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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
ADAPTATION-DEPENDENT SYNCHRONIZATION TRANSITIONS AND BURST GENERATIONS IN ELECTRICALLY COUPLED NEURAL NETWORKS.
Int J Neural Syst
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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A typical feature of neurons is their ability to encode neural information dynamically through spike frequency adaptation (SFA). Previous studies of SFA on neuronal synchronization were mainly concentrated on the correlated firing between neuron pairs, while the synchronization of neuron populations in the presence of SFA is still unclear. In this study, the influence of SFA on the population synchronization of neurons was numerically explored in electrically coupled networks, with regular, small-world, and random connectivity, respectively. The simulation results indicate that cross-correlation indices decrease significantly when the neurons have adaptation compared with those of nonadapting neurons, similar to previous experimental observations. However, the synchronous activity of population neurons exhibits a rather complex adaptation-dependent manner. Specifically, synchronization strength of neuron populations changes nonmonotonically, depending on the degree of adaptation. In addition, single neurons in the networks can switch from regular spiking to bursting with the increase of adaptation degree. Furthermore, the connection probability among neurons exhibits significant influence on the population synchronous activity, but has little effect on the burst generation of single neurons. Accordingly, the results may suggest that synchronous activity and burst firing of population neurons are both adaptation-dependent.
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[Effects of carotid endarterectomy on cognitive function in patients with carotid stenosis].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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To investigate the theraputic effects of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on cognitive function in patients with carotid stenosis (CAS) and congnitive impairment.
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Sestrin2 promotes LKB1-mediated AMPK activation in the ischemic heart.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The regulation of AMPK in the ischemic heart remains incompletely understood. Recent evidence implicates the role of Sestrin2 in the AMPK signaling pathway, and it is hypothesized that Sestrin2 plays an influential role during myocardial ischemia to promote AMPK activation. Sestrin2 protein was found to be expressed in adult cardiomyocytes and accumulated in the heart during ischemic conditions. Sestrin2 knockout (KO) mice were used to determine the importance of Sestrin2 during ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. When wild-type (WT) and Sestrin2 KO mice were subjected to in vivo I/R, myocardial infarct size was significantly greater in Sestrin2 KO compared with WT hearts. Similarly, Langendorff perfused hearts indicated exacerbated postischemic contractile function in Sestrin2 KO hearts compared with WT. Ischemic AMPK activation was found to be impaired in the Sestrin2 KO hearts. Immunoprecipitation of Sestrin2 demonstrated an association with AMPK. Moreover, liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a major AMPK upstream kinase, was associated with the Sestrin2-AMPK complex in a time-dependent manner during ischemia, whereas this interaction was nearly abolished in Sestrin2 KO hearts. Thus, Sestrin2 plays an important role in cardioprotection against I/R injury, serving as an LKB1-AMPK scaffold to initiate AMPK activation during ischemic insults.-Morrison, A., Chen, L. Wang, J., Zhang, M., Yang, H., Ma, Y., Budanov, A., Lee, J. H., Karin, M., Li, J. Sestrin2 promotes LKB1-mediated AMPK activation in the ischemic heart.
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The vigorous immune microenvironment of microsatellite instable colon cancer is balanced by multiple counter-inhibitory checkpoints.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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We examined the immune microenvironment of primary colorectal cancer (CRC) using immunohistochemistry, laser capture microdissection/qRT-PCR, flow cytometry and functional analysis of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. A subset of CRC displayed high infiltration with activated CD8+ CTL as well as activated Th1 cells characterized by IFN-? production and the Th1 transcription factor Tbet. Parallel analysis of tumor genotypes revealed that virtually all of the tumors with this active Th1/CTL microenvironment had defects in mismatch repair, as evidenced by microsatellite instability (MSI). Counterbalancing this active Th1/CTL microenvironment, MSI tumors selectively demonstrated highly up-regulated expression of multiple immune checkpoints, including five - PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, LAG-3 and IDO - currently being targeted clinically with inhibitors. These findings link tumor genotype with the immune microenvironment, and explain why MSI tumors are not naturally eliminated despite a hostile Th1/CTL microenvironment. They further suggest that blockade of specific checkpoints may be selectively efficacious in the MSI subset of CRC.
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S-rich single-layered MoS2 nanoplates embedded in N-doped carbon nanofibers: efficient co-electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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S-rich MoS2-NCNF hybrid nanomaterials exhibiting extraordinary HER activity, with a very low onset potential of 30 mV and a small Tafel slope of 38 mV per decade, were successfully fabricated by combining N-doped carbon nanofibers and single-layered MoS2 nanostructures with abundant edge active sites.
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[Analysis of urine screening results for school-age children in Zhucheng City of Shandong Province of China in 2013].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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To study the significance of urine screening for school-age children by analyzing urine screening results of school-age children from Zhucheng City, Shandong Province, China, in 2013.
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[Influencing factors for operational performance of a biofilm reactor with microbubble aeration using SPG membrane].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The microbubble-aerated biofilm reactor provides a feasibility to apply microbubble aeration in aerobic wastewater treatment processes. In this study, Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membranes were used for microbubble aeration in a fixed bed biofilm reactor treating synthetic municipal wastewater. The influencing factors for operational performance of the bioreactor were investigated, including operating parameters, SPG membrane fouling and its structural changes. The results indicated that there was no significant influences of air flux, organic loading rate and packed bed on COD removal and an average COD removal efficiency of 80% -90% could be achieved under different operating conditions. On the other hand, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations decreased significantly along with reducing air flux or increasing organic loading rate. As a result, the ammonia removal deteriorated gradually and the average ammonia removal efficiency decreased from 80% -90% to 20% -30% At the same time, the total nitrogen (TN) removal achieved in the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process was also reduced from 30% -40% to about 20% , due to nitrification inhibition. Higher available porosity could be obtained when ring packing was used in the fixed bed, resulting in improvement of contaminant removal performance. An oxygen utilization efficiency of close to 100% could be achieved at low air fluxes or high organic loading rates during microbubble aeration. Both biofilm growth and organic foulant accumulation on SPC, membrane surface contributed to membrane fouling after long-term operation. The average pore size and porosity of SPG membrane increased significantly due to the chemical corrosion caused by alkali NaClO solution used for online cleaning. Then the air permeation of SPG membrane was affected by membrane fouling and destroyed pore structure.
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[Atrazine wastewater treatment in a SPG membrane-aerated genetically engineered microorganism biofilm reactor].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) represent a novel membrane-biological wastewater treatment technology. In addition, bioaugmented treatment using genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) biofilm in MABR is proposed to improve refractory pollutant removal. In the present study, a SPG membrane aerated-biofilm reactor (SPG-MABR) with GEM biofilm formed on the SPG membrane surface was applied to treat atrazine wastewater. The influences of air pressure, biofilm biomass and liquid velocity on the performance of the SPG-MABR were investigated. The variation of GEM biofilm during the SPG-MABR operation was observed. The results indicated that the increased air pressure could promote atrazine and COD removal as well as re-oxygenation by increasing oxygen permeability coefficient. A higher biofilm biomass could also enhance atrazine and COD removal, but simultaneously reduce the re-oxygenation rate because biofilm thickness and oxygen transfer resistance increased. When liquid velocity in the SPG-MABR was decreased under laminar flow condition, atrazine and COD removal was improved due to the facilitated contaminant diffusion from wastewater to biofilm. The atrazine removal efficiency reached to 98.6% in the SPG-MABR after 5d treatment at air pressure of 300 kPa, biofilm biomass of 25 g x m(-2) and liquid velocity of 0.05 m x s(-1). The microbial polymorphism of GEM biofilm was observed during the SPG-MABR operation. The surface of GEM biofilm was gradually covered by other microbial cells and the distribution of GEM cells reduced, but inside the GEM biofilm, the GEM cells were still dominant.
