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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Thoracolumbar fracture dislocations treated by posterior reduction, interbody fusion and segmental instrumentation.
Indian J Orthop
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Literature describing the application of modern segmental instrumentation to thoracic and lumbar fracture dislocation injuries is limited and the ideal surgical strategy for this severe trauma remains controversial. The purpose of this article was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of single-stage posterior reduction with segmental instrumentation and interbody fusion to treat this type of injury.
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Linezolid versus vancomycin for skin and soft tissue infections.
Evid Based Child Health
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The morbidity and treatment costs associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are high. Linezolid and vancomycin are antibiotics that are commonly used in treating skin and soft-tissue infections, specifically those infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
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Synchronous hepatic and splenic inflammatory pseudotumor-like follicular dendritic cell sarcomas.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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A 57-year old woman, with no prior significant disease, presented with a 12-month progressive 60-pound weight loss. CT and MR imaging showed numerous hepatic and splenic lesions, more conspicuous on MR due to its different sequences (Figure 1). Tissue sampling initially identified these lesions as benign inflammatory pseudotumors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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BaMn9(II)(VO4)6(OH)2: a homospin ferrimagnet with a broken spinel-lattice of B-sites.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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A new vanadate of BaMn9(II)(VO4)6(OH)2 was synthesized by a conventional hydrothermal method. BaMn9(II)(VO4)6(OH)2 crystallizes in the cubic space group Pa3[combining macron], which exhibits an edge-sharing MnO6 octahedral network structure with cavities occupied by Ba(VO4)6(16-) groups. The lattice built by Mn(2+) ions shows the reverse triangular dipyramid Mn7 in the system, which can be considered as a broken spin lattice of B-sites in spinels. The title compound shows a ferrimagnetic behavior with TC = 18 K.
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Pretreatment of Human Cervicovaginal Mucus with Pluronic F127 Enhances Nanoparticle Penetration without Compromising Mucus Barrier Properties to Herpes Simplex Virus.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Mucosal drug delivery nanotechnologies are limited by the mucus barrier that protects nearly all epithelial surfaces not covered with skin. Most polymeric nanoparticles, including polystyrene nanoparticles (PS), strongly adhere to mucus, thereby limiting penetration and facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that PS rapidly penetrate human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), if the CVM has been pretreated with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated, nonmucoadhesive nanoparticles (PS-PEG) did not change in F127-pretreated CVM, implying that F127 did not significantly alter the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM, indicating that the presence of F127 did not reduce adhesive interactions between CVM and the virions. In contrast to treatment with a surfactant that has been approved for vaginal use as a spermicide (nonoxynol-9 or N9), there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for 1 week. Pluronic F127 pretreatment holds potential as a method to safely improve the distribution, retention, and efficacy of nanoparticle formulations without compromising CVM barrier properties to pathogens.
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Oral adsorbents for preventing or delaying the progression of chronic kidney disease.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem which is at high increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and renal failure. Deterioration of kidney function causes an increase in circulating toxins, which, in turn promotes the progression of CKD. Oral adsorbents with capacity to adsorb and remove substances including uraemic toxins from the intestine could be effective in minimising kidney injury.
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Surface magnetism of Mg doped AlN: a first principle study.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Using first-principles calculations, we have systematically investigated the magnetic properties of Mg-doped AlN [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] surfaces. Both the polar and non-polar surfaces are found to be magnetic and the magnetic moments are mainly due to spin polarized 2p orbitals of surface N atoms surrounding Mg. The splitting of energy levels in both cases favours charge hopping between the minority spin states of N 2p orbitals, which leads to a stable ferromagnetic ground state. However, the range of magnetic coupling and the stability of the ferromagnetic state differ between the polar and non-polar surfaces and are dependent on the nature of localization of the defect states. The ferromagnetic state in a Mg-doped reconstructed [Formula: see text] surface is more stable than in a Mg-doped AlN [Formula: see text] surface.
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Real-time magnetic nanothermometry: the use of magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles assessed under low frequency triangle-wave magnetic fields.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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In this study, we propose and demonstrate the usefulness of employing time-varying magnetization of a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) based sample, induced by low frequency (f = 25 Hz) triangular-wave magnetic field, to achieve the approach of real-time recording of magnetization curve, which allows precise and noninvasive temperature probing with real-time performance. Moreover, the present report introduces the design and performed the test of a detection system for accurate and real-time recording of the magnetization curve of MNP-based samples. We found that by employing the magnetization curve of a magnetic fluid sample containing magnetite nanoparticles of about 30 nm in diameter the accuracy of the temperature probing is about 0.32 K (0.1% relative accuracy), with response time of 1 s. Furthermore, an increase in response time from 1 to 8 s improves the accuracy of temperature probing from 0.32 to 0.20 K. Finally, we envisage that breakthroughs in clinical hyperthermia, targeted drug delivery and basic cell research can be accomplished while using the approach reported in this study.
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Ileocolonic anastomosis after right hemicolectomy for colon cancer: functional end-to-end or end-to-side?
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to compare short-term clinical outcomes of ileocolonic functional end-to-end anastomosis (FEEA) and end-to-side anastomosis (ESA) following resection of the right colon for cancer.
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Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance Genes Aid in Defense against Chicken Innate Immunity, Fecal Shedding, and Egg Deposition.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major etiologic agent of nontyphoid salmonellosis in the United States. S. Enteritidis persistently and silently colonizes the intestinal and reproductive tract of laying hens, resulting in contaminated poultry products. The consumption of contaminated poultry products has been identified as a significant risk factor for human salmonellosis. To understand the mechanisms S. Enteritidis utilizes to colonize and persist in laying hens, we used selective capture of transcribed sequences to identify genes overexpressed in the HD11 chicken macrophage cell line and in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells. From the 15 genes found to be overexpressed in both cell types, we characterized the antimicrobial peptide resistance (AMPR) genes, virK and ybjX, in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, AMPR genes were required for natural morphology, motility, secretion, defense against detergents such as EDTA and bile salts, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides polymyxin B and avian ?-defensins. From this, we inferred the AMPR genes play a role in outer membrane stability and/or modulation. In the intestinal tract, AMPR genes were involved in early intestinal colonization and fecal shedding. In the reproductive tract, virK was required in early colonization whereas a deletion of ybjX caused prolonged ovary colonization and egg deposition. Data from the present study indicate that AMPR genes are differentially utilized in various host environments, which may ultimately assist S. Enteritidis in persistent and silent colonization of chickens.
