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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effectiveness and Feasibility of Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatectomy on Patients at High Anesthetic Risk.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Abstract Background: Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) is the most acceptable procedure in laparoscopic pancreatic surgery. Nevertheless, knowledge regarding patients at a high anesthetic risk during lengthy and technically demanding LDP is controversial. This study aims to assess the feasibility and safety of LDP in patients with high anesthetic risk. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective collection retrospective review of patients underwent LDP and open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) from January 2011 until December 2013. By the American Society of Anesthesiologists score, patients were divided into low- and high-risk patients. We compared the clinical, perioperative, and postoperative results in these patients. Results: The cohort included 77 patients: 20 underwent LDP, and 57 underwent ODP. There were 30 patients in the low-risk group and 47 patients in the high-risk group. In high-risk patients, LDP, compared with ODP, presented a shorter operating time (mean, 220.8±101.1 minutes versus 299.4±124.3 minutes; P=.038), less blood loss (409.3±569.9?mL versus 1083.1±1583.0 mL; P=.039), higher rate of spleen preservation (73.3% versus 43.8%, P=.037), and shorter length of postoperative hospital stay (LOS) (9.5±3.0 days versus 15.7±9.4 days; P=.044). Conclusions: In conclusion, LDP provides early recovery and better cosmetic appearance. In high anesthetic risk patients, LDP shows less operative time, less perioperative blood loss, a higher rate of spleen preservation, slighter complication, and shorter LOS, which might explain why LDP is a feasible and effective procedure.
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Augmentation of phenotype in a transgenic Parkinson mouse heterozygous for a Gaucher mutation.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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The involvement of the protein ?-synuclein (SNCA) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease is strongly supported by the facts that (i) missense and copy number mutations in the SNCA gene can cause inherited Parkinson's disease; and (ii) Lewy bodies in sporadic Parkinson's disease are largely composed of aggregated SNCA. Unaffected heterozygous carriers of Gaucher disease mutations have an increased risk for Parkinson's disease. As mutations in the GBA gene encoding glucocerebrosidase (GBA) are known to interfere with lysosomal protein degradation, GBA heterozygotes may demonstrate reduced lysosomal SNCA degradation, leading to increased steady-state SNCA levels and promoting its aggregation. We have created mouse models to investigate the interaction between GBA mutations and synucleinopathies. We investigated the rate of SNCA degradation in cultured primary cortical neurons from mice expressing wild-type mouse SNCA, wild-type human SNCA, or mutant A53T SNCA, in a background of either wild-type Gba or heterozygosity for the L444P GBA mutation associated with Gaucher disease. We also tested the effect of this Gaucher mutation on motor and enteric nervous system function in these transgenic animals. We found that human SNCA is stable, with a half-life of 61 h, and that the A53T mutation did not significantly affect its half-life. Heterozygosity for a naturally occurring Gaucher mutation, L444P, reduced GBA activity by 40%, reduced SNCA degradation and triggered accumulation of the protein in culture. This mutation also resulted in the exacerbation of motor and gastrointestinal deficits found in the A53T mouse model of Parkinson's disease. This study demonstrates that heterozygosity for a Gaucher disease-associated mutation in Gba interferes with SNCA degradation and contributes to its accumulation, and exacerbates the phenotype in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
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Total Synthesis of 6-Deoxypladienolide D and Assessment of Splicing Inhibitory Activity in a Mutant SF3B1 Cancer Cell Line.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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A total synthesis of the natural product 6-deoxypladienolide D (1) has been achieved. Two noteworthy attributes of the synthesis are (1) a late-stage allylic oxidation which proceeds with full chemo-, regio-, and diastereoselectivity and (2) the development of a scalable and cost-effective synthetic route to support drug discovery efforts. 6-Deoxypladienolide D (1) demonstrates potent growth inhibition in a mutant SF3B1 cancer cell line, high binding affinity to the SF3b complex, and inhibition of pre-mRNA splicing.
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Changing the Selectivity of p300 by Acetyl-CoA Modulation of Histone Acetylation.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Determining how histone acetylation is regulated is vital for treating the many diseases associated with its misregulation, including heart disease, neurological disorders, and cancer. We have previously reported that acetyl-CoA levels alter p300 histone acetylation in a site-specific manner in vitro. Here, we further investigate how changing acetyl-CoA concentrations alter the histone acetylation pattern by altering p300 specificity. Interestingly, these changes are not a simple global change in acetylation, but rather site specific changes, whereby acetylation at some sites increase while others decrease. We also demonstrate how the p300 inhibitor C646 can pharmacologically alter p300 histone acetylation patterns in vitro and in cells. This study provides insight into the mechanisms regulating p300 residue specificity, a potential means for altering p300 dependent histone acetylation, and an investigation into altering histone acetylation patterns in cells.
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TRAP150 activates splicing in composite terminal exons.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The spliceosomal factor TRAP150 is essential for pre-mRNA splicing in vivo and, when overexpressed, it enhances splicing efficiency. In this study, we found that TRAP150 interacted with the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) and co-fractionated with CPSF and RNA polymerase II. Moreover, TRAP150 preferentially associated with the U1 small ribonucleoprotein (snRNP). However, our data do not support a role for TRAP150 in alternative 5' splice site or exon selection or in alternative polyadenylation. Because U1 snRNP participates in premature cleavage and polyadenylation (PCPA), we tested whether TRAP150 is a cofactor in the control of PCPA. Although TRAP150 depletion had no significant effect on PCPA, overexpression of TRAP150 forced activation of a cryptic 3' splice site, yielding spliced PCPA transcripts. Mechanistic studies showed that TRAP150-activated splicing occurred in composite but not authentic terminal exons, and such an activity was enhanced by debilitation of U1 snRNP or interference with transcription elongation or termination. Together, these results indicate that TRAP150 provides an additional layer of PCPA regulation, through which it may increase the diversity of abortive RNA transcripts under conditions of compromised gene expression.
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Determination of injection molding process windows for optical lenses using response surface methodology.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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This study focuses on injection molding process window determination for obtaining optimal imaging optical properties, astigmatism, coma, and spherical aberration using plastic lenses. The Taguchi experimental method was first used to identify the optimized combination of parameters and significant factors affecting the imaging optical properties of the lens. Full factorial experiments were then implemented based on the significant factors to build the response surface models. The injection molding process windows for lenses with optimized optical properties were determined based on the surface models, and confirmation experiments were performed to verify their validity. The results indicated that the significant factors affecting the optical properties of lenses are mold temperature, melt temperature, and cooling time. According to experimental data for the significant factors, the oblique ovals for different optical properties on the injection molding process windows based on melt temperature and cooling time can be obtained using the curve fitting approach. The confirmation experiments revealed that the average errors for astigmatism, coma, and spherical aberration are 3.44%, 5.62%, and 5.69%, respectively. The results indicated that the process windows proposed are highly reliable.
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Characterization and human osteoblastic proliferation- and differentiation-stimulatory effects of phosphatidylcholine liposomes-encapsulated propranolol hydrochloride.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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DMPC and DSPC liposomes were prepared via thin film hydration method followed by sonication. Propranolol solution was incorporated into liposomes at hydration stage. TEM images showed the sizes of DSPC and DMPC were around 88 and 137 nm, respectively. The highest encapsulation ratio of propranolol was approximately 70% using DSPC/CHO/OCT liposomes, which release the drug over 60% in 24 h and reached 100% in 48 h. Both propranolol (10??-10?? M) and DSCP liposomes-encapsulated propranolol showed over 1.5-fold increases in the proliferation of human osteoblastic cells hFOB1.19 while differentiation of the cells was approximately doubled by plain and liposomal propranolol, indicating that the stimulatory effects of liposomal propranolol are similar with those of propranolol on human osteoblastic hFOB1.19 cells. The phosphatidylcholine liposomes-encapsulated propranolol prepared in this study potentially possesses anabolic effects in vivo and is also a promising anti-osteoporotic agent in future.
