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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Astemizole Arrests the Proliferation of Cancer Cells by Disrupting the EZH2-EED Interaction of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) modulates the chromatin structure and transcriptional repression by trimethylation lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3), a process that necessitates the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between the catalytic subunit EZH2 and EED. Deregulated PRC2 is intimately involved in tumorigenesis and progression, making it an invaluable target for epigenetic cancer therapy. However, until now, there have been no reported small molecule compounds targeting the EZH2-EED interactions. In the present study, we identified astemizole, an FDA-approved drug, as a small molecule inhibitor of the EZH2-EED interaction of PRC2. The disruption of the EZH2-EED interaction by astemizole destabilizes the PRC2 complex and inhibits its methyltransferase activity in cancer cells. Multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that astemizole arrests the proliferation of PRC2-driven lymphomas primarily by disabling the PRC2 complex. Our findings demonstrate the chemical tractability of the difficult PPI target by a small molecule compound, highlighting the therapeutic promise for PRC2-driven human cancers via targeted destruction of the EZH2-EED complex.
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Identifying Novel Selective Non-Nucleoside DNA Methyltransferase 1 Inhibitors through Docking-Based Virtual Screening.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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The DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) found in mammals include DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B and are attractive targets in cancer chemotherapy. DNMT1 was the first among the DNMTs to be characterized, and it is responsible for maintaining DNA methylation patterns. A number of DNMT inhibitors have been reported, but most of them are nucleoside analogs that can lead to toxic side effects and lack specificity. By combining docking-based virtual screening with biochemical analyses, we identified a novel compound, DC_05. DC_05 is a non-nucleoside DNMT1 inhibitor with low micromolar IC50 values and significant selectivity toward other AdoMet-dependent protein methyltransferases. Through a process of similarity-based analog searching, compounds DC_501 and DC_517 were found to be more potent than DC_05. These three potent compounds significantly inhibited cancer cell proliferation. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) and binding modes of these inhibitors were also analyzed to assist in the future development of more potent and more specific DNMT1 inhibitors.
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Metallothionein labeling for CLEM method for identification of protein subunits.
Microscopy (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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CLEM (correlative light and electron microscopy) is one of the powerful techniques to elucidate the localization and structure of the target proteins or their complexes in cell. First, target proteins labeled fluorescently can be searched using a fluorescence microscope, i.e., due to its low resolution (200nm), it is used as rough searching of target proteins. After rough detection of the localization of target proteins, they can be easily observed by electron microscopy with a high resolution and processed into fine structure, especially 3D structure. On the other hand, in the case of only electron microscopy, it is difficult for researchers to detect their localization due to a narrow range of views and no labeling of them.Thus, CLEM normally needs fluorescent labels for fluorescence microscopy but a label for electron microscopy is also expectedly for easier detection. Thus we focused on metallothionein. Metallothionein binds to cadmium ions, i.e., heavy atoms with strong density in electron microscopy [1]; in addition, cadmium ions and selenium ions are known to form Qdot-like nanoparticles induced by metallothionein [2]. These are 2 ? 5nm in size, fluorescent wavelength changes depending on the size of nanoparticles. Thus, target proteins fused with metallothionein could be observed by both of fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy.We here used Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, single cell green algae with two flagella. Flagella are used for bending motion and motility. Flagella contain FAP20 (Flagellar Asociate Protein 20) and PACRG (PArkin Co-Regulated gene), which are related to composing axoneme architecture. If Chlamydomonas reinhardtii doesn't have FAP20 or PACRG, they can't generate bending motion. It is considered that FAP20 and PACRG locate on the root of the radial spoke. Recently the location of FAP20 was reported by Yanagisawa et al.[3]. First, we also focus on detecting localization of FAP20 and then will do so on that of PACKRG.We could observe fluorescence of metallothionein fused with FAP20 to form nanoparticle. We are now trying to observe larger electron density from metallothionein with cadmium for CLEM.
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Virtual screening and biological evaluation of novel small molecular inhibitors against protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1).