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Role of bax in death of uninfected retinal cells during murine cytomegalovirus retinitis.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Extensive death of uninfected bystander neuronal cells is an important component of the pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Our previous results have shown that caspase 3-dependent and -independent pathways are involved in death of uninfected bystander cells during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) retinitis and also that Bcl-2, an important inhibitor of apoptosis via the Bax-mediated mitochondrial pathway, is downregulated during this process. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Bax-mediated mitochondrial damage has a significant role in the death of uninfected retinal cells.
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Loss of Imprinting of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 is Associated with Increased Risk of Primary Lung Cancer in the Central China Region.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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To determine the imprinting status of the IGF2 in Chinese patients with primary lung cancer and to analyze the clinical significance of the loss of imprinting (LOI) of IGF2.
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Computed tomography-based study exploring the feasibility of endovascular treatment of type a aortic dissection in the chinese population.
J. Endovasc. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Purpose : To characterize type A aortic dissection (TAAD) in the Chinese population using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) and explore potential candidacy for endovascular repair of TAAD. Methods : The imaging studies and medical records of all 302 patients presenting with TAAD at two Chinese hospitals from 2010 to 2013 were reviewed. Of these, 221 patients were excluded because of missing/inadequate preoperative CT scans. The remaining 91 patients (64 men; mean age 51.1±7.5 years) had CT data adequate to assess anatomical suitability for endovascular treatment. Entry tears were identified using multiplanar reconstructions, while morphological measurements were based on a centerline of flow (CLF) technique. Suitability for endovascular treatment was based on a proximal landing zone ?20 mm long, a true lumen aortic diameter ?38 mm, and a total aortic diameter ?46 mm; no coronary bypass grafts originating from the ascending aorta; no malfunctioning aortic valve; and good cerebral and cardiac perfusion. Results : In the 91 patients, the precise location of the primary proximal entry tear could be identified in only 34 (37.4%) patients; in these patients, the identifiable intimal tears were located 36.4±41.0 mm distal to the closest coronary artery. The CLF was successfully generated in the CT scans of all patients; the mean lumen and total aortic lumen diameters at the entry tear level were 37.6±6.3 and 44.3±13.3 mm, respectively. Based on the CT measurements, stent-graft repair would have been anatomically feasible in 35 (38.5%) patients. No proximal landing zone (n=23), large aortic diameter (n=15), abnormal aortic valve (n=10), previous coronary bypass graft surgery (n=5), and poor cerebral and cardiac perfusion (n=3) were obstacles that affected the suitability for this treatment. Conclusion : Based on high-resolution CT scans, our pilot study suggested that 38% of Chinese patients with TAAD could potentially be treated by stent-grafting based on the anatomical characteristics of the proximal dissection.
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ICan: An Optimized Ion-Current-Based Quantification Procedure with Enhanced Quantitative Accuracy and Sensitivity in Biomarker Discovery.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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The rapidly expanding availability of high-resolution mass spectrometry has substantially enhanced the ion-current-based relative quantification techniques. Despite the increasing interest in ion-current-based methods, quantitative sensitivity, accuracy, and false discovery rate remain the major concerns; consequently, comprehensive evaluation and development in these regards are urgently needed. Here we describe an integrated, new procedure for data normalization and protein ratio estimation, termed ICan, for improved ion-current-based analysis of data generated by high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS). ICan achieved significantly better accuracy and precision, and lower false-positive rate for discovering altered proteins, over current popular pipelines. A spiked-in experiment was used to evaluate the performance of ICan to detect small changes. In this study E. coli extracts were spiked with moderate-abundance proteins from human plasma (MAP, enriched by IgY14-SuperMix procedure) at two different levels to set a small change of 1.5-fold. Forty-five (92%, with an average ratio of 1.71 ± 0.13) of 49 identified MAP protein (i.e., the true positives) and none of the reference proteins (1.0-fold) were determined as significantly altered proteins, with cutoff thresholds of ?1.3-fold change and p ? 0.05. This is the first study to evaluate and prove competitive performance of the ion-current-based approach for assigning significance to proteins with small changes. By comparison, other methods showed remarkably inferior performance. ICan can be broadly applicable to reliable and sensitive proteomic survey of multiple biological samples with the use of high-resolution MS. Moreover, many key features evaluated and optimized here such as normalization, protein ratio determination, and statistical analyses are also valuable for data analysis by isotope-labeling methods.
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GluA1 phosphorylation contributes to postsynaptic amplification of neuropathic pain in the insular cortex.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Long-term potentiation of glutamatergic transmission has been observed after physiological learning or pathological injuries in different brain regions, including the spinal cord, hippocampus, amygdala, and cortices. The insular cortex is a key cortical region that plays important roles in aversive learning and neuropathic pain. However, little is known about whether excitatory transmission in the insular cortex undergoes plastic changes after peripheral nerve injury. Here, we found that peripheral nerve ligation triggered the enhancement of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission in the insular cortex. The synaptic GluA1 subunit of AMPAR, but not the GluA2/3 subunit, was increased after nerve ligation. Genetic knock-in mice lacking phosphorylation of the Ser845 site, but not that of the Ser831 site, blocked the enhancement of the synaptic GluA1 subunit, indicating that GluA1 phosphorylation at the Ser845 site by protein kinase A (PKA) was critical for this upregulation after nerve injury. Furthermore, A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP79/150) and PKA were translocated to the synapses after nerve injury. Genetic deletion of adenylyl cyclase subtype 1 (AC1) prevented the translocation of AKAP79/150 and PKA, as well as the upregulation of synaptic GluA1-containing AMPARs. Pharmacological inhibition of calcium-permeable AMPAR function in the insular cortex reduced behavioral sensitization caused by nerve injury. Our results suggest that the expression of AMPARs is enhanced in the insular cortex after nerve injury by a pathway involving AC1, AKAP79/150, and PKA, and such enhancement may at least in part contribute to behavioral sensitization together with other cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal cortices.
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[Tissue Doppler imaging in the evaluation of cardiac function in fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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To evaluate the cardiac function of fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) by using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI).
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[Calreticulin-induced mitochondrial injury: a novel mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To observe the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on calreticulin (CRT) expression and its association with mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiomyocytes.
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Simultaneous Determination of Pirfenidone and Its Metabolite in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study.
J Anal Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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A simple and rapid analytical method for the simultaneous determination of pirfenidone and its metabolite, 5-carboxy-pirfenidone, in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated. Aliquots of plasma (0.1 mL) containing pirfenidone and 5-carboxy-pirfenidone, as well as deuterium-labeled internal standards (ISs), were deproteinized using acetonitrile. An Agilent Zorbax Plus C18 column was used for the chromatography, with isocratic elution. The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous ammonium formate solution (5 mM) containing 0.1% formic acid (60 : 40, v/v). Using multiple reaction monitoring in positive ionization mode, transitions m/z 186.1 ? 65.1, m/z 216.0 ? 77.0, m/z 191.1 ? 65.1 and m/z 221.0 ? 81.0 were chosen to quantify pirfenidone, 5-carboxy-pirfenidone and the two ISs, respectively. The time of analysis was <3 min. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration ranges 0.005-25 ?g/mL for pirfenidone, and 0.005-15 ?g/mL for 5-carboxy-pirfenidone. The lower limit of quantification for both analytes was 0.005 ?g/mL. The intra- and interday precision and relative errors in quality control samples were between -11.7 and 1.3% for pirfenidone and between -5.6 and 2.5% for 5-carboxy-pirfenidone, with mean recoveries ?90%. The method that has been developed is easy to carry out, sensitive and rapid, and has been successfully used to investigate the pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone in healthy human volunteers.
