. The substrates for this process were obtained in situ in a two-step process that involved the hydrogenation of nitroarenes with a Pd/C catalyst to yield aryl amines and their subsequent coupling with isatin derivatives in a Brønsted acid catalyzed ketimine formation reaction. The electrocyclization was catalyzed by a bifunctional chiral Brønsted base/hydrogen bond donor catalyst. The one-pot process gave the desired products in good yields and with excellent enantioselectivity.
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Topological surface state enhanced photothermoelectric effect in Bi2Se3 nanoribbons.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The photothermoelectric effect in topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoribbons is studied. The topological surface states are excited to be spin-polarized by circularly polarized light. Because the direction of the electron spin is locked to its momentum for the spin-helical surface states, the photothermoelectric effect is significantly enhanced as the oriented motions of the polarized spins are accelerated by the temperature gradient. The results are explained based on the microscopic mechanisms of a photon induced spin transition from the surface Dirac cone to the bulk conduction band. The as-reported enhanced photothermoelectric effect is expected to have potential applications in a spin-polarized power source.
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Effect of emodin on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans and the development of caries in rats.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Emodin is an active herbal component traditionally used in East Asian countries for treating a variety of diseases. The present study investigated the effects of emodin on specific virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in vitro and on caries development in vivo. The growth and acid production of S. mutans were significantly inhibited by emodin (0.5-2 mg/ml). Emodin also significantly suppressed the synthesis of insoluble glucans by S. mutans. Furthermore, the topical application of emodin reduced the incidence and severity of carious lesions in rats. These results suggest that the natural compound emodin may be a novel pharmacological agent for the prevention and treatment of dental caries.
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Long-term and short-term effects of hemodialysis on liver function evaluated using the galactose single-point test.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The galactose single-point (GSP) test assesses functioning liver mass by measuring the galactose concentration in the blood 1 hour after its administration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of hemodialysis (HD) on short-term and long-term liver function by use of GSP test.
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Magnetic moments in graphene with vacancies.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Vacancies can induce local magnetic moments in graphene, paving the way to make magnetic functional graphene. Due to the interaction between magnetic moments and conduction carriers, the magnetotransport properties of graphene can be modulated. Here, the effects of vacancy induced magnetic moments on the electrical properties of graphene are studied via magnetotransport measurements and spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. We show by quantum Hall measurements that a sharp resonant V? state is introduced in the midgap region of graphene with vacancies, resulting in the local magnetic moment. The coupling between the localized V? state and the itinerant carrier is tuned by varying the carrier concentration, temperature, magnetic field, and vacancy density, which results in a transition between hopping transport and the Kondo effect and a transition between giant negative magnetoresistance (MR) and positive MR. This modulated magnetotransport is valuable for graphene based spintronic devices.
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An impedance immunosensor based on low-cost microelectrodes and specific monoclonal antibodies for rapid detection of avian influenza virus H5N1 in chicken swabs.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Early screening of suspected cases is the key to control the spread of avian influenza (AI) H5N1. In our previous studies, an impedance biosensor with an interdigitated array microelectrode based biochip was developed and validated with pure AI H5 virus, but had limitations in cost and reliability of the biochip, specificity of the antibody against Asian in-field H5N1 virus and detection of H5N1 virus in real samples. The purpose of this study is to develop a low-cost impedance immunosensor for rapid detection of Asian in-field AI H5N1 virus in chicken swabs within 1h and validate it with the H5N1 virus. Specific monoclonal antibodies against AI H5N1 virus were developed by fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from an H5N1-virus-immunized mouse. Dot-ELISA analysis demonstrated that the developed antibodies had good affinity and specificity with the H5N1 virus. The microelectrodes were redesigned with compact size, fabricated using an improved wet-etching micro-fabrication process with a higher qualified production rate of 70-80%, and modified with the antibodies by the Protein A method. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated that electron transfer resistor was effective with the increase in impedance after capturing of the H5N1 viruses. Linear relationship between impedance change and logarithmic value of H5N1 virus at the concentrations from 2(-1) to 2(4) HAU/50?l was found and the lower limit of detection was 2(-1) HAU/50?l. No obvious interferences from non-target viruses such as H6N2, H9N2, Newcastle disease virus, and infectious bronchitis virus were found. Chicken swab tests showed that the impedance immunosensor had a comparable accuracy with real-time RT-PCR compared to viral isolation.
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Assessment of selenium toxicity on the life cycle of Caenorhabditis elegans.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Selenium (Se) is a growing problem of global concern. Se can cause adverse effects on reproductive systems, which have been linked to declines in animal populations. The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a ubiquitous soil organism that is increasingly utilized as a model organism in aquatic and soil toxicology. In the present study, the experimental data for individual body length, survival rate, brood size, and hatching rate were used to evaluate the possible effects of selenite [Se(IV)] on C. elegans. A stage-classified matrix model was applied to the experimental data to provide information on the population dynamics of C. elegans and to assess the Se(IV)-affected asymptotic population growth rate. Estimates of the survival probability showed significant decreases in survival at all stages when C. elegans was exposed to Se(IV). The growth probability of C. elegans in the L1 stage showed the most significant decline, from 0.11 h(-1) (for the control) to 0.04 h(-1) [for exposure to 3 mM Se(IV)]. These results showed that Se(IV) has a profound impact on C. elegans population dynamics. The asymptotic population growth rate (?) was found to range from 1.00 to 0.64 h(-1) for increasing Se(IV) concentrations, implying a potential risk of population decrease for C. elegans exposure to a Se(IV)-contaminated environment. Our study shows how a mechanistic view based on the Se(IV) effects on the soil nematode C. elegans can promote a life cycle toxicity assessment. An important implication of this analysis is that mathematical models can be used to produce a population stage structure, to give clarity to the analysis of the key population-level endpoint (the asymptotic population growth rate) of population dynamics, and to evaluate the influences for the response of other species to environmental Se. These models sequentially provide candidate environmental criteria for the evaluation of the population impact of Se.
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The adaptor protein SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against lymphoma.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT-cell TCR transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells, but not thymic epithelial cells, meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Furthermore, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development by controlling early growth response 2 protein and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger expression. SAP-deficient 24?? transgenic T cells (24?? T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24?? T cells was associated with reduced IFN regulatory factor 4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP.
