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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sonic hedgehog signalling pathway regulates apoptosis through Smo protein in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of smoothened protein (Smo), a sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling component, in synovium of RA and its role in the survival and apoptosis of endothelial cells.
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Validation of a Clinical Prediction Rule for Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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To reduce missed cases of pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT), Pediatric Brain Injury Research Network investigators derived a 4-variable AHT clinical prediction rule (CPR) with sensitivity of .96. Our objective was to validate the screening performance of this AHT CPR in a new, equivalent patient population.
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Propagation evolution of an off-axis high-order cylindrical vector beam.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The propagation characteristics of an off-axis high-order cylindrical vector beam (OHCVB) are studied in this paper. The analytic expressions for the electric field and intensity distribution of the OHCVB propagating in free space are presented, to our knowledge for the first time. The transverse intensity of the OHCVB, different from that of the input Gaussian beam, does not have an axially symmetric distribution, owing to a slight dislocation between the polarization singularity located in the vector field generator and the center point of the Gaussian beam. Numerical results show that the intensity distribution during propagation strongly depends on the propagation distance, dislocation displacement, and topological charge. Accompanied by beam expansion, the intensity distribution of the OHCVB tends to eventually become steady, and the dark core of the vector beam will disappear gradually during the process of propagation. Moreover, with the increase of the topological charge, more energy will be transferred from the x axis to the y axis, and the annular intensity is split into two parts along the y-axis direction. The results help us to investigate the dynamic propagation behaviors of the HCVB under the off-axis condition and also guide the calibration of the off-axis high-order cylindrical vector field in practice.
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High prevalence of syphilis among street-based female sex workers in Nanchang, China.
Indian Dermatol Online J
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Female sex workers (FSWs) play a critical role in the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in China. Several studies reported that street-based FSWs have higher risk behaviors than establishment-based FSWs. Therefore, street-based FSWs should be specifically targeted for HIV and STIs intervention programs.
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Clinical Application of High-pitch Excretory Phase Images during Dual-source CT Urography with Stellar Photon Detector.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Objective To retrospectively evaluate the clinical feasibility of high-pitch excretory phase images during dual-source CT urography with Stellar photon detector. Methods Totally 100 patients received dual-source CT high-pitch urinary excretory phase scanning with Stellar photon detector[80 kV,ref.92 mAs,CARE Dose 4D and CARE kV,pitch of 3.0,filter back projection reconstruction algorithm (FBP)](group A). Another 100 patients received dual-source CT high-pitch urinary excretory phase scanning with common detector(100 kV,ref.140 mAs,CARE Dose 4D,pitch of 3.0,FBP)(group B). Quantitative measurement of CT value of urinary segments(Hounsfield units),image noise(Hounsfield units),and effective radiation dose(millisievert)were compared using independent-samples t test between two groups. Urinary system subjective opacification scores were compared using Mann-Whitney U test between two groups. Results There was no significant difference in subjective opacification score of intrarenal collecting system and ureters between two groups(all P>0.05). The group A images yielded significantly higher CT values of all urinary segments(all P<0.01). There was no significant difference in image noise(P>0.05). The effective radiation dose of group A(1.1 mSv)was significantly lower than that of group B(3.79 mSv)(P<0.01). Conclusion High-pitch low-tube-voltage during excretory phase dual-source CT urography with Stellar photon detector is feasible,with acceptable image noise and lower radiation dose.
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Mitotic Count by Phosphohistone H3 Immunohistochemical Staining Predicts Survival and Improves Interobserver Reproducibility in Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Pancreas.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs) of the pancreas are graded on the basis of mitotic count or Ki67 index. Mitotic count has a narrow cutoff; its assessment is time consuming and carries poor interobserver reproducibility. Phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) is a mitosis-specific marker whose value has been validated in several tumor types. We sought to assess the utility of PHH3 in histologic grading of pancreatic WDNETs. Sixty-three cases of surgically resected primary pancreatic WDNETs were retrieved, and immunohistochemical analysis for PHH3 and Ki67 was performed. Mitotic rate was independently assessed by 4 pathologists on hematoxylin and eosin (HE; in 50 high-power fields [HPFs], expressed as mitoses/10 HPF) and PHH3 stains (in 50 HPFs, one 10×, and one 20× hotspot). PHH3 and Ki67 labeling indices were determined on a single 20× hotspot and expressed as the percentage of positive cells to total cells. We found that mitotic counts by various methods significantly correlated with each other and also with PHH3 and Ki67 indices, with the best correlation seen within the 3 different PHH3 counts (in 50 HPFs, one 10× and one 20× hotspot). Moreover, mitotic count on PHH3 was less time consuming than that on HE (1.68 vs. 3.67 min for 50 HPFs, P<0.0001). Histologic grade determined by PHH3 significantly correlated with disease-specific and disease-free survivals, with the best cutoffs of ?4 mitoses/10 HPF (2 mm), ?7 mitoses/10× hotspot, ?5 mitoses/20× hotspot (log rank test, P<0.0001), and ?0.16% for PHH3 labeling index (log rank test, P<0.0006). Tumor grades based on PHH3 stain also showed significant correlation with patient survivals in multivariate Cox proportional hazards models (P<0.05). Histologic grades by mitotic counts on PHH3 demonstrated high concordance and ? agreement with grades determined by mitotic count on HE. PHH3 stain also showed improved interobserver agreement in both original mitotic count (intraclass correlation 0.98 vs. 0.79) and final grade assignment (Fleiss ? 0.69 vs. 0.46) as compared with HE. Thus, our data confirmed that histologic grading by PHH3 stain has practical and prognostic values and offers reduced time and improved interobserver reproducibility in mitotic rate assessment and grade assignment. Although larger series are needed for validation, mitotic rate can potentially be determined by counting 1 hotspot, which will greatly facilitate the assessment of histologic grade in pancreatic WDNETs.
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[Epidemiological analysis of malaria prevalence in Jiangsu Province in 2012].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2012, so as to provide the evidence for formulating and adjusting effective malaria elimination strategies and measures.
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Complete mitogenome of the foxface rabbitfish Siganus vulpinus (Perciformes, Siganidae): indication of potential interbreeding in rabbitfishes.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Abstract In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the foxface rabbitfish Siganus vulpinus (Perciformes, Siganidae) is determined. The entire sequence is 16,505?bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The genome organization is similar to those found in other rabbitfishes. Apart from ND6 and 8 tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Overall base compositions of mitogenome are 29.3% of A, 29.3% of C, 25.7% of T, and 15.7% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias which is commonly found in fishes. The high similarity of mitochondrial genome between S. vulpinus and S. unimaculatus indicate that natural interbreeding might exist in breeding season.
