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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ultrafast Transient Terahertz Conductivity of Monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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We have measured ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in monolayers and trilayers of the transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2 and WSe2 using a combination of time-resolved photoluminescence and terahertz spectroscopy. We recorded a photoconductivity and photoluminescence response time of just 350 fs from CVD-grown monolayer MoS2, and 1 ps from trilayer MoS2 and monolayer WSe2. Our results indicate the potential of these materials as high-speed optoelectronic materials.
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Observing Grain Boundaries in CVD-Grown Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMdCs), driven by graphene science, revisit optical and electronic properties, which are markedly different from bulk characteristics. These properties are easily modified due to accessibility of all the atoms viable to ambient gases, and therefore, there is no guarantee that impurities and defects such as vacancies, grain boundaries, and wrinkles behave as those of ideal bulk. On the other hand, this could be advantageous in engineering such defects. Here, we report a method of observing grain boundary distribution of monolayer TMdCs by a selective oxidation. This was implemented by exposing directly the TMdC layer grown on sapphire without transfer to ultraviolet light irradiation under moisture-rich conditions. The generated oxygen and hydroxyl radicals selectively functionalized defective grain boundaries in TMdCs to provoke morphological changes at the boundary, where the grain boundary distribution was observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. This paves the way toward the investigation of transport properties engineered by defects and grain boundaries.
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Antimicrobial Effect of Continuous Lidocaine Infusion in a Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Wound Infection in a Mouse Model.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Continuous infusion of local anesthetics in surgical wounds has been shown to be an effective technique for postoperative analgesia. To investigate the potential antimicrobial effect of continuous local anesthetic infusion, we adapted a mouse model of surgical wound infection to examine effects on antibacterial response. Forty male BALB/c mice were randomized into 2 groups. An incision wound was made over the dorsal flank and instilled with Staphylococcus aureus. An osmotic pump was then implanted to deliver either 0.9% NaCl or 2% lidocaine continuously. Each wound was cultured postoperatively at 2 days, and the colony count of S. aureus was determined. Results showed that the number of colony-forming units of S. aureus measured in wounds treated with lidocaine displayed a nearly 10-fold reduction compared to the wounds in the saline group (P = 0.009). The demonstrated antibacterial activity indicates that local anesthetic infusion may play a role in prophylaxis for surgical wound infections.
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Spectroscopic signatures for interlayer coupling in MoS2-WSe2 van der Waals stacking.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Stacking of MoS2 and WSe2 monolayers is conducted by transferring triangular MoS2 monolayers on top of WSe2 monolayers, all grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal that these mechanically stacked monolayers are not closely coupled, but after a thermal treatment at 300 °C, it is possible to produce van der Waals solids consisting of two interacting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers. The layer-number sensitive Raman out-of-plane mode A(2)1g for WSe2 (309 cm(-1)) is found sensitive to the coupling between two TMD monolayers. The presence of interlayer excitonic emissions and the changes in other intrinsic Raman modes such as E? for MoS2 at 286 cm(-1) and A(2)1g for MoS2 at around 463 cm(-1) confirm the enhancement of the interlayer coupling.
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The effectiveness of essential oils for patients with neck pain: a randomized controlled study.
J Altern Complement Med
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Abstract Objectives: To assess the efficacy of aromatic essential oils on neck pain.
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Disease activity affects all domains of quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and is modified by disease duration.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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This study was conducted to determine how disease activity affects quality of life (QOL) and its interaction with functional impairments, and disease duration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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Regional Cingulum Disruption, Not Gray Matter Atrophy, Detects Cognitive Changes in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Subtypes.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), which has a high risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD), can be classified into single domain (S-aMCI) and multiple domain (M-aMCI) subtypes. We investigated the integrity of regional gray matter and segments of the cingulum bundle with diffusion spectrum imaging tract-specific analysis, and their relationships to neuropsychological functioning, in 46 individuals with aMCI (S-aMCI n = 24; M-aMCI n = 22) and 36 healthy controls (HC). Results demonstrated that although both aMCI groups were impaired on all memory measures relative to HCs, the M-aMCI group demonstrated worse performance on paired association memory and on selective executive function relative to the S-aMCI group. The two aMCI groups did not show significant atrophy in regional gray matter indices as compared to the HC group, but the M-aMCI group showed significant disruption in white matter of the left anterior and inferior cingulum bundles relative to the S-aMCI and HC groups. Furthermore, disruption in the inferior cingulum bundles was significantly associated with executive function and attention/processing speed in all aMCI participants above and beyond the contribution of bilateral hippocampal volumes. Overall, these results indicate that the degeneration of cingulum fibers did not appear to arise from degeneration of the corresponding cerebral cortex. It also suggests relatively greater sensitivity of a white matter biomarker and comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation over gray matter biomarkers in early detection of AD.
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Distinct Patterns and Clinical Implications of Semantic Memory Deterioration Among Patients With MCI.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Limited research has investigated the effects of executive dysfunction on semantic memory deterioration among patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). This study examined the cognitive performance of 181 participants from various MCI subgroups, a group of mildly impaired individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and a group of individuals with subjective memory impairment on various semantic memory tasks. The aMCI-single domain (aMCI-sd) group displayed poor performance on a semantic memory task requiring relatively higher degrees of effortful retrieval, and participants in the aMCI-multiple domain (aMCI-md) group, who also suffered with mild executive dysfunction displayed poor performance on all semantic memory tasks, similar to the DAT group. The nonamnestic MCI (non-a-MCI)-single domain group displayed normal performance across all semantic tasks, whereas the non-a-MCI-multiple domain group displayed a pattern similar to that of the aMCI-sd group. aMCI-sd patients who displayed poor performance on the semantic memory task had higher risk of conversion to DAT, whereas poor performance on tasks requiring relatively less effortful retrieval was associated with higher risk of conversion in the aMCI-md group. Thus, executive function may relate to deterioration of semantic memory retrieval processes. Such patterns of semantic memory impairment could be valuable for characterization of cognitive differences among MCI patients.
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Plasma A? but not tau is related to brain PiB retention in early Alzheimer's disease.
ACS Chem Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Recent advances in biomarkers provide the possibility of early or preclinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's pathology. Currently, decreased levels of A?-42 and increased levels of tau proteins in cerebral spinal fluid are considered reliable biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, little evidence exists for the use of amyloid and tau protein levels in the plasma as useful biomarkers. We investigated the potential use of plasma biomarkers to diagnose AD and explored their relationships with brain A? deposition in amyloid imaging. We used an immunomagnetic reduction assay to measure the plasma levels of A?40, A?42, and tau proteins in 20 older control participants and 25 participants who had either mild cognitive impairment due to AD or early AD dementia. All participants received (11)C-labeled Pittsburgh compound B PET scans. The sensitivity of the plasma tau level at the cutoff value of 28.27 pg/mL was 92%, and the specificity was 100%; the sensitivity of the A?42/40 ratio at the cutoff value of 0.3693 was 84%, and the specificity was 100%. Regression analyses of the effects of plasma protein levels on brain amyloid retention, as determined by standard uptake value ratios in either side of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes and the precuneus, are predicted only by ratios of plasma A?42/40 (R(2) 0.326-0.449, all p < 0.001) but not by plasma tau levels. Plasma A? in terms of A?42/40 might provide an indirect estimation of A? deposition in the brain.
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Role of metal contacts in high-performance phototransistors based on WSe2 monolayers.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Phototransistors based on monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) have high photosensitivity due to their direct band gap transition. However, there is a lack of understanding of the effect of metal contacts on the performance of atomically thin TMD phototransistors. Here, we fabricate phototransistors based on large-area chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tungsten diselenide (WSe2) monolayers contacted with the metals of different work function values. We found that the low Schottky-contact WSe2 phototransistors exhibit a very high photo gain (10(5)) and specific detectivity (10(14)Jones), values higher than commercial Si- and InGaAs-based photodetectors; however, the response speed is longer than 5 s in ambient air. In contrast, the high Schottky-contact phototransistors display a fast response time shorter than 23 ms, but the photo gain and specific detectivity decrease by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, the fast response speed of the high Schottky-contact devices is maintained for a few months in ambient air. This study demonstrates that the contact plays an important role in TMD phototransistors, and barrier height tuning is critical for optimizing the photoresponse and photoresponsivity.