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Interpreting copper bioaccumulation dynamics in tilapia using systems-level explorations of pulsed acute/chronic exposures.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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To understand how environmental variability could impose aquatic organisms in response to altered disturbance regimes and temporal patterns of waterborne toxicants is challenging. Few studies have reported in an organ/tissue specific basis, and most studies have been restricted to steady-state conditions. For interpreting systematically copper (Cu) bioaccumulation in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in a pulse scheme, we combined mechanistic and statistical as well as model-based data analyses of exposure data that cover short-term mortality to long-term organ/tissue growth bioassay. Our present pulsed Cu-tilapia physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model was capable of elucidating the Cu accumulation dynamics in tissues of tilapia under different pulsed exposure scenarios. Under acute and chronic pulsed exposures, our study found that (i) stomach and kidney had the highest uptake and elimination capacities, (ii) liver was prone to a highest BCF and was more sensitive than the other tissues, and (iii) Cu accumulations in most of organs and other tissues were strongly dependent on the exposure pulse characteristics such as frequency and duration and not on concentration (i.e., amplitude). We showed that interactions across multiple pulsed or fluctuating Cu exposures were involved in accumulation changes that could also be achieved by controlling pulse timing and duration. The analytical approach we described provides an opportunity to examine and quantify metal accumulation dynamics for fish in response to environmental variability-induced non-uniform metal exposures on an organ/tissue-dependent scale and to integrate qualitative information with toxicokinetic and physiological data. We hope that our systems-level tools for mathematical analyses and modeling will facilitate future large-scale and dynamic systems biology studies in other model fish.
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Probabilistic framework for assessing the arsenic exposure risk from cooked fish consumption.
Environ Geochem Health
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Geogenic arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is a major ecological and human health problem in southwestern and northeastern coastal areas of Taiwan. Here, we present a probabilistic framework for assessing the human health risks from consuming raw and cooked fish that were cultured in groundwater As-contaminated ponds in Taiwan by linking a physiologically based pharmacokinetics model and a Weibull dose-response model. Results indicate that As levels in baked, fried, and grilled fish were higher than those of raw fish. Frying resulted in the greatest increase in As concentration, followed by grilling, with baking affecting the As concentration the least. Simulation results show that, following consumption of baked As-contaminated fish, the health risk to humans is <10(-6) excess bladder cancer risk level for lifetime exposure; as the incidence ratios of liver and lung cancers are generally acceptable at risk ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-4), the consumption of baked As-contaminated fish is unlikely to pose a significant risk to human health. However, contaminated fish cooked by frying resulted in significant health risks, showing the highest cumulative incidence ratios of liver cancer. We also show that males have higher cumulative incidence ratio of liver cancer than females. We found that although cooking resulted in an increase for As levels in As-contaminated fish, the risk to human health of consuming baked fish is nevertheless acceptable. We suggest the adoption of baking as a cooking method and warn against frying As-contaminated fish. We conclude that the concentration of contaminants after cooking should be taken into consideration when assessing the risk to human health.
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Efficient generation of monoclonal antibodies against major structural proteins of rabies virus with suckling mouse brain antigen.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The rabies virus is a neurotropic virus that causes fatal disease in humans and animals. However, not all commercial antibodies against rabies virus (RABV) structural proteins are generally available, and production of high-quality monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) requires high purification of virus particles and special facilities and is time-consuming. By using RABV-infected suckling mouse brain as antigens in this study, 11 hybridoma cells secreting MAbs against RABV were obtained, which showed strong reactivity with RABV-infected Vero cells in immunofluorescence assay. Among the 11 MAbs, three MAbs (1B11, 1C8, and 8H12) showed a neutralizing effect to RABV, while MAb 4B7 recognized the recombinant nucleoprotein (N) of RABV expressed in Vero cells; seven MAbs (1H3, 3H7, 4E7, 4G3, 5A10, 6C9, and 7B3) reacted specifically with phosphoprotein (P) of RABV. The MAbs developed in this study will be useful in establishing a diagnostic test and study on the interactions between RABV and its host.
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Determination of sunitinib and its active metabolite, N-desethyl sunitinib in mouse plasma and tissues by UPLC-MS/MS: assay development and application to pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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A simple, sensitive and specific method using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed to determine sunitinib and N-desethyl sunitinib in mouse plasma and tissues. The analytes were separated by an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and buffer solution (water with 0.1% formic acid and 5?mm ammonium acetate; 40: 60, v/v) running at a flow rate of 0.35?mL/min for 2?min. Quantification was performed using a mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring in positive electrospray ionization mode. The transition was monitored at m/z 399???283, m/z 371???283 and m/z 327???270 for sunitinib, N-desethyl sunitinib and internal standard, respectively. Calibration curves were linear over concentration ranges of 2-500, 0.5-50 and 1-250?ng/mL for plasma, heart and other biosamples. The method was successfully applied to animal experiments. The pharmacokinetic study indicated that sunitinib was eliminated quickly in mice with a half-life of 1.2?h; tissue distribution data showed more sunitinib and its metabolite in liver, spleen and lung, which provided reference for further study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The chaperonin CCT? is required for efficient transcription and replication of rabies virus.
Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Negri bodies (NBs) are formed in the cytoplasm of rabies virus (RABV)-infected cells and are accompanied by a number of host factors to NBs, in which replication and transcription occur. Here, it was found that chaperonin containing TCP-1 subunit alpha (CCT?) relocalizes to NBs in RABV-infected cells, and that cotransfection of nucleo- and phospho-proteins of RABV is sufficient to recruit CCT? to the NBs' structure. Inhibition of CCT? expression by specific short hairpin RNA knockdown inhibited the replication and transcription of RABV. Therefore, this study showed that the host factor CCT? is associated with RABV infection and is very likely required for efficient virus transcription and replication.
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Fabrication and electrical properties of stacked graphene monolayers.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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We develop a simple method to fabricate the two-stacked graphene monolayers and investigate the electronic transport in such a system. The independence of the two graphene monolayers gives rise to the asymmetric resistance-gate voltage curves and an eight-fold degeneracy of Landau level. The position of the maximum resistance of the transfer curves shifts towards higher gate voltage with increasing magnetic field, which is attributed to the magnetic field induced interlayer decoupling of the stacked graphene monolayers.
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Overexpression of long noncoding RNA HOTAIR predicts a poor prognosis in patients with cervical cancer.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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The long noncoding RNA HOTAIR has been reported to be a good biomarker for poor prognosis in a variety of human cancers. However, whether HOTAIR could serve as novel biomarker to predict prognosis in cervical cancer or not is unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of HOTAIR in cervical cancers and to investigate the relationship between this lncRNA expression levels and existing clinicopathological factors and patient survival.