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[Simultaneous determination of sixteen perfluorinated organic compounds in surface water by solid phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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A high-throughput detection method has been developed for the determination of sixteen perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) in surface water by solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The water samples were concentrated and purified through WAX solid phase extraction cartridges. The UPLC separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column utilizing a gradient elution program of methanol (containing 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate) and water (containing 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate) as the mobile phases at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The MS/MS detection was performed under negative electrospray ionization ( ESI ) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Good linearities were observed in the range of 0.5-100 gg/L or 1.0 - 100 microg/L with correlation coefficients from 0.998 7 to 0.999 9. The limits of detection (LODs) for the sixteen perfluorinated organic compounds were in the range of 0.06-0.46 ng/L. The recoveries ranged from 67.6% to 103% with the relative standard deviations between 2.94% and 12.0%. This method was characterized by high sensitivity and precision, extensive range and high speed, and can be applied for the analysis of PFC contaminants in surface water.
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Physical justification for negative remanent magnetization in homogeneous nanoparticles.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The phenomenon of negative remanent magnetization (NRM) has been observed experimentally in a number of heterogeneous magnetic systems and has been considered anomalous. The existence of NRM in homogenous magnetic materials is still in debate, mainly due to the lack of compelling support from experimental data and a convincing theoretical explanation for its thermodynamic validation. Here we resolve the long-existing controversy by presenting experimental evidence and physical justification that NRM is real in a prototype homogeneous ferromagnetic nanoparticle, an europium sulfide nanoparticle. We provide novel insights into major and minor hysteresis behavior that illuminate the true nature of the observed inverted hysteresis and validate its thermodynamic permissibility and, for the first time, present counterintuitive magnetic aftereffect behavior that is consistent with the mechanism of magnetization reversal, possessing unique capability to identify NRM. The origin and conditions of NRM are explained quantitatively via a wasp-waist model, in combination of energy calculations.
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Toward sensitive and accurate analysis of antibody biotherapeutics by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Remarkable methodological advances in the past decade have expanded the application of liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of biotherapeutics. Currently, LC/MS represents a promising alternative or supplement to the traditional ligand binding assay (LBA) in the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and toxicokinetic studies of protein drugs, owing to the rapid and cost-effective method development, high specificity and reproducibility, low sample consumption, the capacity of analyzing multiple targets in one analysis, and the fact that a validated method can be readily adapted across various matrices and species. While promising, technical challenges associated with sensitivity, sample preparation, method development, and quantitative accuracy need to be addressed to enable full utilization of LC/MS. This article introduces the rationale and technical challenges of LC/MS techniques in biotherapeutics analysis and summarizes recently developed strategies to alleviate these challenges. Applications of LC/MS techniques on quantification and characterization of antibody biotherapeutics are also discussed. We speculate that despite the highly attractive features of LC/MS, it will not fully replace traditional assays such as LBA in the foreseeable future; instead, the forthcoming trend is likely the conjunction of biochemical techniques with versatile LC/MS approaches to achieve accurate, sensitive, and unbiased characterization of biotherapeutics in highly complex pharmaceutical/biologic matrices. Such combinations will constitute powerful tools to tackle the challenges posed by the rapidly growing needs for biotherapeutics development.
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Comparative phosphoproteome analysis of the developing grains in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under well-watered and water-deficit conditions.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the most important cereal crops, is often threatened by drought. In this study, water deficit significantly reduced the height of plants and yield of grains. To explore further the effect of drought stress on the development and yield of grains, we first performed a large scale phosphoproteome analysis of developing grains in wheat. A total of 590 unique phosphopeptides, representing 471 phosphoproteins, were identified under well-watered conditions. Motif-X analysis showed that four motifs were enriched, including [sP], [Rxxs], [sDxE], and [sxD]. Through comparative phosphoproteome analysis between well-watered and water-deficit conditions, we found that 63 unique phosphopeptides, corresponding to 61 phosphoproteins, showed significant changes in phosphorylation level (?2-fold intensities). Functional analysis suggested that some of these proteins may be involved in signal transduction, embryo and endosperm development of grains, and drought response and defense under water-deficit conditions. Moreover, we also found that some chaperones may play important roles in protein refolding or degradation when the plant is subjected to water stress. These results provide a detailed insight into the stress response and defense mechanisms of developmental grains at the phosphoproteome level. They also suggested some potential candidates for further study of transgenosis and drought stress as well as incorporation into molecular breeding for drought resistance.
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Acid-activated biochar increased sulfamethazine retention in soils.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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Sulfamethazine (SMZ) is an ionizable and highly mobile antibiotic which is frequently found in soil and water environments. We investigated the sorption of SMZ onto soils amended with biochars (BCs) at varying pH and contact time. Invasive plants were pyrolyzed at 700 °C and were further activated with 30 % sulfuric (SBBC) and oxalic (OBBC) acids. The sorption rate of SMZ onto SBBC and OBBC was pronouncedly pH dependent and was decreased significantly when the values of soil pH increased from 3 to 5. Modeled effective sorption coefficients (K D,eff) values indicated excellent sorption on SBBC-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils for 229 and 183 L/kg, respectively. On the other hand, the low sorption values were determined for OBBC- and BBC700-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that the pseudo second order model was the best followed by intra-particle diffusion and the Elovich model, indicating that multiple processes govern SMZ sorption. These findings were also supported by sorption edge experiments based on BC characteristics. Chemisorption onto protonated and ligand containing functional groups of the BC surface, and diffusion in macro-, meso-, and micro-pores of the acid-activated BCs are the proposed mechanisms of SMZ retention in soils. Calculated and experimental q e (amount adsorbed per kg of the adsorbent at equilibrium) values were well fitted to the pseudo second order model, and the predicted maximum equilibrium concentration of SBBC for loamy sand soils was 182 mg/kg. Overall, SBBC represents a suitable soil amendment because of its high sorption rate of SMZ in soils.
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Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against GRAM domain-containing protein 1A.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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From the proteomic analysis, we identified hundreds of novel proteins that have never been characterized for their expression profile and function on human embryonic stem (hES) cells. In this study, we produced a group of monoclonal antibodies against the GRAM domain-containing protein 1A, which was found on hES cells. Using these antibodies, we analyzed the expression of GRAMD1A in various tissues and tumor cell lines. The results showed that GRAMD1A is expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of hES cells, cancer cell lines and ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm tissues. The development of the monoclonal antibody to GRAMD1A and the characterization of the expression pattern of this protein could have significant implications in the functional characterization of this novel protein.
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[Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a microbubble-aerated biofilm reactor].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) is a new wastewater treatment process for biological nitrogen removal, which shows some significant advantages compared with conventional biological nitrogen removal processes. The SND process in a fixed bed biofilm reactor with microbubble aeration was investigated in this study. The removal efficiencies of COD and nitrogen were determined under different operational conditions and the functional bacterial populations for nitrogen removal in the biofilm were detected. The results showed that efficient SND process could be achieved in the biofilm reactor with microbubble aeration. The SND could be improved at lower dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and larger porosity of packing bed when the COD loading rate and C/N ratio were increased. The removal efficiencies of COD and total nitrogen (TN) were 97.6% and 70.2%, respectively, at a COD loading rate of 0.86 kg x (m3 x d)(-1), a TN loading rate of 0.10 kg x (m3 x d)(-1), and a packing bed porosity of 81%, indicating the simultaneous efficient removal of COD and TN. Under these conditions, the oxygen utilization efficiency reached as high as 91.8% due to the enhanced oxygen mass transfer by microbubble aeration. In addition, the biofilm activity and the abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers were consistent with the removal capacity of COD, ammonia and TN under different operational conditions.
