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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Superior Dehydrogenation/Hydrogenation Kinetics and Long-Term Cycling Performance of K and Rb Cocatalyzed Mg(NH2)2-2LiH system.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The coaddition of KH and RbH significantly improves the hydrogen storage properties of the Mg(NH2)2-2LiH system. An Mg(NH2)2-2LiH-0.04KH-0.04RbH composite was able to reversibly store 5.2 wt % H2 when the dehydrogenation operates at 130 °C and the hydrogenation operates at 120 °C. The isothermal dehydrogenation rate at 130 °C was approximately 43 times that of a pristine sample. During ball-milling, KH reacts with RbH to form a K(Rb)H solid solution. Upon heating, RbH first separates from the K(Rb)H solid solution and participates in the first step of dehydrogenation reaction, and then the remaining KH participates in the second dehydrogenation reaction. The presence of RbH and KH provide synergetic effects, which improve the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen storage in the Mg(NH2)2-2LiH system. In particular, more than 93% of the hydrogen storage capacity (4.4 wt %) remains after cycling a sample with 0.04 mol of KH and RbH for 50 cycles, indicating notably better cycling stability compared with any presently known Li-Mg-N-H systems.
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[Development of online conventional array-based two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system for proteins separation in human plasma].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Human plasma is one of the proteins-containing samples most difficult to characterize on account of the wide dynamic concentration range of its intact proteins. Herein, we developed a high-throughput conventional array-based two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system for proteins separation in human plasma in online mode. In the system, a conventional strong-anion exchange chromatographic column was used as the first separation dimension and eight parallel conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatographic columns were integrated as the second separation dimension. The fractions from the first dimension were sequentially transferred into the corresponding reversed-phase liquid chromatographic precolumns for retention and enrichment using a 10-port electrically actuated multi-position valve. The second dimensional solvent flow was directly and identically split into 8 channels. The fractions were concurrently back-flushed from the precolumns into the 8 conventional RP columns and were separated simultaneously. An 8-channel fraction collector was refitted to collect the reversed-phase liquid chromatographic fractions for further investigation. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) dyein solution was conveniently used for high-abundance protein location. Two separation dimensions were relatively independent parts, as well as each channel of the second dimensional array separation. Therefore, the new system could improve the separation throughput and total peak capacity. The system was successfully applied for the separation of human plasma intact proteins. The results indicated the established system is an effective method for removing high abundance proteins in plasma and in-depth research in plasma proteomics.
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Hypothetical Link between Infertility and Genetically Modified Food.
Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk associated with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs provides the basis for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been clarified whether the harmful effects is directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or from the transgenesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies have tested the safety of GMFs. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could exist potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs.
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Direct digestion of proteins in living cells into peptides for proteomic analysis.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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To analyze the proteome of an extremely low number of cells or even a single cell, we established a new method of digesting whole cells into mass-spectrometry-identifiable peptides in a single step within 2 h. Our sampling method greatly simplified the processes of cell lysis, protein extraction, protein purification, and overnight digestion, without compromising efficiency. We used our method to digest hundred-scale cells. As far as we know, there is no report of proteome analysis starting directly with as few as 100 cells. We identified an average of 109 proteins from 100 cells, and with three replicates, the number of proteins rose to 204. Good reproducibility was achieved, showing stability and reliability of the method. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that proteins in different cellular compartments were well represented.
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A mechanical-force-driven physical vapour deposition approach to fabricating complex hydride nanostructures.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Nanoscale hydrides desorb and absorb hydrogen at faster rates and lower temperatures than bulk hydrides because of their high surface areas, abundant grain boundaries and short diffusion distances. No current methods exist for the direct fabrication of nanoscale complex hydrides (for example, alanates, borohydrides) with unique morphologies because of their extremely high reducibility, relatively low thermodynamic stability and complicated elemental composition. Here, we demonstrate a mechanical-force-driven physical vapour deposition procedure for preparing nanoscale complex hydrides without scaffolds or supports. Magnesium alanate nanorods measuring 20-40?nm in diameter and lithium borohydride nanobelts measuring 10-40?nm in width are successfully synthesised on the basis of the one-dimensional structure of the corresponding organic coordination polymers. The dehydrogenation kinetics of the magnesium alanate nanorods are improved, and the nanorod morphology persists through the dehydrogenation-hydrogenation process. Our findings may facilitate the fabrication of such hydrides with improved hydrogen storage properties for practical applications.
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Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on integrin-FAK-PI3K/Akt mechanochemical transduction in rabbit osteoarthritis chondrocytes.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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The effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on extracellular matrix (ECM) production via modulation of the integrin/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway has been investigated in previous studies in normal chondrocytes, but not in osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, we investigated the LIPUS-induced integrin ?1/FAK/PI3K/Akt mechanochemical transduction pathway in a single study in rabbit OA chondrocytes. Normal and OA chondrocytes were exposed to LIPUS, and mRNA and protein expression of cartilage, metalloproteinases and integrin-FAK-PI3K/Akt signal pathway-related genes was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Compared with levels in normal chondrocytes, expression levels of ECM-related genes were significantly lower in OA chondrocytes and those of metalloproteinase-related genes were significantly higher. In addition, integrin ?1 gene expression and the phosphorylation of FAK, PI3K and Akt were significantly higher in OA chondrocytes. The expression of all tested genes was significantly increased except for that of metalloproteinase, which was significantly decreased in the LIPUS-treated OA group compared to the untreated OA group. LIPUS may affect the integrin-FAK-PI3K/Akt mechanochemical transduction pathway and alter ECM production by OA chondrocytes. Our findings will aid the future development of a treatment or even cure for OA.
