JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of surface Si redistribution on the alignment of Ge dots grown on pit-patterned Si(001) substrates.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Thermally activated redistribution of Si surface atoms is found to be a crucial factor for the growth of aligned Ge dots on pit-patterned Si(001) substrates. A phenomenon of Si accumulation around the edge of pits significantly alters the substrate surface morphology. As the pit spacing is reduced to below 100 nm, a convex morphology developed between adjacent pits causes a chemical potential distribution that drives the Ge dots into the pits. In addition, the pits of an etching depth greater than 60 nm will evolve into truncated inverted pyramids with sharp base corners that provide deep potential wells for the confinement of Ge dots. Perfectly aligned Ge dots are obtained on pit-patterned Si substrates with this range of pit spacing and etching depth. We also find that the initial geometric shape of the pits does not affect the spatial arrangement of Ge dots.
Related JoVE Video
Reduced-intensity FOLFOXIRI in Treating Refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Pilot Study.
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report on the efficacy and safety of reduced-intensity FOLFOXIRI (RI-FOLFOXIRI) as salvage chemotherapy for patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of single disseminated prostate cancer cells reveals tumor cell heterogeneity and identifies dormancy associated pathways.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer dormancy refers to the prolonged clinical disease-free time between removal of the primary tumor and recurrence, which is common in prostate cancer (PCa), breast cancer, esophageal cancer, and other cancers. PCa disseminated tumor cells (DTC) are detected in both patients with no evidence of disease (NED) and advanced disease (ADV). However, the molecular and cellular nature of DTC is unknown. We performed a first-in-field study of single DTC transcriptomic analyses in cancer patients to identify a molecular signature associated with cancer dormancy. We profiled eighty-five individual EpCAM+/CD45- cells from the bone marrow of PCa patients with NED or ADV. We analyzed 44 DTC with high prostate-epithelial signatures, and eliminated 41 cells with high erythroid signatures and low prostate epithelial signatures. DTC were clustered into 3 groups: NED, ADV_1, and ADV_2, in which the ADV_1 group presented a distinct gene expression pattern associated with the p38 stress activated kinase pathway. Additionally, DTC from the NED group were enriched for a tumor dormancy signature associated with head and neck squamous carcinoma and breast cancer. This study provides the first clinical evidence of the p38 pathway as a potential biomarker for early recurrence and an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.
Related JoVE Video
Compact Bis-Adduct Fullerenes and Additive-Assisted Morphological Optimization for Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bis-adduct fullerenes surrounded by two insulating addends sterically attenuate intermolecular interaction and cause inferior electron transportation. In this research, we have designed and synthesized a new class of bis-adduct fullerene materials, methylphenylmethano-C60 bis-adduct (MPC60BA), methylthienylmethano-C60 bis-adduct (MTC60BA), methylphenylmethano-C70 bis-adduct (MPC70BA), and methylthienylmethano-C70 bis-adduct (MTC70BA), functionalized with two compact phenylmethylmethano and thienylmethylmethano addends via cyclopropyl linkages. These materials with much higher-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels successfully enhanced the Voc values of the P3HT-based solar cell devices. The compact phenylmethylmethano and thienylmethylmethano addends to promote fullerene intermolecular interactions result in aggregation-induced phase separation as observed by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)/bis-adduct fullerene thin films. The device based on the P3HT/MTC60BA blend yielded a Voc of 0.72 V, a Jsc of 5.87 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor (FF) of 65.3%, resulting in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.76%. The unfavorable morphologies can be optimized by introducing a solvent additive to fine-tune the intermolecular interactions. 1-Chloronaphthalene (CN) having better ability to dissolve the bis-adduct fullerenes can homogeneously disperse the fullerene materials into the P3HT matrix. Consequently, the aggregated fullerene domains can be alleviated to reach a favorable morphology. With the assistance of CN additive, the P3HT/MTC60BA-based device exhibited enhanced characteristics (a Voc of 0.78 V, a Jsc of 9.04 mA/cm(2), and an FF of 69.8%), yielding a much higher PCE of 4.92%. More importantly, the additive-assisted morphological optimization is consistently effective to all four compact bis-adduct fullerenes regardless of the methylphenylmethano or methylthienylmethano scaffolds as well as C60 or C70 core structures. Through the extrinsic additive treatment, these bis-adduct fullerene materials with compact architectures show promise for high-performance polymer solar cells.
Related JoVE Video
Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.
Related JoVE Video
Targeting GPR30 with G-1: a new therapeutic target for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is an advanced-stage prostate cancer (PC) associated with high mortality. We reported that G-1, a selective agonist of G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), inhibited PC cell growth by inducing G2 cell cycle arrest and arrested PC-3 xenograft growth. However, the therapeutic actions of G-1 and their relationships with androgen in vivo are unclear. Using the LNCaP xenograft to model PC growth during the androgen-sensitive (AS) versus the castration-resistant (CR) phase, we found that G-1 inhibited growth of CR but not AS tumors with no observable toxicity to the host. Substantial necrosis (approximately 65%) accompanied by marked intratumoral infiltration of neutrophils was observed only in CR tumors. Global transcriptome profiling of human genes identified 99 differentially expressed genes with 'interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses' as the top pathway. Quantitative PCR confirmed upregulation of neutrophil-related chemokines and inflammation-mediated cytokines only in the G-1-treated CR tumors. Expression of murine neutrophil-related cytokines also was elevated in these tumors. GPR30 (GPER1) expression was significantly higher in CR tumors than in AS tumors. In cell-based experiments, androgen repressed GPR30 expression, a response reversible by anti-androgen or siRNA-induced androgen receptor silencing. Finally, in clinical specimens, 80% of CRPC metastases (n=123) expressed a high level of GPR30, whereas only 54% of the primary PCs (n=232) showed high GPR30 expression. Together, these results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that GPR30 is an androgen-repressed target and G-1 mediates the anti-tumor effect via neutrophil-infiltration-associated necrosis in CRPC. Additional studies are warranted to firmly establish GPR30 as a therapeutic target in CRPC.