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Phylogeography of Tetrancistrum nebulosi (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) on the host of mottled spinefoot (Siganus fuscescens) in the South China Sea, inferred from mitochondrial COI and ND2 genes.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Abstract To examine the phylogeographical pattern of Tetrancistrum nebulosi (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) in the South China Sea, fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 genes were obtained for 220 individuals collected from 8 localities along the southeast coast of China and 1 locality in Terengganu, Malaysia. Based on these two genes, two and three distinct clades with geographic signals were revealed on the phylogenetic trees respectively. The divergence between these clades was estimated to occur in the late Pleistocene. Analysis of molecular variance and pairwise FST suggested a high rate of gene flow among individuals sampled from the Chinese coast, but with obvious genetic differentiation from the Malaysian population. Mismatch distribution and neutrality tests indicated that the T. nebulosi population experienced expansion in Pleistocene low sea level periods. Vicariance was considered to account for the genetic divergence between Chinese and Malaysian populations, while sea level fluctuations and mainland-island connections during glacial cycles were associated with the slight genetic divergence between the populations along the mainland coast of China and those off Sanya. On the contrary, oceanographic circulations and host migration could lead to genetic homogeneity of populations distributed along the mainland coast of China.
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[Pharmacokinetic comparison of baicalin absorption medicine Qinbai Qingfei concentrated pellets drug compatibility].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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The Qinbai Qingfei concentrated pellets by traditional Chinese medicine theoryand party and group, the rats were given the drugs group, comparison of pharmacokinetics parameters changes of baicalin , discusses the rationality of Qinbai prescription. The rats were gavaged monarch drug group (Huang Qincu extract, mainly forbaicalin), and official medicine group, adjuvant group, medicine group and Qinbai group (Quan Fangzu) the content of baicalin equal as the monarch drug group, in the 28 h collection in rat plasma at different time point, application of HPLC determination of baicalin glycosides in rat plasmaconcentration time curve, with 3P97 practical pharmacokinetics program to process the data Based on the data analysis, baicalin in rat plasma of Qinbai group Cmax is 4 times as big as monarch druggroup, AUC is 6 times as big as monarch drug group; the content of baicalin in plasma of rats the highest is Qinbai group, the minister drug group, adjuvant group, medicine group of baicalin in rat plasma content of less than the Qinbai group, but was significantly higher than that of monarch drug group; the medicine group is slightly higher than that adjuvant the content of baicalin in plasma of rats. The pharmacokinetic results show that the measured plasma concentration in rats that Qinbai can significantly increase Cmax and AUC of baicalin, other components of qinbai can promoted the baicalin absorption in vivo. It showed that the reasonable of Qinbai compound compatibility. The minister drug can promote the absorption of baicalin in vivo.
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[Analysis of death causes among infants in Guangzhou from 2010 to 2013].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To analyze the main death causes among infants in Guangzhou in 2010-2013 and to provide an objective and scientific basis for risk communication of public health emergencies in the future.
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[Sequence analysis of VP1 region of coxsackievirus A4 and coxsackievirus A10 in Guangzhou city, 2010-2012].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To identify the enterovirus from stool samples of patients with hand, foot and mouth disease(HFMD) in Guangzhou from 2010 to 2012 and to perform phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene sequences of coxsackievirus A4 and coxsackievirus A10.
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De-SUMOylation of FOXC2 by SENP3 promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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The impact of cellular oxidative stress in promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been noticed. Our previous study shows that SENP3, a redox-sensitive SUMO2/3-specific protease, accumulates in a variety of cancers, but whether SENP3 and SUMOylation involve in the regulation of EMT is unclear. The present study uncovers a novel role of SENP3 in promoting the EMT process in gastric cancer via regulating an EMT-inducing transcription factor, forkhead box C2 (FOXC2). We demonstrate that the expression of mesenchymal marker genes and cell migration ability are enhanced in SENP3-overexpressing gastric cancer cells and attenuated in SENP3-knockdown cells. A nude mouse model and a set of patient's specimens suggest the correlation between SENP3 and gastric cancer metastasis. Biochemical assays identify FOXC2 as a substrate of SENP3. Meanwhile N-cadherin is verified as a target gene of FOXC2, which is transcriptionally activated by a SUMO-less FOXC2. Additionally, reactive oxygen species-induced de-SUMOylation of FOXC2 can be blocked by silencing endogenous SENP3. In conclusion, SENP3, which is increased in gastric cancer cells, potentiates the transcriptional activity of FOXC2 through de-SUMOylation, in favor of the induction of specific mesenchymal gene expression in gastric cancer metastasis.
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miR181c promotes apoptosis and suppresses proliferation of metanephric mesenchyme cells by targeting Six2 in vitro.
Cell Biochem. Funct.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Increasingly recognized importance has been assumed for microRNA (miRNA) in the regulation of the delicate balance of gene expression. In our study, we aimed to explore the regulation role of miR181c towards Six2 in metanephric mesenchyme (MM) cells. Bioinformatics analysis, luciferase assay and semi-quantitative real-time (RT) PCR, subsequently RT PCR, Western blotting, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine cell proliferation assay, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, were employed to verify the modulation function of miR181c on Six2 in the mK3 MM cell line that is one kind of MM cells. miR181c was predicted to bind the 3' untranslated region of Six2 by bioinformatics analysis, which was subsequently validated by the in vitro luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, transfection of miR181c mimic can decrease the expression of Six2 both in mRNA and protein levels in mK3 cells. Still, ectopic expression of miR181c inhibits the proliferation, promotes the apoptosis and even makes the nephron progenitor phenotype lose mK3 cells. These results revealed the ability of a single miRNA-miR181c to downregulate the expression of Six2, restrain the proliferation and promote the apoptosis that even makes the nephron progenitor phenotype lose MM cells, suggesting a potential role of miR181c during the kidney development. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Circulation of Coxsackievirus A6 in hand-foot-mouth disease in Guangzhou, 2010-2012.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is usually caused by Enterovirus 71(EV71), and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) in Guangzhou, the biggest city of South China. However, Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) were observed increased dramatically from 2010-2012.
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High open circuit voltage in regioregular narrow band gap polymer solar cells.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The regioregular narrow band gap (E(g) ~1.5 eV) conjugated polymer PIPCP was designed and synthesized. PIPCP contains a backbone comprised of CPDT-PT-IDT-PT repeat units (CPDT = cyclopentadithiophene, PT = pyridyl[2,1,3]thiadiazole, IDT = indacenodithiophene) and strictly organized PT orientations, such that the pyridyl N-atoms point toward the CPDT fragment. Comparison of PIPCP with the regiorandom counterpart PIPC-RA illustrates that the higher level of molecular order translates to higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) when incorporated into bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells. Examination of thin films via absorption spectroscopy and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction (GIWAXS) experiments provides evidence of higher order within thin films obtained by spin coating. Most significantly, we find that PIPCP:PC61BM blends yield devices with an open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.86 V, while maintaining a PCE of ~6%. Comparison against a wide range of analogous narrow band gap conjugated polymers reveals that this V(oc) value is particularly high for a BHJ system with band gaps in the 1.4-1.5 eV range thereby indicating a very low E(g) - eV(oc) loss.