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Novel Nitrocellulose Membrane Substrate for Efficient Analysis of Circulating Tumor Cells Coupled with Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Imaging.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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The capture and detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the bloodstream of patients with cancer is crucial for the clinical diagnosis and therapy. In the present work, a facile and integrated approach based on novel nitrocellulose membrane substrate and large-scale surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging technology has been developed for CTCs sensitive detection and enumeration. The system mainly consists of three aspects: capture of CTCs in bloodstream, SERS probes labeling of the captured CTCs and large-scale SERS imaging readout of CTCs enumeration. The NC membrane was used to prepare the novel CTC-capture substrate through antibody self-assembled. It was low-cost, easily prepared and completely nontoxic. Furthermore, excellent capture efficiency of the substrate was demonstrated using nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells (NCI-H1650) as target cells. As the most sensitive detection technology, SERS holds huge potential in CTCs analysis. Large-scale SERS imaging was employed in CTCs enumeration for the first time, instead of the conventional fluorescence imaging. Our SERS probes, with a simplified structure, offered highly enough sensitivity to recognize every single cell clearly. In the simulation experiment of spiking 100 cancer cells into 1 mL of human whole blood, 34 cells were captured and counted successfully according to the SERS imaging result. Our experimental results demonstrate the potential feasibility of novel NC membrane substrate coupled with large-scale SERS imaging technology for the accurate enumeration of CTCs in human whole blood.
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Compositional effects on the hydrogen storage properties of Mg(NH2)2-2LiH-xKH and the activity of KH during dehydrogenation reactions.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Potassium hydride (KH) was directly added to a Mg(NH2)2-2LiH system to improve the hydrogen storage properties; the corresponding mechanisms were elucidated. The Mg(NH2)2-2LiH-0.08KH composite displays optimized hydrogen-storage properties, reversibly storing approximately 5.2 wt% hydrogen through a two-stage reaction and a dehydrogenation onset at 70 °C. The 0.08KH-added sample fully dehydrogenated at 130 °C begins to absorb hydrogen at 50 °C, and takes up approximately 5.1 wt% of hydrogen at 140 °C. Adding KH significantly enhances the de-/hydrogenation kinetic properties; however, an overly rapid hydrogenation rate enlarges the particle size and raises the dehydrogenation temperature. A cycling evaluation reveals that the KH-added Mg(NH2)2-2LiH system possesses good reversible hydrogen storage abilities, although the operational temperatures for de-/hydrogenation increase during cycling. Detailed mechanistic investigations indicate that adding KH catalytically decreases the activation energy of the first dehydrogenation step and reduces the enthalpy of desorption during the second dehydrogenation step as a reactant, significantly improving the hydrogen storage properties of Mg(NH2)2-2LiH.
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[A novel and facile microchip based on nitrocellulose membrane toward efficient capture of circulating tumor cells].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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A novel and facile circulating tumor cell (CTC) microchip has been developed for the isolation and detection of cancer cells. The CTC microchip was prepared based on the nitrocellulose membrane substrate, which shows high affinity to proteins and hence can adsorb antibodies naturally. We employed non-small-cells of lung cancer NCI-H1650 as target cells and testified the high capture efficacy of the CTC microchip. Furthermore, we spiked 500 cancer cells to 1 mL healthy donors whole blood in order to simulate the detection of CTC in patient and detected 182 cancer cells ultimately, indicating the huge application potential in the future.
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[Detection of the major milk allergen alpha-casein in food with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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A new method of detecting milk allergen protein in food was established. Using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode in high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) to detect milk allergen protein alpha-casein is successful and convenient. All transitions gave a linear response in the chosen concentration range of the milk allergen protein (between 0. 5 and 250 mg/L total soluble protein, 5 data points), and the detection limit is 0.5 mg/L of alpha-casein. Food samples from markets were tested. The results showed that MRM method could be used to detect the milk allergen in food products.
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Characterization of saccharide using high fluorescent 5-(((2-(carbohydrazino)methyl)thio)acetyl)-aminofluorescein tag by Capillary-HPLC-LIF and MALDI-TOF-MS.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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The new approach to one-step derivatization of saccharide with 5-(((2-(carbohydrazino)methyl)thio)acetyl)-aminofluorescein (C356) was described. In this approach, high fluorescent C356 was applied to label saccharide to enhance the response of derivative saccharide and high sensitive capillary high performance liquid chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence (Capillary-HPLC-LIF) associated with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to characterize C356 labeled saccharide. The effect of derivatization conditions was evaluated and discussed. The limit of detection (LOD) of neutral saccharide in our method attained the level of femtomolar. As a result, this method could be successfully applied to determine the structure of N-glycans of glycoprotein.