Related JoVE Video
Early radiographic response to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor in non-small cell lung cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations: A prospective study.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: The time schedules for response evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase Inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are still ill-defined. Methods: Stage IIIB/IV patients with histologically proven NSCLC were enrolled in this study if the tumor cells bore EGFR mutations other than T790M. Eligible patients were treated with either 250 mg of gefitinib or 150 mg of erlotinib once daily. The early response rate [computed tomography (CT) scan on Day 14], definitive response rate determined on Day 56, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profile were assessed prospectively. Results: Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. A total of 29 patients (29/39, 74.4%) achieved partial response (PR). Twenty-one patients (21/39, 53.8%) had early radiological response on Day 14. The early radiological response rate in patients with PR was 72.4% (21/29). Only eight patients without a PR on early CT still ended with PR. Among the 29 patients with PR, the PFS (8.1 months) and OS (18.3 months) of the 21 patients with early CT response were shorter than those of the 8 patients without early CT response (11.9 and 24.0 months for PFS and OS, respectively). But the survival differences were statistically non-significant. Conclusions: A very high percentage (72.4%, 21/29) of NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations with PR demonstrates early radiological response to EGFR-TKIs, which would advocate early radiological examination for EGFR-TKI therapy in NSCLC patients.
Related JoVE Video
Cardioprotective effects of melatonin against myocardial injuries induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associated with chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) increases the morbidity and mortality of ischemic heart disease in patients. Yet, there is a paucity of preventive measures targeting the pathogenesis of CIH-induced myocardial injury. We examined the cardioprotective effect of melatonin against the inflammation, fibrosis and the deteriorated sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) homeostasis and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury exacerbated by CIH. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats that had received a daily injection of melatonin (10mg/kg) or vehicle were exposed to CIH treatment mimicking a severe OSA condition for 4 weeks. Systolic pressure, heart weights and malondialdehyde were significantly increased in hypoxic rats but not in the melatonin-treated group, when compared with the normoxic control. Levels of the expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF?, IL6, COX2) and fibrotic markers (PC1 and TGF?) were significantly elevated in the hypoxic group but were normalized by melatonin. Additionally, infarct size of isolated hearts with regional I/R was substantial in the hypoxic group treated with vehicle but not in the melatonin-treated group. Moreover, melatonin treatment mitigated the SR-Ca(2+) homeostasis in the cardiomyocyte during I/R with (i) Ca(2+) overloading, (ii) decreased SR-Ca(2+) content, (iii) lowered expression and activity of Ca(2+) -handling proteins (SERCA2a and NCX1), (iv) decreased expressions of CAMKII and phosphorylated-eNOS(ser1177) . Furthermore, melatonin ameliorated the level of expression of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and MnSOD) and NADPH oxidase (p22 and NOX2). Results support a prophylactic usage of melatonin in OSA patients, which protects against CIH-induced myocardial inflammation and fibrosis with impaired SR-Ca(2+) handling and exacerbated I/R injury. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Related JoVE Video
The anti-tumor efficiency of pterostilbene is promoted with a combined treatment of Fas signaling or autophagy inhibitors in triple negative breast cancer cells.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High expression of vimentin, a canonical mesenchymal marker, is linked with poor prognosis in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), implying that vimentin may be a potential biomarker in the application of TNBC therapy. Pterostilbene (PTE) has shown anti-invasion activity, and thus, we investigated whether PTE inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in TNBC. Here, we show that PTE decreases the vimentin expression, but that the effect was transient. PTE stimulated Fas signaling, which drives EMT by the ERK1/2 and GSK3?/?-catenin pathways, supporting Fas signaling induction involved in EMT regulation. PTE also triggered autophagy in TNBC. The treatment of TNBC with 3-methyladenine an autophagy inhibitor, not only sustained PTE-inhibited EMT but also significantly promoted anti-proliferation, which indicates that autophagy plays a cyto-protective role and is associated with EMT. Taken together, these data showed that Fas signaling and autophagy accelerated the aggressiveness of TNBC. Inhibition of autophagy or Fas signaling may provide novel targets for TNBC therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy using cisplatin, tegafur, and leucovorin for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx and oropharynx.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of cisplatin, tegafur, and leucovorin concomitantly with radiotherapy for patients with advanced, non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx and hypopharynx.
Related JoVE Video
OncomiR-196 promotes an invasive phenotype in oral cancer through the NME4-JNK-TIMP1-MMP signaling pathway.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNA-196 (miR-196), which is highly up-regulated in oral cancer cells, has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in several cancers; however, the significance of miR-196 in oral cancer has not yet been addressed.
Related JoVE Video
Zone-size nonuniformity of (18)F-FDG PET regional textural features predicts survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The question as to whether the regional textural features extracted from PET images predict prognosis in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) remains open. In this study, we investigated the prognostic impact of regional heterogeneity in patients with T3/T4 OPSCC.
Related JoVE Video
Increased risk of hip fractures in patients with dementia: a nationwide population-based study.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BackgroundDementia has been associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. However, little research has been conducted on the impact of dementia on wrist or vertebral fracture development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dementia is a risk factor for different types of fracture in Taiwan.MethodsThe study sample was drawn from Taiwan¿s National Health Insurance Research Database of reimbursement claims, and comprised 1408 patients who visited ambulatory care centers or were hospitalized with a diagnosis of dementia. The comparison group consisted of 7040 randomly selected individuals. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to examine associations between dementia and the risk of different types of fracture.ResultsDuring a 3-year follow-up period, 264 patients with dementia (18.75%) and 1098 patients without dementia (15.60%) developed fractures. Dementia was independently associated with increased risk of hip fracture [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.92, 95% CI 1.48¿2.49]. Patients with dementia and osteoporosis had the highest risk of developing hip fracture (adjusted HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.28¿4.01). Dementia did not increase wrist fracture or vertebral fracture risk when compared to the control group, even in patients with osteoporosis.ConclusionsIndividuals with dementia are at greater risk of developing hip fracture, particularly if they also have osteoporosis. Early mental screening programs and health education should be initiated to decrease disability and dependence in patients with dementia.
Related JoVE Video
The role of the microenvironment-dormant prostate disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow.