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Human FGF1 promoter is active in ependymal cells and dopaminergic neurons in the brains of F1B-GFP transgenic mice.
Dev Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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FGF1 is involved in multiple biological functions and exhibits the importance in neuroprotective effects. Our previous studies indicated that, in human brain and retina, the FGF1B promoter controlled the expression of FGF1. However, the exact function and regulation of FGF1 in brain is still unclear. Here, we generated F1B-GFP transgenic mice that expressed the GFP reporter gene under the control of human FGF1B promoter (-540 to +31). Using the fresh brain sections of F1B-GFP transgenic mice, we found that the F1B-GFP cells expressed strong fluorescent signals in the ventricular system throughout the brain. The results of immunohistochemistry further showed that two distinct populations of F1B-GFP(+) cells existed in the brains of F1B-GFP transgenic mice. We demonstrated that one population of F1B-GFP(+) cells was ependymal cells, which distributed along the entire ventricles, and the second population of F1B-GFP(+) cells was neuronal cells that projected their long processes into multiple directions in specific areas of the brain. The double labeling of F1B-GFP(+) cells and tyrosine hydroxylase indicated that a subpopulation of F1B-GFP(+) -neuronal cells was dopaminergic neurons. Importantly, these F1B-GFP(+) /TH(+) cells were distributed in the main dopaminergic neuronal groups including hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area, and raphe nuclei. These results suggested that human FGF1B promoter was active in ependymal cells, neurons, and a portion of dopaminergic neurons. Thus, the F1B-GFP transgenic mice provide an animal model not only for studying FGF1 gene expression in vivo but also for understanding the role of FGF1 contribution in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2014.
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Monolayer MoSe2 grown by chemical vapor deposition for fast photodetection.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has become a promising building block in optoelectronics for its high photosensitivity. However, sulfur vacancies and other defects significantly affect the electrical and optoelectronic properties of monolayer MoS2 devices. Here, highly crystalline molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) monolayers have been successfully synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Low-temperature photoluminescence comparison for MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers reveals that the MoSe2 monolayer shows a much weaker bound exciton peak; hence, the phototransistor based on MoSe2 presents a much faster response time (<25 ms) than the corresponding 30 s for the CVD MoS2 monolayer at room temperature in ambient conditions. The images obtained from transmission electron microscopy indicate that the MoSe exhibits fewer defects than MoS2. This work provides the fundamental understanding for the differences in optoelectronic behaviors between MoSe2 and MoS2 and is useful for guiding future designs in 2D material-based optoelectronic devices.
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Intraoperative Measurement of Fractional Flow Reserve in Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass: A Pilot Study.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Backgrounds?Fractional flow reserve of myocardium (FFRmyo) is a functional study of significant coronary artery stenosis, defined as the ratio of the pressure distal to the stenosis (poststenosis) divided by the pressure of aortic root (prestenosis). Instead of cath laboratory, we could measure it in operating room for off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery and here shared our methods in the pilot study. Methods and Results?We used needles, catheters, and pressure tracing but without guidewires or fluoroscopy to measure FFRmyo during OPCAB. In February 2010, we conducted the pilot study and collected 32 anastomosis data from 10 patients. Without revising the anastomosis plans based on coronary angiographies, 24 FFRmyo of the 32 anastomoses (75%) were less than 0.75, which represented significant functional stenosis. The FFRmyo measurements did not lead to any adverse events. Conclusion?The measurement of fractional flow reserve in OPCAB is safe and feasible. It can serve as a functional assessment of coronary artery stenosis in adjuvant to conventional coronary angiography.
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Delirium, Subsyndromal Delirium, and Cognitive Changes in Individuals Undergoing Elective Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.
J Cardiovasc Nurs
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The course of incident delirium and subsyndromal delirium (SSD) after cardiac surgery is not well studied.
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Medication use and fall-risk assessment for falls in an acute care hospital.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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A nested case-control study was carried out to examine relationships of a fall-risk score and the use of single medications and polypharmacy with falls among hospitalized patients aged 50 years and older in Taiwan.
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HepG2 cells recovered from apoptosis show altered drug responses and invasiveness.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Cancer relapse, associated with increased drug resistance and rate of metastasis, often follows completion of chemotherapy but the cancer escape mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) has been used for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for decades, while the recurrence after PEI treatment remains a major limitation. Recent evidence mounted that cancer cells could survive from chemical induced apoptosis, suggesting a potential route through which cancer relapse may occur. This study focuses on the consequence of HepG2 recovery from ethanol-induced apoptotic event.
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Inguinal hernia repair: are the results from a general hospital comparable to those from dedicated hernia centres?
Singapore Med J
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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We aimed to report the outcomes of inguinal hernia repair performed at Tan Tock Seng Hospital and compare them with those performed at dedicated hernia centres.
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Signaling adaptor protein SH2B1 enhances neurite outgrowth and accelerates the maturation of human induced neurons.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Recent advances in somatic cell reprogramming have highlighted the plasticity of the somatic epigenome, particularly through demonstrations of direct lineage reprogramming of adult mouse and human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neurons (iNs) under defined conditions. However, human cells appear to be less plastic and have a higher epigenetic hurdle for reprogramming to both iPSCs and iNs. Here, we show that SH2B adaptor protein 1? (SH2B1) can enhance neurite outgrowth of iNs reprogrammed from human fibroblasts as early as day 14, when combined with miR124 and transcription factors BRN2 and MYT1L (IBM) under defined conditions. These SH2B1-enhanced iNs (S-IBM) showed canonical neuronal morphology, and expressed multiple neuronal markers, such as TuJ1, NeuN, and synapsin, and functional proteins for neurotransmitter release, such as GABA, vGluT2, and tyrosine hydroxylase. Importantly, SH2B1 accelerated mature process of functional neurons and exhibited action potentials as early as day 14; without SH2B1, the IBM iNs do not exhibit action potentials until day 21. Our data demonstrate that SH2B1 can enhance neurite outgrowth and accelerate the maturation of human iNs under defined conditions. This approach will facilitate the application of iNs in regenerative medicine and in vitro disease modeling.
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A 10-Year Profile of Trauma Admissions Caused by Interpersonal Violence: A Major Trauma Centre's Experience.
Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Introduction: This study aimed to characterise interpersonal violence victims admitted to a major trauma centre. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of interpersonal violence victims who were admitted to our centre from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 was conducted. Data were obtained from our trauma registry. Results: Interpersonal violence victims constituted 444 (90.1% males and 9.9% females) out of a total of 8561 trauma admissions in the same time period. The average age was 36.6 years (range, 14 to 83 years). Majority were Chinese (53.4%) and Singaporeans (77.3%). The number of cases increased from 10 per year to 96 per year in the first 8 years, then decreased in the last 2 years (55 in year 2010). Time of injury was predominantly 0000 to 0559 hours (72.3%). Interpersonal violence mostly occurred in public spaces for both genders (88.7%). However, the number of females who were injured at home was significantly higher than males (P = 0.000). Blunt trauma (58.3%) was more common than penetrating trauma (41.7%). The average injury severity score (ISS) was 13.5 (range, 1 to 75); 34.9% of patients had major trauma (ISS >15). The average Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score was 13.5 (range, 3 to 15); 16.4% of patients had moderate-to-severe brain injury (GCS 3-8). Blunt trauma was significantly more likely to cause major trauma than penetrating trauma (P = 0.003). The sole case of firearm assault caused most morbi-mortality. Overall mortality was 4.5%. Major trauma (OR: 25.856; P = 0.002) and moderate-to-severe brain injury (OR: 7.495; P = 0.000) were independent risk factors of mortality. Conclusion: There has been no prior published data on interpersonal violence locally. This study is thus useful as preliminary data for future population-based studies. It also provides data for authorities to formulate preventive and intervention strategies.
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Identifiability and privacy in pluripotent stem cell research.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Data sharing is an essential element of research; however, recent scientific and social developments have challenged conventional methods for protecting privacy. Here we provide guidance for determining data sharing thresholds for human pluripotent stem cell research aimed at a wide range of stakeholders, including research consortia, biorepositories, policy-makers, and funders.