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Protein arginine methylation is a common post-translational modification which is crucial for a variety of biological processes. Dysregulation of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) activity has been implicated in cancer and other serious diseases. Thus, small molecule inhibitors against PRMT have great potential for therapeutic development. Herein, through the combination of virtual screening and bioassays, six small molecular compounds were identified as PRMT1 inhibitors. Amongst them, the binding affinity of compounds DCLX069 and DCLX078 with PRMT1 was further validated by T1? and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments. Most important of all, both compounds effectively blocked cell proliferation in breast cancer, liver cancer and acute myeloid leukemia cell lines. The binding mode analysis from molecular docking simulations theoretically indicated that both inhibitors occupied the SAM binding pocket to exert the inhibitory effect. Taken together, our compounds enriched the structural scaffolds as PRMT1 inhibitors and afforded clues for further optimization.
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High-rate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis for biogas upgrading: the role of anaerobic granules.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis has been proved to be a feasible biological method for biogas upgrading. To improve its performance, the feasibility of typical anaerobic granules as the inoculum was investigated in both batch and continuous experiments. The results from batch experiments showed that glucose-acclimated granules seemed to perform better than granules acclimated to acidified products (AP, i.e. acetate, propionate and ethanol) in in situ biogas upgrading systems and a slightly higher H2 consumption rate (1.5?mmol H2?g VSS(-1)?h(-1)) was obtained for glucose-acclimated granules. For AP-acclimated granules, the inhibition on anaerobic digestion and pH increase (up to 9.55±0.16) took place, and the upgrading performance was adversely affected. In contrast, better performance for AP-acclimated granules was observed in ex situ systems, possibly due to their higher hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activities (HMA). Moreover, when gas-liquid mass transfer limitations were alleviated, the upgrading performance was significantly improved (three-fold) for both glucose-acclimated and AP-acclimated granules. The HMA of anaerobic granules could be further enhanced to improve biogas upgrading performance via continuous cultivation with H2/CO2 as the sole substrate. During the three months' cultivation, secondary granulation and microbial population shift were observed, but anaerobic granules still remained intact and their HMA increased from 0.2 to 0.6?g COD?g VSS(-1)?d(-1). It indicated that the formation of hydrogenotrophic methanogenic granules, a new type of anaerobic granules specialized for high-rate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and biogas upgrading, might be possible. Conclusively, anaerobic granules showed great potential for biogas upgrading.
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Protective effects of lithium chloride treatment on repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2014
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Lithium is a renowned pharmacological treatment for mood disorders. Recent studies suggest that lithium chloride (LiCl) performs neuroprotective effects on cerebrovascular diseases. The present study is to investigate the protective effects of LiCl treatment on the hippocampus of mice with repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Mice were subjected to IR through repeated bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. LiCl (2 mmol/kg) was administered daily postoperative until the mice were sacrificed. Swimming time was prolonged and error count increased in the model group through learning and memory tests. Pathological changes such as reduction in cell count and obvious pyknosis were seen in haematoxylin-eosin staining, and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining in hippocampal CA1 regions in the model group. The model animals exhibited more phospho-Akt Ser473 and phospho-GSK3? Ser9 than the sham group when measured by Western blot. LiCl treatment mitigated the prolonged swimming time and the increased error count compared with NaCl-treated group and improved the pathological changes. Meanwhile, LiCl further up-regulated phospho-Akt Ser473 and phospho-GSK3? Ser9 expression. The highest level of diversity was at 4 weeks postoperative. Therefore, repeated IR can severely damage the hippocampus and decrease the learning and memory functions in mice. Changes in the Akt and GSK3? protein activity were involved in the IR process. LiCl treatment exerted a neuroprotective effect on learning and memory by potentiating the Akt/GSK3? cell-signaling pathway.
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Data mining-based study on sub-mentally healthy state among residents in eight provinces and cities in China.
J Tradit Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To apply data mining methods to research on the state of sub-mental health among residents in eight provinces and cities in China and to mine latent knowledge about many conditions through data mining and analysis of data on 3970 sub-mentally healthy individuals selected from 13385 relevant questionnaires.