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Exciton drift in semiconductors under uniform strain gradients: application to bent ZnO microwires.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Optimizing the electronic structures and carrier dynamics in semiconductors at atomic scale is an essential issue for innovative device applications. Besides the traditional chemical doping and the use of homo/heterostructures, elastic strain has been proposed as a promising possibility. Here, we report on the direct observation of the dynamics of exciton transport in a ZnO microwire under pure elastic bending deformation, by using cathodoluminescence with high temporal, spatial, and energy resolutions. We demonstrate that excitons can be effectively drifted by the strain gradient in inhomogeneous strain fields. Our observations are well reproduced by a drift-diffusion model taking into account the strain gradient and allow us to deduce an exciton mobility of 1400 ± 100 cm(2)/(eV s) in the ZnO wire. These results propose a way to tune the exciton dynamics in semiconductors and imply the possible role of strain gradient in optoelectronic and sensing nano/microdevices.
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Evaluation of blood-brain barrier permeability in tryptophan hydroxylase 2-knockout mice.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical to the health of the central nervous system (CNS). The possibility that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) participates in the alteration of the BBB has been previously demonstrated. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is a unique genetic enzyme isoform that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of 5-HT in the CNS; however, its role in the permeability changes of the BBB remains unclear. In the present study, TPH2-knockout mice were utilized in the assessment of BBB disruption, as measured by the Evans Blue (EB) extravasation or fluorescein isothiocyanate-albumin leakage assay in the brain. EB was not found to be retained in the brain in the TPH2-knockout mice or the wild-type controls. The results of the study demonstrate that TPH2 knockout has no effect on BBB permeability, indicating that TPH2 and the 5-HT system in the CNS are not sufficient to influence the BBB leakage.
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Low expression of long noncoding XLOC_010588 indicates a poor prognosis and promotes proliferation through upregulation of c-Myc in cervical cancer.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The identification and investigation of cancer-associated long non-coding RNAs are important for understanding the molecular biology of cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression pattern of lncRNA XLOC_010588 in cervical cancer and to evaluate its biological role and clinical significance in tumor progression.
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Depletion of canonical Wnt signaling components has a neuroprotective effect on midbrain dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is critical for the development of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and recent studies have suggested that disruption of this signaling cascade may underlie the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the exact role of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, including low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and 6 (LRP5/6) and ?-catenin components, in a mouse model of PD remains unclear. In the present study, the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre transgenic mouse line was used to generate mice with the specific knockout of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin in DA neurons. Following inactivation of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin, TH-immunohistochemical staining was performed. The results indicated that ?-catenin is required for the development or maintenance of these neurons; however, LRP5 and LRP6 were found to be dispensable. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice, the depletion of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin was found to be protective for the midbrain DA neurons to a certain extent. These in vivo results provide a novel perspective for the function of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in a mouse model of PD.
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Maternal diabetes modulates kidney formation in murine progeny: the role of hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP).
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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We hypothesised that maternal diabetes impairs kidney formation in offspring via augmented expression of hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP). Our gene-array results were performed in neonatal kidneys from our murine model of maternal diabetes and indicated that Hhip expression was significantly modulated by maternal diabetes.
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Effectiveness of neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus up-front proctectomy in clinical stage II-III rectal cancer: A population-based study.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NCCRT) is currently the preferred treatment for rectal cancer of clinical stage II-III based on its efficacy in clinical trials. The population-based effectiveness of NCCRT is rarely reported on in the literature. The purpose of our study is to investigate the nationwide population-based effectiveness of NCCRT as compared with up-front proctectomy.
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Analysis of the impact of platinum-based combination chemotherapy in small cell cervical carcinoma: a multicenter retrospective study in Chinese patients.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Small cell cervical carcinoma (SCCC) is a rare, aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. However, information in relation to its treatment is scarce due to the limited numbers of patients. The aim of this study was to establish whether platinum-based combination chemotherapy may by beneficial in this patient population.
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Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil by using a combination of ryegrass, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and earthworms.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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In this work, a laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the influences of inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus caledoniun L. and/or epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) on phytoremediation of a PCB-contaminated soil by ryegrass grown for 180d. Planting ryegrass, ryegrass inoculated with earthworms, ryegrass inoculated with AMF, and ryegrass co-inoculated with AMF and earthworms decreased significantly initial soil PCB contents by 58.4%, 62.6%, 74.3%, and 79.5%, respectively. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased the yield of plants, and the accumulation of PCBs in ryegrass. However, PCB uptake by ryegrass accounted for a negligible portion of soil PCB removal. The number of soil PCB-degrading populations increased when ryegrass was inoculated with AMF and/or earthworms. The data show that fungal inoculation may significantly increase the remedial potential of ryegrass for soil contaminated with PCBs.
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The total phenolic fraction of Anemarrhena asphodeloides inhibits inflammation and reduces insulin resistance in adipocytes via regulation of AMP-kinase activity.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Anemarrhena asphodeloides is widely used for treatment of metabolic disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. This study investigated the effects of the total phenolic fraction of Anemarrhena asphodeloides on regulation of insulin sensitivity in adipocytes. Through treatment with macrophage-derived conditioned medium, insulin resistance was induced in adipocytes with IKK? activation and dysregulation of adipokine production. However, these changes were reversed by treatment with the total phenolic fraction of A. asphodeloides (1, 10, 50?µg/mL). It regulated serine/tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 and subsequently restored Akt phosphorylation in response to insulin, thereby leading to the improvement of insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The total phenolic fraction of A. asphodeloides enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and this action contributed to the inhibition of inflammation implicated in insulin resistance. In conclusion, the total phenolic fraction of A. asphodeloides attenuated insulin resistance in adipocytes by inhibition of inflammation in an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent manner.
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Urocortin 3 expression at baseline and during inflammation in the colon: corticotropin releasing factor receptors cross-talk.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Urocortins (Ucn1-3), members of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of neuropeptides, are emerging as potent immunomodulators. Localized, cellular expression of Ucn1 and Ucn2, but not Ucn3, has been demonstrated during inflammation. Here, we investigated the role of Ucn3 in a rat model of Crohn's colitis and the relative contribution of CRF receptors (CRF1 and CRF2) in regulating Ucn3 expression at baseline and during inflammation. Ucn3 mRNA and peptide were ubiquitously expressed throughout the GI tract in naïve rats. Ucn3 immunoreactivity was seen in epithelial cells and myenteric neurons. On day 1 of colitis, Ucn3 mRNA levels decreased by 80% and did not recover to baseline even by day 9. Next, we ascertained pro- or anti-inflammatory actions of Ucn3 during colitis. Surprisingly, unlike observed anti-inflammatory actions of Ucn1, exogenous Ucn3 did not alter histopathological outcomes during colitis and neither did it alter levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-?. At baseline, colon-specific knockdown of CRF1, but not CRF2 decreased Ucn3 mRNA by 78%, whereas during colitis, Ucn3 mRNA levels increased after CRF1 knockdown. In cultured cells, co-expression of CRF1+CRF2 attenuated Ucn3-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) peak by 48% as compared to cells expressing CRF2 alone. Phosphorylation of p38 kinase increased by 250% during colitis and was significantly attenuated after Ucn3 administration. Thus, our results suggest that a balanced and coordinated expression of CRF receptors is required for proper regulation of Ucn3 at baseline and during inflammation.
