The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences of Neobenedenia melleni were determined and compared with those of Benedenia seriolae and B. hoshinai. This circular genome comprises 13,270 bp and includes all 36 typical mt genes found in flatworms. Total AT content of N. melleni is 75.9 %. ATG is the most common start codon, while nad4L is initiated by GTG. All protein-coding genes are predicted to terminate with TAG and TAA. N. melleni has the trnR with a TCG anticodon, which is the same to B. seriolae but different from B. hoshinai (ACG). The mt gene arrangement of N. melleni is similar to that of B. seriolae and B. hoshinai with the exception of three translocations (trnF, trnT and trnG). The overlapped region between nad4L and nad4 was found in the N. melleni mt genome, which was also reported for the published Gyrodactylus species, but it was not found in those of B. seriolae and B. hoshinai, which are non-coding regions instead. The present study provides useful molecular characters for species or strain identification and systematic studies of this parasite.
The production and purification of polysaccharide-based bioflocculants (PSBs) by Paenibacillus mucilaginosus GIM1.16 in metal ion-supplemented medium and basal medium were evaluated. Three purified PSB1-1, PSB2-1 and PSB3-1 possessed different monosaccharide composition and their molecular weights were 2.53 × 10(6), 7.77 × 10(6) and 13.2 × 10(6)Da, respectively. FT-IR spectrometry indicated the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and phosphate groups in the three samples. Scanning electron microscopy showed that they had linear structure. The potential of these PSBs on wastewater treatment was evaluated. Among them, PSB1-1 exhibited the best performance, as it had high flocculating activities (above 94%) at 0.5-4 mg/L and could achieve high flocculating activities (above 97%) in the kaolin suspensions of pH 3-9. PSB1-1 was the key factor that might explain the enhanced flocculating activity of the supernatant from metal ion-supplemented medium. The performance of PSB1-1 on industrial wastewater was also satisfactory. PSB1-1 might be a good candidate as bioflocculant.
Abstract The first complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ancyrocephalidae is reported herein. The mt genome of Tetrancistrum nebulosi was 13,392?bp in length containing 12 protein-coding genes (lacking atp8), 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes. The longest non-coding region was located between nad5 and trnG, and the A?+?T content was 72.4%. All tRNAs had the typical clover-leaf secondary structure except for trnS1((AGN)), trnR, trnF and trnQ. The rrnL and rrnS subunits were separated by trnC, as documented in the monopisthocotylean groups (Benedenia and Gyrodactylus species), while they were adjacent to each other in the polyopisthocotylean species (Microcotyle sebastis, Polylabris halichoeres and Pseudochauhanea macrorchis).
Since human infection with the novel H7N9 avian influenza virus was identified in China in March 2013, the relatively high mortality rate and possibility of human-to-human transmission have highlighted the urgent need for sensitive and specific assays for diagnosis of H7N9 infection.
This study presents the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Polylabris halichoeres, which is the largest mt genome sequenced of monogeneans so far and the second complete sequence after Microcotyle sebastis from the Microcotylidae. It is basically similar to that of M. sebastis, with the exception of a high level of gene rearrangement located between trnC and trnL((UUR)), a translocation of trnM and trnH, as well as a highly repetitive region (HRR) in the large non-coding region (NCR). We also find a series of trnI pseudogenes (?I) and one unknown short open reading frame (ORF) in the large NCR. Although the ORF cannot be unambiguously regarded as an atp8 gene, we cannot rule out the possibility that it has other functional importance, but it need further study in the future.
The serum of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) has been confirmed previously to have killing effect to Cryptocaryon irritans, an important marine ciliate protozoan that causes a disease referred to as "marine white spot disease". Herein, we find the serum of the rabbitfish also shows antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and has killing effect on two other parasites: Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that after treating with rabbitfish serum, the surface of the Staphylococcus aureus was wrinkled and pores were formed on the surface of Escherichia coli. Serum of the rabbitfish possesses a strong killing effect to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in vitro, causing a similar effect as to C. irritans. The serum of rabbitfish also showed strong killing effect to T. b. brucei in vitro, with the minimus trypanocidal titre (MTT) only to be 1.5% in 1 h. Results of laser confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that rabbitfish serum could also induce cell rupture of T. b. brucei. A novel antimicrobial protein (SR-LAAO) was isolated from the serum of rabbitfish by using ultrafiltration, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE). Results of gel overlay assay showed that the protein could act alone to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and E. coli. Results of western blot and automated Edman degradation showed that it was the same as the antiparasitic protein (APP) reported before to have killing effect on C. irritans. Full length cDNA sequence of the SR-LAAO was cloned. BLAST research suggested that the cDNA of SR-LAAO has a close similarity with a number of L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs) and possesses two conserved motifs that exist in LAAOs. Combined, these results demonstrate that this protein which has antimicrobial activity to some pathogenic organisms was a novel LAAO found in the serum of rabbitfish. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated tissue specific expression and localization of SR-LAAO in the spleen, kidney, gill and blood of the rabbitfish, but was not found in other tissues. These results suggest that this protein may contribute considerably to the host non-specific immune defense mechanism to combat microbes of the rabbitfish and has the potency for using in future drug development.