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Time-resolved spectroscopic and density functional theory study of the photochemistry of Irgacure-2959 in an aqueous solution.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The photocleavage reaction mechanism of 2-hydroxy-4'-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropiophenone (Irgacure-2959) was investigated using femtosecond (fs) and nanosecond (ns) transient absorption (-TA) spectroscopy and also picosecond (ps) and nanosecond (ns) time-resolved resonance Raman (-TR(3)) spectroscopy experiments in a water-rich (volume ratio of acetonitrile/water = 3:7) solution. TA spectroscopy was used to study the dynamics of the benzoyl radical growth and decay as well as to investigate the radical quenching process by the radical scavenger methyl acrylate. ps- and ns-TR(3) spectroscopies were employed to monitor the formation of the benzoyl radical and also to characterize its electronic and structural properties. The fs-TA experiments results indicate that the Irgacure-2959 lowest lying excited singlet state S1 underwent efficient intersystem crossing (ISC) to convert into its triplet state with a time constant of 4 ps. Subsequently, this triplet species dissociated into the benzoyl and alkyl radicals with a corresponding maximum absorption band at 415 nm. The TR(3) results in conjunction with results from DFT calculations confirmed that Irgacure-2959 cleaved into the benzoyl and alkyl radicals at a fast rate on the tens of picosecond time scale.
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Investigation of the Role of Protonation of Benzophenone and Its Derivatives in Acidic Aqueous Solutions Using Time-Resolved Resonance Raman Spectroscopy: How Are Ketyl Radicals Formed in Aqueous Solutions?
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The formation mechanism of ketyl radicals and several other selective photoreactions of benzophenone and its derivatives are initiated by the protonation of their triplet state and have been investigated using nanosecond time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy (ns-TR(3)) in solutions of varying conditions. Evidence is found that the ketyl radical is generated by the combined action of a ketone protonation and a subsequent electron transfer based on the results from previous studies on the photochemistry and photophysics of benzophenone and the ns-TR(3) results reported here for benzophenone, 1,4-dibenzoylbenzene, 3-(hydroxymethyl)benzophenone, and ketoprofen in neutral and acidic solution. In order to better understand the role of the protonated ketone, results are summarized for some selective photochemical reactions of benzophenone and its derivatives induced by protonation in acidic solutions. For the parent benzophenone, the protonation of the ketone leads to the photohydration reactions at the ortho- and meta-positions of the benzene ring in acidic aqueous solutions. For 3-(hydroxymethyl)benzophenone, the protonation promotes an interesting photoredox reaction to become very efficient and the predominant reaction in a pH = 2 aqueous solution. While for ketoprofen, the protonation can initiate a solvent-mediated excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) from the carboxyl group to the carbonyl group that then leads to a decarboxylation reaction in a pH = 0 acidic aqueous solution. We briefly discuss the key role of the protonation of the ketone in the photochemistry of these aromatic ketones.
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Synthesis, characterization, and swelling behaviors of salt-sensitive maize bran-poly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogel.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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A novel composite hydrogel was prepared via UV irradiation copolymerization of acrylic acid and maize bran (MB) in the presence of composite initiator (2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone and ammonium persulfate) and cross-linker (N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide)). Under the optimized conditions, maize bran-poly(acrylic acid) was obtained (2507 g g(-1) in distilled water and 658 g g(-1) in 0.9 wt % NaCl solution). Effects of granularity, salt concentration, and various cations and anions on water absorbency were investigated. It was found that swelling was extremely sensitive to the ionic strength and cation and anion type. Swelling kinetics and water diffusion mechanism in distilled water were also discussed. Moreover, the product showed excellent water retention capability under the condition of high temperature or high pressure. The salt sensitivity, good water absorbency, and excellent water retention capability of the hydrogels give this intelligentized polymer wide potential applications.
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Dysregulated expression of neuregulin-1 by cortical pyramidal neurons disrupts synaptic plasticity.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) gene variants are associated with increased genetic risk for schizophrenia. It is unclear whether risk haplotypes cause elevated or decreased expression of NRG1 in the brains of schizophrenia patients, given that both findings have been reported from autopsy studies. To study NRG1 functions in vivo, we generated mouse mutants with reduced and elevated NRG1 levels and analyzed the impact on cortical functions. Loss of NRG1 from cortical projection neurons resulted in increased inhibitory neurotransmission, reduced synaptic plasticity, and hypoactivity. Neuronal overexpression of cysteine-rich domain (CRD)-NRG1, the major brain isoform, caused unbalanced excitatory-inhibitory neurotransmission, reduced synaptic plasticity, abnormal spine growth, altered steady-state levels of synaptic plasticity-related proteins, and impaired sensorimotor gating. We conclude that an "optimal" level of NRG1 signaling balances excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the cortex. Our data provide a potential pathomechanism for impaired synaptic plasticity and suggest that human NRG1 risk haplotypes exert a gain-of-function effect.