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Risk factors for late death of patients with abdominal trauma after damage control laparotomy for hemostasis.
World J Emerg Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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In this study, we explored the possible causes of death and risk factors in patients who overcame the initial critical circumstance when undergoing a damage control laparotomy for abdominal trauma and succumbed later to their clinical course.
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High-mobility Bi2Se3 nanoplates manifesting quantum oscillations of surface states in the sidewalls.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Magnetotransport measurements of topological insulators are very important to reveal the exotic topological surface states for spintronic applications. However, the novel properties related to the surface Dirac fermions are usually accompanied by a large linear magnetoresistance under perpendicular magnetic field, which makes the identification of the surface states obscure. Here, we report prominent Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations under an in-plane magnetic field, which are identified to originate from the surface states in the sidewalls of topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplates. Importantly, the SdH oscillations appear with a dramatically weakened magnetoresistance background, offering an easy path to probe the surface states directly when the coexistence of surface states and bulk conduction is inevitable. Moreover, under a perpendicular magnetic field, the oscillations in Hall conductivity have peak-to-valley amplitudes of 2?e(2)/h, giving confidence to achieve a quantum Hall effect in this system. A cross-section view of the nanoplate shows that the sidewall is (015) facet dominant and therefore forms a 58° angle with regard to the top/bottom surface instead of being perpendicular; this gives credit to the surface states' behavior as two-dimensional transport.
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Size-dependent correlations between strain and phonon frequency in individual ZnO nanowires.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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The effect of uniaxial tensile strain on individual ZnO nanowires with diameters ranging from 500 nm to 2.7 ?m and the effect of pure bending strain on ZnO microwires are systematically investigated by Raman spectroscopy. It is found for the first time that the tensile and compressive strains result in a linear downshift and upshift of the phonon frequencies of the E2L, E2H, E1TO, and second-order modes compared with the strain-free state, respectively, while the A1TO mode is not influenced by the strain. Furthermore, the strain modulation on phonons depends strongly on the nanowire diameter. The E2H phonon deformation potential is ~3 cm(-1)/% for the 500 nm nanowire, while 1% tensile strain results only in ~1 cm(-1) downward frequency shift for the 2.7 ?m ZnO wire. The results provide a versatile "local-self-calibration" and nondestructive method to measure and monitor the local strains in ZnO micro/nanostructures.
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Vertical graphene spin valve with Ohmic contacts.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Evident spin valve signals are observed in Co/graphene/Co sandwich structures with both monolayer and two-layer graphene stacks at temperatures from 1.5 K to 300 K. All the devices demonstrate linear current-voltage curves, indicating that an Ohmic property is dominating rather than a tunneling effect. The vertical graphene spin valves have potential applications in high-density non-volatile memories.
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Reversible insulator-metal transition of LaAlO?/SrTiO? interface for nonvolatile memory.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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We report a new type of memory device based on insulating LaAlO?/SrTiO? (LAO/STO) hetero-interface. The microstructures of the LAO/STO interface are characterized by Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, which reveals the element intermixing at the interface. The inhomogeneous element distribution may result in carrier localization, which is responsible for the insulating state. The insulating state of such interface can be converted to metallic state by light illumination and the metallic state maintains after light off due to giant persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect. The on/off ratio between the PPC and the initial dark conductance is as large as 10?. The metallic state also can be converted back to insulating state by applying gate voltage. Reversible and reproducible resistive switching makes LAO/STO interface promising as a nonvolatile memory. Our results deepen the understanding of PPC phenomenon in LAO/STO, and pave the way for the development of all-oxide electronics integrating information storage devices.
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Palonosetron and dexamethasone for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of palonosetron combined with dexamethasone in the prevention of vomiting, and especially nausea, in patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
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OSU-A9, an indole-3-carbinol derivative, induces cytotoxicity in acute myeloid leukemia through reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a broadly targeted phytochemical shown to prevent carcinogenesis in animal studies and to suppress the proliferation of cancer cells of human breast, colon, prostate, and endometrium. Here we demonstrate that OSU-A9, an I3C derivative with improved anticancer potency, induces cytotoxicity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines (HL-60 and THP-1) and primary leukemia cells from AML patients in a dose-responsive manner. Normal human bone marrow cells were less sensitive to OSU-A9 than leukemia cells. OSU-A9 induces caspase activation, PARP cleavage, and autophagy but not autophagic cell death. Interestingly, pretreatment of AML cell lines and primary AML cells with N-acetylcysteine or glutathione rescues them from apoptosis (and concomitant PARP cleavage) and Akt hypophosphorylation, implicating a key role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in OSU-A9-related cytotoxicity. Importantly, the anticancer utility of OSU-A9 is extended in vivo as it, administered intraperitoneally, suppresses the growth of THP-1 xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice without obvious toxicity. This study shows that ROS-mediated apoptosis contributes to the anticancer activity of OSU-A9 in AML cell lines and primary AML cells, and thus should be considered in the future assessment of its translational value in AML therapy.
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Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 mediates sex-specific cellular stress responses.
Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Although females suffer twice as much as males from stress-related disorders, sex-specific participating and pathogenic cellular stress mechanisms remain uncharacterized. Using corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2-deficient (Crhr2-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice, we show that CRF receptor type 2 (CRF2) and its high-affinity ligand, urocortin 1 (Ucn1), are key mediators of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in a murine model of acute pancreatic inflammation. Ucn1 was expressed de novo in acinar cells of male, but not female WT mice during acute inflammation. Upon insult, acinar Ucn1 induction was markedly attenuated in male but not female Crhr2-/- mice. Crhr2-/- mice of both sexes show exacerbated acinar cell inflammation and necrosis. Electron microscopy showed mild ER damage in WT male mice and markedly distorted ER structure in Crhr2-/- male mice during pancreatitis. WT and Crhr2-/- female mice showed similarly distorted ER ultrastructure that was less severe than distortion seen in Crhr2-/- male mice. Damage in ER structure was accompanied by increased ubiquitination, peIF2, and mistargeted localization of vimentin in WT mice that was further exacerbated in Crhr2-/- mice of both sexes during pancreatitis. Exogenous Ucn1 rescued many aspects of histological damage and cellular stress response, including restoration of ER structure in male WT and Crhr2-/- mice, but not in females. Instead, females often showed increased damage. Thus, specific cellular pathways involved in coping and resolution seem to be distinct to each sex. Our results demonstrate the importance of identifying sex-specific pathogenic mechanisms and their value in designing effective therapeutics.
