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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Dynamic changes of intestinal 16S rDNA metagenome in 5 infants.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To investigate the dynamic changes of intestinal 16S rDNA metagenome in healthy infants.
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An Open Tubular Ion Chromatograph.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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We describe an open tubular ion chromatograph (OTIC) that uses anion exchange latex coated 5 ?m radius silica and 9.8 ?m radius poly(methyl methacrylate) tubes and automated time/pressure based hydrodynamic injection for pL-nL scale injections. It is routinely possible to generate 50?000 plates or more (up to 150?000 plates/m, columns between 0.3 and 0.8 m have been used), and as such, fast separations are possible, comparable to or in some cases better than the current practice of IC. With an optimized admittance detector, nonsuppressed detection permits LODs of submicromolar to double digit micromolar for a variety of analytes. However, large volume injections are possible and can significantly improve on this. A variety of eluents, the use of organic modifiers, and variations of eluent pH can be used to tailor a given separation. The approach is discussed in the context of extraterrestrial exploration, especially Mars, where the existence of large amounts of perchlorate in the soil needs to be confirmed. These columns can survive drying and freezing, and small footprint, low power consumption, and simplicity make OTIC a good candidate for such a mission.
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A novel Bcr-Abl-mTOR-eIF4A axis regulates IRES-mediated translation of LEF-1.
Open Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) in cellular mRNAs direct expression of growth-promoting factors through an alternative translation mechanism that has yet to be fully defined. Lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1), a Wnt-mediating transcription factor important for cell survival and metastasis in cancer, is produced via IRES-directed translation, and its mRNA is frequently upregulated in malignancies, including chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). In this study, we determined that LEF1 expression is regulated by Bcr-Abl, the oncogenic protein that drives haematopoietic cell transformation to CML. We have previously shown that the LEF1 5' untranslated region recruits a complex of proteins to its IRES, including the translation initiation factor eIF4A. In this report, we use two small molecule inhibitors, PP242 (dual mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) kinase inhibitor) and hippuristanol (eIF4A inhibitor), to define IRES regulation via a Bcr-Abl-mTOR-eIF4A axis in CML cell lines and primary patient leukaemias. We found that LEF1 and other IRESs are uniquely sensitive to the activities of Bcr-Abl/mTOR. Most notably, we discovered that eIF4A, an RNA helicase, elicits potent non-canonical effects on the LEF1 IRES. Hippuristanol inhibition of eIF4A stalls translation of IRES mRNA and triggers dissociation from polyribosomes. We propose that a combination drug strategy which targets mTOR and IRES-driven translation disrupts key factors that contribute to growth and proliferation in CML.
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A Novel Ruthenium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Synthesis of 2-Arylquinazolines from 2-Aminoaryl Methanols and Benzonitriles.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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By employing a commercially available Ru3(CO)12/Xantphos/t-BuOK catalyst system, a novel and straightforward ruthenium-catalyzed dehydrogenative synthesis of 2-arylquinazolines has been demonstrated. A series of 2-aminoaryl methanols were efficiently converted in combination with different types of benzonitriles into various desired products in moderate to good yields upon isolation. The synthetic protocol proceeds with the advantages of operational simplicity, high atom efficiency, broad substrate scope, and no need for the use of less environmentally benign halogenated reagents, offering an important basis for accessing 2-arylquinazolines.
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The Roles of Egr-2 in Autoimmune Diseases.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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Being a member of the early growth response (Egr) family of transcription factors, Egr-2 is expressed in a variety of cell types of the immune system. Recent findings imply that Egr-2 is important in the development and function of T helper (Th) 17 cell, regulatory T (Treg) cell, as well as dendritic cell (DC). Although these cells perform significantly in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and systemic sclerosis, the roles of Egr-2 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases can not be neglected. In this article, we will discuss recent findings about the important roles of Egr-2 in immune cells and the possible pathological roles of Egr-2 in autoimmune diseases.
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Safety and outcome of thrombolysis in mild stroke: a meta-analysis.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Whether patients presenting with mild stroke should or should not be treated with intravenous rtPA is still controversial. This systematic review aims to assess the safety and outcome of thrombolysis in these patients.
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Capillary Scale Admittance Detection.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Techniques that have been variously termed oscillometric detection or (capacitively coupled) contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) are known actually to respond to the admittance. It is not often appreciated that the frequency range (f) over which such systems respond (quasi)linearly with the cell conductance decreases acutely with increasing cell resistance. Guidance on optimum operating conditions for high cell resistance, such as for very small capillaries/channels and/or solutions of low specific conductance (?), is scant. It is specially necessary in this case to take the capacitance of the solution into account. At high frequencies and low ? values, much of the current passes through the solution behaving as a capacitor and the capacitance is not very dependent on the exact solution specific conductance, resulting in poor, zero, or even negative response. We investigated, both theoretically and experimentally, capillaries with inner radii of 5-160 ?m and ? ? 1-1400 ?S/cm, resulting in cell resistances of 51 G? to 176 k?. A 400-element discrete model was used to simulate the behavior. As model inputs, both the wall capacitance and the stray capacitance were measured. The solution and leakage capacitances were estimated from extant models. The model output was compared to the measured response of the detection system over broad ranges of f and ?. Other parameters studied include capillary material and wall thickness, electrode spacing and length, Faraday shield thickness, excitation wave forms, and amplitude. The simulations show good qualitative agreement with experimental results and correctly predict the negative response behavior observed under certain conditions. We provide optimum frequencies for different operating conditions.
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Admittance Detector for High Impedance Systems: Design and Applications.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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We describe an admittance detector for high impedance systems (small capillary bore and/or low solution specific conductance). Operation in the low frequency range (?1 kHz, much lower than most relevant publications) provides optimum response to conductance changes in capillaries ?20 ?m in bore. The detector design was based on studies described in a preceding companion paper ( Zhang , M. ; Stamos , B. N. ; Amornthammarong , N. ; Dasgupta , P. K. Anal. Chem. 2014 , 86 , DOI 10.1021/ac503245a . ). The highest S/N for detecting 100 ?M KCl (5.5 ?M peak concentration, ?0.8 ?S/cm) injected into water flowing through a capillary of 7.5 ?m inner radius (r) was observed at 500-750 Hz. A low bias current operational amplifier in the transimpedance configuration permitted high gain (1 V/nA) to measure pA-nA level currents in the detection cell. Aside from an oscillator, an offset-capable RMS-DC converter formed the complete detection circuitry. Limits of detection (LODs) of KCl scaled inversely with the capillary cross section and were 2.1 and 0.32 ?M injected KCl for r = 1 and 2.5 ?m capillaries, respectively. When used as a detector on an r = 8 ?m bore poly(methyl methacrylate) capillary in a split effluent stream from a suppressed ion chromatograph, the LOD was 27 nM bromide (Vex 22 V p-p), compared to 14 nM observed with a commercial bipolar pulse macroscale conductivity detector with an actively thermostated cell. We also show applications of the detector in electrophoresis in capillaries with r = 1 and 2.5 ?m. Efficient heat dissipation permits high concentrations of the background electrolyte and sensitive detection because of efficient electrostacking.
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Regulation of carotenoid metabolism in tomato.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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Carotenoids serve diverse functions in vastly different organisms that both produce and consume them. Enhanced carotenoid accumulation is of great importance in visual and functional properties of fruits and vegetables. Significant progress has been achieved in the understanding of carotenoid biosynthesis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by using biochemical and genetics approaches in recent years. Carotenoid metabolic network is temporally and spatially controlled, and plants have evolved strategic tactics to regulate carotenoid metabolism in response to various developmental and environmental factors. Here in this review, we summarize current status of studies on transcription factors and phytohormones that regulate carotenoid biosynthesis, catabolism, and storage capacity in plastids, as well as the responses of carotenoid metabolism to environmental cues in tomato fruits. Transcription factors function either in cooperation with or independent of phytohormone signaling, which provides novel approaches for metabolic engineering of carotenoid composition and content.