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Logic-centered architecture for ubiquitous health monitoring.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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One of the key points to maintain and boost research and development in the area of smart wearable systems (SWS) is the development of integrated architectures for intelligent services, as well as wearable systems and devices for health and wellness management. This paper presents such a generic architecture for multiparametric, intelligent and ubiquitous wireless sensing platforms. It is a transparent, smartphone-based sensing framework with customizable wireless interfaces and plug'n'play capability to easily interconnect third party sensor devices. It caters to wireless body, personal, and near-me area networks. A pivotal part of the platform is the integrated inference engine/runtime environment that allows the mobile device to serve as a user-adaptable personal health assistant. The novelty of this system lays in a rapid visual development and remote deployment model. The complementary visual Inference Engine Editor that comes with the package enables artificial intelligence specialists, alongside with medical experts, to build data processing models by assembling different components and instantly deploying them (remotely) on patient mobile devices. In this paper, the new logic-centered software architecture for ubiquitous health monitoring applications is described, followed by a discussion as to how it helps to shift focus from software and hardware development, to medical and health process-centered design of new SWS applications.
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Primary breast lymphoma: A single-institute experience in Taiwan.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Breast is an uncommon location of lymphoma involvement. The most common type of primary breast lymphoma (PBL) is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Rituximab is the widely used monoclonal antibody against CD20+ B-cell lymphoma, especially DLBCL. We aimed to analyze the clinical features, prognostic factors, and treatment outcome with or without rituximab in primary breast DLBCL.
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Role of sodium ions in the vitrification process: glass matrix modification, slag structure depolymerization, and influence of metal immobilization.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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This study investigates the role of Na ions, a common flux, in the vitrification process. Artificial glass systems composed of Al2O3, CaO, and SiO2 with various Na concentrations were melted at 1450 degrees C. The specimens were cooled by air cooling and water quenching and the metal mobility was evaluated using a sequential extraction procedure. The X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy observations showed that Na ions governed the air-cooled slag's structure. Na ions initially depolymerized CaSiO3-linked chains into CaSiO3 chains, and further cut them into shorter and nonuniform ones, making the slag structure amorphous. With even more Na ions, CaSiO3 chains were divided into single SiO4 tetrahedrons and formed Na-related crystals (Na2Ca3Si2O8 and NaAlSiO4). The phase distributions of Al, Cr, Cu Mn, and Ni showed that Na has a positive effect on the immobilization of heavy metals at suitable concentrations, but a negative effect when in excess amounts. Implications: Vitrification has been widely used to treat hazardous materials. The Na-bearing additives were often used as a flux to improve the melting process. This study described the role of Na played in the vitrification process. The Na ions acted as glass modifier and depolymerize the chain structure of slag. With adequate addition amount of Na ions, the immobilization of heavy metals was improved. The results provided much information about the crystalline phase variation, metal mobility, and surface characteristics while Na serves as a flux.
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A quantitative multiplexed mass spectrometry assay for studying the kinetic of residue-specific histone acetylation.
Methods
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Histone acetylation is involved in gene regulation and, most importantly, aberrant regulation of histone acetylation is correlated with major human diseases. Although many lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) have been characterized as being capable of acetylating multiple lysine residues on histones, how different factors such as enzyme complexes or external stimuli (e.g. KAT activators or inhibitors) alter KAT specificity remains elusive. In order to comprehensively understand how the homeostasis of histone acetylation is maintained, a method that can quantitate acetylation levels of individual lysines on histones is needed. Here we demonstrate that our mass spectrometry (MS)-based method accomplishes this goal. In addition, the high throughput, high sensitivity, and high dynamic range of this method allows for effectively and accurately studying steady-state kinetics. Based on the kinetic parameters from in vitro enzymatic assays, we can determine the specificity and selectivity of a KAT and use this information to understand what factors influence histone acetylation. These approaches can be used to study the enzymatic mechanisms of histone acetylation as well as be adapted to other histone modifications. Understanding the post-translational modification of individual residues within the histones will provide a better picture of chromatin regulation in the cell.
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Recipients with in utero induction of tolerance upregulated MHC class I in the engrafted donor skin.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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The alterations in MHC class I expression play a crucial step in immune evasion of cancer or virus-infected cells. This study aimed to examine whether tolerized grafts modified MHC class I expression. FVB/N mice were rendered tolerant of C57BL/6 alloantigens by in utero transplantation of C57BL/6 marrows. Postnatally, engrafted donor skins and leukocytes were examined for their MHC expression by quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry. Engrafted donor skins upregulated their MHC class I related gene transcripts after short-term (1~2 weeks) or long-term (>1 month) engraftment. This biological phenomenon was simultaneously associated with upregulation of TAP1 gene transcripts, suggesting an important role of TAP1 in the regulation of MHC class I pathway. The surface MHC class I molecules of H-2K(b) in engrafted donor leukocytes consistently showed overexpression. Conclusively, the induction of allograft tolerance involved biological modifications of donor transplants. The overexpression of MHC class I within engrafted transplants of tolerant mice might be used as the tolerance biomarkers for identifying a state of graft tolerance.
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Development of a high-throughput assay for aldosterone synthase inhibitors using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Aldosterone plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Aldosterone biosynthesis involves three membrane-bound enzymes: aldosterone synthase, adrenodoxin, and adrenodoxin reductase. Here, we report the development of a mass spectrometry-based high-throughput whole cell-based assay for aldosterone synthesis. A human adrenal carcinoma cell line (H295R) overexpressing human aldosterone synthase cDNA was established. The production of aldosterone in these cells was initiated with the addition of 11-deoxycorticosterone, the immediate substrate of aldosterone synthase. An automatic liquid handler was used to gently distribute cells uniformly to well plates. The adaption of a second automated liquid handling system to extract aldosterone from the cell culture medium into organic solvent enabled the development of 96- and 384-well plate formats for this cellular assay. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was established for the detection of aldosterone. Production of aldosterone was linear with time and saturable with increasing substrate concentration. The assay was highly reproducible with an overall average Z' value=0.49. This high-throughput assay would enable high-throughput screening for inhibitors of aldosterone biosynthesis.
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Nucleotides released from palmitate-challenged muscle cells through pannexin-3 attract monocytes.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation in metabolically relevant tissues contributes to insulin resistance. We recently reported monocyte/macrophage infiltration in mouse and human skeletal muscles. However, the molecular triggers of this infiltration are unknown, and the role of muscle cells in this context is poorly understood. Animal studies are not amenable to the specific investigation of this vectorial cellular communication. Using cell cultures, we investigated the crosstalk between myotubes and monocytes exposed to physiological levels of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Media from L6 myotubes treated with palmitate-but not palmitoleate-induced THP1 monocyte migration across transwells. Palmitate activated the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway in myotubes and elevated cytokine expression, but the monocyte chemoattracting agent was not a polypeptide. Instead, nucleotide degradation eliminated the chemoattracting properties of the myotube-conditioned media. Moreover, palmitate-induced expression and activity of pannexin-3 channels in myotubes were mediated by TLR4-NF-?B, and TLR4-NF-?B inhibition or pannexin-3 knockdown prevented monocyte chemoattraction. In mice, the expression of pannexin channels increased in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in response to high-fat feeding. These findings identify pannexins as new targets of saturated fatty acid-induced inflammation in myotubes, and point to nucleotides as possible mediators of immune cell chemoattraction toward muscle in the context of obesity.
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Derivatization of the tricarboxylic acid intermediates with O-benzylhydroxylamine for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is an interface among glycolysis, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. Increasing interest in cancer metabolism has created a demand for rapid and sensitive methods for quantifying the TCA cycle intermediates and related organic acids. We have developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify the TCA cycle intermediates in a 96-well format after O-benzylhydroxylamine (O-BHA) derivatization under aqueous conditions. This method was validated for quantitation of all common TCA cycle intermediates with good sensitivity, including ?-ketoglutarate, malate, fumarate, succinate, 2-hydroxyglutarate, citrate, oxaloacetate, pyruvate, isocitrate, and lactate using a 8-min run time in cancer cells and tissues. The method was used to detect and quantify changes in metabolite levels in cancer cells and tumor tissues treated with a pharmacological inhibitor of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT). This method is rapid, sensitive, and reproducible, and it can be used to assess metabolic changes in cancer cells and tumor samples.