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The first report of the vanC1 gene in Enterococcus faecium isolated from a human clinical specimen.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The vanC1 gene, which is chromosomally located, confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Enterococcus faecium TJ4031 was isolated from a blood culture and harbours the vanC1gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect vanXYc and vanTc genes. Only the vanXYc gene was found in the E. faecium TJ4031 isolate. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin and teicoplanin were 2 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that the vanC1and vanXYc genes were not expressed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and southern hybridisation results showed that the vanC1 gene was encoded in the chromosome. E. faecalis isolated from animals has been reported to harbour vanC1gene. However, this study is the first to report the presence of the vanC1gene in E. faecium of human origin. Additionally, our research showed the vanC1gene cannot serve as a species-specific gene of E. gallinarum and that it is able to be transferred between bacteria. Although the resistance marker is not expressed in the strain, our results showed that E. faecium could acquire the vanC1gene from different species.
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Arl3 and LC8 regulate dissociation of dynactin from dynein.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Cytoplasmic dynein acts as a motor for the intracellular retrograde motility of vesicles and organelles along microtubules. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying release of dynactin bound cargoes from dynein motor remains largely unknown. Here we report that ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3 (Arl3) and dynein light chain LC8 induce dissociation of dynactin from dynein. Immunoprecipitation and microtubule pull-down assays revealed that Arl3(Q71L) and LC8 facilitated detachment of dynactin from dynein. We also demonstrated Arl3(Q71L) or LC8-mediated dynactin release from a dynein-dynactin complex through trace experiments using quantum dot (Qdot)-conjugated proteins. Furthermore, we disclosed interactions of Arl3 and LC8 with dynactin and dynein, respectively, by live-cell imaging. Finally, knockdown (KD) of Arl3 and LC8 by siRNA induced abnormal localizations of dynein, dynactin and related organelles. Our findings uncovered the surprising functional relevance of GTP-bound Arl3 and LC8 for the unloading regulation of dynactin-bound cargo from dynein motor.
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Profiling of alternative polyadenylation sites in luminal B breast cancer using the SAPAS method.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Breast cancer (BC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in females and is recognized as a molecularly heterogeneous disease. Previous studies have suggested that alternative messenger RNA (mRNA) processing, particularly alternative polyadenylation [poly(A)] (APA), can be a powerful molecular biomarker with prognostic potential. Therefore, in the present study, we profiled APA sites in the luminal B subtype of BC by sequencing APA sites (SAPAS) method, in order to assess the relation of these APA site-switching events to the recognized molecular subtypes of BC, and to discover novel candidate genes and pathways in BC. Through comprehensive analysis, the trend of APA site-switching events in the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) in the luminal B subtype of BC were found to be the same as that in MCF7 cell lines. Among the genes involved in the events, a significantly greater number of genes was found with shortened 3'UTRs in the samples, which were samples of primary cancer with relatively low proliferation. These findings may provide novel information for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis on a molecular level. Several potential biomarkers with significantly differential tandem 3'UTRs and expression were found and validated. The related biological progresses and pathways involved were partly confirmed by other studies. In conclusion, this study provides new insight into the diagnosis and prognosis of BC from the APA site profile aspect.