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[Characteristics of DNA adsorption on different sizes red soil colloidal particles].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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By using balance reaction method, this paper studied the adsorption characteristics and thermodynamic properties of DNA on four kinds of red soil colloids (organic matter-contained coarse clay, organic matter-removed coarse clay, organic matter-contained fine clay, and organic matter-removed fine clay). The DNA adsorption on the four red soil colloids was a process of fast reaction, and the adsorption isotherms were conformed to the Langmuir equation, with the corresponding correlation coefficient (r2) being 0.974, 0. 991, 0. 958, and 0. 975, respectively. The maximum adsorption amount of DNA on the colloidal particles followed the order of organic matter-contained fine clay > organic matter-removed fine clay > organic matter-contained coarse clay > organic matter-removed coarse clay, implying that the size and organic matter content of colloidal particles played an important role in DNA adsorption. Electrolyte concentration and type and adsorption system pH were the main factors affecting the DNA adsorption on the four soil colloids. Within a definite electrolyte concentration range (NaCl < 60 mmol . L-1 and CaCl2 <10 mmol L-1) , the adsorption amount of DNA on the red soil colloids increased significantly with the increase of electrolyte concentration. As compared with sodium ion, calcium ion had a greater promotion effect on the DNA adsorption, but the effect decreased significantly with the increase of adsorption system pH. The DNA adsorption on the organic matter-contained red soil colloids was an endothermic reaction, while the DNA adsorption on the organic matter-removed red soil colloids was an exothermic reaction. The DNA adsorption on the red soil colloids was a process of entropy increase.
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Linking contact behavior and droplet patterns to dynamically model indoor respiratory infections among schoolchildren.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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We used the results of a contact behavior survey in conjunction with droplet pattern measurement to investigate the indoor population transmission dynamics of respiratory infections.
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Graphene plasmon enhanced photoluminescence in ZnO microwires.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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We report the temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties of monolayer graphene-Au-nanoparticle-ZnO (GAZ) microwire hybrid structures. By comparing with the bare ZnO wire without coverage of graphene, a three times enhancement of PL was found in the GAZ hybrid structures. The enhancement is attributed to the coupling between the PL photons from ZnO and the graphene surface plasmons with ~1-2 nm Au as a corrugated surface. Our results may be valuable for designing graphene-ZnO hybrid based optical and photoelectrical devices.
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Assessing exposure risks for aquatic organisms posed by Tamiflu use under seasonal influenza and pandemic conditions.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Environmental pollution by anti-influenza drugs is increasingly recognized as a threat to aquatic environments. However, little is known about empirical data on risk effects posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug based on recently published ecotoxicological researches in Taiwan. Here we linked ecotoxicology models with an epidemiological scheme to assess exposure risks of aquatic organisms and environmental hazards posed by antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) use in Taiwan. Built on published bioassays, we used probabilistic risk assessment model to estimate potential threats of environmentally relevant hazards on algae, daphnid, and zerbrafish. We found that Tamiflu use was unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk to daphnia and zebrafish during seasonal influenza. However, the chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu use during pandemic was alarming. We conclude that no significant risk to algal growth was found during seasonal influenza and high pandemic Tamiflu use.
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The functions of type I and type II natural killer T cells in inflammatory bowel diseases.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are a distinct subset of T cells that rapidly produce an array of cytokines on activation and play a critical role in regulating various immune responses. NKT cells are classified into 2 groups based on differences in T-cell receptor usage. Type I NKT cells have an invariant T-cell receptor ?-chain and are readily detectable by ?-galactosylceramide (?-GalCer)-loaded CD1d tetramers. Type II NKT cells have a more diverse T-cell receptor repertoire and cannot be directly identified. Both types of NKT cells and multiple CD1d-expressing cell types are present in the intestine, and their interactions are likely to be modulated by pathogenic and commensal microbes, which in turn contribute to the intestinal immune responses in health and disease. Indeed, in several animal models of inflammatory bowel disease, type I NKT cells have been shown to make both protective and pathogenic contributions to disease. In contrast, in patients with ulcerative colitis, and a mouse model in which both CD1d expression and the frequency of type II NKT cells are increased, type II NKT cells seem to promote intestinal inflammation. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge on the antigen recognition, activation, and function of NKT cells with a particular focus on their role in inflammatory bowel disease and discuss factors that may influence the functional outcome of NKT cell responses in intestinal inflammation.
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Ultraviolet irradiation-controlled memory effect in graphene field-effect transistors.
Small
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Control of graphene memory devices using photons, via control of the charge-transfer process, is demonstrated by employing gate-voltage pulses to program/erase the memory elements. The hysteresis in the conductance-gate voltage-dependence of graphene field-effect transistors on a SiO2 substrate can be greatly enlarged by ultraviolet irradiation in both air and vacuum. An enhanced charge transfer between graphene and its surroundings, induced by ultraviolet illumination, is proposed.
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Stretch-induced stiffness enhancement of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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The mechanical properties of ultrathin membranes have attracted considerable attention recently. Nanoindentation based on atomic force microscopy is commonly employed to study mechanical properties. We find that the data processing procedures in previous studies are nice approximations, but it is difficult for them to illustrate the mechanical properties precisely. Accordingly, we develop a revised numerical method to describe the force curve properly, by which the intrinsic mechanical properties of these membranes can be acquired. Combining the nanoindentation measurements with the revised numerical method, we demonstrate that loading-unloading cycles under large load can lead to a pronounced improvement in stiffness of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The Youngs moduli of the stretched CVD graphene membranes can be improved to ?1 TPa, closing to the value of the pristine graphene. Our findings demonstrate a possible way to recover the exceptional elastic properties of CVD graphene from the softened stiffness caused by wrinkles.
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TEMPORARY REMOVAL: Association between the levels of carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen and aldosterone in patients with primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
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Synthesis and quantum transport properties of Bi?Se? topological insulator nanostructures.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Bi?Se? nanocrystals with various morphologies, including nanotower, nanoplate, nanoflake, nanobeam and nanowire, have been synthesized. Well-distinguished Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations were observed in Bi?Se? nanoplates and nanobeams. Careful analysis of the SdH oscillations suggests the existence of Berrys phase ?, which confirms the quantum transport of the surface Dirac fermions in both Bi?Se? nanoplates and nanobeams without intended doping. The observation of the singular quantum transport of the topological surface states implies that the high-quality Bi?Se? nanostructures have superiorities for investigating the novel physical properties and developing the potential applications.