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An outcome prediction model for exsanguinating patients with blunt abdominal trauma after damage control laparotomy: a retrospective study.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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We present a series of patients with blunt abdominal trauma who underwent damage control laparotomy (DCL) and introduce a nomogram that we created to predict survival among these patients.
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Isotopic evidence for anthropogenic impacts on aquatic food web dynamics and mercury cycling in a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Quantifying and predicting the food web consequences of anthropogenic changes is difficult using traditional methods (based on gut content analysis) because natural food webs are variable and complex. Here, stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are used, in conjunction with nitrogen isotopes and mercury (Hg) concentration data, to document the effects of land-use change on food webs and Hg bioaccumulation in the Everglades - a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US. Isotopic signatures of largemouth bass and sunfish in reference (relatively pristine) wetlands indicate reliance on the food supply of modern primary production within the wetland. In contrast, both fish in areas impacted by agricultural runoff had radiocarbon ages as old as 540 years B.P., and larger isotopic variability than counterparts in reference wetlands, reflecting differences in the food web between impacted and reference wetlands. Consistent with this difference, particulate and dissolved organic matter in impacted areas had old radiocarbon ages (>600 years B.P.), indicating that old carbon derived from historic peat deposits in the Everglades Agricultural Area was passed along the food chain to consumers. Significant radiocarbon deficiencies in largemouth bass and sunfish, relative to mosquitofish, in impacted areas most likely indicate a reduced dependence on small fish. Furthermore, largemouth bass and sunfish from impacted areas had much lower Hg contents than those from reference wetlands. Taken together, these data suggest a shift toward lower trophic levels and a possible reduction in mercury methylation in impacted wetlands. Our study provides clear evidence that hydrological modification and land-use change in the Everglades have changed the system from one driven primarily by in-situ productivity to one that is partially dependent on allochthonous carbon input from peat soils in the agricultural area and altered the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the wetlands. The results have implications for the restoration and management of wetland ecosystems.
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Comparisons between patients with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-susceptible and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia monomicrobial bacteremia: A 10-year retrospective study.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The impact of bacteremia due to the resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SXT) is uncertain. This study compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with TMP-SXT-susceptible (TSSSM) and TMP-SXT-resistant S. maltophilia (TSRSM) monomicrobial bacteremia.
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Evaluation of the ability of xanthan gum/gellan gum/hyaluronan hydrogel membranes to prevent the adhesion of postrepaired tendons.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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After tendon-repair surgery, adhesion between the surgical tendon and the synovial sheath is often presented resulting in poor functional repair of the tendon. This may be prevented using a commercially available mechanical barrier implant, Seprafilm, which is composed of hyaluronan (HA) and carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels. In a rat model, prepared membranes of various compositions of gellan gum (GG), xanthan gum (XG) and HA as well as Seprafilm were wrapped around repaired tendons and the adhesion of the tendons was examined grossly and histologically after 3 weeks of healing. Certain formulations of the XG/GG/HA hydrogel membranes reduced tendon adhesion with equal efficacy but without reducing the tendon strength compared to Seprafilm. The designed membranes swelled rapidly and blanketed onto the tendon tissue more readily and closely than Seprafilm. Also they degraded slowly, which allowed the membranes to function as barriers for extended periods.
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Gene mutation patterns in patients with minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0) is a rare subtype of AML with poor prognosis. Although genetic alterations are increasingly reported in AML, the gene mutations have not been comprehensively studied in AML-M0. We aimed to examine a wide spectrum of gene mutations in patients with AML-M0 to determine their clinical relevance. Twenty gene mutations including class I, class II, class III of epigenetic regulators (IDH1, IDH2, TET2, DNMT3A, MLL-PTD, ASXL1, and EZH2), and class IV (tumor suppressor genes) were analyzed in 67 patients with AML-M0. Mutational analysis was performed with polymerase chain reaction-based assays followed by direct sequencing. The most frequent gene mutations from our data were FLT3-ITD/FLT3-TKD (28.4%), followed by mutations in IDH1/IDH2 (28.8%), RUNX1 (23.9%), N-RAS/K-RAS (12.3%), TET2 (8.2%), DNMT3A (8.1%), MLL-PTD (7.8%), and ASXL1 (6.3%). Seventy-nine percent (53/67) of patients had at least one gene mutation. Class I genes (49.3%) were the most common mutated genes, which were mutually exclusive. Class III genes of epigenetic regulators were also frequent (43.9%). In multivariate analysis, old age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.029, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.013-1.044, P=.001) was the independent adverse factor for overall survival, and RUNX1 mutation (HR 2.326, 95% CI 0.978-5.533, P=.056) had a trend toward inferior survival. In conclusion, our study showed a high frequency of FLT3, RUNX1, and IDH mutations in AML-M0, suggesting that these mutations played a role in the pathogenesis and served as potential therapeutic targets in this rare and unfavorable subtype of AML.
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia presenting with ascites diagnosed by clonality analysis via gene rearrangement assay: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) presenting with ascites is predominantly based on the morphological and immunophenotypic characteristics, which are comparable to peripheral blood and bone marrow cells. However, it is relatively difficult to diagnose CLL due to the pleomorphism of the lymphocytes in ascites. The current study presents an 80-year-old male with a prior diagnosis of CLL who developed large ascites. Predominant T lymphocytes rendered morphological and immunophenotypic diagnosis difficult. Clonality analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangements was performed on the lymphocytes from the ascites to diagnose the involvement of CLL, a laparotomy and biopsy from the peritoneal node confirmed the involvement of small lymphocytic lymphoma/CLL. The clonality analysis of Ig gene rearrangements may provide a powerful and accurate method for diagnosing CLL presenting with ascites.
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Cytokine activation of natural killer cells.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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CD3(-)CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells can kill various tumors in a non major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted fashion. Recent advances have been made in the application of NK cells for the treatment of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Allogeneic donor-derived NK cells can be activated in vitro and infused into patients receiving stem cell transplants. We describe in this chapter the method to activate NK cells with cytokines and to ascertain their degree of activation.
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Effects of a 12-Week Pilates Course on Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Trunk Flexibility in Women Living in the Community.
Health Care Women Int
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™  method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30±9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23±9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases.
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Oral lovastatin attenuates airway inflammation and mucus secretion in ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Lovastatin is an effective inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis. A previous study demonstrated that lovastatin can also suppress airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in murine model of asthma. We aimed to investigate the effect of lovastatin on mucus secretion and inflammation-associated gene expression in the lungs of murine model of asthma.
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The biological effects of sex hormones on rabbit articular chondrocytes from different genders.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of sex hormones (17?-estradiol and testosterone) on rabbit articular chondrocytes from different genders. We cultured primary rabbit articular chondrocytes from both genders with varying concentration of sex hormones. We evaluate cell proliferation and biochemical functions by MTT and GAG assay. The chondrocyte function and phenotypes were analyzed by mRNA level using RT-PCR. Immunocytochemical staining was also used to evaluate the generation of collagen-II. This study demonstrated that 17?-estradiol had greater positive regulation on the biological function and gene expressions of articular chondrocytes than testosterone, with the optimal concentrations of 10(-6) and 10(-7) M, particularly for female chondrocytes.
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Expansion of regulatory T cells from umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood CD4(+)CD25 (+) T cells.