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Enhanced effect of pH-sensitive mixed copolymer micelles for overcoming multidrug resistance of doxorubicin.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated drug efflux has been recognized as a key factor contributing to the multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells. To address this issue, a new pH-sensitive mixed copolymer micelles system composed of hyaluronic acid-g-poly(l-histidine) (HA-PHis) and d-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 2000 (TPGS2k) copolymers was developed to co-deliver doxorubicin (DOX) and TPGS2k into drug-resistant breast cancer MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/ADR). The DOX-loaded HA-PHis/TPGS2k mixed micelles (HPHM/TPGS2k) were characterized to have a unimodal size distribution, high DOX loading content and a pH dependent drug release profile due to the protonation of poly(l-histidine). As compared to HA-PHis micelles (HPHM), the HPHM/TPGS2k showed higher and comparable cytotoxicity against MCF-7/ADR cells and MCF-7 cells, respectively. The enhanced MDR reversal effect was attributed to the higher amount of cellular uptake of HPHM/TPGS2k in MCF-7/ADR cells than HPHM, arising from the inhibition of P-gp mediated drug efflux by TPGS2k. The measurements of P-gp expression level and mitochondrial membrane potential indicate that the blank HPHM/TPGS2k inhibited P-gp activity by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and depletion of ATP but without inhibition of P-gp expression. In vivo study of micelles in tumor-bearing mice indicate that HPHM/TPGS2k could reach the tumor site more effectively than HPHM. The pH-sensitive mixed micelles system has been demonstrated to be a promising approach for overcoming the MDR.
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[The classification method of syndromes in the Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold)].
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold) epitomizes the medical achievements of the Tang Dynasty with an extensive coverage. The classification method of syndromes in this book is derived from Nei jing (Inner Canon), Nan jing (Classic of Questioning), Shang han za bing lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases), Zhu bing yuan hou lun (General Treatise on Causes and Manifestations of All Diseases), and enlightens the later generation with many unique characteristics, reflecting the mature recognition of the diseases in the contemporary clinical medicine from one side. It is still of great significance for understanding the diseases and exploring its pathogenesis even today.
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The first report of the vanC1 gene in Enterococcus faecium isolated from a human clinical specimen.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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The vanC1 gene, which is chromosomally located, confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Enterococcus faecium TJ4031 was isolated from a blood culture and harbours the vanC1gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect vanXYc and vanTc genes. Only the vanXYc gene was found in the E. faecium TJ4031 isolate. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin and teicoplanin were 2 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that the vanC1and vanXYc genes were not expressed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and southern hybridisation results showed that the vanC1 gene was encoded in the chromosome. E. faecalis isolated from animals has been reported to harbour vanC1gene. However, this study is the first to report the presence of the vanC1gene in E. faecium of human origin. Additionally, our research showed the vanC1gene cannot serve as a species-specific gene of E. gallinarum and that it is able to be transferred between bacteria. Although the resistance marker is not expressed in the strain, our results showed that E. faecium could acquire the vanC1gene from different species.
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Complete genome sequence of Kosakonia sacchari type strain SP1(T.).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Kosakonia sacchari sp. nov. is a new species within the new genus Kosakonia, which was included in the genus Enterobacter. K sacchari is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium named for its association with sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). K sacchari bacteria are Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, motile rods. Strain SP1(T) (=CGMCC1.12102(T)=LMG 26783(T)) is the type strain of the K sacchari sp. nov and is able to colonize and fix N2 in association with sugarcane plants, thus promoting plant growth. Here we summarize the features of strain SP1(T) and describe its complete genome sequence. The genome contains a single chromosome and no plasmids, 4,902,024 nucleotides with 53.7% GC content, 4,460 protein-coding genes and 105 RNA genes including 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes, and 1 ncRNA gene.
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Tailoring lignin biosynthesis for efficient and sustainable biofuel production.
Plant Biotechnol. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Increased global interest in a bio-based economy has reinvigorated the research on the cell wall structure and composition in plants. In particular, the study of plant lignification has become a central focus, with respect to its intractability and negative impact on the utilization of the cell wall biomass for producing biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Striking progress has been achieved in the last few years both on our fundamental understanding of lignin biosynthesis, deposition and assembly, and on the interplay of lignin synthesis with the plant growth and development. With the knowledge gleaned from basic studies, researchers are now able to invent and develop elegant biotechnological strategies to sophisticatedly manipulate the quantity and structure of lignin and thus to create economically viable bioenergy feedstocks. These concerted efforts open an avenue for the commercial production of cost-competitive biofuel to meet our energy needs.
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RAID: a comprehensive resource for human RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction.