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Synthesis and characterization of one-dimensional Ag-doped ZnO/Ga-doped ZnO coaxial nanostructure diodes.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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In the pursuit of high injection current diode nanodevices, entire one-dimensional (1D) ZnO coaxial nanostructures with p-n homojunctions is one of the ideal structures. In this study, we synthesized entire 1D ZnO-based coaxial homojunction diodes with p-type Ag-doped ZnO (SZO) nanostructure shells covering n-type Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) nanopagoda (NPG) cores by a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The entire 1D SZO-GZO and SZO-ZnO coaxial nanostructures exhibit better diode characteristics, such as lower threshold voltage, better rectification ratios, and better ideality factor n, than that reported for either 2D or 2D-1D p-n heterojunction and/or homojunction diodes. The binding energies of Ga and Ag were evaluated by low-temperature and temperature-dependent photoluminescence. In comparison, the SZO-GZO coaxial p-n nanostructures display better diode performance than the SZO-ZnO ones.
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Second harmonic generation from artificially stacked transition metal dichalcogenide twisted bilayers.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) is known as a sensitive probe to the crystalline symmetry of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Layer-number dependent and polarization resolved SHG have been observed for the special case of Bernal stacked few-layer TMDs, but it remains largely unexplored for structures deviated from this ideal stacking order. Here we report on the SHG from homo- and heterostructural TMD bilayers formed by artificial stacking with an arbitrary stacking angle. The SHG from the twisted bilayers is a coherent superposition of the SH fields from the individual layers, with a phase difference depending on the stacking angle. Such an interference effect is insensitive to the constituent layered materials and thus applicable to hetero-stacked bilayers. A proof-of-concept demonstration of using the SHG to probe the domain boundary and crystal polarity of mirror twins formed in chemically grown TMDs is also presented. We show here that the SHG is an efficient, sensitive, and nondestructive characterization for the stacking orientation, crystal polarity, and domain boundary of van der Waals heterostructures made of noncentrosymmetric layered materials.
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Purification and characterization of plantaricin Y, a novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum 510.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Lactobacillus plantarum 510, previously isolated from a koshu vineyard in Japan, was found to produce a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance which was purified and characterized. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the mass of this bacteriocin is 4,296.65 Da. A partial sequence, NH2- SSSLLNTAWRKFG, was obtained by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. A BLAST search revealed that this is a unique sequence; this peptide is thus a novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum 510 and was termed plantaricin Y. Plantaricin Y shows strong inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes BCRC 14845, but no activity against other pathogens tested. Bacteriocin activity decreased slightly after autoclaving (121 °C for 15 min), but was completely inactivated by protease K. Furthermore, trypsin-digested bacteriocin product fragments retained activity against L. monocytogenes BCRC 14845 and exhibited a different inhibitory spectrum.
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Soluble and insoluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of immature calamondin affected by solvents and heat treatment.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Hot water extract of immature calamondin peel contains high total phenolic content, which shows significant correlation to DPPH scavenging potency. By heat treatment, the extraction yields of naringin, tangeretin, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and gallic acid increased, but the amount of 3',5'-di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin (DGPP) decreased drastically. The major soluble phenolic compounds in the nonpolar extract are nobiletin and tangeretin, while DGPP and hesperidin are in the hot water extract. For insoluble phenolic compounds, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and sinapic acid are mainly in ester linkage form. After heat treatment, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major increased soluble and insoluble phenolic acids, respectively. This indicates that high temperature heating (150°C) probably produces two major effects: (1) degradation of flavonoids, such as DGPP and hesperidin; (2) destruction of the cell wall structure, leading to an increase in soluble nobiletin, tangeretin and gallic acid, as well as insoluble ferulic and p-coumaric acids.
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Cingulum correlates of cognitive functions in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease: a diffusion spectrum imaging study.
Brain Topogr
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) of MRI can detect neural fiber tract changes. We investigated integrity of cingulum bundle (CB) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (EAD) using DSI tractography and explored its relationship with cognitive functions. We recruited 8 patients with MCI, 9 with EAD and 15 healthy controls (HC). All subjects received a battery of neuropsychological tests to access their executive, memory and language functions. We used a 3.0-tesla MRI scanner to obtain T1- and T2-weighted images for anatomy and used a pulsed gradient twice-refocused spin-echo diffusion echo-planar imaging sequence to acquire DSI. Patients with EAD performed significantly poorer than the HC on most tests in executive and memory functions. Significantly smaller general fractional anisotropy (GFA) values were found in the posterior and inferior segments of left CB and of the anterior segment of right CB of the EAD compared with those of the HC. Spearman's correlation on the patient groups showed that GFA values of the posterior segment of the left CB were significantly negatively associated with the time used to complete Color Trails Test Part II and positively correlated with performance of the logical memory and visual reproduction. GFA values of inferior segment of bilateral CB were positively associated with the performance of visual recognition. DSI tractography demonstrates significant preferential degeneration of the CB on the left side in patients with EAD. The location-specific degeneration is associated with corresponding declines in both executive and memory functions.
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Videoscope-assisted cardiac surgery.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Videoscope-assisted cardiac surgery (VACS) offers a minimally invasive platform for most cardiac operations such as coronary and valve procedures. It includes robotic and thoracoscopic approaches and each has strengths and weaknesses. The success depends on appropriate hardware setup, staff training, and troubleshooting efficiency. In our institution, we often use VACS for robotic left-internal-mammary-artery takedown, mitral valve repair, and various intra-cardiac operations such as tricuspid valve repair, combined Maze procedure, atrial septal defect repair, ventricular septal defect repair, etc. Hands-on reminders and updated references are provided for reader's further understanding of the topic.
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SH2B1? interacts with STAT3 and enhances fibroblast growth factor 1-induced gene expression during neuronal differentiation.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Neurite outgrowth is an essential process during neuronal differentiation as well as neuroregeneration. Thus, understanding the molecular and cellular control of neurite outgrowth will benefit patients with neurological diseases. We have previously shown that overexpression of the signaling adaptor protein SH2B1? promotes fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1)-induced neurite outgrowth (W. F. Lin, C. J. Chen, Y. J. Chang, S. L. Chen, I. M. Chiu, and L. Chen, Cell. Signal. 21:1060-1072, 2009). SH2B1? also undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and regulates a subset of neurotrophin-induced genes. Although these findings suggest that SH2B1? regulates gene expression, the nuclear role of SH2B1? was not known. In this study, we show that SH2B1? interacts with the transcription factor, signal transducer, and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in neuronal PC12 cells, cortical neurons, and COS7 fibroblasts. By affecting the subcellular distribution of STAT3, SH2B1? increased serine phosphorylation and the concomitant transcriptional activity of STAT3. As a result, overexpressing SH2B1? enhanced FGF1-induced expression of STAT3 target genes Egr1 and Cdh2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further reveal that, in response to FGF1, overexpression of SH2B1? promotes the in vivo occupancy of STAT3-Sp1 heterodimers at the promoter of Egr1 and Cdh2. These findings establish a central role of SH2B1? in orchestrating signaling events to transcriptional activation through interacting and regulating STAT3-containing complexes during neuronal differentiation.
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A nationwide survey of mild cognitive impairment and dementia, including very mild dementia, in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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An increasing population of dementia patients produces substantial societal impacts. We assessed the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and all-cause dementia, including very mild dementia (VMD), in Taiwan. In a nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey, participants were selected by computerized random sampling from all 19 Taiwan counties and were enrolled between December 2011 and March 2013. Cases were identified through in-person interviews based on the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association clinical criteria. Demographic data and histories involving mental status and function in daily living were collected. The principal objective assessments were the Taiwanese Mental Status Examination and Clinical Dementia Rating. In all, 10,432 people aged 65 years or older (mean age 76.2 ± 6.7, 52.3% women) were interviewed. The age-adjusted prevalence of all-cause dementia was 8.04% (95% CI 7.47-8.61), including a 3.25% (95% CI 2.89-3.61) prevalence of VMD; that of MCI was 18.76% (95% CI 17.91-19.61). Women had a higher prevalence than men of both all-cause dementia (9.71% vs. 6.36%) and MCI (21.63% vs. 15.57%). MCI affects a considerable portion of the population aged 65 and above in Taiwan. The inclusion of VMD yields dementia prevalence rates higher than those previously reported from Taiwan. Old age, female gender, and a low educational level are significant associated factors.