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Predicted Organic Noble-Gas Hydrides Derived from Acrylic Acid.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The Ar-, Kr-, and Xe-insertion compounds into acrylic acid, i.e., C2H3COONgH (Ng = Ar, Kr, and Xe), have been studied by ab initio calculations. The geometry optimization, frequency calculation, and stability were investigated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ (aug-cc-pVTZ-PP) level of theory. Two configuration isomers, i.e., s-cis syn (isomer A) and s-cis anti (isomer B), were optimized for each molecule. Using the s-cis syn structure (isomer A) as an example, we performed natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, natural energy decomposition analysis (NEDA), and atom-in-molecules (AIM) analysis to investigate the bonding nature of these noble-gas compounds. Our study predicts the existence of Kr- and Xe-derivatives of acrylic acid and the instability of Ar-related compounds.
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[Experimental study on cetuximab and dendritic cells killing head and neck squamous cell].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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This research aims to investaigate the effect of cetuximab and dendritic cells (DCs) to kill the head and neck squamous cell (HNSCC), in order to provide a new way for the patients of HNSCC.
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Broadband terahertz transmission within the symmetrical plastic film coated parallel-plate waveguide.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We report on the broadband terahertz (THz) transmission within a symmetrical plastic film coated parallel-plate waveguide. We theoretically study the antiresonant reflecting mechanism of the waveguide, and we find that the broadband THz wave can transmit in this waveguide with ultralow loss. The loss of the TM mode in this waveguide can be 4 orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated parallel-plate waveguide. The transmission bandwidth of this waveguide is up to 5.12 THz. We further show the mode field distributions which explain the loss mechanism.
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Multifunctional switching unit for add/drop, wavelength conversion, format conversion, and WDM multicast based on bidirectional LCoS and SOA-loop architecture.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We propose a multifunctional optical switching unit based on the bidirectional liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) and semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) architecture. Add/drop, wavelength conversion, format conversion, and WDM multicast are experimentally demonstrated. Due to the bidirectional characteristic, the LCoS device cannot only multiplex the input signals, but also de-multiplex the converted signals. Dual-channel wavelength conversion and format conversion from 2 × 25Gbps differential quadrature phase-shift-keying (DQPSK) to 2 × 12.5Gbps differential phase-shift-keying (DPSK) based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in SOA is obtained with only one pump. One-to-six WDM multicast of 25Gbps DQPSK signals with two pumps is also achieved. All of the multicast channels are with a power penalty less than 1.1 dB at FEC threshold of 3.8 × 10-3.
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Erythropoietin administration for prevention of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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The effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on the prevention of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is controversial. Therefore, we undertook the meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy and safety of EPO on the prevention of CSA-AKI in adult patients and to explore whether risk factors for AKI could explain the inconsistent effects. PubMed and EMbase databases were searched to identify eligible RCTs. The meta-analysis was performed with fixed- or random-effects models according to the heterogeneity, and the subgroup analysis strati?ed by risk factors for AKI was carried out. Five RCTs involving 423 patients were included. Overall, EPO administration was not associated with a reduced incidence of CSA-AKI [relative risk (RR): 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35-1.16], with a moderate heterogeneity (I(2) = 67.4%, heterogeneity P = 0.02). Subgroup analysis showed that, in patients without high risk factors for AKI, EPO administration could significantly reduce the incidence of CSA-AKI (RR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.24-0.61), intensive care unit length of stay [standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.54, 95% CI: -1.05 to -0.04] and hospital length of stay (SMD: -0.48, 95% CI: -0.94 to -0.02). The test of heterogeneity was not significant in the two subgroups. EPO administration could significantly reduce the incidence of CSA-AKI, but not in patients with high risk factors for AKI. Substantial heterogeneity across trials could be attributed to high risk factors for AKI. However, our findings should be interpreted cautiously because of the limited studies included, and high-quality RCTs are warranted.
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Synthesis of functionalized fulvenes: [3 + 2] annulation of ethyl ?-chlorocyclopropaneformates with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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A base-promoted [3 + 2] annulation reaction of ethyl ?-chlorocyclopropaneformates with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds is described. This method provides an efficient and straightforward route to acidic multi-substituted fulvenes with distinctive properties.
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[Isokinetic muscle test of normal people's knees in different postures].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To study the influence of different positions in the isokinetic muscle test of knees by CON-TREX Biomechanical Test and Training System, so as to select the suitable conditions for forensic identification of muscle strength test.
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[Sulfation of naringenin by Mucor sp].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Naringenin (1) was transformed to three metabolites (2-4) by Mucor sp. Based on LCMS(n)-IT-TOF and NMR spectroscopic data, 2-4 were identified as naringenin-7-O-sulphate, naringenin-4'-O-sulphate, and naringenin-5-O-sulphate, respectively. These results might provide hints to the mammalian/human metabolism of naringenin.
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DNA-hosted Hoechst dyes: application for label-free fluorescent monitoring of endonuclease activity and inhibition.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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A simple and facile approach was developed for monitoring EcoRI endonuclease activity and inhibition, in which a hairpin-like DNA containing restriction cutting site for EcoRI endonuclease acts as the sensing element and Hoechst dyes as the signal indicator in a label-free format.
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[Ultraviolet spectroscopic study on the fine structures in the solar polar hole].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Fine structures in the south solar polar coronal hole were observed by N IV line of SOHO/SUMER spectrograph. The scales of the fine structures range spatially range from 1 arcsec to several arcsecs, temporally from 1 min to several minutes, and parts of them are in strip shape along the slit direction. The line-of-sight velocity of them is up to tens of km x s(-1) with red and blue shift intercrossed occasionally, which appear periodically as long as 100 minutes in some regions. Part of the fine structures can be clearly observed at the Ne V III line with higher formation temperature in the same spectral window. The time and location of some fine structures with high velocity in the Ne V III spectrum are almost the same as that in N IV spectrum, but they are extended and diffused in the Ne V III spectrum. Some fine structures have non-Gaussian profiles with the line-of-sight Doppler velocities up to 150 km x s(-1) in the N IV blue/red wings, which is similar with the explosive events in the transition region. In the past, explosive events are small-scale dynamic phenomena often observed in the quiet-sun (QS) region, while their properties in coronal holes (CHs) remain unclear. Here, we find the EE-like events with strong dynamics in the south solar polar coronal hole by N IV line of SOHO/SUMER spectrograph.
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Small Blob Identification in Medical Images Using Regional Features from Optimum Scale.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Recent advances in medical imaging technology have greatly enhanced imaging based diagnosis which requires computational effective and accurate algorithms to process the images (e.g., measure the objects) for quantitative assessment. In this research, we are interested in one type of imaging object: small blobs. Examples of small blob objects are cells in histopathology images, glomeruli in MR images, etc. This problem is particularly challenging because the small blobs often have inhomogeneous intensity distribution and an indistinct boundary against the background. Yet, in general, these blobs have similar sizes. Motived by this finding, we propose a novel detector termed Hessian-based Laplacian of Gaussian (HLoG) using the scale space theory as the foundation. Like most imaging detectors, an image is first smoothed via LoG. Hessian analysis is then launched to identify the single optimal scale based on which a pre-segmentation is conducted. The advantage of the Hessian process is it is capable of delineating the blobs. As a result, regional features can be retrieved. These features enable the unsupervised clustering algorithm for post-pruning which shall be more robust and sensitive than the traditional threshold-based post-pruning commonly used in most imaging detectors. To test the performance of the proposed HLoG, two sets of 2D grey medical images are studied. HLoG is compared against three state-of-the-art detectors: gLoG, Radial-Symmetry and LoG using precision, recall and F-score metrics. We observe that HLoG statistically outperforms the compared detectors.