Immunol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), if properly expanded from umbilical cord blood (UCB), may provide a promising immunotherapeutic tool. Our previous data demonstrated that UCB CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells with 4-day stimulation have comparable phenotypes and suppressive function to that of adult peripheral blood (APB) CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells. We further examined whether 2-week culture would achieve higher expansion levels of Tregs. UCB CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells and their APB counterparts were stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 in the presence of IL-2 or IL-15 for 2 weeks. The cell proliferation and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) expression were examined. The function of the expanded cells was then investigated by suppressive assay. IL-21 was applied to study whether it counteracts the function of UCB and APB CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells. The results indicate that UCB CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells expanded much better than their APB counterparts. IL-2 was superior to expand UCB and APB Tregs for 2 weeks than IL-15. FoxP3 expression which peaked on Day 10-14 was comparable. Most importantly, expanded UCB Tregs showed greater suppressive function in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. The addition of IL-21, however, counteracted the suppressive function of expanded UCB and APB Tregs. The results support using UCB as a source of Treg cells.
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Does low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment repair articular cartilage injury? A rabbit model study.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) regiment has been used to treat fractures with non-union and to promote bone union in general. The effect of LIPUS on articular cartilage metabolism has been characterized. Yet, the effect of LIPUS to repair articular cartilage injury remains unclear in vivo.
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Intra-abdominal injury is easily overlooked in the patients with concomitant unstable hemodynamics and pelvic fractures.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is usually necessary in the management of hemodynamically unstable patients with concomitant pelvic fractures. Given the critical conditions of such patients, TAE is at times performed only according to the results of a primary evaluation without computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Therefore, the evaluation of associated intra-abdominal injuries (IAIs) might be insufficient. Clinically, some patients have required post-TAE laparotomy due to further deterioration. In this study, we attempted to determine a feasible protocol for post-TAE observation.
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Impact of deferred surgical intervention on the outcome of external laryngeal trauma.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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External laryngeal trauma (ELT) can be a fatal injury. Proper management of ELT significantly affects patient survival and quality of life. The optimal timing of surgical intervention is controversial. In this study, we review the incidence, management, and outcome of ELT and attempt to analyze the risk factors and prognosis of this injury.
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Transgenic mice expressing S129 phosphorylation mutations in ?-synuclein.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Aggregated ?-synuclein is a predominant constituent of Lewy bodies, the intracellular protein aggregates seen in Parkinson's disease. While most ?-synuclein in the nervous system is unphosphorylated, the majority of ?-synuclein in Lewy bodies is phosphorylated at serine 129 (S129). We developed transgenic mice expressing human SNCA with either a phosphomimic (S129D) or a non-phosphorylatable (S129A) mutation, on a mouse Snca knockout background. Transgenic lines with each mutation expressing the human ?-synuclein protein at levels ranging from 0.3 to 1.9 fold of endogenous mouse protein were chosen to avoid toxic overexpression effects. We previously demonstrated an altered distribution of presynaptic vesicles in Snca knockout mice, as well as enhanced interaction between presynaptic cytoskeletal proteins and ?-synuclein when phosphorylated at S129 or carrying an S129D mutation. We therefore examined ?-synuclein's synaptic localization and the distribution of presynaptic vesicles in these mutants. In addition, we evaluated the transgenic lines for reduced colonic motility, an early marker of ?-synuclein pathology, and ?-synuclein aggregates. No abnormalities were detected in mice expressing either phosphorylation mutant protein as their only ?-synuclein protein. These results suggest the S129A and S129D mutations have no obvious effect on ?-synuclein function.
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Risk factors for late death of patients with abdominal trauma after damage control laparotomy for hemostasis.
World J Emerg Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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In this study, we explored the possible causes of death and risk factors in patients who overcame the initial critical circumstance when undergoing a damage control laparotomy for abdominal trauma and succumbed later to their clinical course.
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Wild-type and IL10-null mice have differential colonic epithelial gene expression responses to dietary supplementation with synbiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis and inulin.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Prebiotic plus probiotic (synbiotic) supplementations promote fermentation and have shown anti-inflammatory activity in colonic epithelium. However, in many instances, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have demonstrated adverse effects after prebiotic supplementation at a dose well tolerated by normal individuals. To test the hypothesis that the host inflammation affects the colonic epithelial response to increased fermentation, the gene expression of colonic epithelium was analyzed. In a 1-way experimental design to test the effect of supplements in wild-type mice using the standard diet formulated by the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN-93G) as the control diet, fermentable fiber inulin (5%) in the absence or presence of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis (Bb12) (10(8) CFU/kg diet) showed limited effects on gene expression as determined by whole-genome microarray. Bb12 supplementation alone was known not to increase fermentation and here instead significantly upregulated genes in nucleic acid metabolic processes. The effects of the synbiotic diet were then determined in mice exposed to LPS-induced inflammation in a 2-way experimental design testing the effect of diet and LPS. The microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses on the wild-type mice revealed that LPS-induced changes in the colonic epithelium were 4- to 10-fold less in the synbiotic diet group compared with the control diet group. Unlike the wild-type mice, anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL10)-null mice (susceptible to IBD) given the synbiotic diet, compared with those given the control diet, had 3- to 40-fold increased expression of inflammation-related genes such as Cxcl1 (chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 1) and S100a9 (S100 calcium binding protein A9) in the absence and presence of LPS exposure. These contrasting intestinal epithelial responses to increased fermentation in wild-type and IL10-null mice are similar to the difference between healthy human individuals and those with IBD, suggesting that the host disease/genetic background should be considered before prebiotic/probiotic supplementation.
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Evaluation of effect of reducing additives during vitrification via simulation and experiment.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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This study investigates how reducing additives governed the vitrification of prepared specimens. In the experiments, pure CaO/CaCO3 and SiO2 served as the major components of glassy matrix (basicity = mass ratio of CaO/SiO2 = 2/3) with doping of hazardous metals (Cr Cu, and Ni). The substitution ratio of CaCO3 for CaO was used as an operating parameter. The specimens were vitrified at 1400 degrees C and a sequential extraction protocol was used to determine the phase distribution of Cr, Cu, and Ni. The volume fractions of crystalline and amorphous phases were measured using semiquantitative x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. A commercial software package (HSC Chemistry 6.0) was used to simulate the experiment to acquire additional information. The simulation results showed the addition of CaCO3 generated CO and CO2 at high temperature. This reducing atmosphere might enhance Cu and Ni to be easily separated from slags and elevated the levels of Cu and Ni in ingots. At higher CaCO3 mol(%), the polymerization of silicate (from sorosilicate to inosilicate) in slag rose and the CaSiO3 amount increased. In addition, the immobilization of metals and the acid resistance of slags were improved. The results indicate that CaCO3 addition is favorable for increasing the metal level in ingots and the metal encapsulation in slag in vitrification.
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Co-existence of epithelioid and fibroblastoid subsets in a sarcomatoid renal carcinoma cell line revealed by clonal studies.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The biology of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and its conversion from and to the clear cell RCC are not fully-understood. We aimed to analyze the sarcomatoid RCC cell line, RCC52, derived from a lymph node metastatic lesion consisting mostly of sarcomatoid RCC cells with occasional clear cell areas.
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Infectious sacroiliitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus following acupuncture: a case report.
Acupunct Med
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Determination of the origin of infectious sacroiliitis (ISI), a rare form of septic arthritis, is often time consuming and clinically difficult owing to its various presentations, which include joint, skin and urinary tract infections. This report describes the diagnosis, determination of infectious origin and treatment of a case of ISI attributed to the use of acupuncture for the treatment of lower back pain. We report on a 61-year-old man who developed right hip pain and fever 3 days after undergoing acupuncture over the right buttock region for the treatment of lower back pain. Blood culture showed infection with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and MRI disclosed the presence of an inflamed area over the right iliac bone and the right portion of the sacrum. The patient was cured after a 4-week course of antimicrobial treatment. Clinicians should take a history of acupuncture use when evaluating patients presenting with fever of unknown origin and/or bacteraemia and consider the possibility of ISI when evaluating patients with hip pain and infectious signs after acupuncture or other possible causes of infection. This indicates the importance of performing clinically clean procedures to prevent septic complications when treating patients with acupuncture.