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The effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and nanomagnet applications on the expressions of MMP-13 and MAPKs in rabbit knee osteoarthritis.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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An animal model of Osteoarthritis (OA) was established to observe the influences of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and nano magnet application (NMA) on Collagenase 3 (MMP-13) expression and the activation status of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in rabbit. 24 experimental rabbits from New Zealand were randomly divided into four groups: LIPUS, NMA, LIPUS + NMA group, and control group. The experimental rabbit OA model was established in the right knee joint of rabbits received ACLT operation. Rabbits in LIPUS group received LIPUS treatment and rabbits in NMA group were given NMA treatment. In LIPUS + NMA group, both treatments were applied on experimental rabbits everyday. However, the rabbits in control group only underwent ACLT operation. Four weeks later all rabbits were killed and changes of histopathology in rabbit articular cartilage were assessed and evaluated using Mankin method (Modified Mankin Scale). The protein expressions of MMP-13 and MAPKs were estimated using Western Blot. The results showed that both LIPUS and NMA treatments could significantly decrease the Mankin scores and suppress the expression level of MMP-13. However, there were some inverse results of MAPKs expression in these two applications and imply their treatment mechanisms of OA were different from each other.
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Solid-Solid Heterogeneous Catalysis: The Role of Potassium in Promoting the Dehydrogenation of the Mg(NH2 )2 /2?LiH Composite.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Considerable efforts have been devoted to the catalytic modification of hydrogen storage materials. The K-modified Mg(NH2 )2 /2?LiH composite is a typical model for such studies. In this work, we analyze the origin of the kinetic barrier in the first step of the dehydrogenation and investigate how K catalyzes this heterogeneous solid-state reaction. Our results indicate that the interface reaction of Mg(NH2 )2 and LiH is the main source of the kinetic barrier at the early stage of the dehydrogenation for the intensively ball-milled Mg(NH2 )2 /2?LiH sample. K can effectively activate Mg(NH2 )2 as well as promote LiH to participate in the dehydrogenation. Three K species of KH, K2 Mg(NH2 )4 , and Li3 K(NH2 )4 likely transform circularly in the dehydrogenation (KH?K2 Mg(NH2 )4 ?KLi3 (NH2 )4 ), which creates a more energy-favorable pathway and thus leads to the overall kinetic enhancement. This catalytic role of K in the amide/hydride system is different from the conventional catalysis of transition metals in the alanate system.
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Improved hydrogen-storage thermodynamics and kinetics for an RbF-doped Mg(NH2)2-2?LiH system.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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The introduction of RbF into the Mg(NH2)2-2?LiH system significantly decreased its (de-)hydrogenation temperatures and enhanced its hydrogen-storage kinetics. The Mg(NH2)2-2?LiH-0.08?RbF composite exhibits the optimal hydrogen-storage properties as it could reversibly store approximately 4.76?wt?% hydrogen through a two-stage reaction with the onset temperatures of 80?°C for dehydrogenation and 55?°C for hydrogenation. At 130?°C, approximately 70?% of hydrogen was rapidly released from the 0.08?RbF-doped sample within 180?min, and the fully dehydrogenated sample could absorb approximately 4.8?wt?% of hydrogen at 120?°C. Structural analyses revealed that RbF reacted readily with LiH to convert to RbH and LiF owing to the favorable thermodynamics during ball-milling. The newly generated RbH participated in the following dehydrogenation reaction, consequently resulting in a decrease in the reaction enthalpy change and activation energy.
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Self-assembly of mesoporous CuO nanosheets-CNT 3D-network composites for lithium-ion batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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A facile, flexible and large-scale technique was proposed to prepare a CuO-CNT 3D-network composite with the aid of electrostatic interactions in aqueous solution. The composite greatly improves the electrochemical performance. At a rate of 0.1 C, the cycling discharge capacity of the optimal composite is more than 2.3 times of that of unmodified mesoporous CuO nanosheets as the active material in an anode after 40 cycles.
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High throughput identification of components from traditional Chinese medicine herbs by utilizing graphene or graphene oxide as MALDI-TOF-MS matrix.
J Mass Spectrom
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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In this work, graphene or graphene oxide was utilized, for the first time, to identify small molecular components from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs, by acting as matrix of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Due to the large surface area of graphene or graphene oxide, the analytes were trapped tightly to the matrix, which avoids the contamination of the ion source and vacuum system. Besides, their excellent electronic, thermal and mechanical properties make them desired matrices for MALDI-TOF-MS. Stable analysis was achieved with no background inference even at the concentration of 100 nM. Moreover, the limit of detection (LOD) could be greatly lowered by utilizing graphene or graphene oxide as a pre-enrichment adsorbent. In summary, the promoted MALDI-TOF-MS methodology was demonstrated to be simple, sensitive, fast, cost effective and, most importantly, high throughput.
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Correlation between composition and hydrogen storage behaviors of the Li2NH-MgNH combination system.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2011
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Hydrogen storage performances of a Li(2)NH-xMgNH combination system (x = 0, 0.5, 1 and 2) are investigated for the first time. It is found that the hydrogenated samples with MgNH exhibit a significant reduction in the dehydrogenation temperatures. Mechanistic investigations reveal that there is a strong dependence of the hydrogen storage reaction process on the molar ratio between MgNH and Li(2)NH. As a consequence, tuning of thermodynamics is achieved for hydrogen storage in the Li(2)NH-xMgNH system by changing the reaction routes, which is ascertained to be the primary reason for the reduction in the operating temperature for hydrogen desorption. Specifically, it is found that under 105 atm hydrogen (140-280 °C) 5.6 wt% hydrogen is reversibly stored in the Li(2)NH-0.5MgNH combination system, which is greater than in the well-investigated Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH system.
