The coat protein II (COPII)-coated vesicular system transports newly synthesized secretory and membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. Recruitment of cargo into COPII vesicles requires an interaction of COPII proteins either with the cargo molecules directly or with cargo receptors for anterograde trafficking. We show that cytosolic phosphatidic acid phospholipase A1 (PAPLA1) interacts with COPII protein family members and is required for the transport of Rh1 (rhodopsin 1), an N-glycosylated G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), from the ER to the Golgi complex. In papla1 mutants, in the absence of transport to the Golgi, Rh1 is aberrantly glycosylated and is mislocalized. These defects lead to decreased levels of the protein and decreased sensitivity of the photoreceptors to light. Several GPCRs, including other rhodopsins and Bride of sevenless, are similarly affected. Our findings show that a cytosolic protein is necessary for transit of selective transmembrane receptor cargo by the COPII coat for anterograde trafficking.
Sensitive and specific biomarkers for pancreatic cancer are currently unavailable. The high mortality associated with adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic epithelium justifies the broadest possible search for new biomarkers that can facilitate early detection or monitor treatment efficacy. Protein glycosylation is altered in many cancers, leading many to propose that glycoproteomic changes may provide suitable biomarkers. In order to assess this possibility for pancreatic cancer, we have performed an in-depth LC-MS/MS analysis of the proteome and MS(n)-based characterization of the N-linked glycome of a small set of pancreatic ductal fluid obtained from normal, pancreatitis, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), and pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. Our results identify a set of seven proteins that were consistently increased in cancer ductal fluid compared to normal (AMYP, PRSS1, GP2-1, CCDC132, REG1A, REG1B, and REG3A) and one protein that was consistently decreased (LIPR2). These proteins are all directly or indirectly associated with the secretory pathway in normal pancreatic cells. Validation of these changes in abundance by Western blotting revealed increased REG protein glycoform diversity in cancer. Characterization of the total N-linked glycome of normal, IPMN, and adenocarcinoma ductal fluid clustered samples into three discrete groups based on the prevalence of six dominant glycans. Within each group, the profiles of less prevalent glycans were able to distinguish normal from cancer on this small set of samples. Our results emphasize that individual variation in protein glycosylation must be considered when assessing the value of a glycoproteomic marker, but also indicate that glycosylation diversity across human subjects can be reduced to simpler clusters of individuals whose N-linked glycans share structural features.
Dystroglycanopathies are a subset of congenital muscular dystrophies wherein ?-dystroglycan (?-DG) is hypoglycosylated. ?-DG is an extensively O-glycosylated extracellular matrix-binding protein and a key component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Previous studies have shown ?-DG to be post-translationally modified by both O-GalNAc- and O-mannose-initiated glycan structures. Mutations in defined or putative glycosyltransferase genes involved in O-mannosylation are associated with a loss of ligand-binding activity of ?-DG and are causal for various forms of congenital muscular dystrophy. In this study, we sought to perform glycomic analysis on brain O-linked glycan structures released from proteins of three different knock-out mouse models associated with O-mannosylation (POMGnT1, LARGE (Myd), and DAG1(-/-)). Using mass spectrometry approaches, we were able to identify nine O-mannose-initiated and 25 O-GalNAc-initiated glycan structures in wild-type littermate control mouse brains. Through our analysis, we were able to confirm that POMGnT1 is essential for the extension of all observed O-mannose glycan structures with ?1,2-linked GlcNAc. Loss of LARGE expression in the Myd mouse had no observable effect on the O-mannose-initiated glycan structures characterized here. Interestingly, we also determined that similar amounts of O-mannose-initiated glycan structures are present on brain proteins from ?-DG-lacking mice (DAG1) compared with wild-type mice, indicating that there must be additional proteins that are O-mannosylated in the mammalian brain. Our findings illustrate that classical ?1,2-elongation and ?1,6-GlcNAc branching of O-mannose glycan structures are dependent upon the POMGnT1 enzyme and that O-mannosylation is not limited solely to ?-DG in the brain.
The main extracellular matrix binding component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG), which was originally isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle, is an extensively O-glycosylated protein. Previous studies have shown alpha-DG to be modified by both O-GalNAc- and O-mannose-initiated glycan structures. O-Mannosylation, which accounts for up to 30% of the reported O-linked structures in certain tissues, has been rarely observed on mammalian proteins. Mutations in multiple genes encoding defined or putative glycosyltransferases involved in O-mannosylation are causal for various forms of congenital muscular dystrophy. Here, we explore the glycosylation of purified rabbit skeletal muscle alpha-DG in detail. Using tandem mass spectrometry approaches, we identify 4 O-mannose-initiated and 17 O-GalNAc-initiated structures on alpha-DG isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle. Additionally, we demonstrate the use of tandem mass spectrometry-based workflows to directly analyze glycopeptides generated from the purified protein. By combining glycomics and tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 91 glycopeptides from alpha-DG, we were able to assign 21 different residues as being modified by O-glycosylation with differing degrees of microheterogeneity; 9 sites of O-mannosylation and 14 sites of O-GalNAcylation were observed with only two sites definitively exhibiting occupancy by either type of glycan. The distribution of identified sites of O-mannosylation suggests a limited role for local primary sequence in dictating sites of attachment.
The abundance and structural diversity of glycans on glycoproteins and glycolipids are highly regulated and play important roles during vertebrate development. Because of the challenges associated with studying glycan regulation in vertebrate embryos, we have chosen to study mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells as they differentiate into embryoid bodies (EBs) or into extraembryonic endodermal (ExE) cells as a model for cellular differentiation. We profiled N- and O-glycan structures isolated from these cell populations and examined transcripts encoding the corresponding enzymatic machinery for glycan biosynthesis in an effort to probe the mechanisms that drive the regulation of glycan diversity. During differentiation from mouse ES cells to either EBs or ExE cells, general trends were detected. The predominance of high mannose N-glycans in ES cells shifted to an equal abundance of complex and high mannose structures, increased sialylation, and increased ?-Gal termination in the differentiated cell populations. Whereas core 1 O-glycan structures predominated in all three cell populations, increased sialylation and increased core diversity characterized the O-glycans of both differentiated cell types. Increased polysialylation was also found in both differentiated cell types. Differences between the two differentiated cell types included greater sialylation of N-glycans in EBs, whereas ?-Gal-capped structures were more prevalent in ExE cells. Changes in glycan structures generally, but not uniformly, correlated with alterations in transcript abundance for the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes, suggesting that transcriptional regulation contributes significantly to the regulation of glycan expression. Knowledge of glycan structural diversity and transcript regulation should provide greater understanding of the roles of protein glycosylation in vertebrate development.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.