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Preparation and evaluation of collagen I/ gellan gum/?-TCP microspheres as bone graft substitute materials.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Collagen I is the main component of protein in bone and exhibits many excellent applications in biomedical fields. Gellan gum possesses good biocompatible, biodegradable and good mechanical property, and shows great potentials as tissue engineering scaffold or cell culture substrate. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use collagen I, gellan gum and ?-TCP to prepare collagen I/gellan gum/?-TCP microspheres by emulsion method as bone graft substitute materials. The preliminary results showed that collagen I/gellan gum/?-TCP microspheres had particle size distribution between 500-1000 µP in diameter and exhibited better mechanical strength. These microspheres also showed good biocompatibility in cell activity test.
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Enhanced differentiation of rat MSCs into cardiomyocytes with 5-azacytidine/collagen I nano-molecules.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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This study was to investigate the enhancement ability of 5-azacytidine (5-aza) and collagen I nano-molecules treatment to the differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) towards a cardiomyocytes in vitro. The results demonstrated that the size of the cells increased significantly and connecting with adjoining cells by forming myotube-like structures. Also, additional treatment of the MSCs with collagen I nano-fibrils significantly increased two transcription factors GATA-4 and Nkx2.5 expressions and three expressions of cardiac genes of troponin I, ?-myosin heavy chain and cardiac ?-actin compared with MSC groups treated only with 5-aza at early 3 d culturing(all, P<0.01 or better). These results indicate that culturing MSCs with collagen I nano-molecules, which could act as scaffolds or soluble protein ingredients, leads to alterations in gene expression and affects the differentiation fate induced with 5-aza.
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Biomechanical comparison of axial load between cannulated locking screws and noncannulated cortical locking screws.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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The goal of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability of cannulated locking screws and noncannulated cortical locking screws in a periarticular locking plate. Twelve fresh-frozen porcine tibias with a 1-cm gap created distal to the tibial plateau were used to simulate an unstable proximal tibial fracture. All specimens were fixed with a periarticular proximal lateral tibial locking plate and divided into 2 groups based on whether the proximal metaphyseal screw holes of the plate were inserted with either cannulated locking screws or noncannulated cortical locking screws. An axial compressive load was applied to cause failure in each specimen using a materials testing instrument. The axial stiffness and maximum failure strength in axial loading were recorded. Axial stiffness of the constructs using noncannulated cortical locking screw was significantly higher than that of the constructs using cannulated locking screws (P=.006). Axial failure strength of the constructs using noncannulated cortical locking screw was significantly higher than that of the constructs using cannulated locking screws (P=.002). The failure mode observed in all specimens was a permanent screw-bending deformity over the head-shaft junction of proximal metaphyseal screws, irrespective of whether they were cannulated or noncannulated cortical locking screws. Fixation with noncannulated cortical locking screws offered more stability than cannulated locking screws with regard to axial stiffness and failure strength in a porcine model with unstable proximal tibial fractures.
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Microbial community analysis of Deepwater Horizon oil-spill impacted sites along the Gulf coast using functional and phylogenetic markers.
Environ Sci Process Impacts
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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We investigated the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on microbial communities in wetland sediment and seawater samples collected from sites along the Gulf shore. Based on GC/MS analysis, the sediment from Bay Jimmy, LA had detectable signs of hydrocarbon contamination, identified as n-alkanes in the GC/MS spectrum similar to that of the Deepwater Horizon source oil (MC-252). To identify changes in microbial assemblage structure and functional diversity in response to hydrocarbon contamination, five genes (bacterial 16S rRNA, Pseudomonas-specific 16S rRNA, alkB, P450, and PAH-RHD?) were selected based on the specific enzymes encoded by bacteria to degrade alkanes or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A quantitative PCR analysis revealed the presence of alkane and PAH-degrading genes in both contaminated and non-contaminated samples with no significant difference in gene content between contaminated and non-contaminated samples. However, the ribotype analysis based on pyrosequencing identified 17 bacteria genera known for their capacity to degrade hydrocarbons, including Mycobacterium, Novosphingobium, Parvibaculum, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas, in the contaminated sediment sample. Furthermore, the contaminated sample had a very high relative abundance of 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated with the genus Parvibaculum, members of which have been characterized for their degradative abilities. These data suggest that specific bacterial taxa within the genus Parvibaculum have the capacity for hydrocarbon degradation and could use the hydrocarbons as a carbon and energy source, resulting in a dominant population in a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. In summary, when exposed to the spilled oil, the distinct wetland microbial communities responded with decreased diversity and increased abundance of selective degradative species.
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Matrine attenuates allergic airway inflammation and eosinophil infiltration by suppressing eotaxin and Th2 cytokine production in asthmatic mice.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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Matrine has been isolated from Sophora flavescens, and found to show anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages and anti-cachectic effects in hepatomas. The present study investigated whether matrine suppressed eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in mice, and decreased the inflammatory response of tracheal epithelial cells.
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Clonal leukemic evolution in myelodysplastic syndromes with TET2 and IDH1/2 mutations.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Somatic mutations of TET2, IDH1, and IDH2 have been described in myelodysplastic syndrome. The impact of these mutations on outcome of myelodysplastic syndrome and their progression to secondary acute myeloid leukemia remains unclear. Mutation status of TET2, IDH1 and IDH2 was investigated in a cohort of 46 paired myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia samples and 122 non-paired cases with de novo myelodysplastic syndrome, to clarify their roles in the evolution of myelodysplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia. Among the 168 de novo myelodysplastic syndrome patients, the frequency of TET2, IDH1, and IDH2 mutations was 18.5%, 4.2% and 6.0%, respectively. TET2/IDH mutations had no impact on survivals, while TET2 mutations were significantly associated with rapid progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Seventeen of the 46 paired myelodysplastic syndrome/secondary acute myeloid leukemia samples harbored TET2/IDH mutations, none acquired these mutations in acute myeloid leukemia phase. Progression to acute myeloid leukemia was accompanied by evolution of a novel clone or expansion of a minor pre-existing subclone of one or more distinct mutations in 12 out of the 17 cases with TET2/IDH mutations. A minor subclone in 3 cases with biallelic TET2 inactivation subsequently expanded, indicating a role of biallelic TET2 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia progression. Twelve patients acquired other genetic lesions, and/or showed increased relative mutant allelic burden of FLT3-ITD, N/K-RAS, CEBPA or RUNX1 during acute myeloid leukemia progression. Our findings provide a novel insight into the role of TET2/IDH mutation in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome and subsequent progression to acute myeloid leukemia.
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Highly Curved Bowl-Shaped Fragments of Fullerenes: Synthesis, Structural Analysis, and Physical Properties.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Highly curved buckybowls 3, 4, and 5 were synthesized from planar precursors, fluoranthenes 8, benzo[k]fluoranthenes 10 and naphtho[1,2-k]-cyclopenta[cd]fluoranthenes 12, respectively, using straightforward palladium-catalyzed cyclization reactions. These fluoranthene-based starting materials were easily prepared from 1,8-bis(arylethynyl)naphthalenes 6. Both buckybowls 3 and 4 are fragments of C60 , whereas 5 is a unique subunit of C70 . The curved structures were identified by X-ray crystallography, and they are deep bowls. The maximum ?-orbital axis vector (POAV) pyramidalization angle in both 3 and 4 is 12.8°. Such a high curvature is very rarely obtained. Buckybowls 5 are less curved than the others because they have a lower density of five-membered rings, analogous to the tube portion of C70 . Cyclopentaannulation increases the bowl depths of 3 and 4, but not the maximum POAV pyramidalization angle. Among the eight buckybowls studied herein, five form polar crystals. The bowl-to-bowl inversion dynamics of these buckybowls can be classified into two types; one has a planar transition structure, whereas the other has an S-shaped transition structure. A larger longitudinal length of these buckybowls corresponds to a stronger preference for the latter. The photophysical properties of these buckybowls were examined and compared with those of C60 and C70 . Buckybowls 5 have absorption bands at wavelengths greater than 450?nm, which are similar to those of C70 . The chiral resolution of the mono-substituted buckybowl 4?ac was also studied by using HPLC with a chiral column.