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Serum Metabolite Signatures of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Complications.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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A number of metabolic conditions, including hypoglycemia, high blood pressure (HBP), dyslipidemia, nerve damage and amputation, and vision problems, occur as a result of uncontrolled blood glucose levels over a prolonged period of time. The different components of diabetic complications are not independent but rather interdependent of each other, rendering the disease difficult to diagnose and control. The underlying pathogenesis of those components cannot be easily elucidated because of the heterogeneous, polygenic, and multifactorial nature of the disease. Metabonomics offers a snapshot of distinct biochemical variations that may reflect the unique metabolic phenotype under pathophysiological conditions. Here we report a mass-spectrometry-based metabonomic study designed to identify the distinct metabolic changes associated with several complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The 292 patients recruited in the study were divided into five groups, including T2DM with HBP, T2DM with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), T2DM with HBP and NAFLD, T2DM with HBP and coronary heart disease (CHD), and T2DM with HBP, NAFLD, and CHD. Serum differential metabolites were identified in each group of T2DM complication, mainly involving bile acid, fatty acid, amino acid, lipid, carbohydrate, steroids metabolism, and tricarboxylic acids cycle. These broad-spectrum metabolic changes emphasize the complex abnormalities present among these complications with elevated blood glucose levels, providing a novel strategy for stratifying patients with T2DM complications using blood-based metabolite markers.
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Circulating CD36 and Fractalkine Levels are Associated with Vulnerable Plaque Progression in Patients with Unstable Angina Pectoris.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The chemokine fractalkine independently enhances the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. This study investigated the combined effects of CD36 and fractalkine on coronary plaque progression in patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP). In this study, 120 UAP patients undergoing coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) were divided into two groups: an intermediate lesion group (lumen diameter stenosis (LDS) 50-70%, 80 patients), and a severe lesion group (at least one lesion with LDS > 70%, 40 patients). The control group consisted of 40 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. Concentrations of CD36 and fractalkine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were monitored over a 2-year follow-up. IVUS revealed that patients with severe lesions had more calcified and mixed plaques, a larger plaque area (PA) and plaque burden (PB) than patients with intermediate lesions (P < 0.05-0.01). More patients with severe lesions underwent stent deployment (P < 0.05) than those with intermediate lesions. CD36 and fractalkine concentrations were significantly higher in the severe lesion patients (P < 0.05), and both had significant positive correlations (P < 0.05) with the PB of atherosclerotic lesions. Using the matched nested case-control study, we found that CD36 and fractalkine levels were higher in patients of recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events than controls (P < 0.05).In conclusion, CD36 and fractalkine both promote, and might synergistically enhance, the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Totally robotic atrial septal defect closure: 7-year single-institution experience and follow-up.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Robotic technology has been applied to atrial septal defect (ASD) repair for more than 10 years, but the number of cases reported is limited and results of long-term follow-up are not clear. This study reports on a large group of patients who underwent totally robotic ASD repair on an arrested or beating heart at a single institution with a 7-year follow-up.
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[Study on preparation of andrographolide composite particles based on mechanical crushing method and its dissolution].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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To prepare andrographolide composite particles, and evaluate their particle structure and dissolution.
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[Ginger extracts improve renal injury of high fructose-fed SD rats by inhibiting the expression of proinflammatory cytokines].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Objective To investigated the effects of ginger extracts on renal injury in high fructose-fed SD rats and the possible underlying mechanism. Methods Twenty rats were randomly divided into control group, fructose group, 20 and 50 mg/kg ginger extract groups, 5 rats in each group. The general situation and histopathological changes in the kidney of rats were observed. The expressions of monocyte chemokine protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR); the levels of MCP-1, TNF-? and IL-6 in supernatant of renal tissue homogenates were assessed by ELISA. Results Compared to the control group, the kidney mass and the ratio of kidney-to-body mass significantly decreased in fructose group, accompanied by renal tubular injury. Ginger extracts at 50 mg/kg evidently improved renal tubular injury, suppressed the expressions of renal MCP-1, TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA (P<0.05) and decreased the levels of MCP-1 (P<0.05), TNF-? (P<0.01), IL-6 (P<0.05) in kidney tissue homogenates. Conclusion The supplement of ginger extracts can improve fructose-induced renal injury, which may be associated with the suppression on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines.
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis will increase the risk of lung cancer.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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To review the studies investigating the increased risk of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
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[Using mixture design to optimize preparation technology of gankeshuangqing dispersible tablets].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To study the preparation process and the best prescription of Gankeshuangqing dispersible tablets.
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Dephosphorylation of tyrosine 393 in argonaute 2 by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B regulates gene silencing in oncogenic RAS-induced senescence.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Oncogenic RAS (H-RAS(V12)) induces premature senescence in primary cells by triggering production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the molecular role of ROS in senescence remains elusive. We investigated whether inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases by ROS contributed to H-RAS(V12)-induced senescence. We identified protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a major target of H-RAS(V12)-induced ROS. Inactivation of PTP1B was necessary and sufficient to induce premature senescence in H-RAS(V12)-expressing IMR90 fibroblasts. We identified phospho-Tyr 393 of argonaute 2 (AGO2) as a direct substrate of PTP1B. Phosphorylation of AGO2 at Tyr 393 inhibited loading with microRNAs (miRNAs) and thus miRNA-mediated gene silencing, which counteracted the function of H-RAS(V12)-induced oncogenic miRNAs. Overall, our data illustrate that premature senescence in H-RAS(V12)-transformed primary cells is a consequence of oxidative inactivation of PTP1B and inhibition of miRNA-mediated gene silencing.
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Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer demonstrate active epithelial-mesenchymal transition profile, regulated by miR-217-SIRT1 pathway.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is supposed to be an inflammation induced response which may take a central role in tumorigenesis. Since recent evidence indicates that microRNAs may be involved in EMT, the present study set out to reveal the miRNA which might regulate the EMT in CP (chronic pancreatitis) and PC (pancreatic cancer) and its potential mechanism. Firstly, we provided evidence that both CP and PC tissues demonstrated active EMT profile. Consistently, miR-217 was obviously down-regulated in CP, PC and TGF-?1 treated PC cells, while negatively correlated to its direct target SIRT1. Moreover, either ectopic expression of miR-217 or inhibition of SIRT1 remarkably induced mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) in TGF-?1 treated PC cells. On the contrary, miR-217 inhibitor promoted EMT in PC cells but not in SIRT-knockdown PC cells. Clinical information from a cohort of 54 PC patients demonstrated that down-regulated miR-217 was positively correlated with late tumor stage, lymphatic invasion, vascular infiltration and distant metastasis. These results suggest that the overexpressed TGF-?1 in inflammation triggers the deregulation of the miR-217-SIRT1 pathway and then promotes the EMT process, which might be involved in the tumorigenesis of PC. Additionally, miR-217 may function as a novel target and predictor for PC prevention and therapy.
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[Clinical characteristics and efficiency of interventional therapy for coronary artery involvement in Takayasu's arteritis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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To explore the clinical characteristics and efficacies of interventional therapy for coronary artery involvement in Takayasu's arteritis (TA).