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Advanced Oxidation Protein Products Exacerbates Lipid Accumulation and Atherosclerosis Through Downregulation of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 and G1 Expression in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Both clinical data and basic science studies suggest that advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AOPPs on ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 and ABCG1 expression, lipid accumulation and atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-KO) mice.Methods?and?Results:Male 8-week-old apoE-KO mice were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. Mice received intraperitoneal injections of AOPPs (5 mg/kg) and/or Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitor AG-490 (5 mg/kg) once every other day for 8 weeks. As shown in our data, AOPPs increased lipid levels of plasma, and promoted advanced lesions in the aortic regions in apoE-KO mice. The ABCA1, ABCG1 and liver X receptor alpha (LXR?) expression were downregulated in apoE-KO mice treated with AOPPs, whereas the lesions in the aortas were decreased, and the ABCA1, ABCG1 and LXR? expression were upregulated in mice treated with AOPPs plus AG-490, compared to the mice treated with AOPPs only. The ABCA1 and LXR? expressions of aortas, liver and intestine were downregulated in the AOPPs group, while the expressions were upregulated in the AOPPs-plus-AG-490 group when compared to the AOPPs group. The same results can be also observed in peritoneal macrophages.
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Impact of substituents and nonplanarity on nickel and copper porphyrin electrochemistry: first observation of a Cu(II)/Cu(III) reaction in nonaqueous media.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Electrochemical studies of the oxidation of dodecasubstituted and highly nonplanar nickel porphyrins in a noncoordinating solvent have previously revealed the first nickel(III) porphyrin dication. Herein, we investigate if these nonplanar porphyrins can also be used to detect the so far unobserved copper(III) porphyrin dication. Electrochemical studies of the oxidation of (DPP)Cu and (OETPP)Cu show three processes, the first two of which are macrocycle-centered to give the porphyrin dication followed by a Cu(II)/Cu(III) process at more positive potential. Support for the assignment of the Cu(II)/Cu(III) process comes from the linear relationships observed between E1/2 and the third ionization potential of the central metal ions for iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper complexes of (DPP)M and (OETPP)M. In addition, the oxidation behavior of additional nonplanar nickel porphyrins is investigated in a noncoordinating solvent, with nickel meso-tetraalkylporphyrins also being found to form nickel(III) porphyrin dications. Finally, examination of the nickel meso-tetraalkylporphyrins in a coordinating solvent (pyridine) reveals that the first oxidation becomes metal-centered under these conditions, as was previously noted for a range of nominally planar porphyrins.
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A designed bithiopheneimide-based conjugated polymer for organic photovoltaic with ultrafast charge transfer at donor/PC71BM interface: theoretical study and characterization.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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In the current work, a series of bithiopheneimide (BTI)-based D-A copolymers were investigated based on the reported PDTSBTI (1) to screen excellent molecules toward organic photovoltaic (OPV) donor materials. It is found that the PCE based on the proposed derivative 4, where the silicon atom is replaced with vinyl and cyano groups on the DTS unit, shows a 70 percent improvement by Scharber diagrams compared with its prototype 1. Then, the charge transfer dynamics of 1/PC71BM and 4/PC71BM were investigated, including the intermolecular charge transfer (inter-CT) and recombination (inter-CR) rates. The theoretical data demonstrate that the ratio kinter-CT/kinter-CR of 4/PC71BM heterojunction is about 1 × 10(5) times higher than that of 1/PC71BM. These results clearly reveal that the designed donor molecule 4 will be a promising candidate for high-performance OPV device. We expect that this work from electron processing at the D/A interface may provide a theoretical guideline for further optimization and design of organic copolymer donor materials.
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Time-resolved probes and oxidase-based biosensors using terbium(III)-guanosine monophosphate-mercury(II) coordination polymer nanoparticles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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A novel lanthanide coordination polymer nanoparticle (LCPN)-based ternary complex was synthesized via the self-assembly of a terbium ion (Tb(3+)) with a nucleotide (GMP) and a mercury ion (Hg(2+)) in aqueous solution. The as-prepared LCPN-based ternary complex (Tb-GMP-Hg) can be applied to the development of time-resolved luminescence assays and oxidase-based biosensors.
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Activin B promotes BMSC-mediated cutaneous wound healing by regulating cell migration via the JNK-ERK signaling pathway.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are able to differentiate into various types of skin cells and participate in skin regeneration and repair. Activin signaling can regulate wound healing and reepithelialization. The present study assessed the impact of activin B on BMSC-mediated cutaneous wound healing in rats and explored the possible mechanism involved. We found that CFSE-labeled BMSCs participated in wound healing in vivo, and compared to administration with PBS, activin B, or BMSCs, activin B plus BMSCs significantly promoted wound healing and hair follicle regeneration. Activin B induced actin stress fiber formation and cell migration in BMSCs in vitro. Activation of JNK and ERK, but not p38, was required for activin B-induced actin stress fiber formation and BMSC migration. These results show that activin B may promote BMSC-mediated wound healing by inducing actin stress fiber formation and BMSC migration via the ERK and JNK signal pathways. Combined administration of BMSCs and cytokines may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the management of skin wounds.
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[Efficacy of individualized sublingual immunotherapy with dermatophagoides farinae drops on patients with allergic rhinitis of different age groups].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy of personal sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with dermatophagoides to study the efficacy of dermatophagoides farinae drops for allergic rhinitis (AR) of different age groups.
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Characterization of tumor-targeting Ag2S quantum dots for cancer imaging and therapy in vivo.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Nanomedicine platforms that have the potential to simultaneously provide the function of molecular imaging and therapeutic treatment in one system are beneficial to address the challenges of cancer heterogeneity and adaptive resistance. In this study, Cyclic RGD peptide (cRGD), a less-expensive active tumor targeting tri-peptide, and doxorubicin (DOX), a widely used chemotherapeutic drug, were covalently attached to Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) to form the nano-conjugates Ag2S-DOX-cRGD. The optical characterization of Ag2S-DOX-cRGD manifested the maintenance of QDs fluorescence, which suggested the potential of Ag2S for monitoring intracellular and systemic drug distribution. The low biotoxicity of Ag2S QDs indicated that they are promisingly safe nanoparticles for bio-applications. Furthermore, the selective imaging and favorable tumor inhibition of the nanoconjugates were demonstrated at both cell and animal levels. These results indicated a promising future for the utilization of Ag2S QDs as a kind of multi-functional nano platform to achieve imaging-visible nano-therapeutics.
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Urotensin II increases foam cell formation by repressing ABCA1 expression through the ERK/NF-?B pathway in THP-1 macrophages.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Foam cell formation in the arterial wall plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Recent studies showed that Urotensin II (U II) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Here we examined the effects of human U II on ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and the underlying mechanism in THP-1 macrophages.
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A single-wavelength-emitting ratiometric probe based on phototriggered fluorescence switching of graphene quantum dots.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Ratiometric fluorescent probes are of great importance in research, because a built-in correction for environmental effects can be provided to reduce background interference. However, the traditional ratiometric fluorescent probes require two luminescent materials with different emission bands. Herein a novel ratiometric probe based on a single-wavelength-emitting material is reported. The probe works by regulating the luminescent property of graphene quantum dots with UV illumination as activator. The ratiometric sensor shows high sensitivity and specificity for iron ions. Moreover, the ratiometric sensor was successfully employed to monitor ferritin levels in Sprague Dawley rats with chemical-induced acute liver damage. The proposed single-wavelength ratiometric fluorescent probe may greatly broaden the applicability of ratiometric sensors in diagnostic devices, medical applications, and analytical chemistry.
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What happens to the posterior compartment and bowel symptoms after sacrocolpopexy? evaluation of 5-year outcomes from E-CARE.
Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The objective of this study was to describe posterior prolapse (pPOP) and obstructed defecation (OD) symptoms 5 years after open abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC).
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Absolute Lymphocyte Count Recovery at 1 month After Transplantation Predicts Favorable Outcomes of Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Absolute Lymphocyte Count(ALC) and the recovery of ALC after treatment have been identified as a prognostic biomarker for several malignancies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic role of peritransplant ALC and ALC recovery after liver transplantation(LT) in HCC patients.