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Outcome of gemcitabine plus molecular targeted agent for treatment of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective phase III studies.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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The aim of this study is to assess the clinical outcome of gemcitabine (GEM) plus molecular targeted agents (MTAs) for treatment of pancreatic cancer, in the purpose of providing fundamental data for clinical practice. Databases like PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched to retrieve phase III clinical randomized controlled trials related to GEM plus MTAs for pancreatic cancer (up to Oct 2013). Literatures were independently screened by two researchers according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted and analyzed by using Stata 11.0 software. Total, 11 studies were included, involving 5,451 participants who were divided into GEM plus MTAs group (n?=?2,729) and GEM plus placebo group (n?=?2,722). There was no significant difference in overall survival, progression-free survival, response rate, complete response, partial response, and clinical benefit rate between two groups. Compared with GEM plus placebo group, stable disease of GEM plus MTAs group was significantly increased (risk ratios (RRs)?=?1.14, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.21, P?=?0.003). Further subgroup analysis indicated that GEM plus epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor use induced higher response rate and clinical benefit rate than GEM plus placebo group (RRs?=?1.19, 95 % CI 1.09-1.31, P?=?0.000; RR?=?1.18, 95 % CI 1.09-1.27, P?=?0.000). In addition, no significant difference in 3-4 grade adverse reactions (incidence, anemia rate, neutropenia rate, and thrombocytopenia rate) was identified between two groups. GEM plus MTAs may be effective and safe for stabilizing patients suffering advanced pancreatic cancer, especially EGFR inhibitor.
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Overview of nine computerized, home-based auditory-training programs for adult cochlear implant recipients.
J Am Acad Audiol
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Computerized, home-based auditory-training programs could be attractive to cochlear implant (CI) recipients who cannot obtain direct intensive training services and also to busy clinicians who would like to enable CI recipients to benefit from these programs. However, it is difficult for either group to know which of the many programs available might best suit individual needs.
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Ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy: prenatal diagnosis and pathology.
Prenat. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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To evaluate the prenatal diagnosis of ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCCM) and to report the pathologic features and the characteristic myocardial ultrastructure of fetal NCCM.
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Duration of untreated psychosis and clinical outcomes of first-episode schizophrenia: a 4-year follow-up study.
Shanghai Arch Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The relationship between the duration of untreated psychosis and long-term clinical outcomes remains uncertain.
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Wavelet coherence analysis of prefrontal tissue oxyhaemoglobin signals as measured using near-infrared spectroscopy in elderly subjects with cerebral infarction.
Microvasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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This study aims to assess the prefrontal functional connectivity using wavelet coherence analysis of cerebral tissue oxyhaemoglobin concentration (Delta [HbO2]) signals in elderly subjects with cerebral infarction (CI) during the resting state. Continuous recordings of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained from the left and right prefrontal lobes in 10 subjects with CI (age: 74.4±9.0years) and 18 healthy elderly subjects (age: 69.9±7.3years) during the resting state. The coherence between left and right prefrontal Delta [HbO2] oscillations in four frequency intervals (I, 0.6-2Hz; II, 0.145-0.6Hz; III, 0.052-0.145Hz and IV, 0.021-0.052Hz) was analyzed using wavelet coherence analysis. In healthy elderly subjects, the Delta [HbO2] oscillations were significantly wavelet coherent in intervals I and III (p<0.05), wavelet phase coherent in intervals from I to IV. In elderly subjects with CI, the left and right Delta [HbO2] oscillations were significantly wavelet coherent and phase coherent in interval I (p<0.05). In elderly subjects with CI, the power and phase coherences were significantly lower in interval III (p<0.01) than in healthy subjects. The difference in wavelet coherence between the healthy elderly and elderly with CI indicates an altered brain functional connectivity in CI patients. This may be useful for assessing the effectiveness of functional recovery following a CI.
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Synthesis and properties of single domain sphere-shaped barium hexa-ferrite nano powders via an ultrasonic-assisted co-precipitation route.
Ultrason Sonochem
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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To synthesize high quality barium hexa-ferrite nano powders, an ultrasonic-assisted co-precipitation method has been used and the influences of the ultrasonic technique on the particle morphologies and magnetic properties of the synthesized barium hexa-ferrite nano powders have been investigated. The results indicated that the introduction of ultrasonic energy into the co-precipitation process promoted the composition homogeneities of the co-precipitated precursors, minished their particle sizes, and exerted the additional surface barriers between the particles, which influenced both the phase formation and particle growth-up processes during the subsequent heating treatment and altered the particle sizes, size distributions and particle shapes of the final synthesized powders. The average particle sizes of the synthesized nano powders dramatically decreased from 210nm to about 100nm as the inputting ultrasonic power increased, while the size distribution became increasingly uniform except for a few of large particles existed as the inputting power approached to a high value. The magnetization at 1.4 T of the as-synthesized barium hexa-ferrite dramatically increased and approached to the highest value of 57.9emu/g due to the elimination of multi-domain particles, the alleviation of particle adhesion and the evolution of particle shape from flake to quasi-sphere as well as the uniform particle size distribution as the ultrasonic assistance was employed, and slightly decreased because of the coarsening in particle sizes.
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Prior ischemic stroke is not associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
Clin Invest Med
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) frequently coexist with coronary artery disease (CAD) and adversely affect prognosis in patients with CAD; however, fewer studies have investigated the role of prior ischemic stroke on the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to determine the safety and effectiveness of PCI in patients with a prior ischemic stroke.
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Breakdown assisted by a novel electron drift injection in the J-TEXT tokamak.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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A novel electron drift injection (EDI) system aiming to improve breakdown behavior has been designed and constructed on the Joint Texas EXperiment Tokamak Tokamak. Electrons emitted by the system undergo the E×B drift, ?B drift and curvature drift in sequence in order to traverse the confining magnetic field. A local electrostatic well, generated by a concave-shaped plate biased more negative than the cathode, is introduced to interrupt the emitted electrons moving along the magnetic field line (in the parallel direction) in an attempt to bring an enhancement of the injection efficiency and depth. A series of experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of this method, and a penetration distance deeper than 9.5 cm is achieved. Notable breakdown improvements, including the reduction of breakdown delay and average loop voltage, are observed for discharges assisted by EDI. The lower limit of successfully ionized pressure is expanded.
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Electrocardiographic repolarization-related variables as predictors of coronary heart disease death in the women's health initiative study.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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We evaluated 25 repolarization-related ECG variables for the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) death in 52 994 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative study.
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Atrial Fibrillation and Incident Myocardial Infarction in the Elderly.
Clin Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been shown to be independently associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in a predominantly middle-aged population; however, this association has not been examined in older populations.
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Somatic mutations of SUZ12 in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Neurofibromatosis 1 is a hereditary syndrome characterized by the development of numerous benign neurofibromas, a small subset of which progress to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). To better understand the genetic basis for MPNSTs, we performed genome-wide or targeted sequencing on 50 cases. Sixteen MPNSTs but none of the neurofibromas tested were found to have somatic mutations in SUZ12, implicating it as having a central role in malignant transformation.