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Lack of c9orf72 repeat expansion in taiwanese patients with mixed neurodegenerative disorders.
Front Neurol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The hexanucleotide repeat expansion in intron 1 of the C9orf72 gene is recognized as the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). There are overlapping clinical and pathological characteristics between FTD and Parkinsonism syndrome, and some FTD patients may present with Parkinsonism. The aim of this study was to analyze the hexanucleotide repeat numbers of C9orf72 gene in a mixed Taiwanese cohort with FTD, Parkinsonism syndrome, Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's dementia (AD).
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Combotherapy and current concepts as well as future strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been estimated that 35.6 million people globally had dementia in 2010 and the prevalence of dementia has been predicted to double every 20 years. Thus, 115.4 million people may be living with dementia in 2050. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and is present in 60%-70% of people with dementia. Unfortunately, there are few approved drugs that can alleviate the cognitive or behavioral symptoms of AD dementia. Recent studies have revealed that pathophysiological changes related to AD occur decades before the appearance of clinical symptoms of dementia. This extended preclinical phase of AD provides a critical chance for disease-modifying agents to halt or delay the relentless process of AD. Although several trials targeting various pathological processes are ongoing, the examination of the combined use of different approaches to combat AD seems warranted. In this article, we will review current therapies, future strategies, and ongoing clinical trials for the treatment of AD with a special focus on combination therapies. Furthermore, preventive strategies for cognitively normal subjects in the presymptomatic stages of AD will also be addressed. In this review, we discuss current hypotheses of the disease process. In the decades since the approval of cholinesterase inhibitors, no new drug has ultimately demonstrated clear success in clinical trials. Given the difficulties that have been encountered in attempts to identify a single drug that can treat AD, we must pursue effective multi-target strategies, ie, combination therapies. The combination of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine is considered well tolerated and safe, and this combination benefits patients with moderate-to-severe AD. In contrast, with the exception of adjuvant therapies of conventional drugs, combinations of different disease-modifying agents with different mechanisms may have promising synergic effects and benefit cognition, behavior, and daily living function.
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Large-Area Synthesis of Highly Crystalline WSe2 Monolayers and Device Applications.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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The monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides have recently attracted much attention owing to their potential in valleytronics, flexible and low-power electronics, and optoelectronic devices. Recent reports have demonstrated the growth of large-size two-dimensional MoS2 layers by the sulfurization of molybdenum oxides. However, the growth of a transition metal selenide monolayer has still been a challenge. Here we report that the introduction of hydrogen in the reaction chamber helps to activate the selenization of WO3, where large-size WSe2 monolayer flakes or thin films can be successfully grown. The top-gated field-effect transistors based on WSe2 monolayers using ionic gels as the dielectrics exhibit ambipolar characteristics, where the hole and electron mobility values are up to 90 and 7 cm(2)/Vs, respectively. These films can be transferred onto arbitrary substrates, which may inspire research efforts to explore their properties and applications. The resistor-loaded inverter based on a WSe2 film, with a gain of ?13, further demonstrates its applicability for logic-circuit integrations.
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Single-cell enzyme-free dissociation of neurospheres using a microfluidic chip.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Obtaining single dissociated cells from neurospheres is difficult using nonenzymatic methods. In this paper we report the development of a microfluidic-chip-based approach that utilizes flow and microstructures to dissociate neurospheres. We show that this microfluidic-chip-based neurosphere-dissociation method can generate high yields of single cells from dissociated neurospheres of mouse KT98 and DC115 cell models (passage number, 3-8; diameter range, 40-250 ?m): 90% and 95%, respectively. The microfluidic-chip-dissociated cells had high viabilities (80-85%) and the ability to regrow into neurospheres, demonstrating the applicability of this device to neurosphere assay applications. In addition, the dissociated cells retained their normal differentiation potentials, as shown by their capabilities to differentiate into three neural lineages (neurons, astroglia, and oligodendrocytes) when cultured in differentiation culture conditions. Since this microfluidic-chip-based method does not require the use of enzymatic reagents, the risk of contamination from exogenous substances could be reduced, making it an attractive tool for a wide range of applications where neurosphere dissociation is needed.
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Cytotoxic effects of acrylamide in nerve growth factor or fibroblast growth factor 1-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Acrylamide is a neurological and reproductive toxicant in humans and laboratory animals; however, the neuron developmental toxicity of acrylamide remains unclear. The aims of this study are to investigate the cytotoxicity and neurite outgrowth inhibition of acrylamide in nerve growth factor (NGF)- or fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1)-mediated neural development of PC12 cells. MTS assay showed that acrylamide treatment suppresses NGF- or FGF1-induced PC12 cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Quantification of neurite outgrowth demonstrated that 0.5 mM acrylamide treatment resulted in significant decrease in differentiation of NGF- or FGF1-stimulated PC12 cells. This decrease is accompanied with the reduced expression of growth-associated protein-43, a neuronal marker. Moreover, relative levels of pERK, pAKT, pSTAT3 and pCREB were increased within 5-10 min when PC12 cells were treated with NGF or FGF1. Acrylamide (0.5 mM) decreases the NGF-induced activation of AKT-CREB but not ERK-STAT3 within 20 min. Similarly, acrylamide (0.5 mM) decreases the FGF1-induced activation of AKT-CREB within 20 min. In contrast to the NGF treatment, the ERK-STAT3 activation that was induced by FGF1 was slightly reduced by 0.5 mM acrylamide. We further showed that PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), but not MEK inhibitor (U0126), could synergize with acrylamide (0.5 mM) to reduce the cell viability and neurite outgrowth in NGF- or FGF1-stimulated PC12 cells. Moreover, acrylamide (0.5 mM) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) activities in NGF- or FGF1-stimulated PC12 cells. This increase was reversed by Trolox (an ROS scavenging agent) co-treatment. Together, our findings reveal that NGF- or FGF1-stimulation of the neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells is attenuated by acrylamide through the inhibition of PI3K-AKT-CREB signaling, along with the production of ROS.
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GDNF increases cell motility in human colon cancer through VEGF-VEGFR1 interaction.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a potent neurotrophic factor, has been shown to affect cancer cell metastasis and invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GDNF-induced colon cancer cell migration remain unclear. GDNF is found to be positively correlated with malignancy in human colon cancer patients. The migratory activities of two human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and SW480, were found to be enhanced in the presence of human GDNF. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was also increased in response to GDNF stimulation, along with VEGF mRNA expression and transcriptional activity. The enhancement of GDNF-induced cancer cell migration was antagonized by a VEGF-neutralizing antibody. Our results also showed that the expression of VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) was increased in response to GDNF stimulation, whereas GDNF-induced cancer cell migration was reduced by a VEGFR inhibitor. The GDNF-induced VEGF expression was regulated by the p38 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Treatment with GDNF increased nuclear hypoxia-inducible factor 1 ? (HIF1?) accumulation and its transcriptional activity in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, GDNF increased hypoxia responsive element (HRE)-containing VEGF promoter transcriptional activity but not that of the HRE-deletion VEGF promoter construct. Inhibition of HIF1? by a pharmacological inhibitor or dominant-negative mutant reduced the GDNF-induced migratory activity in human colon cancer cells. These results indicate that GDNF enhances the migration of colon cancer cells by increasing VEGF-VEGFR interaction, which is mainly regulated by the p38, PI3K/Akt, and HIF1? signaling pathways.
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Combined plasma biomarkers for diagnosing mild cognition impairment and Alzheimers disease.
ACS Chem Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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A highly sensitive immunoassay, the immunomagnetic reduction, is used to measure several biomarkers for plasma that is related to Alzheimers disease (AD). These biomarkers include A?-40, A?-42, and tau proteins. The samples are composed of four groups: healthy controls (n = 66), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 22), very mild dementia (n = 23), and mild-to-serve dementia, all due to AD (n = 22). It is found that the concentrations of both A?-42 and tau protein for the healthy controls are significantly lower than those of all of the other groups. The sensitivity and the specificity of plasma A?-42 and tau protein in differentiating MCI from AD are all around 0.9 (0.88-0.97). However, neither plasma A?-42 nor tau-protein concentration is an adequate parameter to distinguish MCI from AD. A parameter is proposed, which is the product of plasma A?-42 and tau-protein levels, to differentiate MCI from AD. The sensitivity and specificity are found to be 0.80 and 0.82, respectively. It is concluded that the use of combined plasma biomarkers not only allows the differentiation of the healthy controls and patients with AD in both the prodromal phase and the dementia phase, but it also allows AD in the prodromal phase to be distinguished from that in the dementia phase.