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Layer-by-layer assembly of vertically conducting graphene devices.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Graphene has various potential applications owing to its unique electronic, optical, mechanical and chemical properties, which are primarily based on its two-dimensional nature. Graphene-based vertical devices can extend the investigations and potential applications range to three dimensions, while interfacial properties are crucial for the function and performance of such graphene vertical devices. Here we report a general method to construct graphene vertical devices with controllable functions via choosing different interfaces between graphene and other materials. Two types of vertically conducting devices are demonstrated: graphene stacks sandwiched between two Au micro-strips, and between two Co layers. The Au|graphene|Au junctions exhibit large magnetoresistance with ratios up to 400% at room temperature, which have potential applications in magnetic field sensors. The Co|graphene|Co junctions display a robust spin valve effect at room temperature. The layer-by-layer assembly of graphene offers a new route for graphene vertical structures.
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Improvement of ultraviolet photoresponse of bent ZnO microwires by coupling piezoelectric and surface oxygen adsorption/desorption effects.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Localized ultraviolet photoresponse properties of bent ZnO microwires bridging two perfect Ohmic contacts in both atmospheric and high vacuum (8 × 10(-6) torr) environments have been investigated for the first time to explore the bending strain effect on the photoelectrical properties of ZnO. It is found that the ZnO microwire has higher photoconductivity and faster rising speed when photo-excitation is localized at the bending region in an atmospheric environment, while the rising speeds are almost the same when photo-excitations are localized at the bending and straight regions under vacuum. The bending strain induced improvement of the UV photoresponse in air was well explained by considering the coupling of piezoelectric effects and the surface oxygen adsorption/desorption procedure on the bent ZnO microwire. Our results are valuable for designing and fabricating strain modulated photoelectrical micro/nano-devices.
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A probabilistic transmission and population dynamic model to assess tuberculosis infection risk.
Risk Anal.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
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The purpose of this study was to examine tuberculosis (TB) population dynamics and to assess potential infection risk in Taiwan. A well-established mathematical model of TB transmission built on previous models was adopted to study the potential impact of TB transmission. A probabilistic risk model was also developed to estimate site-specific risks of developing disease soon after recent primary infection, exogenous reinfection, or through endogenous reactivation (latently infected TB) among Taiwan regions. Here, we showed that the proportion of endogenous reactivation (53-67%) was larger than that of exogenous reinfection (32-47%). Our simulations showed that as epidemic reaches a steady state, age distribution of cases would finally shift toward older age groups dominated by latently infected TB cases as a result of endogenous reactivation. A comparison of age-weighted TB incidence data with our model simulation output with 95% credible intervals revealed that the predictions were in an apparent agreement with observed data. The median value of overall basic reproduction number (R?) in eastern Taiwan ranged from 1.65 to 1.72, whereas northern Taiwan had the lowest R? estimate of 1.50. We found that total TB incidences in eastern Taiwan had 25-27% probabilities of total proportion of infected population exceeding 90%, whereas there were 36-66% probabilities having exceeded 20% of total proportion of infected population attributed to latently infected TB. We suggested that our Taiwan-based analysis can be extended to the context of developing countries, where TB remains a substantial cause of elderly morbidity and mortality.
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[Effects of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) root exudates dose on pyrene degradation and soil microbes in pyrene-contaminated soil].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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By simulating a gradually decreasing concentration of root exudates with the distance away from root surface in rhizosphere, this paper studied the effects of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) root exudates dose on the pyrene degradation and microbial ecological characteristics in a pyrene-contaminated soil. It was observed that with the increasing dose of ryegrass root exudates, the residual amount of soil pyrene changed nonlinearly, i. e. , increased after an initial decrease. When the root exudates dose was 32.75 mg kg(-1) of total organic carbon, the residual pyrene was the minimum, indicating that the root exudates at this dose stimulated pyrene degradation significantly. In the meantime, soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotient had an opposite trend, suggesting the close relationship between pyrene degradation and soil microbes. In the test soil, microbial community was dominated by bacteria, and the bacteria had the same variation trend as the pyrene degradation, which indicated that the pyrene was degraded mainly by bacteria, and the effects of root exudates on pyrene degradation were mainly carried out through the effects on bacterial population. There was a similar variation trend between the activity of soil dehydrogenase, a microbial endoenzyme catalyzing the dehydrogenation of organic matter, and the soil microbes, which further demonstrated that the variations of soil microbes and their biochemical characteristics were the ecological mechanisms affecting the pyrene degradation in the pyrene-contaminated soil when the ryegrass root exudates dose increased.
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[The relationship between coagulation/anticoagulation imbalance and oxidative stress in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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To explore the relationship between coagulation/anticoagulation imbalance and oxidative stress in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during acute exacerbation (AECOPD) before and after treatment.
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Nanorainforest solar cells based on multi-junction hierarchical p-Si/n-CdS/n-ZnO nanoheterostructures.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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Solar cells based on one-dimensional nanostructures have recently emerged as one of the most promising candidates to achieve high-efficiency solar energy conversion due to their reduced optical reflection, enhanced light absorption, and enhanced carrier collection. In nature, the rainforest, consisting of several stereo layers of vegetation, is the highest solar-energy-using ecosystem. Herein, we gave an imitation of the rainforest configuration in nanostructure-based solar cell design. Novel multi-layer nanorainforest solar cells based on p-Si nanopillar array/n-CdS nanoparticles/n-ZnO nanowire array heterostructures were achieved via a highly accessible, reproducible and controllable fabrication process. By choosing materials with appropriate bandgaps, an efficient light absorption and enhanced light harvesting were achieved due to the wide range of the solar spectrum covered. Si nanopillar arrays were introduced as direct conduction pathways for photon-generated charges efficient collection and transport. The unique strategy using PMMA as a void-filling material to obtain a continuous, uniform and low resistance front electrode has significantly improved the overall light conversion efficiency by two orders of magnitude. These results demonstrate that nanorainforest solar cells, along with wafer-scale, low-cost and easily controlled processing, open up substantial opportunities for nanostructure photovoltaic devices.
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[Case-control study on therapeutic effects of Chinese herb of promoting blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis in the treatment of mudslide injuries].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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To observe the effects of Chinese herb of promoting blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in serum of patients with mudslide injuries, and investigate the mechanisms of Chinese herb of promoting blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis in the treatment of mudslide injuries.