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Study on formability of solid nanosuspensions during solidification: II novel roles of freezing stress and cryoprotectant property.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The freezing stress and cryoprotectants were known to be the crucial factors for solidification formability of nanosuspensions during freeze-drying. However, there has been controversy as to whether an aggressive or conservative freezing stress (freezing temperature or freezing rate) prevents from irreversible aggregation of nanosuspensions. And the screening of cryoprotectants for solidification formability of nanosuspensions has largely relied on empirical approaches. A systematic investigation was presented herein regarding the effect of both the freezing stress and property of cryoprotectants on solidification formability of drug nanosuspensions during freeze-drying. It was found that at different freezing stresses (-20°C, -80°C, and -196°C), the redispersibility of BCN, NGN, RCN, and RVL nanosuspensions stabilized, respectively, by seven stabilizers, was RDI-20°C>RDI-80°C>RDI-196°C. But the redispersibility of UDCA and OCA nanosuspensions stabilized, respectively, by seven stabilizers, was RDI-20°C
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[Efficacy and safety of fluvastatin extended-release tablets in Chinese patients with hyperlipidemia: a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, double dummy, active-controlled, parallel-group study].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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To assess the efficacy and safety of fluvastatin sodium extended-release tablets (fluvastatin XL) 80 mg once daily compared to fluvastatin sodium immediate-release capsules (fluvastatin IR) 40 mg twice daily in Chinese hyperlipidemic patients with moderate or high cardiovascular risk.
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The interaction of APEX1 variant with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on increasing chromosome damage and lung cancer risk among male Chinese.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the most significant contributors to tobacco-induced lung carcinogenesis. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a central enzyme in the removal of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites caused by DNA damaging agents. This study aimed to investigate the potential interaction of APEX1 polymorphisms and PAHs on genetic damage and lung cancer risk among male Chinese. We recruited an occupational cohort of 922 male coke oven workers and determined their DNA damage levels by calculating the lymphocytic micronucleus (MN) frequencies. Two well-studied APEX1 polymorphisms (-307A?>?C and Asp148Glu) and their associations with MN frequencies were examined. The impact of MN-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on lung cancer risk was further investigated in two case-control studies including 1634 male lung cancer patients and 1678 controls. It was shown that, the APEX1 148Glu allele was associated with significantly higher MN frequencies than 148Asp allele, with strongest associations among the highest PAH-exposure workers (P?=?0.008). The APEX1 148Glu allele was also associated with increased lung cancer risk among male smokers, especially among heavy smokers in both case-control studies (odd ratio: 4.40, 95%CI: 3.29-5.72). In addition, APEX1 148Glu variant interacts with smoking in increasing male lung cancer risk, as measured by the attributable proportion due to interaction, which was 0.23 (95%CI: 0.06-0.39). This study showed evidence on interaction between APEX1 148Glu variant and cigarette smoking in increasing lung cancer susceptibility among male Chinese, which may be due to the synergistic effects of APEX1 148Glu and PAHs in increasing chromosome damage levels. The results provide a new insight into gene-interactions in lung carcinogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Phthalate diesters in airborne PM(2.5) and PM(10) in a suburban area of Shanghai: seasonal distribution and risk assessment.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Concentrations of nine phthalate diesters in 24-h airborne PM2.5 and PM10 were determined from October 2011 to August 2012 in a suburban area in Shanghai, China. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in airborne particulate matter at sum concentrations of these six compounds ranging from 13.3 to 186 ng/m(3), with an average value of 59.8 ng/m(3) in PM2.5, and from 10.1 to 445 ng/m(3), with an average value of 132 ng/m(3) in PM10. DEHP, DBP, and DIBP were the major phthalate diesters found in PM samples. DEHP was found predominantly in coarse (size fraction of between PM2.5 and PM10) particles, whereas DMP, DEP, DBP, DIBP, and BzBP were found predominantly in fine (PM2.5) particles. The concentrations of phthalates in PM during warm months (207 ng/m(3) for PM10 and 71.9 ng/m(3) for PM2.5, on average) were significantly higher than those during cold months (76.9 ng/m(3) for PM10 and 50.4 ng/m(3) for PM2.5). Significant positive correlations were found between concentrations of total phthalates, DEHP, and BzBP, with the total mass and organic carbon content of PM. Based on the concentrations of DEHP, incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) from inhalation exposure were estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation. Although the 95% probabilities for the ILCR values for the general population were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) threshold of 10(-6), our result is an underestimate of the actual health risk because we only considered the outdoor inhalation exposure to DEHP in this study.
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Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus orf132 Encodes a Nucleocapsid-Associated Protein Required for Budded-Virus and Multiply Enveloped Occlusion-Derived Virus Production.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus orf132 (named ac132) has homologs in all genome-sequenced group I nucleopolyhedroviruses. Its role in the viral replication cycle is unknown. In this study, ac132 was shown to express a protein of around 28 kDa, which was determined to be associated with the nucleocapsids of both occlusion-derived virus and budded virus. Confocal microscopy showed that AC132 protein appeared in central region of the nucleus as early as 12 h postinfection with the virus. It formed a ring zone at the periphery of the nucleus by 24 h postinfection. To investigate its role in virus replication, ac132 was deleted from the viral genome by using a bacmid system. In the Sf9 cell culture transfected by the ac132 knockout bacmid, infection was restricted to single cells, and the titer of infectious budded virus was reduced to an undetectable level. However, viral DNA replication and the expression of late genes vp39 and odv-e25 and a reporter gene under the control of the very late gene p10 promoter were unaffected. Electron microscopy showed that nucleocapsids, virions, and occlusion bodies were synthesized in the cells transfected by an ac132 knockout bacmid, but the formation of the virogenic stroma and occlusion bodies was delayed, the numbers of enveloped nucleocapsids were reduced, and the occlusion bodies contained mainly singly enveloped nucleocapsids. AC132 was found to interact with envelope protein ODV-E18 and the viral DNA-binding protein P6.9. The data from this study suggest that ac132 possibly plays an important role in the assembly and envelopment of nucleocapsids.
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Surgical treatment of large abdominally involved primary dumbbell tumor in the lumbar region.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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This was a retrospective clinical study.
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Genome-wide association study identifies new susceptibility loci for epithelial ovarian cancer in Han Chinese women.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancies worldwide. Here we perform a three-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) in Han Chinese women to identify risk genetic variants for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We scan 900,015 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1,057 EOC cases and 1,191 controls in stage I, and replicate 41 SNPs (P(meta)<10(-4)) in 960 EOC cases and 1,799 controls (stage II), and an additional 492 EOC cases and 1,004 controls (stage III). Finally, we identify two EOC susceptibility loci at 9q22.33 (rs1413299 in COL15A1, P(meta) = 1.88 × 10(-8)) and 10p11.21 (rs1192691 near ANKRD30A, P(meta) = 2.62 × 10(-8)), and two consistently replicated loci at 12q14.2 (rs11175194 in SRGAP1, P(meta) = 1.14 × 10(-7)) and 9q34.2 (rs633862 near ABO and SURF6, P(meta) = 8.57 × 10(-7)) (P<0.05 in all three stages). These results may advance our understanding of genetic susceptibility to EOC.
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Preclinical safety evaluation of human mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in cerebrum of nonhuman primates.