Drug Discov Today Technol
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Disseminated tumor cells (DTC) leave the primary tumor and reside in distant sites (e.g. bone) early in prostate cancer. Patients may harbor dormant DTC which develop into clinically overt metastasis years after radical prostatectomy. We will describe recent evidence suggesting high p38/ERK ratio, bone morphogenetic proteins, and tumor growth factor-beta 2 promote dormancy in solid tumors. Furthermore, we will discuss the possible regulation of dormancy by hematopoietic stem cell and vascular niches, and describe novel models recapitulating bone marrow metastatic latency and out- growth, 3D microvascular networks, and 3D biomatrix supportive niches in the studies of tumor cell dormancy.
Related JoVE Video
Osthole inhibits insulin-like growth factor-1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition via the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in human brain cancer cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most lethal types of tumors and highly metastatic and invasive. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the crucial step for cancer cells to initiate the metastasis and could be induced by many growth factors. In this study, we found that GBM8401 cells were converted to fibroblastic phenotype and the space between the cells became expanded in response to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) treatment. Epithelial markers were downregulated and mesenchymal markers were upregulated simultaneously after IGF-1 treatment. Our results illustrate that IGF-1 was able to induce EMT in GBM8401 cells. Osthole would reverse IGF-1-induced morphological changes, upregulated the expression of epithelial markers, and downregulated the expression of mesenchymal markers. Moreover, wound-healing assay also showed that osthole could inhibit IGF-1-induced migration of GBM8401 cells. By using dual-luciferase reporter assay and real-time PCR, we demonstrated that osthole inhibited IGF-1-induced EMT at the transcriptional level. Our study found that osthole decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3? and recovered the GSK3? bioactivity in inhibiting EMT transcription factor Snail and Twist expression. These results showed that osthole inhibited IGF-1-induced EMT by blocking PI3K/Akt pathway. We hope that osthole can be used in anticancer therapy and be a new therapeutic medicine for GBM in the future.
Related JoVE Video
Hospitalization for Inflammatory Bowel Disease is Associated with Increased Risk of Breast Cancer: A Nationwide Cohort Study of an Asian Population.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To learn whether women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exhibit a higher risk of breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
GADD45? induces G2/M arrest in human pharynx and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by cucurbitacin E.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common form of malignant cancer, for which radiotherapy or chemotherapy are the main treatment methods. Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound-based drug which from the climbing stem of Cucumic melo L (Guadi). Previously shown to be an antifeedant as well as a potent chemopreventive agent against several types of cancer. The present study, investigated anti-proliferation and cell cycle G2/M arrest induced by CuE in Detroit 562 cells (pharynx carcinoma) and HONE-1 (nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cells. Results indicate that the cytotoxicity is associated with accumulation in G2/M cell-cycle phases. CuE produced cell cycle arrest as well as the downregulation of cyclin B1 and CDC2 expression. In addition, treated cells with CuE and GADD45? SiRNA that also coincided with GADD45? gene activation in cell cycle arrest. Both effects increased proportionally with the dose of CuE; however, proliferation inhibition and mitosis delay was dependant on the amount of CuE treatment in the cancer cells.
Related JoVE Video
Decreased complexity of glucose dynamics in diabetes: evidence from multiscale entropy analysis of continuous glucose monitoring system data.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Parameters of glucose dynamics recorded by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) could help in the control of glycemic fluctuations, which is important in diabetes management. Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis has recently been developed to measure the complexity of physical and physiological time sequences. A reduced MSE complexity index indicates the increased repetition patterns of the time sequence, and, thus, a decreased complexity in this system. No study has investigated the MSE analysis of glucose dynamics in diabetes. This study was designed to compare the complexity of glucose dynamics between the diabetic patients (n = 17) and the control subjects (n = 13), who were matched for sex, age, and body mass index via MSE analysis using the CGMS data. Compared with the control subjects, the diabetic patients revealed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the mean (diabetic patients 166.0 ± 10.4 vs. control subjects 93.3 ± 1.5 mg/dl), the standard deviation (51.7 ± 4.3 vs. 11.1 ± 0.5 mg/dl), and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (127.0 ± 9.2 vs. 27.7 ± 1.3 mg/dl) of the glucose levels; and a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the MSE complexity index (5.09 ± 0.23 vs. 7.38 ± 0.28). In conclusion, the complexity of glucose dynamics is decreased in diabetes. This finding implies the reactivity of glucoregulation is impaired in the diabetic patients. Such impairment presenting as an increased regularity of glycemic fluctuating pattern could be detected by MSE analysis. Thus, the MSE complexity index could potentially be used as a biomarker in the monitoring of diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Performance evaluation of continuity of care records (CCRs): parsing models in a mobile health management system.
J Med Syst
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In a mobile health management system, mobile devices act as the application hosting devices for personal health records (PHRs) and the healthcare servers construct to exchange and analyze PHRs. One of the most popular PHR standards is continuity of care record (CCR). The CCR is expressed in XML formats. However, parsing is an expensive operation that can degrade XML processing performance. Hence, the objective of this study was to identify different operational and performance characteristics for those CCR parsing models including the XML DOM parser, the SAX parser, the PULL parser, and the JSON parser with regard to JSON data converted from XML-based CCR. Thus, developers can make sensible choices for their target PHR applications to parse CCRs when using mobile devices or servers with different system resources. Furthermore, the simulation experiments of four case studies are conducted to compare the parsing performance on Android mobile devices and the server with large quantities of CCR data.
Related JoVE Video
Combination of Initial Palliative Prognostic Index and Score Change Provides a Better Prognostic Value for Terminally Ill Cancer Patients: A Six Year Observational Cohort Study.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Palliative Prognostic Index (PPI) is among the most popular scores used to predict life expectancy in terminally ill patients worldwide. PPI assessed on the first day of palliative care might be inappropriate (inadequate) because the contribution from subsequent changes in a patient's condition is ignored (neglected/not taken into account).
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic value of circulating tumor cells with podoplanin expression in patients with locally advanced or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Podoplanin (PDPN) is a prognostic factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, PDPN expression in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and its prognostic value are not clear.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical evidence of field cancerization in patients with oral cavity cancer in a betel quid chewing area.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We sought to investigate whether there is evidence of field cancerization in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) enrolled in a betel quid chewing area. We also assessed whether betel quid chewing is an independent risk factor for field cancerization in OSCC patients.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Clinical and microbiological characteristics of recurrent group B streptococcal infection among non-pregnant adults.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the clinical and microbiological features of recurrent group B streptococcal (GBS) diseases among non-pregnant adults.