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NKLP27: a teleost NK-lysin peptide that modulates immune response, induces degradation of bacterial DNA, and inhibits bacterial and viral infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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NK-lysin is an antimicrobial protein produced by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. In this study, we examined the biological property of a peptide, NKLP27, derived from tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) NK-lysin. NKLP27 is composed of 27 amino acids and shares little sequence identity with known NK-lysin peptides. NKLP27 possesses bactericidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including common aquaculture pathogens. The bactericidal activity of NKLP27 was dependent on the C-terminal five residues, deletion of which dramatically reduced the activity of NKLP27. During its interaction with the target bacterial cells, NKLP27 destroyed cell membrane integrity, penetrated into the cytoplasm, and induced degradation of genomic DNA. In vivo study showed that administration of tongue sole with NKLP27 before bacterial and viral infection significantly reduced pathogen dissemination and replication in tissues. Further study revealed that fish administered with NKLP27 exhibited significantly upregulated expression of the immune genes including those that are known to be involved in antibacterial and antiviral defense. These results indicate that NKLP27 is a novel antimicrobial against bacterial and viral pathogens, and that the observed effect of NKLP27 on bacterial DNA and host gene expression adds new insights to the action mechanism of fish antimicrobial peptides.
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[Comparisons of two statistical approaches in studying the longitudinal data: the multilevel model and the latent growth curve model].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To compare two commonly used statistical approaches:the multilevel model and the latent growth curve model in analyzing longitudinal data. A longitudinal data set, obtained from the quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer after operation, was used to illustrate the similarities and differences between the two methods. Results from the study indicated that the latent growth curve modeling was equivalent to multilevel modeling with regards to longitudinal data which could yield identical results for the estimates of parameters. Multilevel model approach seemed easier for model specification. However, latent growth curve model had the advantage of providing model evaluation and was more flexible in statistical modeling by allowing the incorporation of latent variables. Both multilevel and latent growth curve models were suitable for analyzing longitudinal data with advantages on their own, they conld be chosen by researchers under different situation to be chosen accordingly by researchers under different situation.
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[Efficacy of 48-week tenofovir disoproxil fumarate therapy in patients who were unresponsive to nucleoside-analogue treatments].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) after failure of nucleoside-analogues (NAs).
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Effect of Exposure to Atmospheric Ultrafine Particles on Production of Free Fatty Acids and Lipid Metabolites in the Mouse Small Intestine.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Background and Objective: Exposure to ambient ultrafine particulate matter (UFP) is a well-recognized risk factor for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, little is known about the effects of air pollution on gastrointestinal disorders. We sought to assess whether exposure to ambient ultrafine particles (UFP: diameter < 180 nm) increased free fatty acids and lipid metabolites in the mouse small intestine. Methods and Results: LDLR-null mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or UFP collected at an urban Los Angeles site heavily impacted by vehicular emissions for 10 weeks in the presence or absence of D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation properties on a high-fat or normal chow diet. Compared to FA, exposure to UFP significantly increased intestinal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), including 15-HETE, 12-HETE, 5-HETE, as well as hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), including 13-HODE and 9-HODE. Arachidonic acid and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) as well as some of the lysophosphatidic acids (LPA) in the small intestine were also increased in response to UFP exposure. Administration of D-4F significantly reduced UFP-mediated increase in HETES, HODEs, AA, PGD2 and LPA. While exposure to UFP further led to shortened villus length accompanied by prominent macrophage and neutrophil infiltration into the intestinal villi, administration of D-4F mitigated macrophage infiltration. Conclusions: Exposure to UFP promotes lipid metabolism, villus shortening and inflammatory responses in mouse small intestine, whereas administration of D-4F attenuated these effects. Our findings provide a basis to further assess the mechanisms underlying UFP-mediated lipid metabolism in the digestive system with clinical relevance to gut homeostasis and diseases.
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Synthesis of isoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-dione derivatives via cascade reactions of N-alkyl-N-methacryloyl benzamide with aryl aldehydes.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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A cascade reaction between N-alkyl-N-methacryloylbenzamide and aryl aldehydes was developed to generate isoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-dione derivatives. The reaction involves oxidative cross-coupling of the activated alkene from the N-alkyl-N-methacryloylbenzamide with the aldehyde functional group (-CHO), followed by radical addition to the aromatic ring to afford isoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-dione derivatives in good yields under mild reaction conditions without either metal catalysts or organic solvents involved.
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[Effect of feed residues on the release of nitrogen and phosphorus of pond sediment].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The effect of feed residues on release law of nitrogen and phosphorus in water-sediment interface was studied under the simulated condition in laboratory. Two sets of conditions were applied in this study, static condition (A group) and feed add condition (B group). The results show that DO in A group is higher than that in B group (P < 0.05). The pH value is neutral in A group, but pH value of B group became weak acidic. After adding the feed, nitrate nitrogen concentration in A group is higher than that in B group (P < 0.05), but orthophosphate concentration in A group is lower than that in B group (P < 0.05). At the 2-14th day of experiment, ammonia concentration in A group is higher than that in B group (P < 0.05), but since then the ammonia concentration in B group begins to rise. At the end of the test, ammonia concentration in B group is higher than that in A group (P < 0.05). At the beginning of the experiment, ammonia and nitrate nitrogen release restrained in B group. Nitrogen increases first, and then decreases in A group, but the changing regulation is completely opposite in B group. Feed decomposition can produce a large amount of phosphorus in B group, at the same time, orthophosphate changing regulation increases first and then decreases.
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Induction of peroxiredoxin 1 by hypoxia regulates heme oxygenase-1 via NF-?B in oral cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Overexpression of peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) has been observed in numerous cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The precise molecular mechanism of up-regulation of Prx1 in carcinogenesis, however, is still poorly understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between Prx1 and hypoxia, and potential mechanism(s) of Prx1 in OSCC cell line SCC15 and xenograft model. We treated wild-type and Prx1 knockdown SCC15 cells with transient hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. We detected the condition of hypoxia, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression and/or activity of Prx1, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B). We found that hypoxia induces ROS accumulation, up-regulates Prx1, increases NF-?B translocation and DNA binding activity, and down-regulates HO-1 in vitro. In Prx1 knockdown cells, the expression level of HO-1 was increased, while NF?B translocation and DNA binding activity were decreased after hypoxia or hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment. Moreover, we mimicked the dynamic oxygenation tumor microenvironment in xenograft model and assessed the above indices in tumors with the maximal diameter of 2 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm or 15 mm, respectively. Our data showed that tumor hypoxic condition and expression of Prx1 are significantly associated with tumor growth. The expression of HO-1 and NF-?B, and NF-?B DNA binding activity were significantly elevated in 15 mm tumors, and the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was increased in 10 mm and 15 mm tumors, compared to those in size of 2 mm. The results from this study provide experimental evidence that overexpression of Prx1 is associated with hypoxia, and Prx1/NF-?B/HO-1 signaling pathway may be involved in oral carcinogenesis.
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Multiple-state interfacial electron injection competes with excited state relaxation and de-excitation to determine external quantum efficiencies of organic dye-sensitized solar cells.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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A comprehensive description of the complicated dynamics of excited state evolution and charge transfer at the photochemical interface in dye-sensitized solar cells is crucial to understand the mechanism of converting solar photons to clean electricity, providing an informative basis for the future development of advanced organic materials. By selecting two triarylamine-based organic donor-acceptor dyes characteristic of the respective benzoic acid and cyanoacrylic acid anchors, in this paper we reveal stepwise excited state relaxations and multiple-state electron injections at a realistic titania/dye/electrolyte interface based upon ultrafast spectroscopic measurements and theoretical simulations. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations show that the optically generated "hot" excited state of the dye molecules can undergo a significant conformational relaxation via multistage torsional motions, and thereby transform into an equilibrium quinonoid structure characteristic of a more planar conjugated backbone. A set of kinetic parameters derived from the target analysis of femtosecond transient absorption spectra have been utilized to estimate the electron injection yield, which is in good accord with the maximum of external quantum efficiencies.