Int. J. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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The efficacy of stem cell transplantation for promoting recovery of patients with neurological diseases, such as stroke, has been reported in several studies. However, the safety of the intracerebral transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of hMSCs transplanted in cerebrum of Macaca fascicularis and to provide evidence for clinical application. A total of 24 M fascicularis were assigned to 3 groups randomly: low dose (3.0 × 10(5) cells/kg), high dose (2.5 × 10(6) cells/kg), and the control (normal saline [NS]). Human mesenchymal stem cells or NS were injected into each monkey for 2 times, with an interval of 3 weeks. The injection point was located outside of the right putamen, according to a stereotactic map and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the monkeys. Animal health, behavior, biophysical and biochemical parameters, and brain neurological function were routinely monitored over a 6-month period posttransplantation, and the histopathologic examinations were also performed. The results showed that local pathologic damage including local tissue necrosis and inflammation was induced after the injection. The damage of low-dose and high-dose groups was greater than that of the control group, yet over time, the damage could be repaired gradually. No major hMSCs-associated changes were induced from other indicators, and the transplantation of hMSCs in monkeys did not affect total immunoglobulin (Ig) M, total IgG, CD3, CD4, or CD8 values. We therefore conclude that transplantation of hMSCs to the cerebrum represents a safe alternative for clinical application of neurological disorders.
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Functional characterization of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus gp16 (ac130).
Virology
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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To investigate the function of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) gp16, multiple gp16-knockout and repair mutants were constructed and characterized. No obvious difference in productivity of budded virus, DNA synthesis, late gene expression and morphogenesis was observed between gp16-knockout and repair viruses, but gp16 deletion resulted in six hours of lengthening in ST50 to the third instar Spodoptera exigua larvae in bioassays. GP16 was fractionated mainly in the light membrane fraction, by subcellular fractionation. A GP16-EGFP fusion protein was predominantly localized close around the nuclear membrane in infected cells, being coincident with formation of the vesicles associated with the nuclear membrane, which hosted nucleocapsids released from the nucleus. These data suggest that gp16 is not required for viral replication, but may be involved in membrane trafficking associated with the envelopment/de-envelopment of budded viruses when they cross over the nuclear membrane and pass through cytoplasm.
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The Succinated Proteome of FH-Mutant Tumours.
Metabolites
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Inherited mutations in the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). Loss of FH activity in HLRCC tumours causes accumulation of the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate to high levels, which may act as an oncometabolite through various, but not necessarily mutually exclusive, mechanisms. One such mechanism, succination, is an irreversible non-enzymatic modification of cysteine residues by fumarate, to form S-(2-succino)cysteine (2SC). Previous studies have demonstrated that succination of proteins including glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2) can have profound effects on cellular metabolism. Furthermore, immunostaining for 2SC is a sensitive and specific biomarker for HLRCC tumours. Here, we performed a proteomic screen on an FH-mutant tumour and two HLRCC-derived cancer cell lines and identified 60 proteins where one or more cysteine residues were succinated; 10 of which were succinated at cysteine residues either predicted, or experimentally proven, to be functionally significant. Bioinformatic enrichment analyses identified most succinated targets to be involved in redox signaling. To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic-based succination screen performed in human tumours and cancer-derived cells and has identified novel 2SC targets that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of HLRCC.
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Differential Evolution with Auto-Enhanced Population Diversity.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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In differential evolution (DE) studies, there are many parameter adaptation methods, aiming at tuning the mutation factor F and the crossover probability CR . However, these methods still cannot resolve the issues of population premature convergence and population stagnation. To address these issues, in this paper, we investigate the population adaptation regarding population diversity at the dimensional level and propose a mechanism named auto-enhanced population diversity (AEPD) to automatically enhance population diversity. AEPD is able to identify the moments when a population becomes converging or stagnating by measuring the distribution of the population in each dimension. When convergence or stagnation is identified at a dimension, the population is diversified at that dimension to an appropriate level or to eliminate the stagnation issue. The AEPD mechanism was incorporated into a popular DE algorithm and it was tested on a set of 25 CEC2005 benchmark functions. The results showed that AEPD significantly improved the performance of the original algorithms. In addition, AEPD helped the algorithms become less sensitive to population size, a parameter widely considered problem dependent for many DE algorithms. The DE algorithm with AEPD also has a superior performance in comparison with several other peer algorithms.
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The ALDH7A1 genetic polymorphisms contribute to development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Although the entire etiology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still unclear, alcohol drinking has been identified as a major environmental risk factor. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily members are major enzymes involved in the alcohol-metabolizing pathways. Accumulating evidences demonstrated that ALDH7A1, one of ALDH superfamily members, degrades and detoxifies acetaldehyde generated by alcohol metabolism and have been associated with development and prognosis of multiple cancers. However, it is still unknown if ALDH7A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute to ESCC susceptibility. In this study, we examined the association between sixteen ALDH7A1 SNPs and risk of developing ESCC. Genotypes were determined in 2,098 ESCC patients and 2,150 controls (three independent hospital-based case-control sets from different regions of China). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Our data demonstrated that only the ALDH7A1 rs13182402 SNP confer susceptibility to ESCC (For AG genotype, OR?=?0.75, 95 % CI?=?0.66-0.91, P?=?4.8?×?10(-6); for GG genotype, OR?=?0.59, 95 % CI?=?0.41-0.88, P?=?0.003). These results are consistent to the biological functions of ALDH7A1 during alcohol metabolism and carcinogenesis.
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[Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously.
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[Research status and translational application of new extraction techniques of traditional Chinese medicine].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Extraction is the critical link during pharmaceutical process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is directly related to the quality of drugs. So the key to technology upgrading of pharmaceutical equipment in Chinese materia medica enterprise is the development of new extraction techniques, which concerns the modernization of TCM. In this paper, fundamentals, traits, and development status of new extraction technologies were firstly introduced, including ultrasound extraction, microwave extraction, super fluid extraction, semi-bionic extraction method, enzymatic treatment extraction, continuous countercurrent extraction, vacuum extraction. Then information of projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China was analyzed in order to recognize the assistance and research results of new extraction techniques. The patents authorized by the State Intellectual Property Office were also summarized for the purpose of understanding the achievement transformation. The information about extraction equipments was collected and screened to acquire the characteristics and market situation. The results showed that there are still problems about new extraction technologies, such as weak basic study, hard transformation of achievements, and the disconnection between research study and practical application. It is necessary to discuss the approaches and methods for accelerating the transformation of fundamental research, which will provide references for the long-term development of new extraction techniques of TCM.
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Unveiling nonessential gene deletions that confer significant morphological phenotypes beyond natural yeast strains.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Phenotypes are variable within species, with high phenotypic variation in the fitness and cell morphology of natural yeast strains due to genetic variation. A gene deletion collection of yeast laboratory strains also contains phenotypic variations, demonstrating the involvement of each gene and its specific function. However, to date, no study has compared the phenotypic variations between natural strains and gene deletion mutants in yeast.
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A feasibility study of the association of exposure to biomass smoke with vascular function, inflammation, and cellular aging.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Biomass smoke at higher concentrations is associated with respiratory symptoms and, after years of exposure, increased risk of respiratory disorders in adults, but its effects on cardiovascular diseases are not well characterized, particularly compared with other pollution sources like tobacco smoke or traffic.