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Toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics with damage feedback improves risk assessment for tilapia and freshwater clam exposed to arsenic.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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It has been proposed that irreversible responses of organisms exposed to contaminants are due to a systems-level feedback. Here we tested this hypothesis by reanalyzing the published data on toxicokinetics and survival probability based on a systems-level threshold damage model (TDM) incorporating with a positive damage feedback to explore the steady-state response and dynamic behavior of damage for tilapia and freshwater clam exposed to waterborne arsenic (As). We found that ultrasensitivity appeared in As-tilapia and freshwater clam systems with Hill coefficient n ? 4, indicating that the positive damage feedback mechanism has been triggered. We confirmed that damage can trigger a positive feedback loop that together with As stressor increases irreversibility. This study also showed that TDM with positive feedback gave a much better predictability than that of TDM at As concentrations ranging from 100 to 500 mg l(-1) for freshwater clam, whereas for tilapia, two models had nearly same performance on predictability. We suggested that mortality-time profile derived Hill coefficient could be used as a new risk indicator to assess the survival probability for species exposed to waterborne metals. We anticipated that the proposed toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics with a positive damage feedback may facilitate our understanding and manipulation of complex mechanisms of metal susceptibility among species and improve current risk assessment strategies.
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Memory and threshold resistance switching in Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2011
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We report on the first controlled alternation between memory and threshold resistance switching (RS) in single Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires by setting the compliance current (I(CC)) at room temperature. The memory RS is triggered by a high I(CC), while the threshold RS appears by setting a low I(CC), and the Reset process is achieved without setting a I(CC). In combination with first-principles calculations, the physical mechanisms for the memory and threshold RS are fully discussed and attributed to the formation of an oxygen vacancy (Vo) chain conductive filament and the electrical field induced breakdown without forming a conductive filament, respectively. Migration of oxygen vacancies can be activated by appropriate Joule heating, and it is energetically favorable to form conductive chains rather than random distributions due to the Vo-Vo interaction, which results in the nonvolatile switching from the off- to the on-state. For the Reset process, large Joule heating reorders the oxygen vacancies by breaking the Vo-Vo interactions and thus rupturing the conductive filaments, which are responsible for the switching from on- to off-states. This deeper understanding of the driving mechanisms responsible for the threshold and memory RS provides guidelines for the scaling, reliability, and reproducibility of NiO-based nonvolatile memory devices.
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In situ growth, structure characterization, and enhanced photocatalysis of high-quality, single-crystalline ZnTe/ZnO branched nanoheterostructures.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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Single-crystalline, high-quality branched ZnTe-core/ZnO-branch nanoheterostructures were synthesized by an in situ strategy in an environmental scanning electron microscope. Composition and structure characterization confirmed that ZnO nanowires were perfectly epitaxially grown on ZnTe nanowires as branches. Noticeably, growth temperature plays a crucial role in determining the density and diameter of the ZnO nanobranches on ZnTe nanowires: a higher growth temperature leads to ZnO nanowires with higher density and smaller diameter. It was demonstrated that ZnO nanobranches exhibited a selective nucleation behavior on distinct side facets of ZnTe nanowires. Highly ordered ZnO nanobranches were found epitaxially grown on {211} facet of ZnTe nanowires, while there was no ZnO nanowire growth on {110} facet of ZnTe nanowires. Using first-principles calculation, we found that surface energy of distinct side facets has a strong impact on ZnO nucleation, and confirm that {211} facet of ZnTe nanowires is energetically more favorable for ZnO nanowire growth than {110} facet, which is in good agreement with our experimental findings. Remarkably, such unique ZnTe/ZnO 3D branched nanowire heterostructures exhibited improved photocatalytic abilities, superior to ZnO nanowires and ZnTe nanowires, due to the much enhanced effective surface area of their unique architecture and effective electron-hole separation at the ZnTe/ZnO interfaces.
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[Effects of rosiglitazone on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? pathway in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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To explore the effects of rosiglitazone on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR-?), nuclear factor-?B and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Anti-diabetic properties of non-polar Toona sinensis Roem extract prepared by supercritical-CO2 fluid.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Toona sinensis Roem (T. sinensis) leaves have been used as a nutritious vegetable and been suggested for medical applications; however, the reported bioactive compounds of T. sinensis leaves are, so far, from high to mid-high polar extracts. Our aims in this study were to reveal the non-polar constituents of the T. sinensis leave extract that were prepared by a method of using a supercritical-CO2 fluid and to investigate the anti-diabetic potential of this extract. Through a GC/MS analysis, we revealed 24 major components of the non-polar T. sinensis leave extract, the most abundant of which was phytol. The non-polar T. sinensis leave extract showed to prevent the progression of diabetes and hepatosteatosis, the rise of triglycerol levels and the decrease of adiponectin levels in the type 2 diabetic mice. Our results suggest that the non-polar extract of T. sinensis leaves prepared using the supercritical-CO2 fluid may contain effective constituents to prevent type 2 diabetes.
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Universal hepatitis B vaccination reduces childhood hepatitis B virus-associated membranous nephropathy.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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To compare the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated membranous nephropathy (HBVMN) before and after universal HBV vaccination and to identify factors underlying the change.
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Improved performance of ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors via focused ion beam treatment.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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A seven orders of magnitude increase in the current on/off ratio of ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) after Ga( + ) irradiation was observed. Transmission electron microscopy characterization revealed that the surface crystal quality of the ZnO nanowire was improved via the Ga( + ) treatment. The Ga( + ) irradiation efficiently reduces chemisorption effects and decreases oxygen vacancies in the surface layer. The enhanced performance of the nanowire FET was attributed to the decrease of surface trapped electrons and the decrease in carrier concentration.
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Theoretical investigation on reaction of sulbactam with wild-type SHV-1 ?-lactamase: acylation, tautomerization, and deacylation.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and quantum mechanical (QM) calculations were used to investigate the reaction mechanism of sulbactam with class A wild-type SHV-1 ?-lactamase including acylation, tautomerization, and deacylation. Five different sulbactam-enzyme configurations were investigated by MD simulations. In the acylation step, we found that Glu166 cannot activate Ser70 directly for attacking on the carbonyl carbon, and Lys73 would participate in the reaction acting as a relay. Additionally, we found that sulbactam carboxyl can also act as a general base. QM calculations were performed on the formation mechanism of linear intermediates. We suggest that both imine and trans-enamine intermediates can be obtained in the opening of a five-membered thiazolidine ring. By MD simulation, we found that imine intermediate can exist in two conformations, which can generate subsequent trans- and cis-enamine intermediates, respectively. The QM calculations revealed that trans-enamine intermediate is much more stable than other intermediates. The deacylation mechanism of three linear intermediates (imine, trans-enamine, cis-enamine) was investigated separately. It is remarkably noted that, in cis-enamine intermediate, Glu166 cannot activate water for attacking on the carbonyl carbon directly. This leads to a decreasing of the deacylation rate of cis-enamine. These findings will be potentially useful in the development of new inhibitors.