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Differences in specificity and selectivity between CBP and p300 acetylation of histone H3 and H3/H4.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Although p300 and CBP lysine acetyltransferases are often treated interchangeably, the inability of one enzyme to compensate for the loss of the other suggests unique roles for each. As these deficiencies coincide with aberrant levels of histone acetylation, we hypothesized that the key difference between p300 and CBP activity is differences in their specificity/selectivity for lysines within the histones. Utilizing a label-free, quantitative mass spectrometry based technique, we determined the kinetic parameters of both CBP and p300 at each lysine of H3 and H4, under conditions we would expect to encounter in the cell (either limiting acetyl-CoA or histone). Our results show that while p300 and CBP acetylate many common residues on H3 and H4, they do in fact possess very different specificities, and these specificities are dependent on whether histone or acetyl-CoA is limiting. Steady-state experiments with limiting H3 demonstrate that both CBP and p300 acetylate H3K14, H3K18, H3K23, with p300 having specificities up to 10¹?-fold higher than CBP. Utilizing tetramer as a substrate, both enzymes also acetylate H4K5, H4K8, H4K12, and H4K16. With limiting tetramer, CBP displays higher specificities, especially at H3K18, where CBP specificity is 10³²-fold higher than p300. With limiting acetyl-CoA, p300 has the highest specificity at H4K16, where specificity is 10¹?-fold higher than CBP. This discovery of unique specificity for targets of CBP- vs p300-mediated acetylation of histone lysine residues presents a new model for understanding their respective biological roles and possibly an opportunity for selective therapeutic intervention.
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Gasless laparoscopic assisted surgery for abdominal trauma.
Injury
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Numerous studies have described the effectiveness of laparoscopy for trauma patients. In gas-filling laparoscopic surgery, most of the disadvantages are related to a positive pressure pneumoperitoneum that compromises the cardiopulmonary function. The main advantage of gasless laparoscopic assisted surgery (GLA) is that it does not affect the haemodynamic status, which is particularly critical for trauma patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of GLA for abdominal trauma.
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The diminishing role of pelvic x-rays in the management of patients with major torso injuries.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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A pelvic x-ray (PXR) can be used as an effective screening tool to evaluate pelvic fractures and stability. However, associated intra-abdominal/retroperitoneal organ injuries and hemorrhage should also be considered and evaluated in patients with major torso injuries. An abdominal/pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scan may provide higher resolution and more information than a PXR. The role of conventional PXRs was delineated in the current study in the context of the development of the CT scan.
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The N-terminal basolateral targeting signal unlikely acts alone in the differential trafficking of membrane transporters in MDCK cells.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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We have shown previously, using confocal imaging and transport assays, that the N-terminus of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) can redirect apical SVCT1 to the basolateral membrane. Here, the SVCT model was used to further characterize the basolateral targeting peptide signal. Both the length (31 amino acids) and sequence accuracy of the N-terminus of SVCT2 were found to be important in basolateral targeting activity, suggesting a structural requirement. However, the N-terminal basolateral targeting sequence did not appear to act alone, based on analyses of heterologous chimeras. Although diverse N-terminal basolateral targeting signals from multipass membrane proteins can all redirect apical protein from the same gene family to the basolateral membrane, none of the N-terminal basolateral targeting signals can redirect the transmembrane and C-terminal regions from a different gene family. Instead, the presence of these heterologous N-terminal basolateral targeting signals affected the trafficking of otherwise apical protein, causing their accumulation in a stable tubulin-like non-actin structure. Nontargeting N-terminal sequences had no effect. Similar protein retention was observed previously and in this study when the C-terminus of apical or basolateral protein was mutated. These results suggest that the N- and C-termini interact, directly or indirectly, within each gene family for basolateral targeting. Circular dichroism and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analyses both found a lack of regular secondary structure in the conserved N-terminus of SVCT2, consistent with the presence of partner(s) in the targeting unit. Our finding, a departure from the prevailing single-peptide motif model, is consistent with the evolution of basolateral transporters from the corresponding apical genes. The interaction among the N-terminus, its partner(s), and the cellular basolateral targeting machinery needs to be further elucidated.
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The production of volvox spheres and their potential application in multi-drugs encapsulation and release.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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Volvox sphere is a bio-mimicking concept of an innovative biomaterial structure of a sphere that contains smaller microspheres which then encapsulate chemicals, drugs and/or cells. The volvox spheres were produced via a high-voltage electrostatic field system, using alginate as the primary material. Encapsulated materials tested in this study include staining dyes, nuclear fast red and trypan blue, and model drugs, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome c (CytC). The external morphology of the volvox spheres was observed via electron microscopy whereas the internal structure of the volvox spheres was observed via an optical microscope with the aid of the staining dyes, since alginate is colorless and transparent. The diameter of the microspheres was about 200 to 300 ?m, whereas the diameter of the volvox spheres was about 1500 ?m. Volvox spheres were durable, retaining about 95% of their mass after 4 weeks. Factors affecting entrapment efficiency, such as temperature and concentration of the bivalent cross-linker, were compared followed by a 7-day in vitro release study. The encapsulation efficiency of CytC within the microspheres was higher at cold (~4°C) and warm (~50°C) temperatures whereas temperature has no obvious effect on the BSA encapsulation. High crosslinking concentration (25% w/v) of calcium chloride has resulted higher entrapment efficiency for BSA but not for CytC. Furthermore, volvox spheres showed a different release pattern of BSA and CytC when compared to microspheres encapsulating BSA and CytC. Despite the fact that the mechanisms behind remain unclear and further investigation is required, this study demonstrates the potential of the volvox spheres for drug delivery.
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Pelvic circumferential compression devices benefit patients with pelvic fractures who need transfers.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Patients with pelvic fracture usually require transfers to trauma centers for additional advanced treatment. Patient safety during the transfer should always be a priority. The noninvasive pelvic circumferential compression device (PCCD) can reportedly provide a tamponade effect, which reduces hemorrhage. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of PCCD in patients with pelvic fracture who required transfer to trauma centers.
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Identification and characterisation of microRNAs in young adults of Angiostrongylus cantonensis via a deep-sequencing approach.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an important causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that participate in a wide range of biological processes. This study employed a deep-sequencing approach to study miRNAs from young adults of A. cantonensis. Based on 16,880,456 high-quality reads, 252 conserved mature miRNAs including 10 antisense miRNAs that belonging to 90 families, together with 10 antisense miRNAs were identified and characterised. Among these sequences, 53 miRNAs from 25 families displayed 50 or more reads. The conserved miRNA families were divided into four groups according to their phylogenetic distribution and a total of nine families without any members showing homology to other nematodes or adult worms were identified. Stem-loop real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of aca-miR-1-1 and aca-miR-71-1 demonstrated that their level of expression increased dramatically from infective larvae to young adults and then decreased in adult worms, with the male worms exhibiting significantly higher levels of expression than female worms. These findings provide information related to the regulation of gene expression during the growth, development and pathogenesis of young adults of A. cantonensis.
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Enhanced apoptotic effects of dihydroartemisinin-aggregated gelatin and hyaluronan nanoparticles on human lung cancer cells.