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Thermoelectric Seebeck effect in oxide-based resistive switching memory.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Reversible resistive switching induced by an electric field in oxide-based resistive switching memory shows a promising application in future information storage and processing. It is believed that there are some local conductive filaments formed and ruptured in the resistive switching process. However, as a fundamental question, how electron transports in the formed conductive filament is still under debate due to the difficulty to directly characterize its physical and electrical properties. Here we investigate the intrinsic electronic transport mechanism in such conductive filament by measuring thermoelectric Seebeck effects. We show that the small-polaron hopping model can well describe the electronic transport process for all resistance states, although the corresponding temperature-dependent resistance behaviours are contrary. Moreover, at low resistance states, we observe a clear semiconductor-metal transition around 150?K. These results provide insight in understanding resistive switching process and establish a basic framework for modelling resistive switching behaviour.
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The role of low levels of fullerene C60 nanocrystals on enhanced learning and memory of rats through persistent CaMKII activation.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Engineered nanomaterials are known to exhibit diverse and sometimes unexpected biological effects. Fullerene nanoparticles have been reported to specifically bind to and elicit persistent activation of hippocampal Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a multimeric intracellular serine/threonine kinase central to Ca(2+) signal transduction and critical for synaptic plasticity, but the functional consequence of that modulation is unknown. Here we show that low doses of fullerene C60 nanocrystals (Nano C60), delivered through intrahippocampal infusion and without any obvious cytotoxicity in hippocampal neuronal cells, enhance the long-term potentiation (LTP) of rats. Intraperitoneal injection of 320 ?g/kg of Nano C60, once daily for 10 days, also enhanced spatial memory of rats in addition to an increase of LTP. In parallel, both the IH and IP administration of Nano C60 increased the autonomous activity and the level of threonine 286 (T286) autophosphorylation of CaMKII, enhanced post-synaptic AMPA/NMDA ratio, and triggered time-dependent activation of ERK and CREB. Our results reveal a striking and highly unexpected ability of Nano C60 in positively modulating learning and memory, an effect that is most likely manifested through locking CaMKII in an active conformation, and may have significant implications for the potential therapeutic applications of fullerene C60, a classic engineered nanomaterial.
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Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Sleep apnea (SA) is characterized by apnea during sleep and is associated with cardiovascular diseases and an increase in all-cause mortality. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem that has placed a substantial burden on healthcare resources. However, the relationship between SA and the incidence of CKD is not clear. This study aimed to determine whether SA is an independent risk factor for the development of CKD.
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Organ-specific effects of brassinosteroids on stomatal production coordinate with the action of TOO MANY MOUTHS.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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In Arabidopsis, stomatal development initiates after protodermal cells acquire stomatal lineage cell fate. Stomata or their precursors communicate with their neighbor epidermal cells to ensure the "one cell spacing" rule. The signals from EPF/EPFL peptide ligands received by TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) and ERECTA-family receptors are supposed to be transduced by YODA MAPK cascade. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH) is another key regulator of stomatal cell fate determination and asymmetric entry divisions, and SPCH activity is regulated by YODA MAPK cascade. Brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, one of the most well characterized signal transduction pathways in plants, contributes to the control of stomatal production. But opposite organ-specific effects of BR on stomatal production were reported. Here we confirm that stomatal production in hypocotyls is controlled by BR levels. YODA and CYCD4 are not essential for BR stomata-promoting function. Furthermore, we found that BR could confer tmm hypocotyls clustered stomatal phenotype, indicating that the BR organ-specific effects on stomatal production might coordinate with the TMM organ-specific actions.
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Small RNAs: a new paradigm in plant-microbe interactions.
Annu Rev Phytopathol
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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A never-ending arms race drives coevolution between pathogens and hosts. In plants, pathogen attacks invoke multiple layers of host immune responses. Many pathogens deliver effector proteins into host cells to suppress host immunity, and many plants have evolved resistance proteins to recognize effectors and trigger robust resistance. Here, we discuss findings on noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) from plants and pathogens, which regulate host immunity and pathogen virulence. Recent discoveries have unveiled the role of noncoding sRNAs from eukaryotic pathogens and bacteria in pathogenicity in both plant and animal hosts. The discovery of fungal sRNAs that are delivered into host cells to suppress plant immunity added sRNAs to the list of pathogen effectors. Similar to protein effector genes, many of these sRNAs are generated from transposable element (TE) regions, which are likely to contribute to rapidly evolving virulence and host adaptation. We also discuss RNA silencing that occurs between organisms.
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Time-effect relationship of extracts from ginseng, notoginseng and chuanxiong on vascular endothelial cells senescence.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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To observe the time-effect relation of extracts from ginseng, notoginseng and chuanxiong on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced senescence of vascular endothelial cells and explore the feature of Chinese medicine against vascular diseases.
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Reactive Oxygen Species-Responsive Protein Modification and Its Intracellular Delivery for Targeted Cancer Therapy.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Herein we report a convenient chemical approach to reversibly modulate protein (RNase A) function and develop a protein that is responsive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) for targeted cancer therapy. The conjugation of RNase A with 4-nitrophenyl 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl) benzyl carbonate (NBC) blocks protein lysine and temporarily deactivates the protein. However, the treatment of RNase A-NBC with hydrogen peroxide (one major intracellular ROS) efficiently cleaves the NBC conjugation and restores the RNase A activity. Thus, RNase A-NBC can be reactivated inside tumor cells by high levels of intracellular ROS, thereby restoring the cytotoxicity of RNase A for cancer therapy. Due to higher ROS levels inside tumor cells compared to healthy cells, and the resulting different levels of RNase A-NBC reactivation, RNase A-NBC shows a significant specific cytotoxicity against tumor cells.
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From trigonal bipyramidal to platonic solids: self-assembly and self-sorting study of terpyridine-based 3D architectures.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Using a series of tritopic 2,2':6',2?-terpyridine (tpy) ligands constructed on adamantane, three discrete 3D metallo-supramolecular architectures were assembled, i.e., trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedron, and cube. The self-assembly used tritopic ligands as corner directing units and metal ions as glue units at the edge. The angles of the linkers between adamantane and tpy head play a critical role in guiding the assembled structures, which have the general formula of M3nL2n, where M denotes metal ion and L denotes ligand. All complexes were fully characterized by (1)H, (13)C NMR, diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS, and traveling-wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry. The binary mixtures of LA and LC or LB and LC underwent a self-sorting process that led to the self-assembly of discrete 3D structures. The self-sorting behavior is solely based on the angles precoded within the arm of tritopic ligands. Moreover, kinetic study of preassembled cube and tetrahedron demonstrated a slow ligand exchange process toward a statistical mixture of hetero tetrahedrons with LA and LB.