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Classification of schizophrenia using Genetic Algorithm-Support Vector Machine (GA-SVM).
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Recently, Event-Related Potential (ERP) has being the most popular method in evaluating brain waves of schizophrenia patients. ERP is one of the electroencephalography (EEG), which is measured the change of brain waves after giving patients certain stimulations instead of resting state. However, with traditional statistical analysis method, both P50 and MMN showed significant difference between controls and patients but not in Gamma band. Gamma band is a 30-50 Hz auditory stimulation which had been suggested may be abnormal in schizophrenia patients. Our data are recruited from 5 schizophrenia patients and 5 controls in National Taiwan University Hospital have been tested with this platform. The results showed that detection rate is 88.24% and we also analyzed the importance of features, including Standard Deviation (SD) and Total Variation (TotalVar) in different stage of wavelet transform. Therefore, this proposed methodology could serve as a valuable clinical decision support for physiologists in evaluating schizophrenia.
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Epilepsy analytic system with cloud computing.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Biomedical data analytic system has played an important role in doing the clinical diagnosis for several decades. Today, it is an emerging research area of analyzing these big data to make decision support for physicians. This paper presents a parallelized web-based tool with cloud computing service architecture to analyze the epilepsy. There are many modern analytic functions which are wavelet transform, genetic algorithm (GA), and support vector machine (SVM) cascaded in the system. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the system, it has been verified by two kinds of electroencephalography (EEG) data, which are short term EEG and long term EEG. The results reveal that our approach achieves the total classification accuracy higher than 90%. In addition, the entire training time accelerate about 4.66 times and prediction time is also meet requirements in real time.
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Enterococcus saccharolyticus subsp. taiwanensis subsp. nov., isolated from broccoli.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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A coccal strain isolated from fresh broccoli was initially identified as Enterococcus saccharolyticus; however, molecular identification and phenotypic traits did not support this identification. DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of E. saccharolyticus (76.4?% relatedness), DNA G+C content (35.7 mol%), phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences, rep-PCR fingerprinting and profiles of cellular fatty acids, whole-cell proteins and enzyme activities, together with carbohydrate metabolism characteristics, indicated that this strain is distinct and represents a novel subspecies, for which the name Enterococcus saccharolyticus subsp. taiwanensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 812(T) (?=?NBRC 109476(T)?=?BCRC 80575(T)). Furthermore, we present an emended description of Enterococcus saccharolyticus and proposal of Enterococcus saccharolyticus subsp. saccharolyticus subsp. nov. (type strain ATCC 43076(T)?=?CCUG 27643(T)?=?CCUG 33311(T)?=?CIP 103246(T)?=?DSM 20726(T)?=?JCM 8734(T)?=?LMG 11427(T)?=?NBRC 100493(T)?=?NCIMB 702594(T)).
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Dose-dependent folic acid and memantine treatments promote synergistic or additive protection against A?(25-35) peptide-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells mediated by mitochondria stress-associated death signals.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Increased dietary folic acid (FA) is associated with reduced risks of Alzheimers disease (AD). The AD drug memantine (Mn) has had limited therapeutic effects for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe AD. This study investigated whether and the underlying mechanisms by which the combination of Mn and FA may have synergistic or additive effects in protecting against amyloid-?(25-35) peptide (A?)-induced neurocytotoxicity. A? treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells significantly induced a 6-fold increase of apoptotic cells compared with the A?-untreated group. Preincubation of A?-exposed cells with FA (500?M) or Mn (20?M) caused a 22% and 10% reduction of apoptotic cells, respectively, whereas the combo-treatments at such doses synergistically alleviated A?-induced apoptosis by 60% (P<0.05). The apoptotic protection by the combo-treatments coincided with attenuating A?-elicited mitochondrial (mt) membrane depolarization and abolishing A?-induced mt cytochrome c release to the cytosol. Increased levels of FA at 1000?M in combination with 20?M Mn exerted an additive protection against A?(25-35)-induced-apoptosis as compared to the isolate Mn group (P<0.05). The combo-treatments reversed A?-elicited mt membrane depolarization, attenuated A?-elicited mt cytochrome c release to the cytosol, and diminished A?-promoted superoxide generation. The apoptotic-protection by such combo-treatments was partially abolished by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (mt membrane potential uncoupler) and sodium azide (mt cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor). Taken together, the data demonstrated that dose-dependent FA and Mn synergistically or additively protected SH-SY5Y cells against A?-induced apoptosis, which was partially, if not completely, mediated by mt stress-associated death signals.
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Improving the efficiency of ZnO-based organic solar cell by self-assembled monolayer assisted modulation on the properties of ZnO acceptor layer.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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In this study, we fabricated a bilayer hybrid organic solar cell with P3HT as the donor and ZnO as the acceptor (ITO/ZnO/P3HT/Au). We show that passivating a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) over the ITO electrode surface before fabricating the ZnO layer improves the crystallinity of the ZnO layer and of the P3HT layer spin-coated on top of the ZnO layer. The SAM modification resulted in improved charge mobility in the ZnO and P3HT layers. As a consequence, the short circuit current of the photovoltaic device were enhanced. The power conversion efficiency of the SAM-modified device was approximately 60% higher than that of the untreated device. Our findings suggest that the performance of metal oxide-based organic solar cells can be improved by SAM-assisted modulation of metal oxide crystallinity.
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Plasma tau as a window to the brain-negative associations with brain volume and memory function in mild cognitive impairment and early alzheimers disease.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Neurofibrillary tangles are associated with cognitive dysfunction, and hippocampal atrophy with increased CSF tau markers. However, the plasma tau levels of Alzheimers disease (AD) have not been well studied. We investigated plasma tau by using an immunomagnetic reduction assay in 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD, 10 early AD dementia, and 30 healthy elders (HE). All received a 3D-brain MRI scan and a set of cognitive function test. We explored their relationships with both brain structure and cognitive functions. Images were analyzed to determine the brain volumes and gray matter densities. Patients with MCI or early AD had significantly increased plasma tau levels compared with HE. Plasma tau levels were negatively associated with the performance of logical memory, visual reproduction, and verbal fluency; also negatively associated with volume of total gray matter, hippocampus, amygdala; and gray matter densities of various regions. Regression analyses indicated that logical memory explained 0.394 and hippocampus volume predicted .608 of the variance of plasma tau levels, both P < 0.001. Education years were negatively associated with the gray matter densities of the supramarginal (r = -0.407), middle temporal gyrus (r = -0.40) and precuneus (r = -0.377; all P < 0.05) in HE; and negatively associated with plasma tau levels in patients (r = -0.626). We propose that plasma tau may serve as a window to both structure and function of the brain. Higher education is a protective factor against AD and is associated with lower plasma tau levels in patients. Hum Brain Mapp, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Fabrication of bioactive conduits containing the fibroblast growth factor 1 and neural stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15 mm critical gap.
Biofabrication
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Nerve conduits are often used in combination with bioactive molecules and stem cells to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, the acidic fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) was immobilized onto the microporous/micropatterned poly (D, L-lactic acid) (PLA) nerve conduits after open air plasma treatment. PLA substrates grafted with chitosan in the presence of a small amount of gold nanoparticles (nano Au) showed a protective effect on the activity of the immobilized FGF1 in vitro. Different conduits were tested for their ability to bridge a 15 mm critical gap defect in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. Axon regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated by histology, walking track analysis and electrophysiology. Among different conduits, PLA conduits grafted with chitosan-nano Au and the FGF1 after plasma activation had the greatest regeneration capacity and functional recovery in the experimental animals. When the above conduit was seeded with aligned neural stem cells, the efficacy was further enhanced and it approached that of the autograft group. This work suggested that microporous/micropatterned nerve conduits containing bioactive growth factors may be successfully fabricated by micropatterning techniques, open plasma activation, and immobilization, which, combined with aligned stem cells, may synergistically contribute to the regeneration of the severely damaged peripheral nerve.