Related JoVE Video
Magnitude of score change for the palliative prognostic index for survival prediction in patients with poor prognostic terminal cancer.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of the palliative prognostic index (PPI) when used only at an initial assessment might be inappropriate as a prognostic tool because it does not reflect the patient's clinical course. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of PPI score change (?score) between two assessments as a prognostic tool in terminally ill cancer patients categorized as having a poor prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Prescription pattern of Chinese herbal products for adult-onset asthma in Taiwan: a population-based study.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Throughout the world, asthma can be a life-threatening disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is commonly used among Taiwanese adults to control many diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Development and evaluation of an open-source software package "CGITA" for quantifying tumor heterogeneity with molecular images.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The quantification of tumor heterogeneity with molecular images, by analyzing the local or global variation in the spatial arrangements of pixel intensity with texture analysis, possesses a great clinical potential for treatment planning and prognosis. To address the lack of available software for computing the tumor heterogeneity on the public domain, we develop a software package, namely, Chang-Gung Image Texture Analysis (CGITA) toolbox, and provide it to the research community as a free, open-source project.
Related JoVE Video
The role of elective neck dissection in early stage buccal cancer.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The benefits of elective neck dissection (END) in early-stage tongue cancer have been widely discussed but are still controversial regarding early-stage buccal cancer. In this study, we evaluate the role of END and the treatment outcome in early-stage buccal cancer in an areca-quid endemic area.
Related JoVE Video
Hepatitis B virus X upregulates HuR protein level to stabilize HER2 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis B virus- (HBV-) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. However, the underlying mechanism of HCC tumorigenesis is very complicated and HBV-encoded X protein (HBx) has been reported to play the most important role in this process. Activation of downstream signal pathways of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family is known to mediate HBx-dependent HCC tumor progression. Interestingly, HER2 (also known as ErbB2/Neu/EGFR2) is frequently overexpressed in HBx-expressing HCC patients and is associated with their poor prognosis. However, it remains unclear whether and how HBx regulates HER2 expression. In this study, our data showed that HBx expression increased HER2 protein level via enhancing its mRNA stability. The induction of RNA-binding protein HuR expression by HBx mediated the HER2 mRNA stabilization. Finally, the upregulated HER2 expression promoted the migration ability of HBx-expressing HCC cells. These findings deciphered the molecular mechanism of HBx-mediated HER2 upregulation in HBV-associated HCC.
Related JoVE Video
Factors associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain in patients with chronic kidney disease.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic musculoskeletal (MS) pain is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing haemodialysis. However, epidemiological data for chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- or late-stage CKD who are not undergoing dialysis are limited.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic value of prepontine cistern invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the prognostic value of prepontine cistern invasion (PPCI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).
Related JoVE Video
Elevated activation of CaMKII? in the CPEB3-knockout hippocampus impairs a specific form of NMDAR-dependent synaptic depotentiation.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 3 (CPEB3) is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that confines the strength of glutamatergic synapses by translationally downregulating the expression of multiple plasticity-related proteins (PRPs), including the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95). CPEB3 knockout (KO) mice exhibit hippocampus-dependent abnormalities related not only to long-term spatial memory but also to the short-term acquisition and extinction of contextual fear memory. In this study, we identified a specific form of NMDAR-dependent synaptic depotentiation (DPT) that is impaired in the adult CPEB3 KO hippocampus. In parallel, cultured KO neurons also exhibited delayed morphological and biochemical responses under NMDA-induced chemical long-term depression (c-LTD). The c-LTD defects in the KO neurons include elevated activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha subunit (CaMKII?), increased Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 and slow degradation of PSD95 and GluA1. Because transient pharmacological suppression of CaMKII? activity during the DPT-initiating phase successfully reversed the LTP in the KO hippocampus, DPT and c-LTD in the two different systems shared common molecular defects due to the absence of CPEB3. Together, our results suggest that CPEB3 deficiency imbalances NMDAR-activated CaMKII? signaling, which consequently fails to depress synaptic strength under certain stimulation conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Outcomes and characteristics of patients undergoing percutaneous angioplasty followed by below-knee or above-knee amputation for peripheral artery disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about long-term outcomes among patients who receive percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) for peripheral artery disease (PAD) then undergo below-knee or above-knee amputations. We sought to determine clinical outcomes associated with below-knee or above-knee amputation, along with possible explanatory factors and treatment strategies.
Related JoVE Video
Associations between the Duration of Dialysis, Endotoxemia, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, and the Effects of a Short-Dwell Exchange in Patients Requiring Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endotoxemia is exaggerated and contributes to systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis in patients requiring continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The risk of mortality is substantially increased in patients requiring CAPD for >2 years. However, little is known about the effects of long-term CAPD on circulating endotoxin and cytokine levels. Therefore, the present study evaluated the associations between plasma endotoxin levels, cytokine levels, and clinical parameters with the effects of a short-dwell exchange on endotoxemia and cytokine levels in patients on long-term CAPD.
Related JoVE Video
Coronary artery spasm: review and update.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Coronary artery spasm (CAS), an intense vasoconstriction of coronary arteries that causes total or subtotal vessel occlusion, plays an important role in myocardial ischemic syndromes including stable and unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Coronary angiography and provocative testing usually is required to establish a definitive diagnosis. While the mechanisms underlying the development of CAS are still poorly understood, CAS appears to be a multifactorial disease but is not associated with the traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease. The diagnosis of CAS has important therapeutic implications, as calcium antagonists, not ?-blockers, are the cornerstone of medical treatment. The prognosis is generally considered benign; however, recurrent episodes of angina are frequently observed. We provide a review of the literature and summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of CAS.