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[Interaction between HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism and environmental risk factors in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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To explore the interactions between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -DRB1 gene polymorphism and environmental risk factors in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pathogenesis.
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The relationship between meteorological factors and mumps incidence in Guangzhou, China, 2005-2012: A distributed lag nonlinear time-series analysis.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Background: Over the past decade, there have been resurgences and large-scale outbreaks of mumps worldwide. Little evidence is available on the relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of mumps. We aimed to explore the effects of meteorological factors on mumps incidence. : Methods: A Poisson regression model combined with a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was used to evaluate the association between meteorological factors and the mumps incidence in Guangzhou, China, 2005-2012.: Results: Nonlinear relationships between meteorological factors, except sunshine hours, and mumps incidence were observed. The relative risks (RRs) of mean temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure were 1.81 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.41 to 2.32), 1.28 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.59), and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67 to 0.95) comparing the 99th percentile to the median of their own, respectively. For wind velocity, the RR was 0.70 (95%CI, 0.54 to 0.91) comparing the 1st percentile to the median. The hot effect and cold effect were larger in females than in males, and the hot effect increased with age.: Conclusions: Mean temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and atmospheric pressure might be important predictors of the mumps incidence. Tropical cyclone caused a higher increase in mumps cases. Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the awareness of using protective measures during typhoon days and allocating more attention to the susceptible populations during the summer. The two-dose regimen of mumps vaccine should be included in the National Immunization Program schedule, and the catch-up vaccination campaigns should be promoted among adults.
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Knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to influenza A(H7N9) risk among live poultry traders in Guangzhou City, China.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Live poultry traders (LPTs) have greater risk to avian influenza due to occupational exposure to poultry. This study investigated knowledge, attitudes and practices of LPTs relating to influenza A (H7N9).
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Prospective evaluation of peristomal cutaneous changes among patients with long-term percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.
Adv Skin Wound Care
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the most commonly used procedure in patients requiring long-term tube feeding. Lack of universal terminology and variations in the description of long-term PEG cutaneous lesions make it difficult for clinicians to interpret, communicate, and formulate a plan of treatment. The authors designed a prospective study to assess the long-term PEG cutaneous lesions and the healthcare utilization.
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[Establishment of malaria early warning system in Jiangsu Province III effect of automatic early warning information system on the response of malaria elimination].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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To evaluate the effect of automatic early warning information system on the response of malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province through the operation of the national automatic early warning system of infectious diseases.
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Inhibition of COX-2 and PGE2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by lonimacranthoide VI, a chlorogenic acid ester saponin.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Lonimacranthoide VI, first isolated from the flower buds of Lonicera macranthoides in our previous study, is a rare chlorogenic acid ester acylated at C-23 of hederagenin. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of lonimacranthoide VI were studied. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced an inflammatory response through the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and these levels were reduced when lonimacranthoide VI was pre-administered. Additionally, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of lonimacranthoide VI was investigated by measuring cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and mRNA expression. The results showed that lonimacranthoide VI inhibited mRNA expression and in vitro activity of COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner, whereas only the higher lonimacranthoide VI concentration possibly reduced COX-1 expression and in vitro activity. Taken together, these results indicate that lonimacranthoide VI is an important anti-inflammatory constituent of Lonicera macranthoides and that the anti-inflammatory effect is attributed to the inhibition of PGE2 production through COX activity and mRNA expression.
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Identification and characterization of a cathepsin-L-like peptidase in Eimeria tenella.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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Avian coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria spp., is one of the major parasitic diseases in birds. Cysteine protease is a major virulence factor in parasitic protozoa, and it may be a suitable chemotherapeutic target and vaccine candidate molecule. A 100 amino acid (aa.) partial sequence of cathepsin L, which is a cysteine protease, was reported by Katrib et al. (Ac. No. CDJ41293) (2012). A 219 aa. sequence was reported by Reid et al. (Ac. No. AFV92863) (2013). However, the open reading frame (ORF) was not reported. In this study, a full sequence of a cathepsin-L-like peptidase in Eimeria tenella (EtcatL) was obtained and its biochemical characterizations and expression profiles were analyzed across different stages of the parasite's life cycle. Results showed that the EtcatL gene encodes a protein 470 aa. in length, with 47 and 49 % identity to Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria acervulina. Considering the close phylogenetic relationship, TgcatL (PDB. ID 3F75) was selected for use as a template for homology modeling with quality factors of 90.9. Gelatin SDS-PAGE showed it to exert protease activity at ?38 and ?26 kDa. Further analysis showed the kinetic parameters of the recombinant peptidase to be K m ?=?8.9 ?M and V max?=?5.7 RFU/s ?M at pH 5.5 containing 10 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) in the reaction matrix, and the IC50 value of E64 was 65.32?±?3.02 nM. The recombinant protein was active from 25 to 50 °C, with optimal activity at 42 °C. The RT-PCR and Western blot results showed it to be expressed mainly at the endogenous stages and the initial phase of the sporulation. The protective experiment showed that chickens immunized with 100 and 200 ?g rEtcatL had reduction of weight loss values 48.7 and 57.9 % those of infected controls, respectively. Their reduction of lesion scores (RLS) were 25.0 and 47.2 % that of control chickens, and relative oocyst production (ROP) was 39.6 and 15.5 % that of control chickens. These results indicate that the EtcatL can be used as an effective immunogen, and further studies are needed to enhance its potential as a vaccine candidate molecule.
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Inhibitory effect of rhynchophylline on contraction of cerebral arterioles to endothelin 1: role of rho kinase.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Rhynchophylline (Rhy) is a major ingredient of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) used to reduce blood pressure and ameliorate brain ailments. This study was to examine the role of Rho kinase (ROCK) in the inhibition of Rhy on contraction of cerebral arterioles caused by endothelin 1 (ET-1).
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Human Mitochondrial NAD(P)(+)-Dependent Malic Enzyme Participates in Cutaneous Melanoma Progression and Invasion.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Cutaneous melanoma is the most life-threatening neoplasm of the skin, accounting for most of the skin cancer deaths. Accumulating evidence suggests that targeting metabolism is an appealing strategy for melanoma therapy. Mitochondrial NAD(P)(+)-dependent malic enzyme (ME2), an oxidative decarboxylase, was evaluated for its biological significance in cutaneous melanoma progression. ME2 mRNA and protein expression significantly increased during melanoma progression, as evidenced by Gene Expression Omnibus analysis and immunohistochemistry on clinically annotated tissue microarrays, respectively. In addition, ME2 knockdown attenuated melanoma cell proliferation in vitro. ME2 ablation resulted in reduced cellular ATP levels and elevated cellular reactive oxygen species production, which activated the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway and inhibited acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Furthermore, ME2 expression was associated with cell migration and invasion. ME2 knockdown decreased anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumor cell growth in vivo. These results suggested that ME2 might be an important factor in melanoma progression and a novel biomarker of invasion.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 23 October 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.385.