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Modelling and simulating reaction-diffusion systems using coloured Petri nets.
Comput. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Reaction-diffusion systems often play an important role in systems biology when developmental processes are involved. Traditional methods of modelling and simulating such systems require substantial prior knowledge of mathematics and/or simulation algorithms. Such skills may impose a challenge for biologists, when they are not equally well-trained in mathematics and computer science. Coloured Petri nets as a high-level and graphical language offer an attractive alternative, which is easily approachable. In this paper, we investigate a coloured Petri net framework integrating deterministic, stochastic and hybrid modelling formalisms and corresponding simulation algorithms for the modelling and simulation of reaction-diffusion processes that may be closely coupled with signalling pathways, metabolic reactions and/or gene expression. Such systems often manifest multiscaleness in time, space and/or concentration. We introduce our approach by means of some basic diffusion scenarios, and test it against an established case study, the Brusselator model.
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Tree stability under wind: simulating uprooting with root breakage using a finite element method.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Windstorms are the major natural hazard affecting European forests, causing tree damage and timber losses. Modelling tree anchorage mechanisms has progressed with advances in plant architectural modelling, but it is still limited in terms of estimation of anchorage strength. This paper aims to provide a new model for root anchorage, including the successive breakage of roots during uprooting.
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Celastrol suppresses obesity process via increasing antioxidant capacity and improving lipid metabolism.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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High fat diet, as an important risk factor, plays a pivotal role in atherosclerotic process. Celastrol is one of the active triterpenoid compounds with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory characters. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of celastrol on weight, blood lipid and oxidative injury induced by high fat emulsion, and investigate its potential pharmacological mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with high fat emulsion for 6wk to mimic high fat mediated oxidative injury. The effects of celastrol on weight and blood lipid were evaluated, and its mechanisms were disclosed by applying western blot, ELISA and assay kits. Long-term consumption of high fat emulsion could significantly increase weight by enhancing total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels, attenuating ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression, and decreasing the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I), and inhibit antioxidant enzymes activities, improve nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity. Comparing with model group, celastrol was able to effectively suppress weight and attenuate high fat mediated oxidative injury by improving ABCA1 expression, reducing the levels of TC, TG, LDL-c and Apo B in plasma, and increasing antioxidant enzymes activities and inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity, and decreasing the serum levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species in dose-dependent way. These data demonstrated that celastrol was able to effectively suppress weight and alleviate high-fat mediated cardiovascular injury via mitigating oxidative stress and improving lipid metabolism.
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Brazilian green propolis improves immune function in aged mice.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Aging weakened innate and adaptive immunity both quantitatively and qualitatively. Some components in propolis could stimulate immune function in young animals or cultured immune cells in vitro. Few studies had been carried out in the aged. The present study was to evaluate the effects of Brazilian green propolis supplementation on the immunological parameters in aged mice. Eighty Kunming mice, aged 15-18 months, were randomly assigned to the control and three experimental groups supplemented with different doses (83.3, 157.4 and 352.9 mg/kg.bw respectively) of Brazilian green propolis. The experiment lasted for 4 weeks. Contents of total polyphenol, flavonoid, cinnamic acid and artepillin-C in Brazilian green propolis were analyzed. Splenic NK cytotoxic, T lymphocyte proliferation and antibody generation cells, as well as the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages, ear swelling, and serum contents of IgG, IgM, hemolysin and cytokines were measured. After 4 weeks of treatment, the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages was enhanced in 157.4 mg/kg and 352.9 mg/kg groups. Ear swelling increased in all propolis treatmented groups. Antibodies specific to sheep erythrocytes were higher in the groups receiving 157.4 and 352.9 mg/kg.bw than that of control group. IgG level dramatically increased in the groups receiving 83.3 and 157.4 mg/kg.bw in comparison to the control group. These results indicate that administration of Brazilian green propolis have a positive effect on innate and adaptive immunity in aged mice.
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Polypharmacy among nonagenarians/centenarians in rural China.
Intern Med J
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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To examine the prevalence and associated factors of polypharmacy in a sample of nonagenarians and centenarians living in a rural area of China.
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Total Synthesis of Hapalindole-Type Natural Products.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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A unified and bioinspired oxidative cyclization strategy was used in the first total syntheses of naturally occurring 12-epi-hapalindole Q isonitrile, hapalonamide H, deschloro 12-epi-fischerindole I nitrile, and deschloro 12-epi-fischerindole W nitrile, as well as the structural revision of the latter. Hapalindoles H and Q were also synthesized.
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Isolation, identification and arsenic-resistance of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans HX3 producing schwertmannite.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Schwertmannite, a ubiquitous mineral present in iron oxyhydroxides formed in iron- and sulfate-rich acid media, favors incorporation of some toxic anions in its structure. We reported an iron-oxidizing bacterial strain HX3 from a municipal sludge that facilitates the formation of pure schwertmannite in cultures. Ferrous iron oxidation by the isolated strain HX3 was optimum at an initial pH of 2.0-3.3 and temperature of 28-35°C. Pure schwertmannite was found through bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron at an initial pH2.8 and temperature 28°C. Following 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis the bacterial strain HX3 was identified as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The arsenic-resistance A. ferrooxidans HX3 showed the potential of environmental application in arsenic removal from the As(III)- and iron-rich acid sulfate waters directly by As(III) adsorption or the formation of schwertmannite in the environment.
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The impact of predive exercise on repetitive SCUBA diving.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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SCUBA diving frequently involves repetitive exposures. The goal of this study was to see how exercise impacts microparticles (MPs), endothelial function and venous gas emboli (VGE) throughout multiple dives.
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Nanoparticle penetration of human cervicovaginal mucus: the effect of polyvinyl alcohol.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Therapeutic nanoparticles must rapidly penetrate the mucus secretions lining the surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and cervicovaginal tracts to efficiently reach the underlying tissues. Whereas most polymeric nanoparticles are highly mucoadhesive, we previously discovered that a dense layer of low MW polyethylene glycol (PEG) conferred a sufficiently hydrophilic and uncharged surface to effectively minimize mucin-nanoparticle adhesive interactions, allowing well-coated particles to rapidly diffuse through human mucus. Here, we sought to investigate the influence of surface coating by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), a relatively hydrophilic and uncharged polymer routinely used as a surfactant to formulate drug carriers, on the transport of nanoparticles in fresh human cervicovaginal mucus. We found that PVA-coated polystyrene (PS) particles were immobilized, with speeds at least 4000-fold lower in mucus than in water, regardless of the PVA molecular weight or incubation concentration tested. Nanoparticles composed of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or diblock copolymers of PEG-PLGA were similarly immobilized when coated with PVA (slowed 29,000- and 2500-fold, respectively). PVA coatings could not be adequately removed upon washing, and the residual PVA prevented sufficient coating with Pluronic F127 capable of reducing particle mucoadhesion. In contrast to PVA-coated particles, the similar sized PEG-coated formulations were slowed only ~6- to 10-fold in mucus compared to in water. Our results suggest that incorporating PVA in the particle formulation process may lead to the formation of mucoadhesive particles for many nanoparticulate systems. Thus, alternative methods for particle formulation, based on novel surfactants or changes in the formulation process, should be identified and developed in order to produce mucus-penetrating particles for mucosal applications.