Related JoVE Video
Using SCC antigen and CRP levels as prognostic biomarkers in recurrent oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels have been successfully used to stratify risk groups in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients; however, related biomarkers have rarely been investigated in recurrent OSCC. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationships of SCC-Ag and CRP levels at the time of recurrence with clinical factors and prognosis. We retrospectively recruited patients with recurrence in a cohort of 534 OSCC patients between March 2001 and July 2013. One hundred patients had recurrence. The serum SCC-Ag and CRP levels were measured at the time of cancer diagnosis, 3 to 6 months after treatment with clinical disease-free, and at the time of recurrence. The SCC-Ag levels were significantly lowered after treatment (paired t-test: p?=?0.001) and re-elevated at the time of recurrence (paired t-test: p?=?0.027). An SCC-Ag level ?2.0 ng/ml and a CRP level ?5.0 mg/L at the time of recurrence were significantly associated with recurrent tumor status (P<0.001), recurrent nodal metastasis (?2 trend test: P?=?0.020), distant metastasis (P<0.001), and overall survival (P<0.001). Moreover, the influence of both elevated SCC-Ag and CRP levels on overall survival (P<0.001, H.R. [95% CI]: 5.406 [2.210-13.222]) still existed after adjusting for the recurrent tumor stage and patient age. The present study demonstrates that concurrent high levels of both SCC-Ag and CRP at the diagnosis of recurrence acts as a predictor of recurrent tumor status, recurrent advanced tumor stage, distant metastasis, and survival after the diagnosis of recurrence. This study expands the applicability of these two markers in the risk stratification in recurrent OSCC.
Related JoVE Video
Combination treatment of tamoxifen with risperidone in breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tamoxifen has long been used and still is the most commonly used endocrine therapy for treatment of both early and advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in pre- and post-menopause women. Tamoxifen exerts its cytotoxic effect primarily through cytostasis which is associated with the accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Apoptotic activity can also be exerted by tamoxifen which involves cleavage of caspase 9, caspase 7, caspase 3, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak have also been observed. In addition, stress response protein of GRP 94 and GRP 78 have also been induced by tamoxifen in our study. However, side effects occur during tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer patients. Researching into combination regimen of tamoxifen and drug(s) that relieves tamoxifen-induced hot flushes is important, because drug interactions may decrease tamoxifen efficacy. Risperidone has been shown to be effective in reducing or eliminating hot flushes on women with hormonal variations. In this present study, we demonstrated that combination of tamoxifen with risperidone did not interfered tamoxifen-induced cytotoxic effects in both in vitro and in vivo models, while fluoxetine abrogated the effects of tamoxifen. This is the first paper suggesting the possibility of combination treatment of tamoxifen with risperidone in breast cancer patients, providing a conceivable resolution of tamoxifen-induced side effects without interfering the efficacy of tamoxifen against breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Chronic kidney disease stage is a modulator on the association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and coronary vasospastic angina.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The prevalence of coronary vasospasm and also the factors associated with coronary vasospasm in CKD is still unclear. In this cross-sectional study of 859 consecutive CKD patients with angina pectoris received coronary catheterization, we evaluated the factors associated with coronary vasospasm. Patients with vasospasm were older and had higher peripheral blood white cell counts, higher peripheral blood monocyte cell counts, higher haemoglobin levels, higher hs-CRP levels, and lower levels of serum creatinine than patients without vasospasm. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that peripheral blood monocyte count and hs-CRP level were independently associated with coronary vasospasm in patients with stage 1 CKD. Only peripheral blood monocyte count but not hs-CRP was independently associated with coronary vasospasm in patients with stages 2 and 3 of CKD. In conclusion, peripheral blood monocyte count is independently associated with coronary vasospasm in patients with stage 1-3 CKD, whereas hs-CRP is only independently associated with coronary vasospasm in patients with stage 1 CKD.
Related JoVE Video
Priority of fibular reconstruction in patients with oral cavity cancer undergoing segmental mandibulectomy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The fibula osteoseptocutaneous free flap is generally used for segmental mandibular reconstructions following resection of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, less complex reconstructions may be feasible for patients with predicted poor survival. Herein, we sought to identify the main risk factors (RFs) associated with poor prognosis in OSCC patients undergoing segmental mandibulectomy to help decide between fibular and non-fibular reconstructions.
Related JoVE Video
Postoperative concomitant chemoradiotherapy improved treatment outcomes of patients with oral cavity cancer with multiple-node metastases but no other major risk factors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the results of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for the treatment of pathologic N2b/c squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC).
Related JoVE Video
Reducing Regioisomers of Fullerene-Bisadducts by Tether-Directed Remote Functionalization: Investigation of Electronically and Sterically Isomeric Effects on Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
C60 bis-adduct containing a mixture of regio-isomers with different LUMO energy levels and steric geometries could greatly affect the morphological and bulk properties. To investigate the regio-isomer effect on solar cell performance, we have successfully designed and synthesized a regio-selective 4-acetatephenyl-4-methylphenylmethano C60 bis-adduct (S-APM-CBA) by "tether-directed remote functionalization" strategy and a random 4-acetatephenyl-4-methylphenylmethano C60 bis-adduct denoted as R-APM-CBA by traditional cyclopropanation. The dramatic reduction in the number of regio-isomers in S-APM-CBA is confirmed by the (1)H NMR and HPLC measurements and theoretical calculation. Compared to the R-APM-CBA-based device with a Jsc of 6.63 mA/cm(2), an FF of 44.3% and a PCE of 2.46%, the device using S-APM-CBA yielded a much lower Jsc of 1.48 mA/cm(2), an FF of 32.2%, and a PCE of 0.38%. Consistently, the electron-only device using S-AMP-CBA exhibited lower electron mobility than the R-AMP-CBA-based device. These results imply that the electronic shallow-trap effect ascribed to the LUMO energy variations turned out to be insignificant in the AMP-CBA system. The lower efficiency and mobility of S-AMP-CBA might due to the assumption that the most probable trans-4-III isomer in S-AMP-CBA prevents the intermolecular facial contact of fullerenes, thereby hindering the electron transporting. Furthermore, the nanomorphology of S-AMP-CBA and R-AMP-CBA active layers could be different because of their different three-dimensional structures. This research demonstrated that steric effect of regio-isomers in a given C60 bis-adduct is more crucial than electronic shallow-trap effect.
Related JoVE Video
Cisplatin, tegafur-uracil and leucovorin plus mitomycin C: an acceptably effective and toxic regimen for patients with recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This prospective phase II clinical trial evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin, oral tegafur-uracil, leucovorin, and mitomycin C in patients with recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Textural features of pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT images: prognostic significance in patients with advanced T-stage oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have shown that total lesion glycolysis (TLG) may serve as a prognostic indicator in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). We sought to investigate whether the textural features of pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT images can provide any additional prognostic information over TLG and clinical staging in patients with advanced T-stage OPSCC.