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Magnetic nanoparticles-based digestion and enrichment methods in proteomics analysis.
Expert Rev Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2011
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In proteome research, rapid and effective proteolysis and enrichment strategies are essential for successful protein identification. Functionalized magnetic microspheres of micro- and nano-meter size are gaining increasing attention due to their easy manipulation and recovery, great specific surface areas and high surface activity. The introduction of magnetic nanoparticles into the field of proteomics study has accelerated the development of digestion and enrichment methods. In this article, we mainly focus on recent developments of using different functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for rapid digestion and preconcentration of low-abundance peptides/proteins, including those containing post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and glycosylation, prior to mass spectrometric analysis.
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Rapid and efficient proteolysis through laser-assisted immobilized enzyme reactors.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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In this report, laser radiation (808nm) for the first time was employed to enhance the efficiency of proteolysis through immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER). IMER based monolithic support was prepared in the fused-silica capillary via a simple two-step procedure including acryloylation on trypsin surface and in situ aqueous polymerization/immobilization. The feasibility and high efficiency of the laser-assisted IMER were demonstrated by the digestion of bovine serum albumin (BSA), cytochrome c (Cyt-c) and ?-casein. The digestion process was achieved in 60s. The peptides were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS, yielding the sequence coverage of 33% for BSA, 73% for Cyt-c and 22% for ?-casein. The comparisons between the in-solution digestion and on IMER reaction with/without laser assistance were made. To further confirm its efficiency in proteome analysis, the laser-assisted IMER was also applied to the analysis of one fraction of human serum sample through two-dimensional (2-D) separation of strong anion exchange/reversed-phase liquid chromatography (SAX/RPLC). After a database search, 49 unique peptides corresponding to 5 proteins were identified. The results showed that the laser-assisted IMER provides a promising platform for the high-throughput protein identification.
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Effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on MMP-13 and MAPKs signaling pathway in rabbit knee osteoarthritis.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2011
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We evaluated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on MMP-13 and MAPKs expression in rabbit knee osteoarthritis (OA). For this purpose, 18 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly and equally divided into O + L, O - L, and SO groups. In O + L group, animals underwent right back leg ACLT operation and LIPUS radiation. In O - L group, animals underwent ACLT but no LIPUS treatment. In SO (control) group, animals underwent sham operation without LIPUS. After 6 weeks, we assessed the pathologic changes in the articular surface of femoral condyle and compared using Mankin scores. Also, expression of type-II collagen, MMP-13, ERK1/2, p38, and JNK was measured by Western blot. Compared with controls, Mankin scores were higher in O + L (P < 0.05)/O - L (P < 0.01) groups. Compared with O + L group, score was higher in O - L group (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, type-II collagen expression was less in O + L/O - L groups, with more significant decrease in O - L group (P < 0.05). Contrarily, expression of MMP-13, p-ERK1/2, and p-p38 was enhanced in O + L/O - L groups as compared with controls, with more significant increase in O - L group (P < 0.01). Compared with O + L group, expression was higher in O - L group (P < 0.05). We, therefore, concluded that LIPUS application promoted cartilage repair in OA through the downregulation of MMP-13, ERK1/2, and p38.
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Hydrogen sorption from the Mg(NH2)2-KH system and synthesis of an amide-imide complex of KMg(NH)(NH2).
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
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The interaction between KH and Mg(NH(2))(2) is investigated. Results from temperature-programmed desorption measurements on samples of [Mg(NH(2))(2)][KH](x) (x=0.5, 1.0, and 2.0) indicated that dehydrogenation from [Mg(NH(2))(2)][KH] occurred through a two-step reaction with an onset temperature as low as 60 °C. Accompanied by hydrogen release, K(2)Mg(NH(2))(4) and MgNH successively developed at lower temperatures, whereas KMg(NH)(NH(2)) developed at higher temperatures. However, when dehydrogenation was conducted under isothermal and near-equilibrium conditions, a single-step reaction that led to the formation of KMg(NH)(NH(2)) was observed. KMg(NH)(NH(2)) is a new amide-imide complex. The synthesis of KMg(NH)(NH(2)) can be achieved either by dehydrogenation of the [Mg(NH(2))(2)][KH] mixture or by thermal decomposition of the [K(2)Mg(NH(2))(4)][Mg(NH(2))(2)] mixture.
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[Construction of a two-dimensional liquid chromatography separation system for high abundance proteins depletion in human plasma].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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High abundance proteins existing in human plasma severely impede the detection of low abundance proteins. This is one of the most difficult problems encountered in plasma proteomics research. We developed a two-dimensional liquid chromatography system with strong anion exchange chromatography-reversed-phase liquid chromatography (SAX-RPLC) for the extensive separation of plasma proteins and selective depletion of high abundance proteins. TSKgel SuperQ-5PW was selected as the first dimensional separation column for crude human plasma fractionation and Jupiter C4 column was selected as the second dimensional separation column. Separation gradients of the two-dimensional liquid chromatography system were optimized to ensure an extensive separation of plasma proteins. Ten peaks with high signal intensities ( >20 mAU) at 215 nm during the second dimensional separation were collected and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). As a result, 32 proteins, all of which were reported to be high abundance proteins in plasma, including human serum albumin (HSA), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and so on were successfully identified. This system provides an effective method for future depletion of more high abundance proteins and in-depth research in human plasma proteomics.