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[The molecular mechanism of interaction of trivalent dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) binding to rat hemoglobin].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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In our previous work, we found that trivalent dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) have high affinity binding to cysteine residue 13 of rat hemoglobin. However, it is still unknown why arsenic intermediate metabolite DMA(III) has high binding affinity for Cysl3 but not for other cysteine residues 93, 140, 111 and 125. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism of DMA(III) with rat hemoglobin, we have done current study. So, SD rats were divided into control and arsenic-treated groups randomly. Arsenic species in lysate of red blood cells were analyzed by HPLC-ICP-MS, and then determined by a hybrid quadrupole TOF MS. In addition, trivalent DMA(III) binds to different cysteine residues in rat hemoglobin alpha and beta chains were also simulated by Molecular Docking. Only Cys13 in alpha chain is able to bind to DMA(III) from the experiment results. Cys13 of alpha chain in rat hemoglobin is a specific binding site for DMA(III), and we found that amino acids compose pockets structure and surround Cys13 (but not other cysteine residues), make DMA(III) much easy to bind cysteine 13. Taken together, the DMA(III) specific binding to Cys13 is related to spatial structure of Cys13.
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Homogeneity of the Vaginal Microbiome at the Cervix, Posterior Fornix, and Vaginal Canal in Pregnant Chinese Women.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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The vaginal microbiome is an emerging concern in prenatal health. Because the sampling process of vaginal microbiota may pose potential risks for pregnant women, the choice of sampling site should be carefully considered. However, whether the microbial diversity is different across various sampling sites has been controversial. In the present study, three repeated swabs were collected at the cervix (C), posterior fornix (P), and vaginal canal (V) from 34 Chinese women during different pregnancy stages, and vaginal species were determined using the Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA tag sequences. The identified microbiomes were classified into four community state types (CSTs): CST I (dominated by L. crispatus), CST II (dominated by L. gasseri), CST III (dominated by L. iners), and CST IV-A (characterized by a low abundance of Lactobacillus, but with proportions of various species previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis). All individuals had consistent CST at the three sampling sites regardless of pregnancy stage and CST group. In addition, there was little heterogeneity across community structures within each individual, as determined by LEfSe, indicating high vaginal microbiome homogeneity at the three sampling sites. The present study also revealed different beta diversity during pregnancy stages. The vaginal microbiome variation among women during trimester T1 (9?±?2.6 weeks) is larger than that of non-pregnant women and women from other trimesters, as demonstrated by the UniFrac distance (P?
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Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis between red and white strains of Magnolia sprengeri pamp.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Magnolia sprengeri Pamp is one of the most highly valuable medicinal and ornamental plants of the Magnolia Family. The natural color of M. sprengeri is variable. The complete genome sequence of M. sprengeri is not available; therefore we sequenced the transcriptome of white and red petals of M. sprengeri using Illumina technology. We focused on the identity of structural and regulatory genes encoding the enzymes involved in the determination of flower color.
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Co-activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by neuronal insults determines cell death in acute brain slice.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Overactivation of NMDA receptors is linked to cell death during neuronal insults. However the precise role of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors remains to be further determined. In this study, we used the acute brain slice to examine the contributions of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors to neuronal death. By activation of synaptic NMDA receptors with bath application of 100?M bicuculline in acute brain slices, we observed a significant up-regulation in activation of neuronal survival-related signaling (p-CREB, p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT), without an obvious increase of LDH release and neuronal death. Interestingly, activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors alone by high dose of glutamate (200?M) following blockade of synaptic NMDA receptors with co-application of 20?M MK801 and 100?M bicuculline, we failed to observe inhibition of neuronal survival signaling and neuronal damage. In contrast, co-activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by applying 200?M glutamate or oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to acute brain slices for 30min, we observed a significant inhibition of CREB, ERK1/2 and AKT activation, an increase of LDH release and neuronal condensation. Together, co-activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by neuronal insults contributes to cell death in acute brain slice.
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Neuromarkers of fatigue and cognitive complaints following chemotherapy for breast cancer: a prospective fMRI investigation.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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The aim of this study is to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to prospectively examine pre-treatment predictors of post-treatment fatigue and cognitive dysfunction in women treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Fatigue and cognitive dysfunction often co-occur in women treated for breast cancer. We hypothesized that pre-treatment factors, unrelated to chemotherapy per se, might increase vulnerability to post-treatment fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. Patients treated with (n = 28) or without chemotherapy (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 32) were scanned coincident with pre- and one-month post-chemotherapy during a verbal working memory task (VWMT) and assessed for fatigue, worry, and cognitive dysfunction. fMRI activity measures in the frontoparietal executive network were used in multiple linear regression to predict post-treatment fatigue and cognitive function. The chemotherapy group reported greater pre-treatment fatigue than controls and showed compromised neural response, characterized by higher spatial variance in executive network activity, than the non-chemotherapy group. Also, the chemotherapy group reported greater post-treatment fatigue than the other groups. Linear regression indicated that pre-treatment spatial variance in executive network activation predicted post-treatment fatigue severity and cognitive complaints, while treatment group, age, hemoglobin, worry, and mean executive network activity levels did not predict these outcomes. Pre-treatment neural inefficiency (indexed by high spatial variance) in the executive network, which supports attention and working memory, was a better predictor of post-treatment cognitive and fatigue complaints than exposure to chemotherapy per se. This executive network compromise could be a pre-treatment neuromarker of risk, indicating patients most likely to benefit from early intervention for fatigue and cognitive dysfunction.
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Interleukin-27 inhibits foam cell formation by promoting macrophage ABCA1 expression through JAK2/STAT3 pathway.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The purpose of this study is to determine whether IL-27 regulates macrophage ABCA1 expression, foam cell formation, and also explore the underlying mechanisms. Here, we revealed that IL-27 decreased lipid accumulation in THP-1 derived macrophages through markedly enhancing cholesterol efflux and increasing ABCA1 expression at both protein and mRNA levels. Our study further demonstrated that IL-27 increased ABCA1 level via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Inhibition of Janus kinase 2, (JAK2)/STAT3 suppressed the stimulatory effects of IL-27 on ABCA1 expression. The present study concluded that IL-27 reduces lipid accumulation of foam cell by upregulating ABCA1 expression via JAK2/STAT3. Therefore, targeting IL-27 may offer a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic vascular disease.
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MicroRNA-590 attenuates lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by targeting lipoprotein lipase gene in human THP-1 macrophages.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNA-590 (miR-590) has protective effects on cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanism is unknown. Interestingly, previous studies from our laboratory and others have shown that macrophage-derived lipoprotein lipase (LPL) might accelerate atherosclerosis by promoting lipid accumulation and inflammatory response. However, the regulation of LPL at the post-transcriptional level by microRNAs has not been fully understood. In this study, we explored whether miR-590 affects the expression of LPL and its potential subsequent effects on lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in human THP-1 macrophages.
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Safety and efficacy of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for common bile duct stones in liver cirrhotic patients.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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In order to investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatograpy (ERCP) in liver cirrhosis patients with common bile duct stones, we retrospectively analyzed data of 46 common bile duct stones patients with liver cirrhosis who underwent ERCP between 2000 and 2008. There were 12 cases of Child-Pugh A, 26 cases of Child-Pugh B, and 8 cases of Child-Pugh C. 100 common bile duct stones patients without liver cirrhosis were randomly selected. All the patients were subjected to ERCP for biliary stones extraction. The rates of bile duct clearance and complications were compared between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients. The success rate of selective biliary cannulation was 95.6% in liver cirrhotic patients versus 97% in non-cirrhotic patients (P>0.05). The bile duct clearance rate was 87% in cirrhotic patients versus 96% in non-cirrhotic patients, but the difference was not statistically significant. Two liver cirrhotic patients (4.35%, 2/46) who were scored Child-Pugh C had hematemesis and melena 24 h after ERCP. The hemorrhage rate after ERCP in non-cirrhotic patients was 3%. The hemorrhage rate associated with ERCP in Child-Pugh C patients was significantly higher (25%, 2/8) than that (3%, 3/100) in non-cirrhotic patients (P<0.01%). There was no significant difference between these two groups in the rate of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) and cholangitis. ERCP is safe and effective for Child-Pugh A and B cirrhotic patients with common bile duct stones. Hemorrhage risk in ERCP is higher in Child-Pugh C patients.