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Cordyceps sinensis protects against liver and heart injuries in a rat model of chronic kidney disease: a metabolomic analysis.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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To test the hypothesis that the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis could improve the metabolic function of extrarenal organs to achieve its anti-chronic kidney disease (CKD) effects.
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CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages correlated with poor prognosis and cancer stem cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in the progression and prognostication of numerous cancers. However, the role and clinical significance of TAM markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the correlation between the expression of TAM markers and pathological features in OSCC by tissue microarray. Tissue microarrays containing 16 normal oral mucosa, 6 oral epithelial dysplasia, and 43 OSCC specimens were studied by immunohistochemistry. We observed that the protein expression of the TAM markers CD68 and CD163 as well as the cancer stem cell (CSC) markers ALDH1, CD44, and SOX2 increased successively from the normal oral mucosa to OSCC. The expressions of CD68 and CD163 were significantly associated with lymph node status, and SOX2 was significantly correlated with pathological grade and lymph node status, whereas ALDH1 was correlated with tumor stage. Furthermore, CD68 was significantly correlated with CD163, SOX2, and ALDH1 (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that OSCC patients overexpressing CD163 had significantly worse overall survival (P < 0.05). TAM markers are associated with cancer stem cell marker and OSCC overall survival, suggesting their potential prognostic value in OSCC.
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Plasmid-encoding vasostatin inhibited the growth and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The growth and metastasis of solid tumors depends on angiogenesis. Anti-angiogenesis therapy may represent a promising therapeutic option. Vasostatin, the N-terminal domain of calreticulin, is a very potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. In this study, we attempted to investigate whether plasmid-encoding vasostatin complexed with cationic liposome could suppress the growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo and discover its possible mechanism of action. Apoptosis induction of pSecTag2B-vasostatin plasmid on murine endothelial cells (MS1) was examined by flow cytometric analysis in vitro. Nude mice bearing HCCLM3 tumor received pSecTag2B-vasostatin, pSecTag2B-Null, and 0.9 % NaCl solution, respectively. Tumor net weight was measured and survival time was observed. Microvessel density within tumor tissues was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. H&E staining of lungs and TUNEL assay of primary tumor tissues were also conducted. The results displayed that pSecTag2B-vasostatin could inhibit the growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts and prolong survival time compared with the controls in vivo. Moreover, histologic analysis revealed that pSecTag2B-vasostatin treatment increased apoptosis and inhibited angiogenesis. The present data may be of importance to the further exploration of this new anti-angiogenesis approach in the treatment of hepatocellular cancer.
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Clinical analysis of ANCA-associated renal vasculitis patients with chronic dialysis.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) constitute a subgroup of life-threatening diseases which affects the kidney in more than half of the patients at diagnosis. Currently, little has been published focusing on AAV patients with dialysis. We analysed AAV patients with chronic dialysis to provide more detailed information.
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Rapid and effective diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis with novel and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay in clinical samples: a meta-analysis.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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In recent years, Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been introduced for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We performed the meta-analysis to establish the overall accuracy of LAMP assay for diagnosing pulmonary TB. Based on comprehensive searches of the pubmed, embase and cochrane databases, we identified outcome datas from all articles estimating diagnostic accuracy with LAMP assay until 1 October 2012. A summary estimation for sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratios (DOR) and the area under the summary ROC curve (AUC) was calculated by using the bivariate random-effects approach. The meta-analysis included 10 studies (1920 suspected specimens). The summary estimate was 80.0% (95%CI, 78.0%-83.0%) for sensitivity, 96.0% (95%CI, 95.0%-97.0%) for specificity and 119.85/0.9633 for DOR/AUC in pulmonary TB. The findings in subgroup analysis were as follows: the accuracy of LAMP assay is higher in high quality level studies than moderate and low quality level studies. The pooled sensitivity for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB was 90.0% (95%CI, 86.0-93.0%) and 75.0% (95%CI, 71.0-78.0%) for high quality level studies and moderate combined low quality level studies, respectively, while the specificity was 99.0% (95%CI, 98.0-100.0%) and 91.0% (95%CI, 88.0-94.0%). Pulmonary TB can be rapidly and accurately diagnosed with LAMP assay.
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Temperature and atmospheric pressure may be considered as predictors for the occurrence of bacillary dysentery in Guangzhou, Southern China.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The control of bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big challenge for China.
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: 15-years' experience in a single center.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is known for its wide variability in biological behaviors and it is difficult to predict its malignant potential. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics and prognostic factors of GIST.
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Role of Moesin in Renal Fibrosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Renal fibrosis is the final common pathway of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Moesin is a member of Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (ERM) protein family but its role in renal fibrosis is not clear.
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Molecular Evolution and Expansion Analysis of the NAC Transcription Factor in Zea mays.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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NAC (NAM, ATAF1, 2 and CUC2) family is a plant-specific transcription factor and it controls various plant developmental processes. In the current study, 124 NAC members were identified in Zea mays and were phylogenetically clustered into 13 distinct subfamilies. The whole genome duplication (WGD), especially an additional WGD event, may lead to expanding ZmNAC members. Different subfamily has different expansion rate, and NAC subfamily preference was found during the expansion in maize. Moreover, the duplication events might occur after the divergence of the lineages of Z. mays and S. italica, and segmental duplication seemed to be the dominant pattern for the gene duplication in maize. Furthermore, the expansion of ZmNAC members may be also related to gain and loss of introns. Besides, the restriction of functional divergence was discovered after most of the gene duplication events. These results could provide novel insights into molecular evolution and expansion analysis of NAC family in maize, and advance the NAC researches in other plants, especially polyploid plants.
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Prognostic and predictive values of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 are known to be closely associated with tumor progression in several kinds of human tumors. This study aimed to investigate the expression of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to evaluate their association with the prognosis in oral carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine the expression of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 in 17 normal oral mucosa, 6 oral epithelial dysplasia and 43 OSCC specimens by tissue microarrays. High expression of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 was found in OSCC patients, and SPP1 and PAI expression were significantly higher in OSCC than in normal oral mucosa. No significant correlations were found between SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 expression and clinicopathological factors. Expression of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 was also not associated with overall survival. Moreover, SPP1 was closely correlated with PAI, caveolin-1 and Keap1, and PAI had significant correlations with caveolin-1, Keap1 and Nrf2, and caveolin-1 was associated with Keap1 by using the Pearson correlation coefficient test. Our findings suggest that overexpressed SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 were linked to carcinogenesis and progression, and thus they may serve as potential prognostic factors in OSCC.