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A novel catalyst precursor K2TiF6 with remarkable synergetic effects of K, Ti and F together on reversible hydrogen storage of NaAlH4.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2010
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A synergetic effect of K, Ti and F together on improving the reversible hydrogen storage properties of NaAlH(4) is found by intruding K(2)TiF(6) as catalyst precursor. Around 4.4 wt% of hydrogen can be released from the NaAlH(4)-0.025 K(2)TiF(6) sample within 40 min at 140 °C.
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Local defects enhanced dehydrogenation kinetics of the NaBH(4)-added Li-Mg-N-H system.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2010
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A mechanistic understanding on the enhanced kinetics of hydrogen storage in the NaBH(4)-added Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH system is provided by carrying out experimental investigations associated with first-principles calculations. It is found that the operating temperatures for hydrogen desorption of the Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH system are reduced by introducing NaBH(4), and the NaBH(4) species seems almost unchanged during dehydrogenation/hydrogenation process. First-principles calculations reveal that the presence of NaBH(4) in the Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH system facilitates the formation of Mg vacancies in Mg(NH(2))(2). The appearance of Mg vacancies not only weakens the N-H bonds but also promotes the diffusion of atoms and/or ions, consequently resulting in the improvement of the reaction kinetics of hydrogen desorption/absorption of the NaBH(4)-added Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH system. This finding provides us with a deep insight into the role played by NaBH(4) in the Li-Mg-N-H system, as well as ideas for designing high-performance catalysts for metal-N-H-based hydrogen storage media.
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Development of multidimensional liquid chromatography and application in proteomic analysis.
Expert Rev Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
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As a complementary approach to 2D-PAGE, multidimensional liquid chromatography (MDLC) separation methods have been widely applied in all kinds of biological sample investigations. MDLC coupled with mass spectrometry is playing an important role in proteome research owing to its high speed, high resolution and high sensitivity. Among MDLC strategies, ion-exchange chromatography together with reversed-phase LC is still a most widely used chromatography in proteome analysis; other chromatographic methods are also frequently used in protein prefractionations. Recent MDLC technologies and applications to a variety of proteome analyses have achieved great development. The diversity of combinations of different chromatography modes to set up MDLC systems was demonstrated and discussed. Novel developments of MDLC techniques such as ultra-pressure system, array-based separation and monolithic material are also included in this article.
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[Optimization of two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatographic columns for highly efficient separation of intact proteins].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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In order to optimize two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (2D-LC) columns for highly efficient separation of proteins, several liquid chromatographic columns were investigated and evaluated. Weak anion-exchange (WAX) column was chosen as the first dimension because of its extensive protein separation power. By comparison of different WAX chromatographic columns for human liver protein separation, TSKgel DEAE-5PW column was selected as the first dimension of a 2D-LC system. For the second dimension, ten typical reversed-phase (RP) LC columns (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm, 30 nm) were investigated and evaluated. Their silica based RP stationary phases were butyl (C4), octyl (C8) or octadecyl (C18). To evaluate the retention behavior and non-specific protein adsorption ability of these ten columns, four neutral compounds (uracil, nitrobenzene, naphthalene and fluorene) and three standard proteins (cytochrome C, myoglobin and albumin from chicken egg white) were adopted and separated by RPLC. Meantime, WAX fractions were used to investigate the separation ability of different alkyl-bonded silica stationary phase columns for complex protein samples. By comparison of column separation efficiency, adsorption of intact proteins and sample analysis, Jupiter 300 C4 column was finally employed for its excellent separation ability. Optimization of WAX and RPLC columns offers reliable foundation for the construction of 2D-LC protein separation systems.
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Intact-protein trapping columns for proteomic analysis in capillary high-performance liquid chromatography.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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A new type of monolithic trapping columns with high mechanical strength was prepared by thin-layer sol-gel coating method and applied to trapping intact proteins for on-line capillary liquid chromatography. Monolithic trapping columns were fabricated by entrapping C8 reversed-phase particles into the capillary columns through a sol-gel network, which was formed by hydrolysis and polycondensation of methyltriethoxysilane. Hundreds times of trapping/untrapping for intact proteins were carried out. The trapping columns showed long-term stability up to 300 bar. Recovery, loading capacity and reproducibility of trapping columns were evaluated using four proteins. The recovery of four protein mixtures for the C8 monolithic trapping columns was 99.3% on average. The loading capacity of 5 mm × 320 ?m i.d. C8 trapping columns for the protein mixtures was 30 ?g. Day-to-day relative standard deviation (RSD) values for recoveries of protein mixtures on the same C8 trapping column ranged from 2.34 to 5.87%, column-to-column RSD values were from 3.01 to 6.81%. The C8 trapping columns were used to trap normal mouse liver intact proteins in a capillary liquid chromatography system. Results demonstrated high efficiency of the monolithic trapping columns for trapping intact proteins for proteomic analysis in on-line capillary liquid chromatography system.