Streptococcus iniae is a major bacterium that causes invasive disease in cultured fish worldwide. The protection relies mainly on anti-microbial compounds and vaccines, and there is much interest in developing S. iniae vaccine based on conserved protein immunogens. Subcellular localization of protein has important influence on its immunogenicity. The surface and extracellular proteins of pathogenic bacteria can be easily recognized by the infected host compare to intracellular proteins, which are the feasible vaccine development targets. However, a putative hydrophobic membrane protein (designated MtsB) of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter system was found to be protective against S. iniae HD-1 infection when used as an injection vaccine administered intraperitoneally into tilapia. The MtsB protein is present on the cytoplasmic membrane and is expressed in vivo during Kunming mice infection by S. iniae HD-1. This is believed to be the first report on the use of a hydrophobic membrane protein of the ABC system as an S. iniae subunit vaccine.
Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae) is a major pathogen that causes considerable morbidity and mortality in cultured fish worldwide. The pathogens ability to adapt to the host affects the extent of infection, hence understanding the mechanisms by which S. iniae overcomes physiological stresses during infection will help to identify potential virulence determinants of streptococcal infection. Grow S. iniae under iron-restricted conditions is one approach for identifying host-specific protein expression. Iron plays an important role in many biological processes but it has low solubility under physiological condition. Many microorganisms have been shown to be able to circumvent this nutritional limitation by forming direct contacts with iron-containing proteins through ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The ABC transporter superfamilies constitute many different systems that are widespread among living organisms with different functions, such as ligands translocation, mRNA translation, and DNA repair.
T-A cloning is the most commonly used molecular cloning technique in which T-vector is the core tool. T-vectors commonly used now are blue-white positive-selection vectors based on mechanism of alpha-complement of beta-galactose of Escherichia coli. Disadvantages of these traditional T-vectors in application include insufficient positive rate and the existence of false-positive clones, which, especially the latter, makes screening of transformant clones via colony PCR necessary. In the present study, a novel T-vector, based on the strategy of inhibiting the growth of negative transformants by means of a lethal gene and innovative design of insertion site, was developed. The innovative design of the insertion site for PCR fragments not only guarantees complete blocking of the expression of the lethal gene when PCR fragments are inserted, but also eliminates the formation of false-positive clones. All (100%) of 20 randomly chosen grown colonies were shown to be positive via colony PCR in four separate experimental T-A clonings of PCR fragments with lengths between 219 and 2100 bp. The novel T-vector developed in the present study makes colony PCR screening unnecessary, because of its extremely high efficiency of negative transformant inhibition and the mechanism for elimination of false-positive clones. Temperature (42 degrees C)-dependent positive selection greatly simplifies the procedure and lowers the cost of T-A cloning. Furthermore, it is an ideal T-vector for constructing libraries of PCR-amplified DNA fragments such as SSH (suppressive subtraction hybridization) libraries because of its zero negative background performance.
The complete mitochondrial genome of Pseudochauhanea macrorchis was determined and compared with other monogenean mitochondrial genomes from GenBank. The circular genome was 15,031 bp in length and encoded 36 genes (12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs) typically found in flatworms. Structures of the mitochondrial genome were mostly concordant with that known for Microcotyle sebastis and Polylabris halichoeres, but also contained two noted features-a gene rearrangement hot spot and the highly repetitive region (HRR) in major non-coding region (NCR). The gene rearrangement hot spot located between the cox3 and nad5 genes, including a cluster of tRNA genes, nad6 gene and one major NCR. The HRR seemed to be a unique feature of the polyopisthocotylean mitochondrial genomes. In conclusion, the present study provided new molecular data for future studies of the comparative mitochondrial genomics and also served as a resource of markers for the studies of species populations and monogenean phylogenetics.
Eimeria tenella, an apicomplexan parasite in chickens, possesses an apicoplast and its associated metabolic pathways including the Type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS II). Malonyl-CoA:acyl-carry protein transacylase (MCAT) encoded by the fabD gene is one of the essential enzymes in the FAS II system. In the present study, the entire E. tenella MCAT gene (EtfabD) was cloned and sequenced. Immunolabeling located this protein in the apicoplast organelle in coccidial sporozoites. Functional replacement of the fabD gene with amber mutation of E. coli temperature-sensitive LA2-89 strain by E. tenella EtMCAT demonstrated that EcFabD and EtMCAT perform the same biochemical function. The recombinant EtMCAT protein was expressed and its general biochemical features were also determined. An alkaloid natural product corytuberine (CAS: 517-56-6) could specifically inhibit the EtMCAT activity (IC(50)=16.47?M), but the inhibition of parasite growth in vitro by corytuberine was very weak (the predicted MIC(50)=0.65mM).
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