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Scavenger receptor mediates systemic RNA interference in ticks.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2011
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RNA interference is an efficient method to silence gene and protein expressions. Here, the class B scavenger receptor CD36 (SRB) mediated the uptake of exogenous dsRNAs in the induction of the RNAi responses in ticks. Unfed female Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were injected with a single or a combination of H. longicornis SRB (HlSRB) dsRNA, vitellogenin-1 (HlVg-1) dsRNA, and vitellogenin receptor (HlVgR) dsRNA. We found that specific and systemic silencing of the HlSRB, HlVg-1, and HlVgR genes was achieved in ticks injected with a single dsRNA of HlSRB, HlVg-1, and HlVgR. In ticks injected first with HlVg-1 or HlVgR dsRNA followed 96 hours later with HlSRB dsRNA (HlVg-1/HlSRB or HlVgR/HlSRB), gene silencing of HlSRB was achieved in addition to first knockdown in HlVg-1 or HlVgR, and prominent phenotypic changes were observed in engorgement, mortality, and hatchability, indicating that a systemic and specific double knockdown of target genes had been simultaneously attained in these ticks. However, in ticks injected with HlSRB dsRNA followed 96 hours later with HlVg-1 or HlVgR dsRNAs, silencing of HlSRB was achieved, but no subsequent knockdown in HlVgR or HlVg-1 was observed. The Westernblot and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the endogenous HlSRB protein was fully abolished in midguts of ticks injected with HlSRB/HlVg-1 dsRNAs but HlVg-1 was normally expressed in midguts, suggesting that HlVg-1 dsRNA-mediated RNAi was fully inhibited by the first knockdown of HlSRB. Similarly, the abolished localization of HlSRB protein was recognized in ovaries of ticks injected with HlSRB/HlVgR, while normal localization of HlVgR was observed in ovaries, suggesting that the failure to knock-down HlVgR could be attributed to the first knockdown of HlSRB. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time that SRB may not only mediate the effective knock-down of gene expression by RNAi but also play essential roles for systemic RNAi of ticks.
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dysregulation of CD1d-restricted type ii natural killer T cells leads to spontaneous development of colitis in mice.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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CD1d-restricted natural killer (NK) T cells are a subset of immunoregulatory T cells that comprise type I (express the semi-invariant T-cell receptor [TCR] and can be detected using the ?-galactosylceramide/CD1d tetramer) and type II (express diverse TCRs and cannot be directly identified). Studies in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease revealed a complex role for type I NKT cells in the development of colitis. Type II NKT cells have been associated with intestinal inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis.
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Computer simulation to investigate the FRET application in DNA hybridization systems.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum mechanics (QM) were used to investigate fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between coumarin and ethidium in two Mergnys DNA hybridization systems. By combining the transition dipoles calculated by the quantum semi-empirical method and the conformations of the FRET probes collected by MD, FRET efficiencies were derived from the Förster equation at five temperatures from 273 K to 313 K. The plotted efficiencies were compared with Mergnys experiments, and showed good agreement. The simulated orientation factor and isotropically averaged orientation factor were compared, and the results demonstrated that the assumption of isotropic orientations is invalid when FRET probes are close to each other. The first order kinetic assumptions were also used to calculate the transfer efficiencies, and the results show that this D-A FRET process approximates the first order kinetic reactions.
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One-year clinical outcome of interventionalist- versus patient-transfer strategies for primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results from the REVERSE-STEMI study.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Traditional reperfusion options for patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) presenting to non-primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI)-capable hospitals generally include onsite fibrinolytics or emergency transfer for PPCI. A third option, involving interventionalist transfer, was examined in the REVERSE-STEMI study.
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Transient gastric irritation in the neonatal rats leads to changes in hypothalamic CRF expression, depression- and anxiety-like behavior as adults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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A disturbance of the brain-gut axis is a prominent feature in functional bowel disorders (such as irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia) and psychological abnormalities are often implicated in their pathogenesis. We hypothesized that psychological morbidity in these conditions may result from gastrointestinal problems, rather than causing them.
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Effect of central myelin on the proliferation and differentiation into O4(+) oligodendrocytes of GFP-NSCs.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Myelin is a biologically active mutilamellar that is formed by oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the central nervous system (CNS) and ensheathes axons (Ishii et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:14605-14610, 2009). Myelin damage is related to neurological trauma such as spinal cord injury (SCI). In this article, we investigated whether myelin derived from rat spinal cord can influence the proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and NSCs differentiation into oligodendrocytes in vitro. After extracting myelin, we verified that myelin preparation was successful by western blot analysis. Then, we explored the effects of different myelin concentrations on the NSCs proliferation by MTT assays. Our results showed that 2 ?g/ml myelin can promote the proliferation of NSCs, while NgR antibody can antagonize the effect. In addition, myelin can inhibit the differentiation of NSCs into O4(+) oligodendrocytes impeding them maturation. In conclusion, these results suggested that central myelin can affect the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs, thus promoting us to understand further the complex roles of myelin in NSCs after CNS injury.
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Fluctuation analysis-based risk assessment for respiratory virus activity and air pollution associated asthma incidence.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Asthma is a growing epidemic worldwide. Exacerbations of asthma have been associated with bacterial and viral respiratory tract infections and air pollution. We correlated the asthma admission rates with fluctuations in respiratory virus activity and traffic-related air pollution, namely particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ? 10 ?m (PM??), nitrogen dioxide (NO?), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO?), and ozone (O?). A probabilistic risk assessment framework was developed based on a detrended fluctuation analysis to predict future respiratory virus and air pollutant associated asthma incidence. Results indicated a strong association between asthma admission rate and influenza (r=0.80, p<0.05) and SO? level (r=0.73, p<0.05) in Taiwan in the period 2001-2008. No significant correlation was found for asthma admission and PM??, O?, NO?, and CO. The proposed fluctuation analysis provides a simple correlation exponent describing the complex interactions of respiratory viruses and air pollutants with asthma. This study revealed that there was a 95% probability of having exceeded 2987 asthma admissions per 100,000 population. It was unlikely (30% probability) that the asthma admission rate exceeded 3492 per 100,000 population. The probability of asthma admission risk can be limited to below 50% by keeping the correlation exponent of influenza to below 0.9. We concluded that fluctuation analysis based risk assessment provides a novel predictor of asthma incidence.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.