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Cutaneous sensory nerve as a substitute for auditory nerve in solving deaf-mutes' hearing problem: an innovation in multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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The current use of hearing aids and artificial cochleas for deaf-mute individuals depends on their auditory nerve. Skin-hearing technology, a patented system developed by our group, uses a cutaneous sensory nerve to substitute for the auditory nerve to help deaf-mutes to hear sound. This paper introduces a new solution, multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology, to solve the problem of speech discrimination. Based on the filtering principle of hair cells, external voice signals at different frequencies are converted to current signals at corresponding frequencies using electronic multi-channel bandpass filtering technology. Different positions on the skin can be stimulated by the electrode array, allowing the perception and discrimination of external speech signals to be determined by the skin response to the current signals. Through voice frequency analysis, the frequency range of the band-pass filter can also be determined. These findings demonstrate that the sensory nerves in the skin can help to transfer the voice signal and to distinguish the speech signal, suggesting that the skin sensory nerves are good candidates for the replacement of the auditory nerve in addressing deaf-mutes' hearing problems. Scientific hearing experiments can be more safely performed on the skin. Compared with the artificial cochlea, multi-channel-array skin-hearing aids have lower operation risk in use, are cheaper and are more easily popularized.
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Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the STAT1 gene in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a critical component of the transcription factor complex in the interferon (IFN) signaling pathways. Of the seven STAT isoforms, STAT1 is a key mediator of type I and type III IFN signaling, but limited information is available for the STAT genes in the water buffalo. Here, we amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the buffalo STAT1 gene by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequence analysis indicated that the buffalo STAT1 gene length size was 3437 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 2244 bp that encoded 747 amino acids for the first time. The buffalo STAT1 CDS showed 99, 98, 89, 93, 86, 85, and 87 % identity with that of Bos taurus, Ovis aries, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Capra hircus. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the nearest relationship existed between the water buffalo and B. taurus. The STAT1 gene was ubiquitously expressed in 11 buffalo tissues by real-time PCR, whereas STAT1 was expressed at higher levels in the lymph. The STAT1 gene contained five targeted microRNA sequences compared with the B. taurus by the miRBase software that provide a fundamental for identifying the STAT1 gene function.
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Anticytolytic screen identifies inhibitors of mycobacterial virulence protein secretion.
Cell Host Microbe
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires protein secretion systems like ESX-1 for intracellular survival and virulence. The major virulence determinant and ESX-1 substrate, EsxA, arrests phagosome maturation and lyses cell membranes, resulting in tissue damage and necrosis that promotes pathogen spread. To identify inhibitors of Mtb protein secretion, we developed a fibroblast survival assay exploiting this phenotype and selected molecules that protect host cells from Mtb-induced lysis without being bactericidal in vitro. Hit compounds blocked EsxA secretion and promoted phagosome maturation in macrophages, thus reducing bacterial loads. Target identification studies led to the discovery of BTP15, a benzothiophene inhibitor of the histidine kinase MprB that indirectly regulates ESX-1, and BBH7, a benzyloxybenzylidene-hydrazine compound. BBH7 affects Mtb metal-ion homeostasis and revealed zinc stress as an activating signal for EsxA secretion. This screening approach extends the target spectrum of small molecule libraries and will help tackle the mounting problem of antibiotic-resistant mycobacteria.
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Peak vertical ground reaction force during two-leg landing: a systematic review and mathematical modeling.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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(1) To systematically review peak vertical ground reaction force (PvGRF) during two-leg drop landing from specific drop height (DH), (2) to construct a mathematical model describing correlations between PvGRF and DH, and (3) to analyze the effects of some factors on the pooled PvGRF regardless of DH.
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Malignant Minor Salivary Gland Carcinomas of the Larynx.
ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Aims: To explore the clinical characteristics and treatment of malignant minor salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx. Methods: Clinical patient information regarding presentation, pathology, treatment and outcome was obtained through a review of patient charts. Results: Malignant minor salivary carcinomas in the larynx were confirmed pathologically in 15 patients (11 males, 4 females) between 2003 and 2010 in our hospital; 6 patients had mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC; 40%), 6 had adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC; 40%) and 3 had adenocarcinoma (20%). The most common tumour location was the subglottis (60%), followed by the supraglottis (33%). In total, 13 patients underwent surgery, of which 10 (77%) had positive/insufficient resection margins. The mean follow-up time was 42.3 months, with a range of 8-129 months. The 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 46.7 and 20%, respectively. Conclusion: Malignant minor salivary gland carcinoma of the larynx is a rare disease that showed male predominance in our study. The carcinomas were most often localised in the subglottic region, and the most common histological types were ACC and MEC. Wide-margin surgery with postoperative radiotherapy is advocated. The overall prognosis is poor compared to squamous cell carcinomas of the same location and tumour stage. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Calreticulin is localized at mitochondria of rat cardiomyocytes and affected by furazolidone.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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Calreticulin (CRT) is a calcium-buffering protein which is predominantly located in endoplasmic reticulum. In the previous mitochondria proteome analysis, we accidentally found that CRT may be also localized at myocardial mitochondria and was upregulated in a rat model of furazolidone-induced dilated cardiomyopathy. To our knowledge, there has not yet been any report of its presence in mitochondria of any cell types. The present study aimed to determine whether CRT was located at the mitochondria of rat cardiomyocytes and whether the mitochondrial CRT was affected by furazolidone. Mitochondrial preparations were isolated from primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and purified by differential centrifugation. The purity of mitochondria was assessed by the reduction or elimination of the immunoreactivities of markers for cytosol, nucleus, sarcolemma, and endoplasmic reticulum. Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of CRT in purified mitochondria of rat cardiomyocytes. The distribution of CRT to mitochondria was further confirmed by immuno-electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and laser scanning confocal microscopy (double staining with MitoTracker Red and CRT-Alexa Fluor 488). Western blot analysis also demonstrated that the mitochondrial content of CRT was significantly enhanced by furazolidone treatment by 2.73 ± 0.13 fold (P < 0.05) in rat cardiomyocytes, which was verified by immuno-electron microscopy. In summary, the present results suggest that CRT is localized at mitochondria of rat cardiomyocytes and such localization is affected by furazolidone.
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Population activity changes during a trial-to-trial adaptation of bullfrog retinal ganglion cells.
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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A 'trial-to-trial adaptation' of bullfrog retinal ganglion cells in response to a repetitive light stimulus was investigated in the present study. Using the multielectrode recording technique, we studied the trial-to-trial adaptive properties of ganglion cells and explored the activity of population neurons during this adaptation process. It was found that the ganglion cells adapted with different degrees: their firing rates were decreased in different extents from early-adaptation to late-adaptation stage, and this was accompanied by a decrease in cross-correlation strength. In addition, adaptation behavior was different for ON-response and OFF-response, which implied that the mechanism of the trial-to-trial adaptation might involve bipolar cells and/or their synapses with other neurons and the stronger adaptation in the ganglion cells' OFF-responses might reflect the requirement to avoid possible saturation in the OFF circuit.
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Increased prevalence of hepatitis C virus subtype 6a in China: a comparison between 2004-2007 and 2008-2011.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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Different hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes exhibit differences in disease pathogenesis and progression, as well as disease outcomes and response to therapy. Tracking the change of HCV genotypes in various epidemiological settings is critical for both disease surveillance and the development of improved antiviral treatment. Here, we tracked the changes in the prevalence of the HCV genotypes in China between 2004-2007 and 2008-2011. HCV-RNA-positive sera were collected from volunteer blood donors during the period 2008-2011. The genotypes were determined by phylogenic analysis using the NS5B and E1 sequences. Geographical and demographic distribution patterns related to the HCV genotypes obtained in 2008-2011 were compared with our previous study, which recorded data in the period 2004-2007. Pearson chi-square test and t-test were used to statistically analyze the results. In 2008-2011, HCV subtypes 1b and 6a were detected in 43.8 % (184/420) and 34.3 % (144/420), respectively. The male/female ratio was found to be higher for HCV genotype 6 than for genotypes 1 and 2. When compared with the period of 2004-2007, although no significant difference was found in gender or age for genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 6, the subtype 6a frequency was significantly increased from 11 % to 26.5 % in the blood donors from outside of Guangdong Province in 2008-2011. A pattern of increase in HCV subtype 6a was found in blood donors outside of Guangdong Province, indicating that HCV subtype 6a has rapidly spread from Guangdong to other regions of China over the past 10 years.