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Spontaneous arteriovenous fistula of the superficial temporal artery: Diagnosis and treatment.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Despite the increasing reports of traumatic and iatrogenic arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) of the superficial temporal artery (STA), the spontaneous origination of fistulas is extremely rare, and very little is known about their natural development. Spontaneous AVFs of the STA have the characteristic findings of an expanding, painless pulsatile mass and a palpable thrill with or without a vascular murmur.
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Dynapenic Obesity and Lower Extremity Function in Elderly Adults.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Little is known about the relationship between dynapenic obesity and physical function in older Asian populations. This study aimed to examine the relationship of dynapenic obesity and lower extremity function in Chinese elderly adults.
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Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O and application in identification of antigenic variation in relation to vaccine strain selection.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has severe implications for animal farming which leads to considerable financial losses because of its rapid spread, high morbidity and loss of productivity. For these reasons, the use of vaccine is often favoured to prevent and control FMD. Selection of the proper vaccine is extremely difficult because of the antigenic variation within FMDV serotypes. The aim of the current study was to produce a panel of mAbs and use it for the characterization of new isolates of FMDV serotype O.
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A RAD52 genetic variant located in a miRNA binding site is associated with glioma risk in Han Chinese.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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As a crucial homologous recombination repair gene, RAD52 participates in maintenance of genomic stability and prevention of tumorigenesis. Although several cancer susceptibility RAD52 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified previously, little was known on how the RAD52 SNPs are involved in glioma development in Han Chinese. Therefore, we examined the association between five RAD52 SNPs (rs1051669, rs10774474, rs11571378, rs7963551 and rs6489769) and glioma risk using a case-control design. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. We found that only the RAD52 rs7963551 SNP was significantly associated with glioma risk, with the odds of having the rs7963551 AC or CC genotype in patients was 0.49 (95 % CI 0.37-0.65, P = 9.2 × 10(-6)) or 0.39 (95 % CI 0.18-0.81, P = 0.012) compared with the AA genotype. These data are consistent with functional relevance of allelic regulation of RAD52 expression by the rs7963551 SNP and miRNA let-7 in cancer cells. Stratified analyses elucidated that statistically significant association between glioma and rs7963551 SNP only existed in either astrocytic tumors (P = 6.3 × 10(-6)) or oligoastrocytic tumors (P = 0.002). In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that genetic variants influencing miRNA-mediated regulation of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes may contribute glioma susceptibility.
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Improving surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties of TiO(2) nanoparticles by metal Co doping.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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In this paper, pure and different amount Co ions doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol-hydrothermal method and were served as SERS-active substrate. The effect of metal Co doping on SERS properties of TiO2 nanoparticles was mostly investigated. The results indicate that abundant metal doping energy levels can be formed in the energy gap of TiO2 by an appropriate amount Co ions doping, which can promote the charge transfer from TiO2 to molecule, and subsequently enhance SERS signal of adsorbed molecule on TiO2 substrate, and improve remarkably SERS properties of TiO2 nanoparticles.
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Brain structural and functional alterations in patients with unilateral hearing loss.
Hear. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Alterations of brain structure and functional connectivity have been described in patients with hearing impairments due to distinct pathogenesis; however, the influence of unilateral hearing loss (UHL) on brain morphology and regional brain activity is still not completely understood. In this study, we aim to investigate regional brain structural and functional alterations in patients with UHL. T1-weighted volumetric images and task-free fMRIs were acquired from 14 patients with right-sided UHL (pure tone average ? 40 dB HL) and 19 healthy controls. Hearing ability was assessed by pure tone audiometry. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to detect brain regions with changed gray matter volume or white matter volume in UHL. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was calculated to analyze brain activity at the baseline and was compared between two groups. Compared with controls, UHL patients showed decreased gray matter volume in bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, left superior/middle/inferior temporal gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus and lingual gyrus. Meanwhile, patients showed significantly decreased ALFF in bilateral precuneus, left inferior parietal lobule, and right inferior frontal gyrus and insula and increased ALFF in right inferior and middle temporal gyrus. These findings suggest that chronic UHL could induce brain morphological changes and is associated with aberrant baseline brain activity.
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Loss-of-Function Mutants and Overexpression Lines of the Arabidopsis Cyclin CYCA1;2/TARDY ASYNCHRONOUS MEIOSIS Exhibit Different Defects in Prophase-I Meiocytes but Produce the Same Meiotic Products.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In Arabidopsis, loss-of-function mutations in the A-type cyclin CYCA1;2/TARDY ASYNCHRONOUS MEIOSIS (TAM) gene lead to the production of abnormal meiotic products including triads and dyads. Here we report that overexpression of TAM by the ASK1:TAM transgene also led to the production of triads and dyads in meiosis, as well as shriveled seeds, in a dominant fashion. However, the partial loss-of-function mutant tam-1, an ASK1:TAM line, and the wild type differed in dynamic changes in chromosome thread thickness from zygotene to diplotene. We also found that the pericentromeric heterochromatin regions in male meiocytes in tam-1 and tam-2 (a null allele) frequently formed a tight cluster at the pachytene and diplotene stages, in contrast to the infrequent occurrences of such clusters in the wild type and the ASK1:TAM line. Immunolocalization studies of the chromosome axial component ASY1 revealed that ASY1 was highly expressed at the appropriate male meiotic stages but not localized to the chromosomes in tam-2. The level of ASY1, however, was greatly reduced in another ASK1:TAM line with much overexpressed TAM. Our results indicate that the reduction and increase in the activity of TAM differentially affect chromosomal morphology and the action of ASY1 in prophase I. Based on these results, we propose that either the different meiotic defects or a common defect such as missing ASY1 on the chromosomal axes triggers a hitherto uncharacterized cell cycle checkpoint in the male meiocytes in the tam mutants and ASK1:TAM lines, leading to the production of the same abnormal meiotic products.
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Leukocyte Telomere Length-Related rs621559 and rs398652 Genetic Variants Influence Risk of HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified eleven leukocyte telomere length (LTL)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Since LTL has been associated with risk of many malignancies, LTL-related SNPs may contribute to cancer susceptibility. To test this hypothesis in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we genotyped these eleven LTL-related SNPs in a case-control set including 1186 HBV-related HCC cases, 508 chronic HBV carriers and 1308 healthy controls at the discovery stage. The associations of HCC risk with these SNPs were further confirmed in an independent case-control set. We found that 1p34.2 rs621559 and 14q21 rs398652 were significantly associated with HBV-related HCC risk (both P<0.005 after Bonferroni corrections). There was no significant difference of either rs621559 or rs398652 genotypes between chronic HBV carriers and healthy controls, demonstrating that the association was not due to predisposition to HBV infection. In the pooled analyses (1806 HBV-related HCC cases and 1954 controls), we observed a decreased HCC risk, 0.72-times, associated with the 1p34.2 rs621559 AA genotype compared to the GG genotype (P?=?1.6×10-6). Additionally, there was an increased HCC risk, 1.27-fold, associated with the rs398652 GG genotype (P?=?3.3×10-6). A statistical joint effect between the rs621559 GG and rs398652 GG genotypes may exist in elevating risk of HBV-related HCC. We show, for the first time, that rs398652 and rs621559 might be marker genetic variants for risk of HBV-related HCC in the Chinese population.