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Minimally invasive knee arthroplasty with the subvastus approach allows rapid rehabilitation: a prospective, biomechanical and observational study.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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[Purpose] To study the recovery of patients treated with minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty (TKA) performed via the subvastus approach, and to develop an optimal rehabilitation program for these patients. [Methods] Twenty-two patients (17 females and 5 males; mean age 69.2?years), who received unilateral minimally invasive TKA for osteoarthritis, underwent isometric and isokinetic muscle testing and completed a quality of life questionnaire, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), before and after surgery. Muscle strength and ultrasound tests were repeated 1, 2, 6, and 12 months after surgery. [Results] Strength and range of motion were initially lower in the operated knees but demonstrated no significant difference from the healthy knees after 12 months. Sonographically, joint effusion was greater in the osteoarthritic knees than in the healthy knees at baseline, but no significant difference was observed after 12 months. The mean WOMAC pain, stiffness and function scores all decreased from baseline to 6 months, and then slightly increased at 12 months, but only the function score showed a significant difference compared to baseline. [Conclusions] One year after minimally invasive TKA using a subvastus approach, patients had a good overall prognosis, with prompt functional recovery.
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Stem cell-based therapy in neural repair.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Cell-based therapy could aid in alleviating symptoms or even reversing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and nerve injuries. Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) has been shown to maintain the survival of neurons and induce neurite outgrowth. Accumulating evidence suggests that combination of FGF1 and cell-based therapy is promising for future therapeutic application. Neural stem cells (NSCs), with the characteristics of self-renewal and multipotency, can be isolated from embryonic stem cells, embryonic ectoderm, and developing or adult brain tissues. For NSC clinical application, several critical problems remain to be resolved: (1) the source of NSCs should be personalized; (2) the isolation methods and protocols of human NSCs should be standardized; (3) the clinical efficacy of NSC transplants must be evaluated in more adequate animal models; and (4) the mechanism of intrinsic brain repair needs to be better characterized. In addition, the ideal imaging technique for tracking NSCs would be safe and yield high temporal and spatial resolution, good sensitivity and specificity. Here, we discuss recent progress and future development of cell-based therapy, such as NSCs, induced pluripotent stem cells, and induced neurons, in neurodegenerative diseases and peripheral nerve injuries.
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Effects of Conditioning with Sevoflurane before Reperfusion on Hippocampal Ischemic Injury and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Expression in Rats.
Chin J Physiol
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Sevoflurane pre-conditioning before ischemia can reduce ischemia-reperfusion injuries in cardiac, pulmonary and cerebral tissues. It is uncertain whether sevoflurane conditioning before reperfusion has similar protective effects on neuronal injuries. In this study, we explored the effect of sevoflurane conditioning (at concentrations of 1.5%, 2.4% or 3.0%) on the morphology and molecular mechanisms of the hippocampal CA? region in male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to global cerebral ischemia. We determined the pathological results by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and examined the mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and protein levels of p-JNK1/2 and p-Akt1 in the hippocampus at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Our data showed that O? post-conditioning and lower dose (1.5%) of sevoflurane did not ameliorate ischemia-induced CA? injury. However, higher doses of 2.4% and 3.0% sevoflurane post-conditioning alleviated the CA? injury and enhanced the expression levels of IGF-1 mRNA. Furthermore, sevoflurane post-conditioning inhibited the activations of p-JNK1/2 and enhanced activation of p-Akt1. In conclusion, these results suggest that post-conditioning with sevoflurane at 2.4% and 3.0% ameliorates global cerebral ischemia induced hippocampal CA? injury by up-regulating the expression of IGF-1 mRNA followed by the activation of p-Akt1 and inhibition of the activation of p-JNK1/2.
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Food supply and food safety issues in China.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. Chinas connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain.
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Propofol inhibits superoxide production, elastase release, and chemotaxis in formyl peptide-activated human neutrophils by blocking formyl peptide receptor 1.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Neutrophils play a critical role in acute and chronic inflammatory processes, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis, and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Binding of formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) by N-formyl peptides can activate neutrophils and may represent a new therapeutic target in either sterile or septic inflammation. Propofol, a widely used i.v. anesthetic, has been shown to modulate immunoinflammatory responses. However, the mechanism of propofol remains to be established. In this study, we showed that propofol significantly reduced superoxide generation, elastase release, and chemotaxis in human neutrophils activated by fMLF. Propofol did not alter superoxide generation or elastase release in a cell-free system. Neither inhibitors of ?-aminobutyric acid receptors nor an inhibitor of protein kinase A reversed the inhibitory effects of propofol. In addition, propofol showed less inhibitory effects in non-FPR1-induced cell responses. The signaling pathways downstream from FPR1, involving calcium, AKT, and ERK1/2, were also competitively inhibited by propofol. These results show that propofol selectively and competitively inhibits the FPR1-induced human neutrophil activation. Consistent with the hypothesis, propofol inhibited the binding of N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein, a fluorescent analog of fMLF, to FPR1 in human neutrophils, differentiated THP-1 cells, and FPR1-transfected human embryonic kidney-293 cells. To our knowledge, our results identify, for the first time, a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of propofol by competitively blocking FPR1 in human neutrophils. Considering the importance of N-formyl peptides in inflammatory processes, our data indicate that propofol may have therapeutic potential to attenuate neutrophil-mediated inflammatory diseases by blocking FPR1.
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Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus pobuzihii E100301T.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Lactobacillus pobuzihii E100301(T) is a novel Lactobacillus species previously isolated from pobuzihi (fermented cummingcordia) in Taiwan. Phylogenetically, this strain is closest to Lactobacillus acidipiscis, but its phenotypic characteristics can be clearly distinguished from those of L. acidipiscis. We present the draft genome sequence of strain L. pobuzihii E100301(T).
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The mood stabilizer valproate activates human FGF1 gene promoter through inhibiting HDAC and GSK-3 activities.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Valproic acid (VPA) is the primary mood-stabilizing drug to exert neuroprotective effects and to treat bipolar disorder in clinic. Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) has been shown to regulate cell proliferation, cell division, and neurogenesis. Human FGF1 gene 1B promoter (-540 to +31)-driven green fluorescence (F1BGFP) has been shown to recapitulate endogenous FGF1 gene expression and facilitates the isolation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) from developing and adult mouse brains. In this study, we provide several lines of evidence to demonstrate the underlying mechanisms of VPA in activating FGF-1B promoter activity: (i) VPA significantly increased the FGF-1B mRNA expression and the percentage of F1BGFP(+) cells; (ii) the increase of F1BGFP expression by VPA involves changes of regulatory factor X (RFX) 1-3 transcriptional complexes and the increase of histone H3 acetylation on the 18-bp cis-element of FGF-1B promoter; (iii) treatments of other histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors, sodium butyrate and trichostatin A, significantly increased the expression levels of FGF-1B, RFX2, and RFX3 transcripts; (iv) treatments of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibitor, lithium, or GSK-3 siRNAs also significantly activated FGF-1B promoter; (v) VPA specifically enhanced neuronal differentiation in F1BGFP(+) embryonic stem cells and NSPCs rather than GFP(-) cells. This study suggested, for the first time, that VPA activates human FGF1 gene promoter through inhibiting HDAC and GSK-3 activities.
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High-Performance Seizure Detection System Using a Wavelet-Approximate Entropy-fSVM Cascade With Clinical Validation.
Clin EEG Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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The classification of electroencephalography (EEG) signals is one of the most important methods for seizure detection. However, verification of an atypical epileptic seizure often can only be done through long-term EEG monitoring for 24 hours or longer. Hence, automatic EEG signal analysis for clinical screening is necessary for the diagnosis of epilepsy. We propose an EEG analysis system of seizure detection, based on a cascade of wavelet-approximate entropy for feature selection, Fisher scores for adaptive feature selection, and support vector machine for feature classification. Performance of the system was tested on open source data, and the overall accuracy reached 99.97%. We further tested the performance of the system on clinical EEG obtained from a clinical EEG laboratory and bedside EEG recordings. The results showed an overall accuracy of 98.73% for routine EEG, and 94.32% for bedside EEG, which verified the high performance and usefulness of such a cascade system for seizure detection. Also, the prediction model, trained by routine EEG, can be successfully generalized to bedside EEG of independent patients.