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Signaling to stomatal initiation and cell division.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Stomata are two-celled valves that control epidermal pores whose opening and spacing optimizes shoot-atmosphere gas exchange. Arabidopsis stomatal formation involves at least one asymmetric division and one symmetric division. Stomatal formation and patterning are regulated by the frequency and placement of asymmetric divisions. This model system has already led to significant advances in developmental biology, such as the regulation of cell fate, division, differentiation, and patterning. Over the last 30 years, stomatal development has been found to be controlled by numerous intrinsic genetic and environmental factors. This mini review focuses on the signaling involved in stomatal initiation and in divisions in the cell lineage.
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Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle in Henan, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Giardia duodenalis is a common and widespread intestinal protozoan parasite of both humans and animals. Previous epidemiological and molecular studies have identified Giardia infections in different animals and humans, but only limited information is available about the occurrence and genotypes of Giardia in cattle in China. In this study, we determined the occurrence of giardiasis and genetically characterized G. duodenalis in dairy cattle in Henan Province, central China. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 7.2% (128/1777) on microscopic analysis, with the highest infection rate (22.7%) in calves aged less than 1 month. G. duodenalis assemblages and subtypes were identified with multilocus genotyping based on the SSU rRNA, ?-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Two assemblages were detected in the successfully sequenced samples: assemblage A (n?=?58), assemblage E (n?=?21), with a mixed E and A assemblage (n?=?2). Four novel subtypes of the gdh gene and seven of the bg gene were found among the G. duodenalis assemblage E isolates. Using the nomenclature for the multilocus genotype (MLG) model, nine novel multilocus genotypes E (MLGs E1-E9) and three MLGs A (a novel subtype AI, previously detected subtype AII-1, and a combination of both) were identified. MLG AII-1 identified in this study may be an important zoonotic subtype. The dairy cattle in Henan are a potential public health concern.
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Prognostic value of Ki67 index in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ki67 index is one of the most important immunocytochemical markers of proliferation in tumors, but the criterion of Ki67 index in GISTs was not well-defined yet. Our study aims to fully evaluate the prognostic value of Ki67 index in GIST patients and efficiency of imatinib adjuvant therapy.
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Incidence of and mortality from Type I diabetes in Taiwan from 1999 through 2010: a nationwide cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To evaluate the secular trend in incidence of and mortality from Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Taiwan, 1999-2010.
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[Overview of current researches on Tibetan medicine "zuotai"].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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"Zuotai" is one of the main raw material of many rare Tibetan medicine, and it plays a important role in the system of Tibetan medicine. There are some toxic heavy metals in "Zuotai", such as Hg, Au, Pb and so on. As a result, its urgent to study the safety and effectiveness of "Zuotai" in depth. This paper will analyze and induce the resent progress of the study about "Zuotai". With constipation, "Zuotai" and "Zuotai" as key words, CNKI, CHINAINFO, CQVIP were retrieved, Springer were retrieved besides. Relevant 86 references were obtained. Twenty-two for reference were adopted through screening. The paper reviewed the resent progress of the study about "Zuotai" in chemical composition, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, toxicology and clinical application. This will establish the basis for further study.
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Epidemiological Investigation of Equine Piroplasmosis in China by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays.
J. Vet. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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The objective of this study is to investigate the seroprevalence of equine piroplasmosis in China. A total of 1,990 sera were collected from clinically healthy horses in various districts located in ten different provinces of China and examined by using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with recombinant Theileria equi (T. equi) merozoite antigen 2 (rEMA-2) and Babesia caballi (B. caballi) 48-kDa rhoptry protein (rBc48), respectively. The results showed that 1,018 (51.16%) and 229 (11.51%) samples were positive for B. caballi and T. equi infection, respectively. The number of samples with mixed infection was 152 (7.64%). These results indicated that equine piroplasmosis was widespread in China.
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Crystal Structure of the Interferon Gamma Receptor Alpha Chain from Chicken Reveals an Undetected Extra Helix Compared with the Human Counterparts.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Interferon gamma (IFN-?) is an important cytokine that induces antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects on target cells, and is also crucial in the early defense against intracellular parasites, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. The biological activity of IFN-? relies upon the formation of a complex with its 2 receptors, the interferon gamma alpha chain (IFNGR1) and beta chain (IFNGR2), which are type II cytokine receptors. Structural models of ligand-receptor interaction and complex structure of chicken IFNs with their receptors have remained elusive. Here we report the first structure of Gallus gallus (chicken) IFNGR1 (chIFNGR1) at 2.0 Å by molecule replacement according to the structure of selenomethionine substituted chIFNGR1. The structural comparison reveals its structural similarities with other class II cytokine receptors, despite divergent primary sequences. We further investigate the ligand-receptor interaction properties of chicken IFN-? (chIFN-?) and chIFNGR1 using size-exclusion chromatography and surface plasmon resonance techniques. These data aid in the understanding of the interaction of chicken (avian) IFN-? with its receptors and its signal transduction.
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Prognostic value of mutational characteristics in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a single-center experience in 275 cases.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of KIT/PDGFRA mutations on the prognosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). In the present study, genotype analyses were performed based on GIST samples from 275 patients. The relationship between mutation and clinicopathological characteristics were explored. All factors were evaluated for their impacts on relapse-free survival (RFS). Briefly, the results of genotype analyses showed that mutations were identified in 258 (93.8 %) patients, and deletion was the most frequent type of mutation accounting for 47.3 % (122/258) of all mutation cases, followed by substitution (87/258, 33.7 %) and duplication (49/258, 19.0 %). Moreover, for KIT exon 11 mutation, the most frequently involved area was from codon 557 to 560. Deep analyses showed that the mutation types were correlated with tumor location (P = 0.005), tumor size (P = 0.022), mitosis rate (P < 0.001), risk grade (P < 0.001), and relapse (P = 0.004). Furthermore, delW557-K558 correlated with mitosis rate (P = 0.042) and relapse (P = 0.036), and delTyr568/570 correlated with tumor origin (P = 0.018). Most importantly, mitotic rate [HR = 2.901 (95 % CI 1.094-7.695), P = 0.032] and risk grade [HR = 9.629 (95 % CI 1.997-46.416), P = 0.005] would be the representative traditional prognostic factors, and deletion with >3 codons would be an novel independent predictor of poor outcome for RFS in GIST patients with deletion mutation of KIT exon 11 [HR = 7.970 (95 % CI 1.774-35.803), P = 0.007]. All results indicated that mutation determined clinicopathological features and prognosis of GISTs, and more than three codons involvement may be a novel adverse indicator.