Related JoVE Video
Differences of left ventricular systolic deformation in hypertensive patients with and without apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We tested the hypothesis that the apical myocardial mechanics differ from those of other ventricular segments in hypertensive patients with and without apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM).
Related JoVE Video
Cucurbitacin E as inducer of cell death and apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line SAS.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common form of malignant cancer, for which radiotherapy or chemotherapy are the main treatment methods. Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound previously shown to be an antifeedant as well as a potent chemopreventive agent against several types of cancer. The present study investigates anti-proliferation (using MTT assay, CuE demonstrated cytotoxic activity against SAS cell with IC50 values at 3.69 µM) and induced apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells after 24 h treatment with CuE. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and caspase activity were studied and our results indicate that CuE inhibits cell proliferation as well as the activation of apoptois in SAS cells. Both effects increased in proportion to the dosage of CuE and apoptosis was induced via mitochondria- and caspase-dependent pathways. CuE can induce cell death by a mechanism that is not dependent on apoptosis induction, and thus represents a promising anticancer agent for prevention and treatment of OSCC.
Related JoVE Video
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banded plication: a case-matched comparative study with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has been accepted as stand-alone restrictive bariatric procedure; laparoscopic adjustable gastric banded plication (LAGBP) is an innovative technique combining gastric banding and plication of the stomach. This study aims to compare LAGBP with LSG in terms of percent excess weight loss (%EWL), resolution of comorbidities, and complications. This study was conducted in a university hospital. We retrospectively analyzed data of 60 patients: 30 each receiving LSG and LAGBP between May 2009 to October 2010. Demographics, operative data, complications, % EWL, and resolution of comorbidities were analyzed and compared. All the patients were followed for at least 1 year. LSG and LAGBP were matched for age, sex, body mass index and comorbidity ratio. Mean operative time was significantly longer in LAGBP: 62.45?±?30.1 vs. 86.01?±?21.88 (p?=?0.001). Both groups had similar complication rates (6.67 %) and most of the patients achieved significant resolution of comorbidities. The mean %EWL was statistically significant for LSG till 18 months follow-up as compared to LAGBP, but there was no difference at 2 years (p?=?0.971). Mean frequency of band adjustment after LAGBP in 2 years was 1.50?±?1.51. There was no significant difference in comorbidity resolution in both groups. LAGBP is a dual restrictive bariatric procedure offering similar results with LSG at 2 years in terms of complications, % EWL, and comorbidity resolution with potential of continual weight loss due to band.
Related JoVE Video
Sulforaphane induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase via the blockade of cyclin B1/CDC2 in human ovarian cancer cells.
J Ovarian Res
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malignant tumors are the single most common cause of death and the mortality rate of ovarian cancer is the highest among gynecological disorders. The excision of benign tumors is generally followed by complete recovery; however, the activity of cancer cells often results in rapid proliferation even after the tumor has been excised completely. Thus, clinical treatment must be supplemented by auxiliary chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Sulforaphane (SFN) is an extract from the mustard family recognized for its anti-oxidation abilities, phase 2 enzyme induction, and anti-tumor activity.
Related JoVE Video
Melatonin ameliorates endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, and systemic hypertension in rats with chronic intermittent hypoxia.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with endothelial dysfunction induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH). Studies have shown that administration of melatonin ameliorates oxidative injury and inflammation. This study examined the effect of melatonin on the oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation during the pathogenesis of hypertension in chronic IH. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats that had received a daily injection of melatonin or vehicle were exposed to IH treatment mimicking a severe OSA condition for 14-21 days. Systolic pressure was significantly higher in the vehicle-treated (144 ± 2.7 mmHg) but not in the melatonin-treated rats (123 ± 5.1 mmHg) by 21-day IH treatment when compared with the normoxic control. Levels of malondialdehyde and the expressions of NADPH oxidase, pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-?, inducible NO synthase, COX-2), and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin) of the thoracic aorta were markedly increased by 14-day IH treatment preceding the hypertensive response. Also, levels of nitric oxide (NO?), endothelial-dependent relaxation, and the expressions of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and antioxidant enzymes (GPx, CAT, and Cu/Zn SOD) were significantly lowered in the IH rats. Melatonin treatment significantly mitigated the increased expression of NADPH oxidase, pro-inflammatory mediators, and adhesion molecules. Moreover, melatonin prevented the endothelial dysfunction with ameliorated levels of NO?, endothelial-dependent relaxation, and expressions of eNOS and antioxidant enzymes. These results suggest that melatonin is protective against IH-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction via an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
Re-evaluating the predictive roles of metabolic complications and clinical outcome according to eGFR levels--a four-years prospective cohort study in Taiwan.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metabolic complications are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These outcomes differ among patients according to the different stages of disease. The prevalence and association of type and number of metabolic complications with renal progression and death in patients having different eGFR levels has high clinical value, but this fact has been rarely evaluated in prospective studies.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic implications of post-therapy (18)F-FDG PET in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy.
Ann Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reliable prognostic factors that serve as a guide to follow-up of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have not yet been identified. We sought to investigate the prognostic implications of post-therapy PET in patients with NPC treated with chemoradiotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical scenario of EBV DNA follow-up in patients of treated localized nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we investigated the usefulness and limitations of EBV-DNA follow-up in patients who had treated localized nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
A negative selection system PowerMag for effective leukocyte depletion and enhanced detection of EpCAM positive and negative circulating tumor cells.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be enriched from peripheral blood by leukocyte depletion. In this study, a PowerMag system was designed to enhance leukocyte depletion and CTC detection.