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Effect of a warm footbath before bedtime on body temperature and sleep in older adults with good and poor sleep: an experimental crossover trial.
Int J Nurs Stud
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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The decrease in core body temperature before sleep onset and during sleep is associated with dilation of peripheral blood vessels, which permits heat dissipation from the body core to the periphery. A lower core temperature coupled with a higher distal (hands and feet) temperature before sleep are associated with shorter sleep latency and better sleep quality. A warm footbath is thought to facilitate heat dissipation to improve sleep outcomes.
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Refractive errors and age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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To evaluate the association between refractive errors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
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The cellular mechanisms of the antiemetic action of dexamethasone and related glucocorticoids against vomiting.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Glucocorticoids, used primarily as anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory drugs, are also effective, alone or combined with other antiemetics, for preventing nausea and vomiting. Dexamethasone, one of the glucocorticoids, has been suggested as a first-line drug for preventing low-level emetogenic chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and in patients with only one or two risks for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Dexamethasone combined with 5-HT3 or tachykinin NK1 antagonists is also suggested for higher-level emetogenic chemotherapy and radiotherapy and for patients at high risk for PONV. Glucocorticoids may act via the following mechanisms: (1) anti-inflammatory effect; (2) direct central action at the solitary tract nucleus, (3) interaction with the neurotransmitter serotonin, and receptor proteins tachykinin NK1 and NK2, alpha-adrenaline, etc.; (4) maintaining the normal physiological functions of organs and systems; (5) regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; and (6) reducing pain and the concomitant use of opioids, which in turn reduces opioid-related nausea and vomiting.
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Theory of mind in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Theory of mind (ToM) is a crucial aspect of social cognition and is mediated by a complex neural network. Studies on temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) suggest that its neuropathological involvement includes several brain regions. Some regions seem to overlap the neural network responsible for ToM, and this overlap provides an opportunity to explore ToM in TLE patients. Another concern is psychosocial problems in TLE, and the study of ToM in TLE could serve as a basis for further understanding the nature of such psychosocial disturbances. Studies on whether TLE patients evidence ToM deficit, however, are scant and controversial. Consequently, we examine whether ToM deficit is evident in TLE. Thirty-one TLE patients and 24 matched controls were recruited and completed four tasks measuring different levels of ToM: false belief, faux pas recognition, processing of implied meanings, and cartoon ToM. The patients were impaired in both basic and advanced ToM. Right TLE had a more wide-ranging picture of deficit than left TLE. ToM appears to be vulnerable to TLE, especially on the right side. Since ToM might contribute to patients psychosocial adjustment, we thus suggest that a ToM measure be included in regular neuropsychological assessments of such patients.
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Nonscanning three-dimensional optical microscope based on the reflectivity-height transformation for biological measurements.
Microsc. Microanal.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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We propose a nonscanning three-dimensional (3D) optical microscope based on reflectivity-height transformation in applications of biological and transparent plate measurements. The reflectivity of a prism can be transformed to the surface height of the specimen based on geometrical optics and the principle of internal reflection. Thus, the pattern of reflectivity is representative of the surface profile. Using charge-coupled device cameras to obtain the two-dimensional image patterns and combining with its reflectivity pattern, the 3D profile can be generated. The lateral resolution is determined by the diffraction limit, and the vertical resolution is better than several nanometers according to the incident angle and polarization used.
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Effect of warming with temperature oscillations on a low-latitude aphid, Aphis craccivora.
Bull. Entomol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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To estimate the net effect of climate change on natural populations, we must take into account the positive and negative effects of temperature oscillations and climate variability. Warming because of climate change will likely exceed the physiological optima of tropical insects, which currently live very close to their thermal optima. Tropical insects will be negatively affected if their optima are exceeded otherwise warming may affect them positively. We evaluate the demographic responses of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora, to summer warming in subtropical and tropical Taiwan, and examine the effects of diel temperature oscillation on these responses. Aphids were reared at four temperatures (current summer mean, +1.4, +3.9 and +6.4 °C), the latter three simulating different levels of warming. At each average temperature, aphids experienced constant or oscillating (from -2.9 to +3.6 °C of each mean temperature) regimes. As the simulated summer temperatures increased, so did the negative effects on life-history traits and demographic parameters. Compared with aphids reared in constant temperatures, aphids reared in oscillating temperatures developed more slowly and had a longer mean generation time, but their net reproductive rate was higher. These findings demonstrate that climate warming will affect demographic parameters and life-history traits differentially. Studies that use constant temperatures are unlikely to accurately predict biotic responses to climate change.
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Genistein promotes cell death of ethanol-stressed HeLa cells through the continuation of apoptosis or secondary necrosis.
Cancer Cell Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Apoptosis is a major target and treatment effect of multiple chemotherapeutical agents in cancer. A soybean isoflavone, genistein, is a well-studied chemopreventive agent and has been reported to potentiate the anticancer effect of some chemotherapeutics. However, its mechanistic basis of chemo-enhancement effect remains to be fully elucidated.
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Cardioplegia delivery by transcutaneous pigtail catheter in minimally invasive mitral valve operations.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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For cardioplegia delivery and removing air from the aorta in minimally invasive mitral valve operations, we would like to propose a cost-effective pigtail method. The 8F pigtail punctures the aorta, delivers cardioplegia, and stays in place for removing air from the aorta. We then slide its tip out of the aorta as an accessory drain. With more than 100 successes, we are using it in every case and would like to share it with peer surgeons.
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Inhibition of Neurosphere Formation in Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells by Acrylamide.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Previous studies showed that transplantation of cultured neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) could improve functional recovery for various neurological diseases. This study aims to develop a stem cell?based model for predictive toxicology of development in neurological system after acrylamide exposure. Treatment of mouse (KT98/F1B?GFP) and human (U?1240 MG/F1B?GFP) NSPCs with 0.5 mM acrylamide resulted in the inhibition of neurosphere formation (definition of self?renewal ability in NSPCs) but not inhibition of cell proliferation. Apoptosis and differentiation of KT98 (a precursor of KT98/F1B?GFP) and KT98/F1B?GFP are not observed in acrylamide?treated neurospheres. Analysis of secondary neurosphere formation and differentiation of neurons and glia illustrated that acrylamide?treated KT98 and KT98/F1B?GFP neurospheres retain the NSPCs properties, such as self?renewal and the differentiation capacity. Correlation of acrylamide?inhibited neurosphere formation with cell?cell adhesion was observed in mouse NSPCs by live?cell image analysis and the presence of acrylamide. Protein expression levels of cell?adhesion molecules (neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and N?cadherin) and Extracellular signal?regulated kinases (ERK) in acrylamide?treated KT98/F1B?GFP and U?1240 MG/F1B?GFP neurospheres demonstrated that NCAM decreased and phospho?ERK (pERK) increased, whereas expression of N?cadherin remained unchanged. Analysis of AKT (protein kinase B, PKB)/??catenin pathway showed decrease in phospho?AKT (p?AKT) and cyclin D1 expression in acrylamide?treated neurospheres of KT98/F1B?GFP. Furthermore, PD98059, an ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, attenuated acrylamide?induced ERK phosphorylation, indicating that pERK contributed to the cell proliferation but not in neurosphere formation in mouse NSPCs. Co?immunoprecipitation results of KT98/F1B?GFP cell lysates showed that the complex of NCAM and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is present in the neurosphere, and the amount of this complex decreases after acrylamide treatment. Our results reveal that acrylamide inhibits neurosphere formation through the disruption of the neurosphere architecture in NSPCs. The down?regulation of cell?cell adhesion is resulted from decreasing the levels of NCAM as well as the formation of NCAM/FGFR complex.
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Glutamatergic activities in neonatal rat spinal cord heterogeneously regulate single-fiber splanchnic nerve discharge.