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Recent studies suggest that dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of artemisinin isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua L., has anticancer properties. Due to poor water solubility, poor oral activity, and a short plasma half-life, large doses of DHA have to be injected to achieve the necessary bioavailability. This study examined increasing DHA bioavailability by encapsulating DHA within gelatin (GEL) or hyaluronan (HA) nanoparticles via an electrostatic field system. Observations from transmission electron microscopy show that DHA in GEL and HA nanoparticles formed GEL/DHA and HA/DHA aggregates that were approximately 30-40 nm in diameter. The entrapment efficiencies for DHA were approximately 13 and 35% for the GEL/DHA and HA/DHA aggregates, respectively. The proliferation of A549 cells was inhibited by the GEL/DHA and HA/DHA aggregates. Fluorescent annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) staining displayed low background staining with annexin V-FITC or PI on DHA-untreated cells. In contrast, annexin V-FITC and PI stains dramatically increased when the cells were incubated with GEL/DHA and HA/DHA aggregates. These results suggest that DHA-aggregated GEL and HA nanoparticles exhibit higher anticancer proliferation activities than DHA alone in A549 cells most likely due to the greater aqueous dispersion after hydrophilic GEL or HA nanoparticles aggregation. These results demonstrate that DHA can aggregate with nanoparticles in an electrostatic field environment to form DHA nanosized aggregates. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2013.
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Synthesis, structural analysis, and properties of [8]circulenes.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Polygons: [8]Circulenes were easily prepared by Pd-catalyzed annulations of tetraiodotetraphenylenes with alkynes. Their saddle-shaped structure with an [8]radialene character was identified by X-ray crystallography. Similar to 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene, they have a tub-shaped eight-membered ring, but all of the bond lengths and bond angles are almost equal. Variable-temperature NMR investigations showed interesting dynamic behavior.
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Sphingomyelin synthase 2 activity and liver steatosis: an effect of ceramide-mediated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?2 suppression.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Sphingolipid de novo biosynthesis is related to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or hepatic steatosis. However, the mechanism is still unclear. Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS), using ceramide as one of the substrates to produce sphingomyelin, sits at the crossroads of sphingolipid biosynthesis. SMS has 2 isoforms: SMS1 and SMS2. SMS2 is the major isoform in liver.
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Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions induced by 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in mouse.
J. Dermatol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Th2 cells are overexpressed in the skin and serum of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. Previously, we found that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) decreased eosinophil infiltration in asthmatic mice through the suppression of Th2-associated cytokines. Therefore, we hypothesized that DHEA might improve the symptoms of AD syndrome.
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Factors affecting outcomes in penetrating diaphragmatic trauma.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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BACKGROUDS: Diagnosing penetrating diaphragmatic rupture (PDR) is a challenging aspect of managing thoracoabdominal injuries due to the lack of a typical clinical presentation. The mortality from PDR is variable and center-specific. In this study, we identified the incidence and clinical presentation of PDR at our institution and analyzed the factors that affected the length of hospital stay and mortality.
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Recovery of valuable metals from electroplating sludge with reducing additives via vitrification.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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In this study, vitrification was applied to treat Ni-Cu electroplating sludge. The sludge was mixed with additives (limestone:cullet = 4:6) and then heated to 1450 °C. The cooled product could be separated into slag and ingot. An atomic absorption spectrometer was used to determine the metal levels of specimens and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests, whereas the crystalline and surface characteristics were examined using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. With a glassy structure, the slag was mainly composed of Ca, Si, and Mg. The TCLP results of slags met the Taiwan regulated standards, suggesting that slag can be used for recycling purposes. With the aid of additives, the crystalline phase of slag was transformed form CaMgSiO4 into CsSiO3. The ingots were mainly composed of Ni (563,000-693,800 mg/kg), Cu (79,900-87,400 mg/kg), and Fe (35,000-43,600 mg/kg) (target metals) due the gravity separation during vitrification. At appropriate additives/sludge ratios (>0.2), >95% of target metals gathered in the ingot as a recoverable form (Ni-Fe alloy). The high Ni level of slag suggests that the ingot can be used as the raw materials for smelters or the additives for steel making. Therefore, the vitrification approach of this study is a promising technology to recover valuable metals from Ni-Cu electroplating sludge.
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Development of a quantitative biochemical and cellular sphingomyelin synthase assay using mass spectrometry.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The last step in sphingolipid biosynthesis is the conversion of ceramide (Cer) to sphingomyelin (SM), which is catalyzed by sphingomyelin synthase (SMS). Two isoforms of SMS have been identified with differential subcellular localizations. It is not clear whether the two isoforms have any differences in biochemical or cellular SMS activities. This report describes a mass spectrometry (MS)-based method that was used to characterize biochemical and cellular SMS activities of the two isoforms of SMS, namely SMS1 and SMS2. Cellular extracts of SMS1 or SMS2 expressed in SF9 cells displayed significant SMS activity. When these activities were measured by MS, both SMS1 and SMS2 demonstrated similar time- and substrate-dependent SMS activity. A previously reported SMS inhibitor, D609, inhibited both SMS1 and SMS2 activity. In HEK293 cells, overexpression of either SMS1 or SMS2 significantly increased SMS activity. These studies using MS methods to measure SMS activity of SMS1 and SMS2 represent the first quantitative measurement of SMS activities. The establishment of quantitative biochemical and cellular SMS assays may help to facilitate the discovery of novel SMS1- or SMS2-specific inhibitors.
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Size distribution of airborne fungi in vehicles under various driving conditions.
Arch Environ Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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Circulation or air conditioning (AC) system was proven to improve the air quality inside the vehicles; however, the quantified study was limited. In this study, fungal concentration under various driving mode inside the vehicle was proposed. The driving conditions were classified into 4 states: (1) window closed without AC and circulation, (2) window open without AC and circulation, (3) window closed with only circulation on, and (4) window closed with only AC on. Results show that at state 4, the mean respirable fraction was 83.3%, with a number median diameter of the fungi being 1.73 ?m. More attention should be paid for these smaller fungi easily penetrating into the alveoli and probably lead to allergic alveolitis. Turning on AC for reducing the normalized concentration for each size range of fungi was suggested; however, the respirable fraction increased. Those who are prone to allergies or asthma are suggested to switch between AC and the circulation mode while driving a long time.
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Quantitating the specificity and selectivity of Gcn5-mediated acetylation of histone H3.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) play a unique role in regulating gene transcription as well as maintaining the epigenetic state of the cell. KATs such as Gcn5 and p300/CBP can modify multiple residues on a single histone; however, order and specificity of acetylation can be altered by factors such as histone chaperones, subunit proteins or external stimulus. While the importance of acetylation is well documented, it has been difficult to quantitatively measure the specificity and selectivity of acetylation at different residues within a histone. In this paper, we demonstrate a label-free quantitative high throughput mass spectrometry-based assay capable of quantitatively monitoring all known acetylation sites of H3 simultaneously. Using this assay, we are able to analyze the steady-state enzyme kinetics of Gcn5, an evolutionarily conserved KAT. In doing so, we measured Gcn5-mediated acetylation at six residues (K14>K9 ? K23> K18> K27 ? K36) and the catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) for K9, K14, K18, and K23 as well as the nonenzymatic acetylation rate. We observed selectivity differences of up to -4 kcal/mol between K14 and K18, the highest and lowest measurable k(cat)/K(m). These data provide a first look at quantitating the specificity and selectivity of multiple lysines on a single substrate (H3) by Gcn5.
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Prophylactic vaccination with adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid a prevents Th2-mediated murine asthmatic responses.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder characterized by airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic infiltration, high titer of allergen-specific IgE, and overproduction of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines. Antigen combined with an appropriate adjuvant and administrated through the proper route can elicit suitable immunological responses to protect humans and animals from diseases. Antigen formulated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) can produce priming of Th1-mediated immune responses. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of MPLA as an adjuvant to prevent asthma.
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Coupling pre-mRNA processing to transcription on the RNA factory assembly line.
RNA Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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It has been well-documented that nuclear processing of primary transcripts of RNA polymerase II occurs co-transcriptionally and is functionally coupled to transcription. Moreover, increasing evidence indicates that transcription influences pre-mRNA splicing and even several post-splicing RNA processing events. In this review, we discuss the issues of how RNA polymerase II modulates co-transcriptional RNA processing events via its carboxyl terminal domain, and the protein domains involved in coupling of transcription and RNA processing events. In addition, we describe how transcription influences the expression or stability of mRNAs through the formation of distinct mRNP complexes. Finally, we delineate emerging findings that chromatin modifications function in the regulation of RNA processing steps, especially splicing, in addition to transcription. Overall, we provide a comprehensive view that transcription could integrate different control systems, from epigenetic to post-transcriptional control, for efficient gene expression.