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Trefoil factor 3 promotes metastatic seeding and predicts poor survival outcome of patients with mammary carcinoma.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Recurrence or early metastasis remains the predominant cause of mortality in patients with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) mammary carcinoma (MC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initial progression of ER+?MC to metastasis remains poorly understood. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is an estrogen-responsive oncogene in MC. Herein, we provide evidence for a functional role of TFF3 in metastatic progression of ER+?MC.
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Expression and Clinical Significance of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter 1 in Serum and Placental Tissue in Chinese Patients with Preeclampsia.
Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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To investigate the expression and clinical significance of ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) in pregnant women with preeclampsia (PE).
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An analysis of the Malassezia species distribution in the skin of patients with pityriasis versicolor in Chengdu, China.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a common clinical problem associated with Malassezia species (Malassezia spp.). Controversies remain regarding the specific species involved in the development of PV. This study analyzed the difference in Malassezia spp. distribution in lesional and nonlesional skin in Chinese PV patients. A paired design was applied. Lesional and nonlesional scales from 24 cases were collected; real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect 10 different Malassezia spp. In lesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (95.8%), M. restricta (91.7%), and M. sympodialis (50.0%). In nonlesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (87.5%), M. restricta (79.2%), and M. dermatis (33.3%). A significant difference in the detection rate was only found for M. sympodialis (50.8% versus 20.8%, P = 0.04). Compared with nonlesional skin, the amount of M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis in lesional skin was significantly higher (3.8 ± 1.3,??2.5 ± 1.1, and 3.2 ± 1.6 times higher, resp.). The results of this study do not indicate that M. globosa and M. restricta are directly correlated with PV development; however, M. sympodialis is more likely related to PV development in Chinese individuals.
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Electron-Acceptor-Dependent Light Absorption, Excited-State Relaxation, and Charge Generation in Triphenylamine Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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By choosing a simple triphenylamine electron donor, we herein compare the influence of electron acceptors benzothiadiazole benzoic acid (BTBA) and cyanoacrylic acid (CA), on energy levels, light absorption, and dynamics of excited-state evolution and electron injection. DFT and time-dependent DFT calculations disclosed remarkable intramolecular conformational changes for the excited states of these two donor-acceptor dyes. Photoinduced dihedral angle variation occurs to the triphenylamine unit in the CA dye and backbone planarization happens to conjugated aromatic blocks in the BTBA dye. Femtosecond spectroscopic measurements suggested the crucial role of having a long excited-state lifetime in maintaining a high electron-injection yield because a reduced driving force for a low energy-gap dye can result in slower electron-injection dynamics.
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Liver myofibroblasts from hepatitis B related liver failure patients may regulate natural killer cell function via PGE2.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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BackgroundNatural killer (NK) cells are abundant in the liver and constitute a major innate immune component that contributes to immune-mediated liver injury. However, few studies have investigated the phenotypes and functions of NK cells involved in hepatitis B related liver failure (LF), and the precise mechanism underlying NK cell regulation is not fully understood.MethodsWe detected the percentage and function of peripheral NK cells both in hepatitis B related LF patients and healthy volunteers by flow cytometry and isolated the liver myofibroblasts (LMFs) from hepatitis B related LF livers. To determine the possible effects of LMFs on NK cells, mixed cell cultures were established in vitro.ResultsWe found a down-regulated percentage of peripheral NK cells in hepatitis B related LF patients, and their NK cells also displayed decreased activated natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) and cytokine production. In a co-culture model, LMFs sharply attenuated IL-2-induced NK cell triggering receptors, cytotoxicity, and cytokine production. The inhibitory effect of LMFs on NK cells correlated with their ability to produce prostaglandin (PG) E2.ConclusionThese data suggest that LMFs may protect against immune-mediated liver injury in hepatitis B related LF patients by inhibiting NK cell function via PGE2.
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Pre-ischemic exercise alleviates oxidative damage following ischemic stroke in rats.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Physical exercise has been proved to be neuroprotective in clinical trials and animal experiments. However, the exact mechanism underlying this neuroprotective effect remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore whether pre-ischemic treadmill training could act as a form of ischemic preconditioning in a rat following ischemic stroke by reducing oxidative damage. Fifty-four rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=18 per group): Sham surgery, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) without exercise and MCAO with exercise. Subsequent to treadmill training, ischemic stroke was induced by occluding the MCA for 1.5 h, followed by reperfusion. Six rats in each group were evaluated for neurological deficits and then sacrificed by decapitation to calculate the infarct volume. The remaining rats in each group were sacrificed to detect the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (n=6) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (n=6). The results indicated that pre-ischemic exercise training reduced brain infarct volume and neurological deficits, increased SOD activity and decreased the concentration of MDA following ischemic stroke. In conclusion, treadmill exercise training prior to MCAO/reperfusion increased the antioxidant ability and decreased the oxidative damage in the brain subsequent to ischemic stroke.
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Numerical analysis of an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method for time fractional telegraph equation.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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We discuss and analyze an H(1)-Galerkin mixed finite element (H(1)-GMFE) method to look for the numerical solution of time fractional telegraph equation. We introduce an auxiliary variable to reduce the original equation into lower-order coupled equations and then formulate an H(1)-GMFE scheme with two important variables. We discretize the Caputo time fractional derivatives using the finite difference methods and approximate the spatial direction by applying the H(1)-GMFE method. Based on the discussion on the theoretical error analysis in L(2)-norm for the scalar unknown and its gradient in one dimensional case, we obtain the optimal order of convergence in space-time direction. Further, we also derive the optimal error results for the scalar unknown in H(1)-norm. Moreover, we derive and analyze the stability of H(1)-GMFE scheme and give the results of a priori error estimates in two- or three-dimensional cases. In order to verify our theoretical analysis, we give some results of numerical calculation by using the Matlab procedure.
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Passively mode-locking erbium-doped fiber lasers with 0.3?nm Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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We demonstrate a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) by using the smallest single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with a diameter of 0.3?nm as the saturable absorber. These ultrasmall SWNTs are fabricated in the elliptical nanochannels of a ZnAPO4-11 (AEL) single crystal. By placing an AEL crystal into an EDFL cavity pumped by a 980?nm laser diode, stable passive mode-locking is achieved for a threshold pump power of 280?mW, and 73?ps pulses at 1563.2?nm with a repetition rate of 26.79?MHz.
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Y chromosome haplotype diversity of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Eurasia.
Anim. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Variation in two SNPs and one microsatellite on the Y chromosome was analyzed in a total of 663 rams representing 59 breeds from a large geographic range in northern Eurasia. SNPA-oY1 showed the highest allele frequency (91.55%) across the breeds, whereas SNPG-oY1 was present in only 56 samples. Combined genotypes established seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H12 and H19). H6 dominated in northern Eurasia, and H8 showed the second-highest frequency. H4, which had been earlier reported to be absent in European breeds, was detected in one European breed (Swiniarka), whereas H7, which had been previously identified to be unique to European breeds, was present in two Chinese breeds (Ninglang Black and Large-tailed Han), one Buryatian (Transbaikal Finewool) and two Russian breeds (North Caucasus Mutton-Wool and Kuibyshev). H12, which had been detected only in Turkish breeds, was also found in Chinese breeds in this work. An overall low level of haplotype diversity (median h = 0.1288) was observed across the breeds with relatively higher median values in breeds from the regions neighboring the Near Eastern domestication center of sheep. H6 is the dominant haplotype in northwestern and eastern China, in which the haplotype distribution could be explained by the historical translocations of the H4 and H8 Y chromosomes to China via the Mongol invasions followed by expansions to northwestern and eastern China. Our findings extend previous results of sheep Y chromosomal genetic variability and indicate probably recent paternal gene flows between sheep breeds from distinct major geographic regions.