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The functional TP53 rs1042522 and MDM4 rs4245739 genetic variants contribute to Non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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As a heterogeneous kind of malignances, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common hematologic cancer worldwide with the significantly increased morbidity in China. Accumulated evidences demonstrated that oncoprotein MDM4 plays a crucial role in the TP53 tumor suppressor signaling pathway. An rs4245739 A>C polymorphism locating in the MDM4 3'-untranslated region creates a miR-191 target site and results in allele-specific MDM4 expression. In this study, we examined the association between this polymorphism as well as the TP53 Arg72Pro (rs1042522 G>C) genetic variant and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) risk in a Chinese Han population. Genotypes were determined in 200 NHL cases and 400 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression. We found significantly increased NHL risk among carriers of the TP53 72Pro allele compared with those with the 72Arg allele (P?=?0.002 for the Pro/Pro genotype). We also observed a significantly decreased NHL risks among carriers of the MDM4 rs4245739 C allele compared with those with the A allele in Chinese (P?=?0.014 for the AC genotype). Stratified analyses revealed the associations between these SNPs and NHL risk are especially noteworthy in young or male individuals. Additionally, the associations are much pronounced in NHL patients with B-cell lymphomas or grade 3 or 4 disease. Our results indicate that the TP53 Arg72Pro and the MDM4 rs4245739 polymorphisms contribute to NHL susceptibility and support the hypothesis that genetic variants in the TP53 pathway genes can act as important modifiers of NHL risk.
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Kisspeptins modulate the biology of multiple populations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during embryogenesis and adulthood in zebrafish (Danio rerio).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Kisspeptin1 (product of the Kiss1 gene) is the key neuropeptide that gates puberty and maintains fertility by regulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system in mammals. Inactivating mutations in Kiss1 and the kisspeptin receptor (GPR54/Kiss1r) are associated with pubertal failure and infertility. Kiss2, a paralogous gene for kiss1, has been recently identified in several vertebrates including zebrafish. Using our transgenic zebrafish model system in which the GnRH3 promoter drives expression of emerald green fluorescent protein, we investigated the effects of kisspeptins on development of the GnRH neuronal system during embryogenesis and on electrical activity during adulthood. Quantitative PCR showed detectable levels of kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA by 1 day post fertilization, increasing throughout embryonic and larval development. Early treatment with Kiss1 or Kiss2 showed that both kisspeptins stimulated proliferation of trigeminal GnRH3 neurons located in the peripheral nervous system. However, only Kiss1, but not Kiss2, stimulated proliferation of terminal nerve and hypothalamic populations of GnRH3 neurons in the central nervous system. Immunohistochemical analysis of synaptic vesicle protein 2 suggested that Kiss1, but not Kiss2, increased synaptic contacts on the cell body and along the terminal nerve-GnRH3 neuronal processes during embryogenesis. In intact brain of adult zebrafish, whole-cell patch clamp recordings of GnRH3 neurons from the preoptic area and hypothalamus revealed opposite effects of Kiss1 and Kiss2 on spontaneous action potential firing frequency and membrane potential. Kiss1 increased spike frequency and depolarized membrane potential, whereas Kiss2 suppressed spike frequency and hyperpolarized membrane potential. We conclude that in zebrafish, Kiss1 is the primary stimulator of GnRH3 neuronal development in the embryo and an activator of stimulating hypophysiotropic neuron activities in the adult, while Kiss2 plays an additional role in stimulating embryonic development of the trigeminal neuronal population, but is an RFamide that inhibits electrical activity of hypophysiotropic GnRH3 neurons in the adult.
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Acute and subacute toxicity of the extract of Aristolochiae Fructus and honey-fried Aristolochiae Fructus in rodents.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2013
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Aristolochiae Fructus (AF) and honey-fried Aristolochiae Fructus (HAF) have been used in China for thousands of years as an anti-tussive and expectorant drug. Few clinical cases were reported associated with the toxicity of AF and HAF, although relatively high contents of aristolochic acids (AAs) were found in them. This work was designed to compare the acute and subacute toxicity of AF and HAF in order to provide references for safe clinical use and to evaluate the possibility of reducing toxicity of AF by honey-processing. The extracts of the herb were fed to mice or rats via gastric tube. Various toxic signs and symptoms, body weights, serum biochemical assay, organ weights and histopathology were used to evaluate the toxic effects. The median lethal dose (LD50) of AF and HAF are 34.1 ± 7.2 g/kg/d and 62.6 ± 8.0 g/kg/d with a 95% average trustable probability (P = 0.95), respectively. The subacute results showed a dose-dependant relationship of the toxicity of AF and HAF. Even in the high dose groups, only moderate toxicity was observed. Honey-frying and decoction with water can decrease the contents of AAs, and attenuate the toxic effects of AF. But sufficient attention should be still paid to the safety of AF and HAF due to the existence of AAs.
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Implanting pedicle screw in fractured vertebra results in no adverse effect on bone healing in thoracic or lumbar burst fracture.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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To confirm whether implanting pedicle-screw at the level of fractured vertebra increases adverse effects on fracture healing. MATERIAL and
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Diagnosis and treatment of traumatic internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm primarily manifested by repeated epistaxis.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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The current study aims to explore the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm (TICAP) primarily manifested by repeated epistaxis. MATERIAL and
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The magnetic resonance imaging measurement of the hippocampal formation volume of normal Chinese adults.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The objective of this study was to measure the normal hippocampal formation of the adults in China and to provide data for the prevention and diagnoses of the related diseases. 3D-fSPGR sequence scanning was used in 68 cases of healthy adult brain to gain the image between lateral border of bilateral fourth ventricle and vitreous body. The image then was divided into 10 equal parts in the sagittal plane. We can trace the area of the hippocampal formation in each part and the data gained was analyzed by SPSS to calculate the volume. The calibrated normal adult average hippocampal formation volume on the right was 2649.92-2903.17 mm(3) while on the left was 2579.42-2803.27 mm(3). The male right average hippocampal formation volume was 2601.84-2986.44 mm(3) and the left was 2526.32-2886.94 mm(3). The female right average hippocampal formation volume was 2531.88-2819.06 mm(3) and the left was 2579.42-2803.27 mm(3). There was no obvious difference in various gender and age groups (P > 0.05), but there was a significant difference between bilateral hippocampal formation volume in middle-aged and elderly male group whether calibrated (t = 2.892, P< 0.05) or not (t = 2.924, P < 0.05). We can conclude that the hippocampal formation volume of normal Han adults has no relation to gender and age except that the bilateral fourth ventricle volume of middle-aged and elderly men were evidently different from each other.