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Myeloid cell-specific serine palmitoyltransferase subunit 2 haploinsufficiency reduces murine atherosclerosis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo biosynthetic pathway of sphingomyelin (SM). Both SPT and SM have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the development of which is driven by macrophages; however, the role of SPT in macrophage-mediated atherogenesis is unknown. To address this issue, we have analyzed macrophage inflammatory responses and reverse cholesterol transport, 2 key mediators of atherogenesis, in SPT subunit 2-haploinsufficient (Sptlc2(+/-)) macrophages. We found that Sptlc2(+/-) macrophages have significantly lower SM levels in plasma membrane and lipid rafts. This reduction not only impaired inflammatory responses triggered by TLR4 and its downstream NF-?B and MAPK pathways, but also enhanced reverse cholesterol transport mediated by ABC transporters. LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice transplanted with Sptlc2(+/-) bone marrow cells exhibited significantly fewer atherosclerotic lesions after high-fat and high-cholesterol diet feeding. Additionally, Ldlr(-/-) mice with myeloid cell-specific Sptlc2 haploinsufficiency exhibited significantly less atherosclerosis than controls. These findings suggest that SPT could be a novel therapeutic target in atherosclerosis.
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Clinical Features of Testicular Lymphoma.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Testicular lymphoma is a rare condition, so large scale prospective studies are difficult to conduct. Consensus regarding standard treatment is lacking. This study retrospectively reviewed 22 patients with testicular lymphoma. One patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was lost to follow-up after diagnosis. Two patients with Burkitts lymphoma had poor outcomes regardless of treatment. Thus, we analyzed the clinical features, treatments, and outcomes of 19 patients with DLBCL. The median progression-free and overall survival was 28.3 and 36.3 months, respectively. A good response to treatment was a favorable prognostic factor. Because of the high relapse rate, the outcome is poor for testicular lymphoma. Therefore, long-term follow-up is strongly recommended. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Acute promyelocytic leukemia-associated thrombosis.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) are prone to both bleeding and thrombosis. The bleeding complications are well known. In contrast, APL-associated thrombosis is relatively underappreciated. We aimed to explore the issue of APL-associated thrombosis events. In the past 20 years, 127 cases with APL were found in our hospital database. We collected their coagulation laboratory profiles, including leukemia burdens, white blood cell and platelet counts, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen levels, and disseminated intravascular coagulation scores. Data were compared between patients with or without thrombosis. Clinical outcomes and potential risk factors were obtained for analysis. Ten cases with APL-associated thrombosis were found. The incidence of thrombosis was 7.9% in our cohort. Five patients had cerebral infarction, 5 had catheter-related thrombosis and 1 had acute myocardial infarction. No laboratory data were associated with clinical thrombosis. Three patients died during the induction phase but thrombosis was not the direct cause of death for any of them. We conclude that patients with APL are susceptible to thrombosis in addition to bleeding. Laboratory coagulation parameters did not predict thrombosis in our series. Ischemic stroke and catheter-related thrombosis were the most common events in our Taiwanese cohort. Such a thrombosis pattern is unique and worth further investigation.
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An FGF21-adiponectin-ceramide axis controls energy expenditure and insulin action in mice.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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FGF21, a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) superfamily, has recently emerged as a regulator of metabolism and energy utilization. However, the exact mechanism(s) whereby FGF21 mediates its actions have not been elucidated. There is considerable evidence that insulin resistance may arise from aberrant accumulation of intracellular lipids in insulin-responsive tissues due to lipotoxicity. In particular, the sphingolipid ceramide has been implicated in this process. Here, we show that FGF21 rapidly and robustly stimulates adiponectin secretion in rodents while diminishing accumulation of ceramides in obese animals. Importantly, adiponectin-knockout mice are refractory to changes in energy expenditure and ceramide-lowering effects evoked by FGF21 administration. Moreover, FGF21 lowers blood glucose levels and enhances insulin sensitivity in diabetic Lep(ob/ob) mice and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice only when adiponectin is functionally present. Collectively, these data suggest that FGF21 is a potent regulator of adiponectin secretion and that FGF21 critically depends on adiponectin to exert its glycemic and insulin sensitizing effects.
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Clinical and laboratory significance of defective P2Y(12) pathway function in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms: a pilot study.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) have an increased risk for thrombosis and bleeding and show a defect in adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. This risk of thrombosis is further increased in MPN patients bearing the JAK2V617F mutation. Two ADP receptors, P2Y1 and P2Y12, are present on platelets. Although the pattern of defective ADP-induced platelet aggregation in MPN suggests an abnormality in the P2Y12 pathway, no previous studies have specifically evaluated P2Y12 function in MPN or the relationship between P2Y12 function and the JAK2V617F mutation.
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Nano-sized collagen I molecules enhanced the differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocytes.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of nano-sized collagen I molecules (nanoparticles or nanofibrils) and a 5-azacytidine (5-aza) treatment to enhance the differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) toward a cardiomyogenic phenotype in vitro. Second passaged MSCs were cocultured with nano-sized collagen I molecules for 24 h and then treated with 10 ?M 5-aza for 24 h. The results demonstrated that the size of the cells increased significantly and acquired a flattened, triangular-shaped morphology after treatment with nano-sized collagen I molecules and 5-aza. The cells are connecting with adjoining cells by forming myotube-like structures. Additional treatment of the MSCs with nano-sized collagen I fibrils significantly increased two transcription factors GATA-4 (12.6-fold increase) and Nkx2.5 (4.8-fold increase) expressions compared with MSC groups treated only with 5-aza at 3-day culturing. Furthermore, MSCs pretreated with nano-sized collagen fibrils significantly increased the expressions of cardiac genes of troponin I, ?-myosin heavy chain, and cardiac ?-actin compared with MSC groups treated only with 5-aza (all, p < 0.01 or better). These results indicate that culturing MSCs with nano-sized collagen I molecules, which may act as scaffolds or soluble protein ingredients, leads to alterations in gene expression and affects the differentiation fate induced with 5-aza.
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Allogeneic lymphocytes exerted graft-versus-host rather than tolerogenic effects on preimmune fetuses.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Among cell suspensions from different origins, lymphocytes were reported to have the superiority of tolerance-conferring capacity in preimmune hosts. However, this belief was derived directly from murine combinations with fewer major histocompatibility complex (MHC) barriers that are exceptional in the clinical arena. Because of the potential for prenatal tolerance induction to facilitate postnatal therapies, it is important to examine the relative merits and hazards of fully MHC-mismatched naïve lymphocytes as the prenatal tolerogenic agent in the preimmune fetus to cross MHC barriers.
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National surveillance study on carbapenem non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan: the emergence and rapid dissemination of KPC-2 carbapenemase.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The global spread and increasing incidence of carbapenem non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (CnSKP) has made its treatment difficult, increasing the mortality. To establish nationwide data on CnSKP spread and carbapenem-resistance mechanisms, we conducted a national surveillance study in Taiwanese hospitals.
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Examination of a perceived cost model of employees negative feedback-seeking behavior.
J Psychol
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2011
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The present study extends the feedback-seeking behavior literature by investigating how supervisor-related antecedents (i.e., supervisors expert power, reflected appraisals of supervisors, and supervisors emotional intelligence) influence subordinates negative feedback-seeking behavior (NFSB) through different cost/value perceptions (i.e., expectancy value, self-presentation cost, and ego cost). Using data collected from 216 supervisor-subordinate dyads from various industries in Taiwan, we employ structural equation modeling analysis to test our hypotheses. The results show that expectancy value mediates the relationship between supervisor expert power and subordinates NFSB. Moreover, self-presentation cost mediates the relationship between reflected appraisals of supervisors and subordinates NFSB. Theoretical and practical implications of this study are also discussed.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.