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Development of a rapid knee cartilage damage quantification method using magnetic resonance images.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Cartilage morphometry based on magnetic resonance images (MRIs) is an emerging outcome measure for clinical trials among patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). However, current methods for cartilage morphometry take many hours per knee and require extensive training on the use of the associated software. In this study we tested the feasibility, reliability, and construct validity of a novel osteoarthritis cartilage damage quantification method (Cartilage Damage Index [CDI]) that utilizes informative locations on knee MRIs.
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Abnormal percolative transport and colossal electroresistance induced by anisotropic strain in (011)-Pr0.7(Ca0.6Sr0.4)0.3MnO3/PMN-PT heterostructure.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Abnormal percolative transport in inhomogeneous systems has drawn increasing interests due to its deviation from the conventional percolation picture. However, its nature is still ambiguous partly due to the difficulty in obtaining controllable abnormal percolative transport behaviors. Here, we report the first observation of electric-field-controlled abnormal percolative transport in (011)-Pr0.7(Ca0.6Sr0.4)0.3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 heterostructure. By introducing an electric-field-induced in-plane anisotropic strain-field in a phase separated PCSMO film, we stimulate a significant inverse thermal hysteresis (~ -17.5?K) and positive colossal electroresistance (~11460%), which is found to be crucially orientation-dependent and completely inconsistent with the well accepted conventional percolation picture. Further investigations reveal that such abnormal inverse hysteresis is strongly related to the preferential formation of ferromagnetic metallic domains caused by in-plane anisotropic strain-field. Meanwhile, it is found that the positive colossal electroresistance should be ascribed to the coactions between the anisotropic strain and the polarization effect from the poling of the substrate which leads to orientation and bias-polarity dependencies for the colossal electroresistance. This work unambiguously evidences the indispensable role of the anisotropic strain-field in driving the abnormal percolative transport and provides a new perspective for well understanding the percolation mechanism in inhomogeneous systems.
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GnRH analogues may increase endometrial Hoxa10 promoter methylation and affect endometrial receptivity.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate whether gonadotropin?releasing hormone analogues (GnRH?as), including GnRH agonists and antagonists, affect endometrial homeobox (Hox) a10 DNA methylation during the implantation window in mice. GnRH analogue mouse models were used and were treated with either human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) and a GnRH agonist or HMG and a GnRH antagonist. Uterus samples were collected 48 h after GnRH analogue treatment or ovulation. Bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to assess Hoxa10 and integrin ?3 expression. Scanning electron microscope analyses were conducted to analyze pinopode development. Compared with the natural cycle control mice, mice in the GnRH analogue groups were found to exhibit increased levels of methylation at the Hoxa10 promoter, decreased Hoxa10 mRNA and protein expression and disrupted pinopode development. These findings suggest that GnRH?as may be associated with altered Hoxa10 DNA methylation, thus GnRH?as may affect uterine Hoxa10 expression and endometrial receptivity.
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Ionic mechanisms underlying tonic and phasic firing behaviors in retinal ganglion cells: A model study.
Channels (Austin)
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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In the retina, the firing behaviors that ganglion cells exhibit when exposed to light stimuli are very important due to the significant roles they play in encoding the visual information. However, the detailed mechanisms, especially the intrinsic properties that generate and modulate these firing behaviors is not completely clear yet. In this study, 2 typical firing behaviors-i.e., tonic and phasic activities, which are widely observed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)-are investigated. A modified computational model was developed to explore the possible ionic mechanisms that underlie the generation of these 2 firing patterns. Computational results indicate that the generation of tonic and phasic activities may be attributed to the collective actions of 2 kinds of adaptation currents, i.e., an inactivating sodium current and a delayed-rectifier potassium current. The concentration of magnesium ions has crucial but differential effects in the modulation of tonic and phasic firings, when the model neuron is driven by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) -type synaptic input instead of constant current injections. The proposed model has robust features that account for the ionic mechanisms underlying the tonic and phasic firing behaviors, and it may also be used as a good candidate for modeling some other firing patterns in RGCs.
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Using cholecystokinin to facilitate endoscopic clearance of large common bile duct stones.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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To evaluate the effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) during extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the clearance of common bile duct (CBD) stones in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
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Response properties of ON-OFF retinal ganglion cells to high-order stimulus statistics.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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The visual stimulus statistics are the fundamental parameters to provide the reference for studying visual coding rules. In this study, the multi-electrode extracellular recording experiments were designed and implemented on bullfrog retinal ganglion cells to explore the neural response properties to the changes in stimulus statistics. The changes in low-order stimulus statistics, such as intensity and contrast, were clearly reflected in the neuronal firing rate. However, it was difficult to distinguish the changes in high-order statistics, such as skewness and kurtosis, only based on the neuronal firing rate. The neuronal temporal filtering and sensitivity characteristics were further analyzed. We observed that the peak-to-peak amplitude of the temporal filter and the neuronal sensitivity, which were obtained from either neuronal ON spikes or OFF spikes, could exhibit significant changes when the high-order stimulus statistics were changed. These results indicate that in the retina, the neuronal response properties may be reliable and powerful in carrying some complex and subtle visual information.
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Usefulness of electrocardiographic QRS/T angles with versus without bundle branch blocks to predict heart failure (from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study).
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Repolarization abnormalities in the setting of bundle branch blocks (BBB) are generally ignored. We used Cox regression models to determine hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident heart failure (HF) associated with wide spatial and frontal QRS/T angle (upper twenty-fifth percentile of each) in men and women with and without BBB. This analysis included 14,478 participants (54.6% women, 26.4% blacks, 377 [2.6%] with BBB) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who were free of HF at baseline. Using No-BBB with normal spatial QRS/T angle as the reference group, the risk for HF in multivariable adjusted models was increased 51% for No-BBB with wide spatial QRS/T angle (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.37 to 1.66), 48% for BBB with normal spatial QRS/T angle (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.88), and the risk for incident HF was increased more than threefold for BBB with wide spatial QRS/T angle (HR 3.37, 95% CI 2.47 to 4.60). The results were consistent across subgroups by gender. Similar results were observed for the frontal plane QRS/T angle. In the pooled BBB group excluding right BBB, a positive T wave in lead aVR and heart rate 70 bpm and higher were also potent predictors of incident HF similar to the QRS/T angles. In conclusion, both BBB and wide QRS/T angles are predictive of HF, and concomitant presence of both carries a much higher risk than for either predictor alone. These findings suggest that repolarization abnormalities in the setting of BBB should not be considered benign or an expected consequence of BBB.
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Downregulation of expression of transporters associated with antigen processing 1 and 2 and human leukocyte antigen I and its effect on immunity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-I and antigen-processing machinery (APM) are crucial in the anti-cancer immune response. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of the APM components [transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP)-1 and -2 and HLA-I] in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A total of 58 NPC specimens and 20 healthy specimens used as control were evaluated by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry for three APM components (TAP-1, TAP-2 and HLA-I). The expression of the APM components in NPC was downregulated. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were measured by flow cytometry and IL-10 was measured by ELISA. The number of CD8(+) T cells and the expression of IL-10 were higher and the number of CD4(+) T cells was lower in NPC, compared to the controls. The number of CD8(+) T cells and the expression of IL-10 were negatively correlated with TAP-1, TAP-2 and HLA-I expression. The clinical phase, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, pathological type, TAP-1 expression, TAP-2 expression and HLA-I expression were identified as prognostic factors by the Kaplan-Meier analysis. A multivariate analysis using a Cox regression model indicated that distant metastasis and the downregulation of HLA-I expression were independent unfavorable prognostic factors. In conclusion, the lower expression of HLA-I induced immunosuppression in NPC patients and was associated with a poor prognosis.