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[Study on transport mechanism of baicalin in Scutellariae radix extracts and effect of Angelica dahurica extracts on transport of baicalin by Caco-2 cell monolayer model].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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To study the transport mechanism of baicalin of Scutellariae Radix extracts and the effect of Angelica dahurica extracts on the intestinal absorption of baicalin by using Caco-2 cell monolayer model, in order to analyze the effect mechanism of Angelica dahurica extracts on the intestinal absorption of baicalin.
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[Excretion of manure-borne steroid hormones and their potential risk in the three northeast provinces of China].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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The excretion of manure-borne steroid hormones, including estrogens and androgens in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang province was estimated in this study on the basis of statistical data and by using the referenced estimation method in developed countries. In addition, the potential ecological risk of manure-borne steroid estrogens to local surface water systems from applying animal manure was preliminarily assessed. As a result of the rapid development of animal production, the excretions of manure-borne steroid hormones increased in all the three northeast provinces. In 2008, the emissions of total manure-borne estrogens and androgens increased by 2 272.7, 1 951.1 and 1 634.8 kg compared to those in 1998 in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces, respectively. Especially, the growth rates in the three capital cities of Shenyang, Changchun and Harbin were the fastest among their own provinces. The largest emissions of manure-borne steroid hormones, as well as the highest concentration of predicted estradiol equivalency (EEQs) in the surface water system were found in Liaoning province. According to the lowest observable effect concentration for 17beta-estradiol (10 ng x L(-1)) recommended by the Environmental Agency of United Kingdom, 17.1 ng x L(-1) of EEQs level in Liaoning province might have become a potential risk to local surface water systems.
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[Recent development of robotic coronary artery bypass graft].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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As an evolutionary process, the robotic technology has been recently applied in the minimally invasive surgery. The robotic surgical system can provide cardiac surgeons with less invasive manner and dexterity manipulation in coronary artery bypass graft. The robotic minimally invasive coronary artery bypass graft usually includes robotic internal thoracic artery harvesting, robotic assistant coronary artery bypass graft and totally robotic coronary artery bypass graft.
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Narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy versus broad-band ultraviolet B or psoralen-ultraviolet A photochemotherapy for psoriasis.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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The most commonly used types of phototherapy for treating psoriasis are narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB); broad-band ultraviolet B (BB-UVB), which includes selective (delivering radiation with a wavelength range of 305 to 325 nm) and conventional BB-UVB (280 to 320 nm); and psoralen ultraviolet A photochemotherapy (oral or bath PUVA). There is substantial controversy regarding their efficacy when compared with each other.
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Sorcin silencing inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and suppresses breast cancer metastasis in vivo.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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Sorcin, a 22-kDa calcium-binding protein, renders cancer cells resistant to chemotherapeutic agents, thus playing an important role in multidrug resistance. As there is a clear association between drug resistance and an aggressive phenotype, we asked whether sorcin affects also the motility, invasion, and stem cell characteristics of cancer cells. We have used both RNA interference (transient and stable expression of hairpins) and a lentiviral expression vector to experimentally modulate sorcin expression in a variety of cells. We demonstrate that sorcin depletion in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells reduces the pool of CD44(+)/CD24(-) and ALDH1(high) cancer stem cells (CSCs) as well as mammosphere-forming capacity. We also observe that sorcin regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and CSCs partly through E-cadherin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. This leads to the acquisition of an epithelial-like phenotype, attenuating epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppression of metastases in nude mice. The sorcin-depleted phenotype can also be reproduced in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and lung fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. In addition, overexpression of sorcin in MCF7 cells, which have low endogenous sorcin expression levels, increases their migration and invasion in vitro. This offers the rationale for the development of therapeutic strategies down-regulating sorcin expression for the treatment of cancer.
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[Treatment of comminuted clavicle shaft fractures with provisional intra-medullary K-wire fixation and bridging plate internal fixation].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To discuss the operation effect of comminuted clavicle shaft fractures with provisional intramedullary K-wire fixation and bridging plate internal fixation.
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Influence of hydrophilic amino acids and GC-content on expression of recombinant proteins used in vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus in Escherichia coli.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Epitope-based protein expression in Escherichia coli can be improved by adjusting its amino acid composition and encoding genes. To that end, we analyzed 24 recombinant epitope proteins (rEPs) that carry multiple epitopes derived from VP1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus. High level expression of the rEPs was attributed to a high content of Arg, Asn, Asp and Thr, a low content of Gln, Pro and Lys, a high content of hydrophilic amino acids and a higher isoelectric point value resulting from abundant Arg. It is also attributed to the appropriate guanine and cytosine content in the encoding genes. The data provide a reference for adjusting the amino acid composition in designing epitope-based proteins used in vaccines and for adjusting the synonymous codons to improve their expressions in E. coli.
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Vaginal Delivery of Paclitaxel via Nanoparticles with Non-Mucoadhesive Surfaces Suppresses Cervical Tumor Growth.
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Local delivery of chemotherapeutics in the cervicovaginal tract using nanoparticles may reduce adverse side effects associated with systemic chemotherapy, while improving outcomes for early-stage cervical cancer. It is hypothesized here that drug-loaded nanoparticles that rapidly penetrate cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) lining the female reproductive tract will more effectively deliver their payload to underlying diseased tissues in a uniform and sustained manner compared with nanoparticles that do not efficiently penetrate CVM. Paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles are developed, composed entirely of polymers used in FDA-approved products, which rapidly penetrate human CVM and provide sustained drug release with minimal burst effect. A mouse model is further employed with aggressive cervical tumors established in the cervicovaginal tract to compare paclitaxel-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (conventional particles, or CP) and similar particles coated with Pluronic F127 (mucus-penetrating particles, or MPP). CP are mucoadhesive and, thus, aggregated in mucus, while MPP achieve more uniform distribution and close proximity to cervical tumors. Paclitaxel-MPP suppress tumor growth more effectively and prolong median survival of mice compared with unencapsulated paclitaxel or paclitaxel-CP. Histopathological studies demonstrate minimal toxicity to the cervicovaginal epithelia, suggesting paclitaxel-MPP may be safe for intravaginal use. These results demonstrate the in vivo advantages of polymer-based MPP for treatment of tumors localized to a mucosal surface.
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Body Mass Index and Disability in Chinese Nonagenarians and Centenarians.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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To examine the potential association between body mass index (BMI) and activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) disabilities in a population-based sample of Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians.
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Disability Associated With Obesity, Dynapenia and Dynapenic-Obesity in Chinese Older Adults.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Whether the combination of obesity and low muscle strength (dynapenic-obesity) would cause greater impairment of the activities of daily living (ADL)/instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) than obesity alone and low muscle strength alone (dynapenia) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal the possible independent and additive effects of dynapenia and obesity on ADL/IADL disability in an older Chinese population.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.