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Nizatidine, a small molecular compound, enhances killed H5N1 vaccine cell-mediated responses and protects mice from lethal viral challenge.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Nizatidine (NIZ), closely related to Cimetidine, is a histamine H2 receptor inverse agonist used primarily as an anti-acid drug. Recent studies showed that this class of compounds may also modulate immune responses. To evaluate adjuvant effects of NIZ on vaccine immune modulation, we formulated NIZ with a H5N1 killed viral antigen and tested in vitro and in vivo. NIZ activated DC maturation and stimulated Th1 and Th2 immune responses to H5N1 vaccine. As a result, it enhanced both antibody and T cell-mediated immune responses. We also observed that a single immunization into C57BL/6 mice blocked IL-10 upregulation and potentiated Th1/Th2 dual polarization. Importantly, the inoculation of H5N1 vaccine with NIZ significantly improved protection of animals from death after challenge and reduced virus loads in the lung tissues. Considering its water-soluble nature, compared with Cimetidine, Nizatidine may be a better choice to use as a vaccine adjuvant.
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Highly enantioselective addition of phenylethynylzinc to aldehydes catalyzed by chiral cyclopropane-based amino alcohols.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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The enantioselective addition of phenylethynylzinc to aldehydes catalyzed by a series of cyclopropane-based amino alcohol ligands 7 was investigated. The reactions afforded chiral propargylic alcohols in high yields (up to 96%) and with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee) under mild conditions. Furthermore, studies on the structural relationship show that the matching of the chiral center configuration is crucial to obtain the high enantioselectivity.
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Protective effects of Notoginsenoside R1 on intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a clinical problem occurred for diverse causes with high mortality. Prophylaxis and treatment of intestinal I/R remains a challenge for clinician. The present study was to explore the role of Notoginsenoside R1 (R1), a major component form Panax. Notoginseng, in management of intestinal I/R injury. Intestinal I/R was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 90 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min or 3 days. R1 (10 mg/kg/h) was administered either 20 min before ischemia or 20 min after reperfusion. Intestinal microcirculation was evaluated by intravital microscopy over 60 min reperfusion. Sixty min or 3 days after reperfusion, rats were killed for histological examination of the jejunum tissue and immunohistochemical localization of myeloperoxidase and CD68. ATP, ADP and AMP content in jejunum tissue was assessed by ELISA. Activation of NF-?B, expression of ATP5D and tight junction proteins were determined by Western blotting. The results demonstrated that R1 is capable of attenuating intestinal I/R-induced microvascular hyperpermeability, inflammatory cytokine production, NF-?B activation and loss of tight junction proteins, as well as improving energy metabolism during I/R. The results of the present study suggest R1 as an option in protecting against intestinal I/R injury.
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Incidence of progression from newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus to end stage renal disease and all-cause mortality: a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan.
Int J Rheum Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a common finding in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and may contribute to mortality. The purpose of the study was to investigate the incidence of ESRD and all-cause mortality and their risk factors in patients newly diagnosed with SLE in Taiwan.
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C-kit expression of melanocytic neoplasm and association with clinicopathological parameters and anatomic locations in Chinese people.
Am J Dermatopathol
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Distinct genetic aberrations between melanomas in different anatomical locations have been confirmed in recent years. However, the associations between immunohistochemical expression, tumor sites, and clinical parameters are not clear. We examined the correlation of protein expression and gene mutation of c-kit with clinicopathological parameters and lesion locations in patients with malignant melanoma (MM). We collected 170 melanocytic lesions, including 106 cutaneous MM from acral melanoma (AM) and nonacral melanoma (NAM) sites, 24 dysplastic nevi, and 40 common melanocytic nevi. Tissue microarray was constructed, and immunohistochemical expression for c-kit was assessed with correlation with clinical parameters. Mutation in exons 11, 13, 17, and 18 of KIT gene in genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction sequencing was also analyzed. Immunostaining scores for c-kit were found to be statistically higher in Dysplastic Nevi than in common melanocytic nevi and MM. In addition, cytoplasmic c-kit staining was significantly correlated with poor survival in patients with AM but not in those with NAM. Twenty-nine cases of MM (including 9 NAM and 20 AM) are analyzed for mutation in exons 11, 13, 17, and 18 of KIT gene in genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction sequencing, and no genetic mutation is found. Our findings confirm that KIT mutations, in contrast to previous white cohorts, are not common in both AM and NAM of the Chinese and do not necessarily correlate with c-kit expression. The significantly different association between the expression of c-kit immunoreactivities and the mortality risks of melanomas on acral versus nonacral sites might change site-specific targeted therapeutic concepts in melanoma in the future.
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[Cost-effectiveness analysis of HIV testing strategy in hospitals from 2006 to 2010 in Guangzhou].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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To evaluate the cost effectiveness of HIV testing strategy in hospitals from 2006 to 2010 in Guangzhou.
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Fungal small RNAs suppress plant immunity by hijacking host RNA interference pathways.
Science
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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Botrytis cinerea, the causative agent of gray mold disease, is an aggressive fungal pathogen that infects more than 200 plant species. Here, we show that some B. cinerea small RNAs (Bc-sRNAs) can silence Arabidopsis and tomato genes involved in immunity. These Bc-sRNAs hijack the host RNA interference (RNAi) machinery by binding to Arabidopsis Argonaute 1 (AGO1) and selectively silencing host immunity genes. The Arabidopsis ago1 mutant exhibits reduced susceptibility to B. cinerea, and the B. cinerea dcl1 dcl2 double mutant that can no longer produce these Bc-sRNAs displays reduced pathogenicity on Arabidopsis and tomato. Thus, this fungal pathogen transfers "virulent" sRNA effectors into host plant cells to suppress host immunity and achieve infection, which demonstrates a naturally occurring cross-kingdom RNAi as an advanced virulence mechanism.
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[Curcumin combined FOLFOX induced cell apoptosis of gastric cancer and its mechanism research].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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To observe the effect of curcumin combined folinic acid fluorouracil oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) on the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line BGC-823 and to explore its possible mechanisms.
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Influenza associated mortality in Southern China, 2010-2012.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Influenza caused substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The mortality burden caused by influenza has been under evaluation; however, data assessing this burden have been relatively sparse in tropical or subtropical regions. We estimated influenza-associated mortality in Guangzhou, China and assessed the excess mortality due to different influenza virus subtypes.
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Artesunate inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells through the mechanism of promoting oncosis both in vitro and in vivo.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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This study aims to investigate the significance and mechanism of artesunate involved in suppressing the proliferation of gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo. In the in-vitro experiments, artesunate inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, BGC-823, and AGS) with concentration-dependent activity, with no significant effect on GES-1 cells. BGC-823 cells treated with artesunate showed the typical morphologic features of oncosis rather than apoptosis. Meanwhile, we observed calcium overload, downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression, and upregulation of calpain-2 expression in the artesunate-treated BGC-823 cells. In addition, the in-vivo study showed that artesunate produced a dose-dependent tumor regression in nude mice. The antitumor activity of 240 mg/kg artesunate was similar to that of 10 mg/kg docetaxel. Furthermore, compared with the control group, no significant difference was observed in the body weight of artesunate-treated nude mice other than docetaxel-treated nude mice. These observations show that artesunate has concentration-dependent inhibitory activities against gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo by promoting cell oncosis through an impact of calcium, vascular endothelial growth factor, and calpain-2 expression.