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Hydrogen storage reaction over a ternary imide Li2Mg2N3H3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
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The reaction details of hydrogen storage process of a ternary imide Li(2)Mg(2)N(3)H(3) are elucidated for the first time. It is found that 1 mole of Li(2)Mg(2)N(3)H(3) converts to a mixture of Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH-MgNH on taking up 2 moles of H(2), and that the presence of MgNH in the Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH system not only alters the dehydrogenation thermodynamics but also improves the dehydrogenation kinetics.
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[Advances in multidimensional high performance liquid chromatography for separation technology in proteomic study].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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With the developments of proteomic study, multidimensional high performance liquid chromatography technology has attracted increasing interests due to its obvious advantages, such as rapid analysis, high automation and easy combination with mass spectrometry and so on. This review emphasizes the advances of multidimensional high performance liquid chromatography technology, including classical bottom-up methods, top-down techniques and array-based two-dimensional liquid chromatography system, which was designed and set up by our lab to improve the throughput. These techniques showed promising potential applications in proteomics study.
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Size-dependent kinetic enhancement in hydrogen absorption and desorption of the Li-Mg-N-H system.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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High operating temperature and slow kinetics retard the practical applications of the Li-Mg-N-H system for hydrogen storage. To alleviate these problems, a first attempt was carried out by synthesizing Li(2)MgN(2)H(2) through sintering a mixture of Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiNH(2) and investigating its size-dependent hydrogen storage performance. A dramatically enhanced kinetics for hydrogen absorption/desorption was achieved with a reduction in the particle size. For the dehydrogenation reaction, a three-dimensional diffusion-controlled kinetic mechanism was identified for the first time by analyzing isothermal hydrogen desorption curves with a linear plot method. The experimental improvement and mechanistic understanding on the dehydrogenation kinetics of the Li-Mg-N-H system shed light on how to further decrease the operating temperature and enhance the hydrogen absorption/desorption rate of the amide/hydride combined materials.
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Novel monolithic enzymatic microreactor based on single-enzyme nanoparticles for highly efficient proteolysis and its application in multidimensional liquid chromatography.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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In this work, a novel and facile monolithic enzymatic microreactor was prepared in the fused-silica capillary via a two-step procedure including surface acryloylation and in situ aqueous polymerization/immobilization to encapsulate a single enzyme, and its application to fast protein digestion through a direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis was demonstrated. At first, vinyl groups on the protein surface were generated by a mild acryloylation with N-acryloxysuccinimide in alkali buffer. Then, acryloylated enzyme was encapsulated into polyacrylates by free-radical copolymerization with acrylamide as the monomer, N,N-methylenebisacrylamide as the cross-linker, and N,N,N,N-tetramethylethylenediamine/ammonium persulfate as the initiator. Finally, polymers were immobilized onto the activated inner wall of capillaries via the reaction of vinyl groups. Capability of the enzyme-immobilized monolithic microreactor was demonstrated by myoglobin and bovine serum albumin as model proteins. The digestion products were characterized using MALDI-TOF-MS with sequence coverage of 94% and 29% observed. This microreactor was also applied to the analysis of fractions through two-dimensional separation of weak anion exchange/reversed-phase liquid chromatography of human liver extract. After a database search, 16 unique peptides corresponding to 3 proteins were identified when two RPLC fractions of human liver extract were digested by the microreactor. This opens a route for its future application in top-down proteomic analysis.
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A rapid and simple separation and direct detection of glutathione by gold nanoparticles and graphene-based MALDI-TOF-MS.
J Sep Sci
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In this study, we present a rapid and simple method for the separation and direct detection of glutathione by combining gold nanoparticles and MALDI-TOF-MS with graphene as matrix. Gold nanoparticles enable the selective capture of thiol-containing compounds. Gold nanoparticles bound with analytes can be mixed with graphene matrix for direct analysis by MALDI-TOF-MS, which can avoid sample loss and contamination during transfer process. Compared with a conventional matrix, ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, graphene exhibits an excellent desorption/ionization efficiency, thermal and mechanical properties. The use of graphene as matrix avoids the fragmentation of analytes. Stable analysis was achieved with less background interference even at the concentration of 0.625 ng/?L. To further confirm its efficiency, the optimized approach was applied to the separation and detection of glutathione in mouse liver extraction. This result showed the great potential of detection of biologically important thiols in biochemical and biomedical research.
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Synthesis and thermal decomposition behaviors of magnesium borohydride ammoniates with controllable composition as hydrogen storage materials.
Chem Asian J
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An ammonia-redistribution strategy for synthesizing metal borohydride ammoniates with controllable coordination number of NH(3) was proposed, and a series of magnesium borohydride ammoniates were easily synthesized by a mechanochemical reaction between Mg(BH(4))(2) and its hexaammoniate. A strong dependence of the dehydrogenation temperature and purity of the released hydrogen upon heating on the coordination number of NH(3) was elaborated for Mg(BH(4))(2)·xNH(3) owing to the change in the molar ratio of H(?+) and H(?-), the charge distribution on H(?+) and H(?-), and the strength of the coordinate bond N:?Mg(2+). The monoammoniate of magnesium borohydride (Mg(BH(4))(2)·NH(3)) was obtained for the first time. It can release 6.5% pure hydrogen within 50 minutes at 180 °C.
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Improved hydrogen storage kinetics of the Li-Mg-N-H system by addition of Mg(BH4)2.