Auton Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Kynurenic acid (KYN) is a metabolite of tryptophan and is involved in various neurological disorders. Using whole-bundle nerve recording techniques, we previously observed that applications of KYN to block endogenous ionotropic glutamate receptor activities in neonatal rat spinal cords in vitro cause a reversible fluctuation of splanchnic sympathetic nerve discharge (SND). We hypothesized that the SND fluctuation was due to a heterogeneous single-fiber response. To detail individual fiber activities, we used the so-called oligofiber recordings. Spontaneous single-fiber activities were recorded from the collagenase-dissociated splanchnic nerve fascicles. Applications of KYN increased, decreased or did not change firing rates. The heterogeneous responses in spontaneous spiking activities were confirmed by applications of APV or CNQX, suggesting an effect mediated by endogenous NMDA- or non-NMDA receptor activities. In addition to changes in firing rates, apparent drug-induced changes in firing patterns were also observed in some fiber activities. Using the oligofiber recording techniques, we confirmed a differential role of endogenous ionotropic glutamate receptor activities in regulating sympathetic outflows from the spinal cord of neonatal rats. Fine-tuning of ionotropic glutamate receptor activities in the spinal cord may serve as a simple way for heterogeneous regulation of various sympathetic-targeting tissues.
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Leukemia inhibitory factor-induced Stat3 signaling suppresses fibroblast growth factor 1-induced Erk1/2 activation to inhibit the downstream differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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In regular culture conditions with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), the majority of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are maintained in a self-renewal stage; very few mESCs have differentiated morphology. When LIF is withdrawn, mESCs tend to differentiate; this differentiation process can be enhanced by the introduction of exogenous fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Here, we show that even in the presence of exogenous FGF1, mESCs can maintain self-renewal and expression of pluripotency markers in the presence of LIF. To elucidate the mechanism in which LIF dominates over the FGF1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) signaling of mESCs cultured in a medium containing FGF1 or LIF/FGF1 was examined. The results demonstrate that Erk1/2 was activated by FGF1 in the absence of LIF; however, the FGF1-induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation was suppressed when LIF was introduced. Moreover, FGF1-Erk1/2 downregulation was inhibited by a signal transducer and activator of the transcription 3 (Stat3) inhibitor WP1066, suggesting that LIF-induced Stat3 activation plays an important role in the FGF1-Erk1/2 inhibition in mESCs. We further demonstrate that the binding affinity of phospho-Erk1/2 and Sprouty2 was increased via Stat3 activation. Binding of phospho-Erk1/2 and Sprouty2 blocks the activation of Erk1/2 signaling, thus inhibiting the downstream differentiation process in mESCs. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that LIF-induced Stat3 phosphorylation plays an important role in promoting the binding of phospho-Erk1/2 and Sprouty2, and thus inhibiting FGF-induced differentiation.
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A diagnostic model incorporating P50 sensory gating and neuropsychological tests for schizophrenia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Endophenotypes in schizophrenia research is a contemporary approach to studying this heterogeneous mental illness, and several candidate neurophysiological markers (e.g. P50 sensory gating) and neuropsychological tests (e.g. Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)) have been proposed. However, the clinical utility of a single marker appears to be limited. In the present study, we aimed to construct a diagnostic model incorporating P50 sensory gating with other neuropsychological tests in order to improve the clinical utility.
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Curcumin down-regulates DNA methyltransferase 1 and plays an anti-leukemic role in acute myeloid leukemia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Bioactive components from dietary supplements such as curcumin may represent attractive agents for cancer prevention or treatment. DNA methylation plays a critical role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) development, and presents an excellent target for treatment of this disease. However, it remains largely unknown how curcumin, a component of the popular Indian spice turmeric, plays a role in DNA hypomethylation to reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes and to present a potential treatment option for AML. Here we show that curcumin down-regulates DNMT1 expression in AML cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo, and in primary AML cells ex vivo. Mechanistically, curcumin reduced the expression of positive regulators of DNMT1, p65 and Sp1, which correlated with a reduction in binding of these transcription factors to the DNMT1 promoter in AML cell lines. This curcumin-mediated down-regulation of DNMT1 expression was concomitant with p15(INK4B) tumor suppressor gene reactivation, hypomethylation of the p15(INK4B) promoter, G1 cell cycle arrest, and induction of tumor cell apoptosis in vitro. In mice implanted with the human AML MV4-11 cell line, administration of curcumin resulted in remarkable suppression of AML tumor growth. Collectively, our data indicate that curcumin shows promise as a potential treatment for AML, and our findings provide a basis for future studies to test the clinical efficacy of curcumin - whether used as a single agent or as an adjuvant - for AML treatment.
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Computational solution of spike overlapping using data-based subtraction algorithms to resolve synchronous sympathetic nerve discharge.
Front Comput Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Sympathetic nerves conveying central commands to regulate visceral functions often display activities in synchronous bursts. To understand how individual fibers fire synchronously, we establish "oligofiber recording techniques" to record "several" nerve fiber activities simultaneously, using in vitro splanchnic sympathetic nerve-thoracic spinal cord preparations of neonatal rats as experimental models. While distinct spike potentials were easily recorded from collagenase-dissociated sympathetic fibers, a problem arising from synchronous nerve discharges is a higher incidence of complex waveforms resulted from spike overlapping. Because commercial softwares do not provide an explicit solution for spike overlapping, a series of custom-made LabVIEW programs incorporated with MATLAB scripts was therefore written for spike sorting. Spikes were represented as data points after waveform feature extraction and automatically grouped by k-means clustering followed by principal component analysis (PCA) to verify their waveform homogeneity. For dissimilar waveforms with exceeding Hotellings T(2) distances from the cluster centroids, a unique data-based subtraction algorithm (SA) was used to determine if they were the complex waveforms resulted from superimposing a spike pattern close to the cluster centroid with the other signals that could be observed in original recordings. In comparisons with commercial software, higher accuracy was achieved by analyses using our algorithms for the synthetic data that contained synchronous spiking and complex waveforms. Moreover, both T(2)-selected and SA-retrieved spikes were combined as unit activities. Quantitative analyses were performed to evaluate if unit activities truly originated from single fibers. We conclude that applications of our programs can help to resolve synchronous sympathetic nerve discharges (SND).
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A physiology-based seizure detection system for multichannel EEG.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals play a critical role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Multichannel EEGs contain more information than do single-channel EEGs. Automatic detection algorithms for spikes or seizures have traditionally been implemented on single-channel EEG, and algorithms for multichannel EEG are unavailable.
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Association of the recovery of objective abnormal cerebral perfusion with neurocognitive improvement after carotid revascularization.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This study sought to report the effect of carotid artery stenting (CS) on neurocognitive function (NCF) in patients with severe carotid artery occlusive disease, depending on baseline brain perfusion status.
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Maneuvers to decrease laparoscopy-induced shoulder and upper abdominal pain: a randomized controlled study.
Arch Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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To evaluate the effectiveness of the pulmonary recruitment maneuver (PRM) and intraperitoneal normal saline infusion (INSI) in removing postlaparoscopic carbon dioxide from the abdominal cavity to decrease laparoscopy-induced abdominal or shoulder pain after surgery. Design, Setting, and
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Ecological, psychological, and cognitive components of reading difficulties: testing the component model of reading in fourth graders across 38 countries.
J Learn Disabil
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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The authors tested the component model of reading (CMR) among 186,725 fourth grade students from 38 countries (45 regions) on five continents by analyzing the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study data using measures of ecological (country, family, school, teacher), psychological, and cognitive components. More than 91% of the differences in student difficulty occurred at the country (61%) and classroom (30%) levels (ecological), with less than 9% at the student level (cognitive and psychological). All three components were negatively associated with reading difficulties: cognitive (students early literacy skills), ecological (family characteristics [socioeconomic status, number of books at home, and attitudes about reading], school characteristics [school climate and resources]), and psychological (students attitudes about reading, reading self-concept, and being a girl). These results extend the CMR by demonstrating the importance of multiple levels of factors for reading deficits across diverse cultures.
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A new horsehair worm, Chordodes formosanus sp. n. (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from Hierodula mantids of Taiwan and Japan with redescription of a closely related species, Chordodes japonensis.
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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A new species of horsehair worm, Chordodes formosanussp. n., is described and compared to a closely related species, Chordodes japonensis. Although both species possess the same six cuticular structures of areoles on the surface, the significantly longer filaments on the female crowned areoles can be used as diagnostic characters for the new species. The different taxonomic status of these two species was also confirmed after analyzing the partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequence, and the mantid hosts, which are respectively limited to the genus Tenodera for Chordodes japonensis and Hierodula for Chordodes formosanussp. n. In addition, the immature stages of eggs and larvae of the new species are also described and discussed in detail.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.