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The role of elevated autophagy on the synaptic plasticity impairment caused by CdSe/ZnS quantum dots.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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It is well known that autophagy, a cellular stress response to degrade damaged components, can be activated by many nanoparticles. We have demonstrated that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), which are widely applied in vitro for diagnostics and cellular imaging, can impair synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus (DG) area, but the mechanism is still unclear. Here we show that elevated autophagy is at least partly responsible for this synaptic dysfunction induced by QDs in vivo. QDs elicited autophagy in the HeLa cells and cultured hippocampal neurons as well, accompanied with GFP-light chain protein 3 (LC3) puncta dots and autophagosome formation, extensive conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and a significant decrease of p62. Furthermore, we found that autophagy inhibitors (wortmannin, 3-MA or chloroquine) suppressed QDs-induced autophagic flux, partly blocked LTP impairment, coincident with down-regulation of synapsin-I and synapse deficits by QDs in the hippocampal CA1 area. Our studies have important implications in providing a potential clinical remedy for brain damage caused by nanomaterials and in designing safer nanoparticles.
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Two rescue therapies in lamivudine-resistant patients with chronic hepatitis B in the central China: adefovir monotherapy and adefovir plus lamivudine.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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The emergence of mutations that confer drug resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is increasing in China. We aimed to compare the cumulative efficacy and resistance of adefovir (ADV) monotherapy and ADV add-on lamivudine (LAM) (ADV+LAM) therapy in LAM-resistant patients. One-hundred adult CHB patients with LAM-resistance mutations were identified. Of these 100, 52 patients were treated with ADV monotherapy and 48 were treated with ADV+LAM combination therapy for at least 24 months. After 2-year treatment, the cumulative rates of serum alanine aminotransferase normalization were, respectively, 73.1 and 83.3 % in the ADV monotherapy and ADV+LAM therapy groups (P = 0.216). Additionally, 36 patients receiving ADV plus LAM had hepatitis B e antigen loss/seroconversion, as compared with 30 in patients (P = 0.068). More patients who received LAM plus ADV than those who received ADV alone had HBV DNA levels below 1,000 international unit/milliliters (83.3 vs. 50 %, P < 0.001). Viral breakthrough and genotypic mutations were detected in 19 (36.5 %) and 9 (18.8 %) patients in the ADV monotherapy and ADV+LAM therapy groups, respectively (P = 0.048). ADV+LAM combination therapy demonstrated faster and significantly greater suppression of HBV DNA compared with ADV therapy alone for patients with LAM-resistance mutations. ADV+LAM was superior to ADV monotherapy in achieving the initial viral breakthrough and genotypic mutations. ADV+LAM combination therapy was rational for most of LAM-resistant Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B.
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[Establishment of malaria early warning system in Jiangsu Province II application of digital earth system in malaria epidemic management and surveillance].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To explore a new mode of malaria elimination through the application of digital earth system in malaria epidemic management and surveillance.
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Chronic heat stress inhibits immune responses to H5N1 vaccination through regulating CD4? CD25? Foxp3? Tregs.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Chronic heat stress (CHS) is known to have negative impacts on the immune responses in animals and increases their susceptibility to infections including the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1. However, the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in CHS immunosuppression remains largely undefined. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which CHS suppressed both Th1 and Th2 immune responses and dramatically decreased the protective efficacy of the formalin-inactivated H5N1 vaccine against H5N1 influenza virus infection. This suppression was found to be associated with the induced generation of CD4? CD25? Foxp3? Tregs and the increased secretions of IL-10 and TGF- ? in CD4? T cells. Adoptive transfer of the induced Tregs also suppressed the protective efficacy of formalin-inactivated H5N1 virus immunization. Collectively, this study identifies a novel mechanism of CHS immunosuppression mediated by regulating CD4? CD25? Foxp3? Tregs.
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[Pretreatment method of near-infrared diffuse reflection spectra used for sugar content prediction of pears].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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The content of sugar is an important quality index for pears. However, the traditional sugar measurement methods are time-consuming and destructive. In the present study, the authors measured the sugar content of pears using visible and near infrared diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The pretreatment methods of multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), baseline correction, standard normal variate (SNV) transformation, and moving average algorithms were used on the original absorbance spectrum. Results indicate that the absorbance spectra after pretreatment are better than the original absorbance spectra for prediction. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was also used on the original absorbance spectrum and the absorbance spectrum after moving average and baseline correction. It follows that the forecast accuracy of the absorbance spectra after moving average is higher than that of the original absorbance spectra. The models gave good predictions of the sugar content of pears, with corresponding r values of 0.990 8, and standard errors of predictions of 0.019 0.
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[Analysis of overseas imported malaria situation and implication for control in Jiangsu Province, PR China].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of overseas imported malaria in Jiangsu Province and explore the strategies and priorities in prevention and control, so as to provide the evidence for improving the diagnosis, treatment and management of imported malaria.
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[Epidemiological analysis of malaria prevalence in Jiangsu Province in 2011].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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To analyze the malaria prevalence and epidemic characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2011 so as to provide a basis for drawing up and adjusting effective malaria elimination strategies and measures.
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Peroxidation due to cryoprotectant treatment is a vital factor for cell survival in Arabidopsis cryopreservation.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Cryopreservation can be a safe and cost-effective tool for the long-term storage of plant germplasm. In Arabidopsis, the ability to recover from cryogenic treatment was lost as growth progressed. Growth could be restored in 48-h seedlings, whereas 72-h seedlings died after cryogenic treatment. Why seedling age and survival are negatively correlated is an interesting issue. A comparative transcriptomics was performed to screen differentially expressed genes between 48- and 72-h seedlings after exposure to cryoprotectant. Among differentially expressed genes, oxidative stress response genes played important roles in cryoprotectant treatment, and peroxidation was a key factor related to cell survival. Seedlings underwent more peroxidation at 72-h than at 48-h. A comprehensive analysis indicated that peroxidation injured membrane systems leading to photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation damage. Furthermore, the apoptosis-like events were found in cryogenic treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings. 48- and 72-h seedlings underwent different degrees of membrane lipid peroxidation during cryoprotectant treatment, and reducing the injury of oxidative stress was an important factor to successful cryopreservation. This study provided a novel insight of genetic regulatory mechanisms in cryopreservation, and established an excellent model to test and evaluate the effect of exogenous antioxidants and conventional cryoprotectants in plant cryopreservation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.