Related JoVE Video
Pre-treatment levels of C-reactive protein and squamous cell carcinoma antigen for predicting the aggressiveness of pharyngolaryngeal carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The levels of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) and C-reactive protein (CRP) can be used to predict tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, staging and survival in patients with oral cavity cancer. The present study analyzed the relationship between pre-treatment levels of SCC-Ag and CRP in relation to clinicopathological factors in patients with pharyngolaryngeal cancer (PLC) and determined whether elevated levels of CRP and SCC-Ag were associated with tumor metabolic activity via [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). We retrospectively recruited one hundred and six PLC patients between June 2008 and December 2011. All patients received computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FDG-PET staging analyses, and the serum levels of SCC-Ag and CRP in these patients were measured prior to treatment. A SCC-Ag level ?2.0 ng/ml and a CRP level ?5.0 mg/L were significantly associated with clinical stage (P<0.001), clinical tumor status (P<0.001), and clinical nodal status (P<0.001). The elevation of both SCC-Ag and CRP levels was correlated with the standardized uptake value (SUV) max of the tumor (?8.6 mg/L) and lymph nodes (?5.7 ng/ml) (P?=?0.019). The present study demonstrated that the presence of high levels of both pre-treatment SCC-Ag and CRP acts as a predictor of clinical stage, clinical tumor status, and clinical nodal status in patients with PLC. Moreover, elevated levels of SCC-Ag and CRP were associated with a high metabolic rate as well as the proliferative activity measured according to the SUVmax of the tumor and lymph nodes. Therefore, elevated levels of these two factors have the potential to serve as biomarkers for the prediction of tumor aggressiveness in cases of PLC.
Related JoVE Video
Refining the role of preoperative C-reactive protein by neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Elevated inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and the recently identified neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were demonstrated to be associated with prognosis in human cancers. The aim of our present study is to analyze the relationship of preoperative levels of CRP and NLR with clinicopathological factors and prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of palliative care consultative service on disease awareness for patients with terminal cancer.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Awareness of the status of disease among terminally ill cancer patients is an important part of the end-of-life care. We have evaluated how palliative care consultative service (PCCS) affects patient disease awareness and determined who may benefit from such services in Taiwan.
Related JoVE Video
Predictive Factors For Do-Not-Resuscitate Designation Among Terminally Ill Cancer Patients Receiving Care From a Palliative Care Consultation Service.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Since the development of palliative care in the 1980s, "do not resuscitate" (DNR) has been promoted worldwide to avoid unnecessary resuscitation in terminally ill cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
Increasing rates of low-risk human papillomavirus infections in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: association with clinical outcomes.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have been causally linked to oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the potential role of low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types in the pathogenesis of this malignancy remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Nontyphoid salmonella infection: microbiology, clinical features, and antimicrobial therapy.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nontyphoid Salmonella is the most common bacterial pathogen causing gastrointestinal infection worldwide. Most nontyphoid Salmonella infection is limited to uncomplicated gastroenteritis that seldom requires antimicrobial treatment. Nevertheless, invasive infections, such as bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and meningitis, may occur and require antimicrobial therapy. Continuous genetic and genomic evolution in Salmonella leading to increased virulence and resistance to multiple drugs are of significant public health concern. Two major changes in the epidemiology of nontyphoid salmonellosis in Europe and in the USA occurred in the second half of the 20(th) century: the emergence of foodborne human infections caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteriditis and by multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. In the 21(st) century, a worsening situation is the increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in nontyphoid Salmonella. Clinical isolates showing carbapenem resistance also have been identified. Although antimicrobial therapy is usually not indicated for uncomplicated Salmonella gastroenteritis, recent studies indicated that a short-course ceftriaxone therapy (3-5 days) for patients with severe gastroenteritis would lead to a faster clinical recovery. Continuous surveillance of Salmonella in both humans and animals is mandatory. A better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella may help in the devising of better interventional strategies to reduce the spread of resistant Salmonella between humans and reservoirs along the food chain.
Related JoVE Video
Reduction of splenic immunosuppressive cells and enhancement of anti-tumor immunity by synergy of fish oil and selenium yeast.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Growing evidence has shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) abnormally increase in cancer cachectic patients. Suppressions of Tregs and MDSCs may enhance anti-tumor immunity for cancer patients. Fish oil and selenium have been known to have many biological activities such as anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Whether fish oil and/or selenium have an additional effect on population of immunosuppressive cells in tumor-bearing hosts remained elusive and controversial. To gain insights into their roles on anti-tumor immunity, we studied the fish oil- and/or selenium-mediated tumor suppression and immunity on lung carcinoma, whereof cachexia develops. Advancement of cachexia in a murine lung cancer model manifested with such indicative symptoms as weight loss, chronic inflammation and disturbed immune functionality. The elevation of Tregs and MDSCs in spleens of tumor-bearing mice was positively correlated with tumor burdens. Consumption of either fish oil or selenium had little or no effect on the levels of Tregs and MDSCs. However, consumption of both fish oil and selenium together presented a synergistic effect--the population of Tregs and MDSCs decreased as opposed to increase of anti-tumor immunity when both fish oil and selenium were supplemented simultaneously, whereby losses of body weight and muscle/fat mass were alleviated significantly.
Related JoVE Video
Preclinical Activity of Simvastatin Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in G1 via Blockade of Cyclin D-Cdk4 Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC).
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death. Nonetheless, a decrease in overall incidence and mortality has been observed in the last 30 years due to prevention strategies and improvements in the use of chemotherapeutic agents. In recent studies, Simvastatin (SIM) has demonstrated anti-tumor activity, as well as potent chemopreventive action. As an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA), SIM has been shown to stimulate apoptotic cell death. In this study, an MTT assay revealed the cytotoxic activity of SIM against human large cell lung cancer (Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC) cells (NCI-H460); however, induced apoptosis was not observed in NCI-H460 cells. Protein expression levels of cell cycle regulating proteins Cdk4, Cyclin D1, p16 and p27 were markedly altered by SIM. Collectively, our results indicate that SIM inhibits cell proliferation and arrests NCI-H460 cell cycle progression via inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins and the enhancement of CDK inhibitors p16 and p27. Our findings suggest that, in addition to the known effects on hypercholesterolemia therapy, SIM may also provide antitumor activity in established NSCLC.
Related JoVE Video
Gender-specific prognosis and risk impact of C-reactive protein, hemoglobin and platelet in the development of coronary spasm.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Scarce data are available on hemoglobin and platelet in relation to coronary artery spasm (CAS) development. We sought to determine the roles that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), hemoglobin and platelet play in CAS patients.