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Circumsporozoite protein-specific K(d)-restricted CD8+ T cells mediate protective antimalaria immunity in sporozoite-immunized MHC-I-K(d) transgenic mice.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Although the roles of CD8+ T cells and a major preerythrocytic antigen, the circumsporozoite (CS) protein, in contributing protective antimalaria immunity induced by radiation-attenuated sporozoites, have been shown by a number of studies, the extent to which these players contribute to antimalaria immunity is still unknown. To address this question, we have generated C57BL/6 (B6) transgenic (Tg) mice, expressing K(d) molecules under the MHC-I promoter, called MHC-I-K(d)-Tg mice. In this study, we first determined that a single immunizing dose of IrPySpz induced a significant level of antimalaria protective immunity in MHC-I-K(d)-Tg mice but not in B6 mice. Then, by depleting various T-cell subsets in vivo, we determined that CD8+ T cells are the main mediator of the protective immunity induced by IrPySpz. Furthermore, when we immunized (MHC-I-K(d)-Tg × CS-Tg) F1 mice with IrPySpz after crossing MHC-I-K(d)-Tg mice with PyCS-transgenic mice (CS-Tg), which are unable to mount PyCS-specific immunity, we found that IrPySpz immunization failed to induce protective antimalaria immunity in (MHC-I-K(d)-Tg × CS-Tg) F1 mice, thus indicating the absence of PyCS antigen-dependent immunity in these mice. These results indicate that protective antimalaria immunity induced by IrPySpz in MHC-I-K(d)-Tg mice is mediated by CS protein-specific, K(d)-restricted CD8+ T cells.
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Prostaglandin E2 stimulates ?1-integrin expression in hepatocellular carcinoma through the EP1 receptor/PKC/NF-?B pathway.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been implicated in cell invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), via increased ?1-integrin expression and cell migration; however, the mechanism remains unclear. PGE2 exerts its effects via four subtypes of the E prostanoid receptor (EP receptor 1-4). The present study investigated the effect of EP1 receptor activation on ?1-integrin expression and cell migration in HCC. Cell migration increased by 60% in cells treated with 17-PT-PGE2 (EP1 agonist), which was suppressed by pretreatment with a ?1-integrin polyclonal antibody. PGE2 increased ?1-integrin expression by approximately 2-fold. EP1 receptor transfection or treatment with 17-PT-PGE2 mimicked the effect of PGE2 treatment. EP1 siRNA blocked PGE2-mediated ?1-integrin expression. 17-PT-PGE2 treatment induced PKC and NF-?B activation; PKC and NF-?B inhibitors suppressed 17-PT-PGE2-mediated ?1-integrin expression. FoxC2, a ?1-integrin transcription factor, was also upregulated by 17-PT-PGE2. NF-?B inhibitor suppressed 17-PT-PGE2-mediated FoxC2 upregulation. Immunohistochemistry showed p65, FoxC2, EP1 receptor and ?1-integrin were all highly expressed in the HCC cases. This study suggested that PGE2 upregulates ?1-integrin expression and cell migration in HCC cells by activating the PKC/NF-?B signaling pathway. Targeting PGE2/EP1/PKC/NF-?B/FoxC2/?1-integrin pathway may represent a new therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of this cancer.
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AlphaScreen(®) Selectivity Assay for ?-Catenin/B-Cell Lymphoma 9 Inhibitors.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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The aberrant formation of the ?-catenin/B-cell lymphoma 9 (BCL9) protein-protein complex is the driving force for many diseases including cancer. Crystallographic analyses demonstrate that the surface area in ?-catenin for interacting with BCL9 is overlapped with that for ?-catenin/E-cadherin interactions. In this study, a robust AlphaScreen selectivity assay was developed to quantify inhibitor potency for ?-catenin/BCL9 interactions and selectivity for ?-catenin/BCL9 over ?-catenin/E-cadherin interactions. A pilot screen demonstrated the feasibility of this assay and yielded one potent hit that inhibits ?-catenin/BCL9 interactions and is selective over ?-catenin/E-cadherin interactions. This selectivity assay is highly sensitive and suitable for adaptation to high-throughput screening. The establishment of this assay lays the foundation for the discovery of selective inhibitors specific for ?-catenin/BCL9 interactions.
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Using Aqueous Ammonia in Hydroaminomethylation Reactions: Ruthenium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Tertiary Amines.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The direct synthesis of tertiary amines from ammonia and olefins is presented. Using a combination of Ru3 (CO)12 and 2-phosphino-substituted imidazole ligand as catalyst system allows for hydroaminomethylation reactions of bulk aliphatic and functionalized olefins. Tertiary amines are obtained in an atom-efficient domino process in moderate to good isolated yields (45-76?%) with excellent regioselectivities (n/iso up to 99:1).
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The bullseye synapse formed between CD4(+) T-cell and staphylococcal enterotoxin B-pulsed dendritic cell is a suppressive synapse in T-cell response.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The immunological synapse (IS) is a supermolecular activation cluster formed between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Although diverse IS structures have been reported, the function of the IS in T-cell activation remains unclear. Here, we found that the bullseye IS, one of IS types at the interface of CD4(+) T cells and staphylococcal enterotoxin B-pulsed dendritic cells, suppressed CD4(+) T-cell activation, whereas multifocal IS, another synapse type, stimulated CD4(+) T-cell activation. Consistent with these results, bullseye IS formation was accompanied by a low-level calcium response in T cells and a loss of T-cell receptor signalling molecules from the synapse, whereas multifocal IS exhibited the opposite. Furthermore, we found that CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) more efficiently formed bullseye IS and promoted bullseye IS formation in CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), an inhibitory molecule expressed continuously on Tregs, was localised in bullseye IS. Moreover, blocking CTLA-4 reduced the percentage of bullseye IS formation and promoted T-cell activation. Our data thus indicate that bullseye IS formation is mediated by CTLA-4, and may negatively control T-cell activation as a suppressive synapse.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 7 October 2014; doi:10.1038/icb.2014.76.
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Reducing Mg Acceptor Activation-Energy in Al0.83Ga0.17N Disorder Alloy Substituted by Nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 Superlattice Using MgGa ?-Doping: Mg Local-Structure Effect.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Improving p-type doping efficiency in Al-rich AlGaN alloys is a worldwide problem for the realization of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet optoelectronic devices. In order to solve this problem, we calculate Mg acceptor activation energy and investigate its relationship with Mg local structure in nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice (SL), a substitution for Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy, using first-principles calculations. A universal picture to reduce acceptor activation energy in wide-gap semiconductors is given for the first time. By reducing the volume of the acceptor local structure slightly, its activation energy can be decreased remarkably. Our results show that Mg acceptor activation energy can be reduced significantly from 0.44?eV in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy to 0.26?eV, very close to the Mg acceptor activation energy in GaN, and a high hole concentration in the order of 10(19)?cm(-3) can be obtained in (AlN)5/(GaN)1 SL by MgGa ?-doping owing to GaN-monolayer modulation. We thus open up a new way to reduce Mg acceptor activation energy and increase hole concentration in Al-rich AlGaN.
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Feasibility of lentiviral?mediated sodium iodide symporter gene delivery for the efficient monitoring of bone marrow?derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and survival.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of lentiviral?mediated sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene delivery for monitoring bone marrow?derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation into the infarcted myocardium. For this purpose, we constructed a lentiviral vector (Lv?EF1??NIS?IRES?EGFP) expressing NIS and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), and introduced it into BMSCs at different multiplicities of infection (MOI). The expression of EGFP was observed under a fluorescence microscope. Iodine uptake and the inhibition of iodine uptake by sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) in the Lv?EF1??NIS?IRES?EGFP?treated BMSCs were dynamically monitored in vitro. The Lv?EF1??NIS?IRES?EGFP?treated BMSCs were transplanted into the infarcted myocardium of Sprague?Dawley rats, and 99mTc99g (Tc, technetium; 99m indicates that technetium is at its excited stage; 99g indicates the atomic weight of technetium) micro?single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) imaging was performed in vivo 1 week following transplantation. The isolated BMSCs successfully differentiated into adipocytes and osteoblasts. The BMSCs were positive for the cell surface markers, CD105, CD29 and CD90, and negative for CD14, CD34 and CD45. Lv?EF1??NIS?IRES?EGFP was efficiently transfected into the BMSCs. RT?qPCR and western blot analysis confirmed that the BMSCs expressed high protein and mRNA levels of NIS by day 7 following infection, and NIS expression remained at a consistent level from day 14 to 21. In the Lv?EF1??NIS?IRES?EGFP?treated BMSCs, the accumulation of iodine-125 (125I) was observed in vitro and was successfully monitored by 99mTc99g micro?SPECT/CT imaging at 1 week following transplantation. These results suggest that lentiviral vectors are powerful vehicles for studying gene delivery in BMSCs. It is feasible to use lentiviral vectors to deliver an NIS gene for the non?invasive monitoring of BMSC transplantation and survival in the infarcted myocardium in vivo.