Dalton Trans
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A Mg(BH(4))(2)-added Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH system was prepared by ball milling the corresponding chemicals. The hydrogen storage properties of the Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH-xMg(BH(4))(2) (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) samples and the role played by Mg(BH(4))(2) were systematically investigated. The results show that the onset and peak temperatures for hydrogen desorption from the Mg(BH(4))(2)-added Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH sample shifted to lower temperatures. In particular, the Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH-0.1Mg(BH(4))(2) sample could reversibly absorb ~4.5 wt% of hydrogen in the temperature range of 120-150 °C, which is superior to the pristine sample. During ball milling, a metathesis reaction between Mg(BH(4))(2) and LiH readily occurred to form LiBH(4) and MgH(2) and subsequently, the newly formed MgH(2) reacted with Mg(NH(2))(2) to generate MgNH. Upon heating, the presence of LiBH(4) not only decreased the recrystallization temperature of Mg(NH(2))(2) but also reacted with LiNH(2) to form the Li(4)(BH(4))(NH(2))(3) intermediate, which weakens the N-H bonding and enhances the ion conductivity. Meanwhile, MgNH may act as the nucleation center for the dehydrogenation product of Li(2)MgN(2)H(2) due to the structural similarity. Thus, the in situ formed LiBH(4) and MgNH provide a synergetic effect to improve the hydrogen storage performances of the Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH system.
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Synergetic effects of in situ formed CaH2 and LiBH4 on hydrogen storage properties of the Li-Mg-N-H system.
Chem Asian J
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Hydrogen storage properties and mechanisms of the Ca(BH(4))(2)-doped Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH system are systematically investigated. It is found that a metathesis reaction between Ca(BH(4))(2) and LiH readily occurs to yield CaH(2) and LiBH(4) during ball milling. The Mg(NH(2))(2) -2LiH-0.1Ca(BH(4))(2) composite exhibits optimal hydrogen storage properties as it can reversibly store more than 4.5 wt% of H(2) with an onset temperature of about 90 °C for dehydrogenation and 60 °C for rehydrogenation. Isothermal measurements show that approximately 4.0 wt% of H(2) is rapidly desorbed from the Mg(NH(2))(2) -2LiH-0.1Ca(BH(4))(2) composite within 100 minutes at 140 °C, and rehydrogenation can be completed within 140 minutes at 105 °C and 100 bar H(2). In comparison with the pristine sample, the apparent activation energy and the reaction enthalpy change for dehydrogenation of the Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH-0.1Ca(BH(4))(2) composite are decreased by about 16.5% and 28.1%, respectively, and thus are responsible for the lower operating temperature and the faster dehydrogenation/hydrogenation kinetics. The fact that the hydrogen storage performances of the Ca(BH(4))(2)-doped sample are superior to the individually CaH(2)- or LiBH(4)-doped samples suggests that the in situ formed CaH(2) and LiBH(4) provide a synergetic effect on improving the hydrogen storage properties of the Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH system.
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Developing a strong anion exchange/RP (SAX/RP) 2D LC system for high-abundance proteins depletion in human plasma.
Proteomics
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Human plasma is dominated by high-abundance proteins which severely impede the detection of low-abundance proteins. Unfortunately, now there is no efficient method for large-scale depletion of high-abundance proteins in human plasma. In this study, we developed a new strategy, strong anion exchange (SAX)/RP 2D LC system, which has potential for large-scale depletion of high-abundance proteins in human plasma. Separation gradients of the system were optimized to ensure an extensive separation of plasma proteins. Plasma was fractionated into 67 fractions by SAX. All these fractions were subjected a thorough separation by the 2D RPLC and 66 peaks with high UV absorption (>20 mAU) at 215 nm were collected. Proteins in these peaks were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Results showed that 83 proteins could be identified in these peaks, 68 among them were reported to be high- or middle-abundance proteins in plasma. All these proteins had definite retention times and were mapped in the 2D SAX-RP system, which resulted in accurate depletion of high-abundance proteins with ease. Our studies provide a convenient and effective method for large-scale depletion of high-abundance proteins and in-depth research in human plasma proteomics.
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An accurate proteomic quantification method: fluorescence labeling absolute quantification (FLAQ) using multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.
Proteomics
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A facile proteomic quantification method, fluorescent labeling absolute quantification (FLAQ), was developed. Instead of using MS for quantification, the FLAQ method is a chromatography-based quantification in combination with MS for identification. Multidimensional liquid chromatography (MDLC) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection with high accuracy and tandem MS system were employed for FLAQ. Several requirements should be met for fluorescent labeling in MS identification: Labeling completeness, minimum side-reactions, simple MS spectra, and no extra tandem MS fragmentations for structure elucidations. A fluorescence dye, 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein, was finally chosen to label proteins on all cysteine residues. The fluorescent dye was compatible with the process of the trypsin digestion and MALDI MS identification. Quantitative labeling was achieved with optimization of reacting conditions. A synthesized peptide and model proteins, BSA (35 cysteines), OVA (five cysteines), were used for verifying the completeness of labeling. Proteins were separated through MDLC and quantified based on fluorescent intensities, followed by MS identification. High accuracy (RSD% < 1.58) and wide linearity of quantification (1-10(5) ) were achieved by LIF detection. The limit of quantitation for the model protein was as low as 0.34 amol. Parts of proteins in human liver proteome were quantified and demonstrated using FLAQ.
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Functions of MgH2 in hydrogen storage reactions of the 6LiBH4-CaH2 reactive hydride composite.