Related JoVE Video
Characteristics of patients with hematologic malignancies who received palliative care consultation services in a medical center.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to compare the characteristics of patients with hematologic malignancies and solid cancers who received palliative care. A total of 124 patients with hematologic malignancy and 3032 patients with solid cancer, who received palliative care consultation services between 2006 and 2010 in a medical center in Taiwan, were retrospectively analyzed. Higher prevalence of oral stomatitis, diarrhea, and hematologic symptoms including infection, fever, severe anemia, and bleeding, and lower prevalence of constipation, abdominal distension, and pain were observed in patients with hematologic malignancies compared to that in patients with solid cancer. The interval from hospital admission to palliative care referral was longer for patients with hematologic malignancy than that for patients with solid cancer. Hematologists should refer patients earlier, and palliative care specialists should understand the specific needs of patients with hematologic malignancy.
Related JoVE Video
Omega-3 fatty acid-, micronutrient-, and probiotic-enriched nutrition helps body weight stabilization in head and neck cancer cachexia.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate whether an oral nutritional supplement enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, micronutrients, and probiotics affected body weight (BW) changes, serum albumin and prealbumin levels in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) cachexia.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Retropharyngeal Lymph Node Metastasis Identified by FDG PET/CT.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) metastasis is an uncommon finding in patients with oral cavity squamous carcinoma (OSCC). We sought to investigate the clinical outcomes, clinicopathological characteristics, and the priority of treatment with curative intent in OSCC patients with RPLN involvement.
Related JoVE Video
C-reactive protein for predicting prognosis and its gender-specific associations with diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the development of coronary artery spasm.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While hypertension is negatively associated with coronary artery spasm (CAS), scarce data are available on diabetes mellitus in relation to CAS. In addition, outcome prediction in patients with CAS is challenging due to the lack of appropriate biomarkers. Therefore, we sought to identify the roles that gender, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), diabetes mellitus and hypertension play in CAS development and prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging predicts local control in oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The role of pretreatment dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DCE-PWI) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in predicting the treatment response of oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OHSCC) to chemoradiation remains unclear. We prospectively investigated the ability of pharmacokinetic parameters derived from pretreatment DCE-PWI and DWI to predict the local control of OHSCC patients treated with chemoradiation. Between August, 2010 and March, 2012, patients with untreated OHSCC scheduled for chemoradiation were eligible for this prospective study. DCE-PWI and DWI were performed in addition to conventional MRI. The relationship of local control with the following clinical and imaging variables was analyzed: the hemoglobin level, T-stage, tumor location, gross tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis on FDG PET/CT, transfer constant (K (trans) ), volume of blood plasma and volume of extracellular extravascular space on DCE-PWI, and apparent diffusion coefficient on DWI of the primary tumor. The patients were also divided into a local control group and a local failure group, and their clinical and imaging parameters were compared. There were 58 patients (29 with oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma [SCC] and 29 with hypopharynx SCC) with successful pretreatment DCE-PWI and DWI available for analysis. After a median follow-up of 18.2 months, 17 (29.3%) participants had local failure, whereas the remaining 41 patients achieved local control. Univariate analysis revealed that only the K (trans) value was significantly associated with local control (P = 0.03). When the local control and local failure groups were compared, significant differences were observed in K (trans) and the tumor location (P = 0.01 and P = 0.04, respectively). In the multivariable analysis, only K (trans) was statistically significant (P = 0.04). Our results suggest that pretreatment K (trans) may help predict the local control in OHSCC patients treated with chemoradiation.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical significance in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma of pathogenic somatic mitochondrial mutations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Somatic mutations affecting the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been frequently observed in human cancers and proposed as important oncological biomarkers. However, the clinical significance of mtDNA mutations in cancer remains unclear. This study was therefore performed to explore the possible clinical use in assessing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of pathogenic mtDNA mutations. The entire mitochondrial genome of 300 OSCC with their matched control DNAs was screened by direct sequencing and criteria were set to define a pathogenic somatic mutation. The patients TP53 R72P genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The relationships between pathogenic somatic mutations, clinicopathogical features, TP53 R72P genotype and clinical prognosis were analyzed. Overall, 645 somatic mtDNA mutations were identified and 91 of these mutations were defined as pathogenic. About one quarter (74/300) of the OSCC tumor samples contained pathogenic mutations. Individuals with the TP53 R allele had a higher frequency of pathogenic somatic mutation than those with the PP genotype. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that TP53 R allele patients with pathogenic somatic mutations demonstrated a significant association with a poorer disease-free survival than other individuals (HR?=?1.71; 95% CI, 1.15-2.57; p?=?0.009) and this phenomenon still existed after adjusting for mtDNA haplogroup, tumor stage with treatment regimens, differentiation and age at diagnosis (HR?=?1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.40; p?=?0.03). Subgroup analyses showed that this phenomenon was limited to patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy after surgery. The results strongly indicated that pathogenic mtDNA mutations are a potential prognostic marker for OSCCs. Furthermore, functional mitochondria may play an active role in cancer development and the patients response to radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Thermally induced morphology evolution of pit-patterned Si substrate and its effect on nucleation properties of Ge dots.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We demonstrate the effect of the pre-growth heat treatment process on the nucleation properties of Ge dots grown on pit-patterned Si(001) substrates. The prefabricated 200 nm diameter pits inherently evolve into truncated inverted pyramids (TIPs) with (110) base edges and a 7°-9° sidewall slope during heat treatment; this morphology transformation is robust against variations in shape and orientation of the pit patterns. Uniform Ge dots with an areal density of 4 × 10(9) cm(-2) were obtained on the Si substrates having TIPs. Each TIP contains four aligned Ge dots locating symmetrically with respect to (110). These dots exhibit an elliptical dome shape with major axis oriented along (100). The nucleation position, shape and spatial orientation of these Ge dots coincide with the calculated surface chemical potential distribution of the TIP.
Related JoVE Video
Biochemotherapy with carmustine, cisplatin, dacarbazine, tamoxifen and low-dose interleukin-2 for patients with metastatic malignant melanoma.
Chang Gung Med J
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The toxicity and efficacy of biochemotherapy with low-dose interleukin-2 for patients with metastatic malignant melanoma (MM) were studied.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.