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Inter-laboratory validation of the in-vivo flow cytometric micronucleus analysis method (MicroFlow(®)) in China.
Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Although inter-laboratory validation efforts of the in-vivo micronucleus (MN) assay based on flow cytometry (FCM) have taken place in the EU and US, none have been organized in China. Therefore, an inter-laboratory study that included eight laboratories in China and one experienced reference laboratory in the US was coordinated to validate the in-vivo FCM MicroFlow(®) method to determine the frequency of micro-nucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs) in rat blood. Assay reliability and reproducibility were evaluated with four known genotoxicants, and the results obtained with the FCM method were compared with the outcome of the traditional evaluation of bone-marrow micronuclei by use of microscopy. Each of the four chemicals was tested at three sites (two in China and the one US reference laboratory). After three consecutive daily exposures to a genotoxicant, blood and bone-marrow samples were obtained from rats 24h after the third dose. MN-RET frequencies were measured in 20,000 RET in blood by FCM, and micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MN-PCE) frequencies were measured in 2,000 PCEs in bone marrow by microscopy. For both methods, each genotoxicant was shown to induce a statistically significant increase in the frequency of MN after treatment with at least one dose. Where more doses than one caused an increase, responses occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs) for FCM-based MN-RET vs microscopy-based MN-PCE measurements (eight experiments, 200 paired measurements) was 0.723, indicating a high degree of correspondence between methods and compartments. The rs value for replicate FCM MN-RET measurements performed at the eight collaborative laboratories was 0.940 (n=200), and between the eight FCM laboratories with the reference laboratory was 0.933 (n=200), suggesting that the automated method is very well transferable between laboratories. The FCM micronucleus analysis method is currently used in many countries worldwide, and these data support its use for evaluating the in-vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals in China.
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Dynamic development of starch granules and the regulation of starch biosynthesis in Brachypodium distachyon: comparison with common wheat and Aegilops peregrina.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Thorough understanding of seed starch biosynthesis and accumulation mechanisms is of great importance for agriculture and crop improvement strategies. We conducted the first comprehensive study of the dynamic development of starch granules and the regulation of starch biosynthesis in Brachypodium distachyon and compared the findings with those reported for common wheat (Chinese Spring, CS) and Aegilops peregrina.
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Side of limb-onset predicts laterality of gray matter loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to assess differences in global and local brain regions in patients with heterogeneous body onset and subgroups with different side of limb-onset. We found global brain atrophy and GM losses in the frontal and parietal areas in each patient group as well as left predominant GM losses in the total cohort. The intriguing findings in subgroup analyses demonstrated that the motor cortex in the contralateral hemisphere of the initially involved limb was most affected. We also found that regional brain atrophy was related to disease progression rate. Our observations suggested that side of limb-onset can predict laterality of GM loss in ALS patients and disease progression correlates with the extent of cortical abnormality.
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Protective effect of Asarum extract in rats with adjuvant arthritis.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of Asarum extract on rats with adjuvant arthritis (AA) and to determine the underlying mechanism. An AA model was established by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant into the rats. The degree of toe swelling, arthritis index, spleen index, and the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 were measured. In addition, the underlying molecular mechanism was investigated using murine macrophage-derived RAW 264.7 cells. Asarum extract was found to significantly reduce the severity of arthritis by decreasing hind paw swelling, the arthritis index, the spleen index, and TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 expression levels in plasma. In vitro, Asarum extract inhibited the nuclear factor (NF)-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These results indicate that Asarum extract may be a therapeutic agent for AA and may exert an anti-inflammatory effect by mediating the NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways.
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Possible role of fibroblast growth factor 21 on atherosclerosis via amelioration of endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in apoE(-/-) mice.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is an endocrine factor that can be secreted into circulation by the liver. FGF-21 takes part in metabolic actions and is thought to be a promising candidate for the treatment of diabetes. However, the role of FGF-21 in atherosclerosis is unknown. In this study, apoE(-/-) mice were fed an atherogenic diet for 4 weeks with and without subcutaneous injections of FGF-21. ApoE(-/-) mice fed an atherogenic diet showed hyperlipidemia, a large plaque area in aortas and increased vessel wall thickness. Plasma FGF-21 content and protein level of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) in aortas was greater in apoE(-/-) than C57BL/6J mice. Exogenous FGF-21 treatment significantly ameliorated dyslipidemia in apoE(-/-) mice. FGF-21-treated apoE(-/-) mice showed reduced number of aortic plaques and plaque area as well as reduced number of TUNEL-positive cells. Protein levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers glucose-regulated protein 94, caspase-12 and C/EBP homologous protein were reduced by 34.5, 31.4 and 26.5 %, respectively, in apoE(-/-) mice. Endogenous expression of FGF-21 and its receptor FGFR1 were upregulated in apoE(-/-) mice, and exogenous administration of FGF-21 ameliorated the atherogenic-induced dyslipidemia and vascular atherosclerotic lesions. FGF-21 protecting against atherosclerosis might be in part by its inhibitory effects on endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.
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An in vitro and finite element study of load redistribution in the midfoot.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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A good knowledge of midfoot biomechanics is important in understanding the biomechanics of the entire foot, but it has never been investigated thoroughly in the literature. This study carried out in vitro experiments and finite element analysis to investigate the midfoot biomechanics. A foot-ankle finite element model simulating the mid-stance phase of the normal gait was developed and the model validated in in vitro experimental tests. Experiments used seven in vitro samples of fresh human cadavers. The simulation found that the first principal stress peaks of all midfoot bones occurred at the navicular bone and that the tensile force of the spring ligament was greater than that of any other ligament. The experiments showed that the longitudinal strain acting on the medial cuneiform bone was -26.2±10.8 ?-strain, and the navicular strain was -240.0±169.1 ?-strain along the longitudinal direction and 65.1±25.8 ?-strain along the transverse direction. The anatomical position and the spring ligament both result in higher shear stress in the navicular bone. The load from the ankle joint to five branches of the forefoot is redistributed among the cuneiforms and cuboid bones. Further studies on the mechanism of loading redistribution will be helpful in understanding the biomechanics of the entire foot.
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Involvement of thalamus in initiation of epileptic seizures induced by pilocarpine in mice.
Neural Plast.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Studies have suggested that thalamus is involved in temporal lobe epilepsy, but the role of thalamus is still unclear. We obtained local filed potentials (LFPs) and single-unit activities from CA1 of hippocampus and parafascicular nucleus of thalamus during the development of epileptic seizures induced by pilocarpine in mice. Two measures, redundancy and directionality index, were used to analyze the electrophysiological characters of neuronal activities and the information flow between thalamus and hippocampus. We found that LFPs became more regular during the seizure in both hippocampus and thalamus, and in some cases LFPs showed a transient disorder at seizure onset. The variation tendency of the peak values of cross-correlation function between neurons matched the variation tendency of the redundancy of LFPs. The information tended to flow from thalamus to hippocampus during seizure initiation period no matter what the information flow direction was before the seizure. In some cases the information flow was symmetrically bidirectional, but none was found in which the information flowed from hippocampus to thalamus during the seizure initiation period. In addition, inactivation of thalamus by tetrodotoxin (TTX) resulted in a suppression of seizures. These results suggest that thalamus may play an important role in the initiation of epileptic seizures.
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Effect of the entorhinal cortex on ictal discharges in low-Mg²?-induced epileptic hippocampal slice models.