Dalton Trans
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A significant improvement of hydrogen storage properties was achieved by introducing MgH(2) into the 6LiBH(4)-CaH(2) system. It was found that ~8.0 wt% of hydrogen could be reversibly stored in a 6LiBH(4)-CaH(2)-3MgH(2) composite below 400 °C and 100 bar of hydrogen pressure with a stepwise reaction, which is superior to the pristine 6LiBH(4)-CaH(2) and LiBH(4) samples. Upon dehydriding, MgH(2) first decomposed to convert to Mg and liberate hydrogen with an on-set temperature of ~290 °C. Subsequently, LiBH(4) reacted with CaH(2) to form CaB(6) and LiH in addition to further hydrogen release. Hydrogen desorption from the 6LiBH(4)-CaH(2)-3MgH(2) composite finished at ~430 °C in non-isothermal model, a 160 °C reduction relative to the 6LiBH(4)-CaH(2) sample. JMA analyses revealed that hydrogen desorption was a diffusion-controlled reaction rather than an interface reaction-controlled process. The newly produced Mg of the first-step dehydrogenation possibly acts as the heterogeneous nucleation center of the resultant products of the second-step dehydrogenation, which diminishes the energy barrier and facilitates nucleation and growth, consequently reducing the operating temperature and improving the kinetics of hydrogen storage.
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High throughput detection of tetracycline residues in milk using graphene or graphene oxide as MALDI-TOF MS matrix.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
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In this work, a new pre-analysis method for tetracyclines (TCs) detection from the milk samples was established. As a good accomplishment for the existing accurate quantification strategies for TCs detection, the new pre-analysis method was demonstrated to be simple, sensitive, fast, cost effective, and high throughput, which would do a great favor to the routine quality pre-analysis of TCs from milk samples. Graphene or graphene oxide was utilized, for the first time, as a duel-platform to enrich and detect the TCs by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). All together, four TCs were chosen as models: tetracycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, and chlortetracycline. Due to the excellent electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties, graphene and graphene oxide were successfully applied as matrices for MALDI-TOF MS with free background inference in low mass range. Meanwhile, graphene or graphene oxide has a large surface area and strong interaction force with the analytes. By taking the advantage of these features, TCs were effectively enriched with the limit of detection (LOD) as low as 2 nM.
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Synthesis of CuO nanowalnuts and nanoribbons from aqueous solution and their catalytic and electrochemical properties.
Nanoscale
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One dimensional copper hydroxide nanostrands, two dimensional Cu(2)(OH)(3)NO(3) nanoribbons and three dimensional CuO nanowalnuts were synthesized from the same diluted copper nitrate solution with ethanolamine at room temperature and 10 °C, respectively. The Cu(2)(OH)(3)NO(3) nanoribbons were formed by slowly hydrolyzing ethanolamine at low temperature. The CuO nanowalnuts were formed through dehydration of copper hydroxide nanostrands in aqueous solution at room temperature. Although their average size is about 500 nm, the specific surface area of the CuO nanowalnuts can be as large as 61.24 m(2) g(-1), due to their particular morphology with assembling of 8 nm grains. The Cu(2)(OH)(3)NO(3) nanoribbons were converted to CuO porous nanoribbons, keeping the shape. The catalytic performance of the CuO nanowalnuts for CO oxidation is 160 mL h(-1) g(cat)(-1) which is 23 times higher than those of the CuO porous nanoribbons and 40 nm commercial CuO nanoparticles, respectively. The electrochemical properties of the CuO nanowalnuts were also examined in a lithium-ion battery. After 30 cycles, the capacity of the as-prepared CuO nanowalnuts could sustain 67.1% (407 mA h g(-1)) of the second cycle (607 mA h g(-1)) at a rate of 0.1 C.
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An ammonia-stabilized mixed-cation borohydride: synthesis, structure and thermal decomposition behavior.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
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We demonstrate the synthesis, crystal structure and thermal decomposition behavior of a novel ammonia-stabilized mixed-cation borohydride where the NH3 groups enable the coexistence of Li and Mg cations as an "assistant". Li2Mg(BH4)4·6NH3, which is comprised of orderly arranged Mg[NH3]6(2+) ammine complexes and Li2[BH4]4(2-) complex anions, was synthesized by the mechanochemical reaction between Mg(BH4)2·6NH3 and LiBH4. This novel compound crystallizes in a tetragonal P43212 (No. 96) structure with lattice parameters a = b = 10.7656(8) Å and c = 13.843(1) Å with very short dihydrogen bonds, which determine a very low onset temperature of 80 °C for hydrogen release and are also responsible for the nucleation of Li2Mg(BH4)4·3NH3 as a decomposition intermediate. Mechanistic investigations on the thermal decomposition showed that the H(?+)-H(?-) combination in the ammonia-stabilized mixed-cation borohydride was significantly enhanced due to the strengthened Mg-N bonds. Upon heating, 11.02 moles of H2 (equivalent to 11.1 wt%) and 3.07 moles of NH3 are evolved from one mole of Li2Mg(BH4)4·6NH3 with a three-step reaction. The insights into the formation mechanism of ammonia-stabilized mixed-cation borohydride and the role played by NH3 group are very useful as a guideline for the design and synthesis of novel B-N-based materials with high hydrogen content.
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