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Ceftriaxone modulates uptake activity of glial glutamate transporter-1 against global brain ischemia in rats.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Ceftriaxone(Cef) selectively increases the expression of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), which was thought to be neuroprotective in some circumstances. However, the effect of Cef on glutamate uptake of GLT-1 was mostly assayed using in vitro studies such as primary neuron/astrocyte cultures or brain slices. In addition, the effect of Cef on neurons in different ischemic models was still discrepant. Therefore, this study was undertaken to observe the effect of Cef on neurons in global brain ischemia in rats, and especially to provide direct evidence of the up-regulation of GLT-1 uptake for glutamate contributing to the neuronal protection of Cef against brain ischemia. Neuropathological evaluation indicated that administration of Cef, especially pre-treatment protocols, significantly prevented delayed neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 subregion normally induced by global brain ischemia. Simultaneously, pre-administration of Cef significantly up-regulated the expression of GLT-1. Particularly, GLT-1 uptake assay with (3) H-glutamate in living cells from adult rats showed that up-regulation in glutamate uptake accompanied up-regulated GLT-1 expression. Inhibition of GLT-1 by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides or dihydrokainate significantly inhibited the Cef-induced up-regulation in GLT-1 uptake and the neuroprotective effect against global ischemia. Thus, we may conclude that Cef protects neurons against global brain ischemia via up-regulation of the expression and glutamate uptake of GLT-1. Glutamate uptake by glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) is the principal way to regulate extracellular glutamate homeostasis in central nervous system. Over-accumulation of glutamate results in excitotoxicity and injures neurons after cerebral ischemia. Ceftriaxone up-regulates GLT-1 expression and uptake of glutamate, diminishes the excitotoxicity of glutamate and then protects neurons against global brain ischemia.
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Superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling limits the efficacy of rabbit immature dendritic cell vaccination by decreasing their antigen uptake ability in a lysosome-dependent manner.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Immature dendritic cells (iDCs) are for cell transplantation; however, no method has yet been developed for in vivo monitoring the transplanted iDCs. We have explored the feasibility of using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) labeling and magnetic resonance imaging for in vivo tracking of transplanted iDCs and determined the effects of SPIO labeling on iDC vaccination. With up to 50 ?g Fe/ml, SPIO effectively labeled the iDCs without affecting their growth. At or above 100 ?g Fe/ml, SPIO caused considerable damage to iDCs. SPIO labeling resulted in autophagosome formation and decreased the uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), an exogenous antigen, by iDCs. SPIO and ox-LDL both localized to the lysosomes, and this competition for lysosomes could be partially responsible for the decreased ox-LDL phagocytic capacity of iDCs due to SPIO labeling.
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Sodium bicarbonate in the prevention of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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IntroductionSodium bicarbonate (SBIC) was reported to be a promising approach to prevent cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). However, the results remain controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SBIC on the prevention of CSA-AKI in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery.MethodsPubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of SBIC versus placebo on the prevention of CSA-AKI in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcome was the incidence of CSA-AKI. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models.ResultsFive RCTs involving 1079 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with placebo, SBIC was not associated with a reduced risk of CSA-AKI (relative risk [RR] 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78 to 1.24; P¿=¿0.911). SBIC failed to alter the clinical outcomes of hospital length of stay (weighted mean difference [WMD] 0.23 days; 95%CI ¿0.88 to 1.33 days; P¿=¿0.688), renal replacement therapy (RR 0.94; 95%CI 0.49 to 1.82; P¿=¿0.861), hospital mortality (RR 1.37; 95%CI 0.46 to 4.13; P¿=¿0.572), postoperative atrial fibrillation (RR 1.02; 95%CI 0.65 to 1.61; P¿=¿0.915). However, SBIC was associated with significant increased risks in longer duration of ventilation (WMD 0.64 hours; 95%CI 0.16 to 1.11 hours; P¿=¿0.008), longer ICU length of stay (WMD 2.06 days; 95%CI 0.54 to 3.58 days; P¿=¿0.008), and increased incidence of alkalemia (RR 2.21; 95%CI 1.42 to 3.42; P <0.001).ConclusionsSBIC could not reduce the incidence of CSA-AKI. Contrarily, SBIC prolongs the duration of ventilation and ICU length of stay, and increases the risk of alkalemia. Thus, SBIC should not be recommended for the prevention of CSA-AKI and perioperative SBIC infusion should be administrated with caution.
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Cloning, expression and characterization of protein disulfide isomerase of Schistosoma japonicum.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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The excretory/secretory (ES) proteins of schistosomes play important roles in modulating host immune systems and are regarded as potential vaccine candidates and drug targets. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an essential enzyme that is involved in disulfide bond formation and rearrangement. In the present study, SjPDI, a 52.8 kDa protein previously identified in a proteomics analysis as one of the ES proteins of Schistosoma japonicum, was cloned and characterized. Western blot analysis showed that recombinant SjPDI (rSjPDI) was recognized by serum from rabbits vaccinated with schistosome worm antigen. Worm protein extracts and ES protein extracts from S. japonicum could react with anti-rSjPDI mouse serum. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that SjPDI was expressed at all developmental stages tested, and a high expression level was detected in 42-day-old male worms. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that SjPDI was mainly distributed on the tegument and parenchyma of S. japonicum worms. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) demonstrated that rSjPDI could induce a high level of rSjPDI-specific IgG antibodies. The biological activity of purified rSjPDI was confirmed by isomerization and antioxidative activity assays. The 35.32%, 26.19% reduction in the worm burden and 33.17%, 31.7% lower liver egg count were obtained in mice vaccinated with rSjPDI compared with the blank control group in two independent trials. Our preliminary results suggest that rSjPDI plays an important role in the development of the schistosome and is a potential vaccine candidate for schistosomiasis.
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Decreased SOCS1 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in a Chinese population.
Clin. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared with healthy controls. The associations of systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index scores and clinical features of SLE with the expression levels of SOCS1 mRNA were also evaluated. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was applied to detect the mRNA expression levels of SOCS1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 34 patients with SLE and 34 healthy controls. The mRNA expression level of SOCS1 was significantly decreased in SLE patients in comparison with healthy controls (Z = -4.207, P < 0.001). Lower SOCS1 mRNA expression was detected in active SLE patients when compared with inactive ones (Z = -2.428, P = 0.015). There was no significant difference found for the SOCS1 mRNA levels between SLE patients with nephritis and those without (Z = -0.642, P = 0.521). The presence of photosensitivity, proteinuria, positive antinuclear antibody, and C4 decline were associated with SOCS1 mRNA levels in SLE patients (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOCS1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with disease activity (r s  = -0.372, P = 0.030). Our results suggest that the dysregulation of SOCS1 might be associated with the pathogenesis of SLE.
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Impact of ozone exposure on the response to glucocorticoid in a mouse model of asthma: involvements of p38 MAPK and MKP-1.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Molecular mechanisms involved in the oxidative stress induced glucocorticoids insensitivity remain elusive. The mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP) 1 mediates a part of glucocorticoids action and can be modified by exogenous oxidants. Whether oxidant ozone (O3) can affect the function of MKP-1 and hence blunt the response to corticotherapy is not clear.
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