Neural Plast.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The hippocampus plays an important role in the genesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, and the entorhinal cortex (EC) may affect the hippocampal network activity because of the heavy interconnection between them. However, the mechanism by which the EC affects the discharge patterns and the transmission mode of epileptiform discharges within the hippocampus needs further study. Here, multielectrode recording techniques were used to study the spatiotemporal characteristics of epileptiform discharges in adult mouse hippocampal slices and combined EC-hippocampal slices and determine whether and how the EC affects the hippocampal neuron discharge patterns. The results showed that low-Mg²? artificial cerebrospinal fluid induced interictal discharges in hippocampal slices, whereas, in combined EC-hippocampal slices the discharge pattern was alternated between interictal and ictal discharges, and ictal discharges initiated in the EC and propagated to the hippocampus. The pharmacological effect of the antiepileptic drug valproate (VPA) was tested. VPA reversibly suppressed the frequency of interictal discharges but did not change the initiation site and propagation speed, and it completely blocked ictal discharges. Our results suggested that EC was necessary for the hippocampal ictal discharges, and ictal discharges were more sensitive than interictal discharges in response to VPA.
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The role of the entorhinal cortex in epileptiform activities of the hippocampus.
Theor Biol Med Model
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest type of epilepsy in adults, and the hippocampus is indicated to have a close relationship with TLE. Recent researches also indicate that the entorhinal cortex (EC) is involved in epilepsy. To explore the essential role that the EC may play in epilepsy, a computational model of the hippocampal CA3 region was built, which consisted of pyramidal cells and two types of interneurons. By changing the input signals from the EC, the effects of EC on epileptiform activities of the hippocampus were investigated. Additionally, recent studies have found that the antiepileptic drug valproate (VPA) can block ictal discharges but cannot block interictal discharges in vitro, and the mechanism under this phenomenon is still confusing. In our model, the effects of VPA on epileptiform activities were simulated and some mechanisms were explored.
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Determinants of developing widened spatial QRS-T angle in HIV-infected individuals: results from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy [SMART] Study.
J Electrocardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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A widened electrocardiographic spatial QRS-T angle has been shown to be predictive of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals. However, determinants and risk factors of developing widened QRS-T angle over time in this population remain unknown.
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Response dynamics of bullfrog ON-OFF RGCs to different stimulus durations.
J Comput Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Stimulus duration is an important feature of visual stimulation. In the present study, response properties of bullfrog ON-OFF retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in exposure to different visual stimulus durations were studied. By using a multi-electrode recording system, spike discharges from ON-OFF RGCs were simultaneously recorded, and the cells' ON and OFF responses were analyzed. It was found that the ON response characteristics, including response latency, spike count, as well as correlated activity and relative latency between pair-wise cells, were modulated by different light OFF intervals, while the OFF response characteristics were modulated by different light ON durations. Stimulus information carried by the ON and OFF responses was then analyzed, and it was found that information about different light ON durations was more carried by transient OFF response, whereas information about different light OFF intervals were more carried by transient ON response. Meanwhile, more than 80 % information about stimulus durations was carried by firing rate. These results suggest that ON-OFF RGCs are sensitive to different stimulus durations, and they can efficiently encode the information about visual stimulus duration by firing rate.
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Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced CHOP Expression Promotes Apoptosis and Impairs Renal Function Recovery: The Role of Acidosis and GPR4.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis is implicated in a wide range of diseases, including ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). As a common feature of ER stress, the role of CCAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in renal IRI has not been thoroughly investigated. We found that IR led to renal CHOP expression, accompanied by apoptosis induction. Renal IRI was markedly alleviated in CHOP-/- mice. Observations from bone marrow chimeras showed that this was based on CHOP inactivation in renal parenchymal cells rather than inflammatory cells. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that IRI induced CHOP expression in both endothelial and epithelial cells, which was responsible for apoptosis induction. These results were reinforced by the observation that CHOP knockout led to improvement of the postischemic microcirculatory recovery. In vitro studies revealed hypoxia-induced acidosis to be a major inducer of CHOP in endothelial cells, and neutralizing acidosis not only diminished CHOP protein, but also reduced apoptosis. Finally, knockdown of a proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor GPR4 markedly reduced CHOP expression and endothelial cell apoptosis after hypoxia exposure. These results highlight the importance of hypoxia-acidosis in ER stress signaling regulation in ischemic kidneys and suggest that GPR4 inhibitors or agents targeting CHOP expression may be promising in the treatment of renal IRI.
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Interplay of autophagy and apoptosis during murine cytomegalovirus infection of RPE cells.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous studies have demonstrated that autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. However, whether autophagy is regulated by murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection has not yet been investigated. The purpose of these studies was to determine how autophagy is affected by MCMV infection of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and whether there is a functional relationship between autophagy and apoptosis; and if so, how regulation of autophagy impacts apoptosis.
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Comparison of transverse island flap onlay and tubularized incised-plate urethroplasties for primary proximal hypospadias: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This meta-analysis was conducted to compare postoperative outcomes between transverse island flap (TVIF) onlay and tubularized incised-plate (TIP) urethroplasties for primary proximal hypospadias.
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Effects of dopamine on response properties of ON-OFF RGCs in encoding stimulus durations.
Front Neural Circuits
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Single retinal ganglion cell's (RGCs) response properties, such as spike count and response latency, are known to encode some features of visual stimuli. On the other hand, neuronal response can be modulated by dopamine (DA), an important endogenous neuromodulator in the retina. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DA on the spike count and the response latency of bullfrog ON-OFF RGCs during exposure to different stimulus durations. We found that neuronal spike count and response latency were both changed with stimulus durations, and exogenous DA (10 ?M) obviously attenuated the stimulus-duration-dependent response latency change. Information analysis showed that the information about light ON duration was mainly carried by the OFF response and vice versa, and the stimulation information was carried by both spike count and response latency. However, during DA application, the information carried by the response latency was greatly decreased, which suggests that dopaminergic pathway is involved in modulating the role of response latency in encoding the information about stimulus durations.
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Effective connectivity of hippocampal neural network and its alteration in Mg2+-free epilepsy model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Understanding the connectivity of the brain neural network and its evolution in epileptiform discharges is meaningful in the epilepsy researches and treatments. In the present study, epileptiform discharges were induced in rat hippocampal slices perfused with Mg2+-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid. The effective connectivity of the hippocampal neural network was studied by comparing the normal and epileptiform discharges recorded by a microelectrode array. The neural network connectivity was constructed by using partial directed coherence and analyzed by graph theory. The transition of the hippocampal network topology from control to epileptiform discharges was demonstrated. Firstly, differences existed in both the averaged in- and out-degree between nodes in the pyramidal cell layer and the granule cell layer, which indicated an information flow from the pyramidal cell layer to the granule cell layer during epileptiform discharges, whereas no consistent information flow was observed in control. Secondly, the neural network showed different small-worldness in the early, middle and late stages of the epileptiform discharges, whereas the control network did not show the small-world property. Thirdly, the network connectivity began to change earlier than the appearance of epileptiform discharges and lasted several seconds after the epileptiform discharges disappeared. These results revealed the important network bases underlying the transition from normal to epileptiform discharges in hippocampal slices. Additionally, this work indicated that the network analysis might provide a useful tool to evaluate the neural network and help to improve the prediction of seizures.
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[Effect of toluene diisocyanate on lung function of workers].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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To investigate the effect of long-term exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) on the lung function of TDI-exposed workers.
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[Transforming growth factor ?1 enhances the invasiveness of human glioma cell line via ERK/MAPK pathway].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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To investigate the effect of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) on the invasiveness of human glioma SF767 cell line in vitro and explore the possible molecular mechanism.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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