RNA
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Transcriptomic analyses have revealed an unexpected complexity in the eukaryote transcriptome, which includes not only protein-coding transcripts but also an expanding catalog of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Diverse coding and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) perform functions through interaction with each other in various cellular processes. In this project, we have developed RAID (http://www.rna-society.org/raid), an RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction database. RAID intends to provide the scientific community with all-in-one resources for efficient browsing and extraction of the RNA-associated interactions in human. This version of RAID contains more than 6100 RNA-associated interactions obtained by manually reviewing more than 2100 published papers, including 4493 RNA-RNA interactions and 1619 RNA-protein interactions. Each entry contains detailed information on an RNA-associated interaction, including RAID ID, RNA/protein symbol, RNA/protein categories, validated method, expressing tissue, literature references (Pubmed IDs), and detailed functional description. Users can query, browse, analyze, and manipulate RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction. RAID provides a comprehensive resource of human RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction network. Furthermore, this resource will help in uncovering the generic organizing principles of cellular function network.
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Interaction between DNA/histone Methyltransferases and their Inhibitors.
Curr. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Epigenetic research has recently become one of the hotspots in the field of bioscience and drug design. DNA methylation and histone methylation serve a critical function in influencing gene expression and genome function. The inhibition of DNA and histone methyltransferases (DNMTs and HMTs) is a promising approach for the therapeutic treatment of numerous diseases, including cancer. This work reviews the recent achievements in methyltransferase crystallographic structure resolution and bioactive inhibitor screening. We discuss the features of DNA and HMT structures, as well as the mechanism and structure-function relationship of transferase inhibitors, to elucidate how methyltransferase and inhibitor interactions occur both internally and externally. This study briefly reviews the biological function, as well as the inhibitor discovery and development, of DNA/histone methyltransferases.
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Electroacupuncture at ST36 accelerates the recovery of gastrointestinal motility after colorectal surgery: a randomised controlled trial.
Acupunct Med
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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To evaluate whether electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 can accelerate the recovery of gastrointestinal motility after colorectal surgery.
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Metadynamics simulation study on the conformational transformation of HhaI methyltransferase: an induced-fit base-flipping hypothesis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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DNA methyltransferases play crucial roles in establishing and maintenance of DNA methylation, which is an important epigenetic mark. Flipping the target cytosine out of the DNA helical stack and into the active site of protein provides DNA methyltransferases with an opportunity to access and modify the genetic information hidden in DNA. To investigate the conversion process of base flipping in the HhaI methyltransferase (M.HhaI), we performed different molecular simulation approaches on M.HhaI-DNA-S-adenosylhomocysteine ternary complex. The results demonstrate that the nonspecific binding of DNA to M.HhaI is initially induced by electrostatic interactions. Differences in chemical environment between the major and minor grooves determine the orientation of DNA. Gln237 at the target recognition loop recognizes the GCGC base pair from the major groove side by hydrogen bonds. In addition, catalytic loop motion is a key factor during this process. Our study indicates that base flipping is likely to be an "induced-fit" process. This study provides a solid foundation for future studies on the discovery and development of mechanism-based DNA methyltransferases regulators.
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Sparse-view ultrasound diffraction tomography using compressed sensing with nonuniform FFT.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Accurate reconstruction of the object from sparse-view sampling data is an appealing issue for ultrasound diffraction tomography (UDT). In this paper, we present a reconstruction method based on compressed sensing framework for sparse-view UDT. Due to the piecewise uniform characteristics of anatomy structures, the total variation is introduced into the cost function to find a more faithful sparse representation of the object. The inverse problem of UDT is iteratively resolved by conjugate gradient with nonuniform fast Fourier transform. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method that the main characteristics of the object can be properly presented with only 16 views. Compared to interpolation and multiband method, the proposed method can provide higher resolution and lower artifacts with the same view number. The robustness to noise and the computation complexity are also discussed.
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Effect of the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase, ethanol dehydrogenase, and phosphotransacetylase on 2,3-butanediol production in Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a high-value chemical usually produced petrochemically but which can also be synthesized by some bacteria. To date, Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most powerful 2,3-BD producer which can utilize a wide range of substrates. However, many by-products are also produced by K. pneumoniae, such as ethanol, lactate, and acetate, which negatively regulate the 2,3-BD yield and increase the costs of downstream separation and purification.
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Neurobiology of microglial action in CNS injuries: receptor-mediated signaling mechanisms and functional roles.
Prog. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Microglia are the first line of immune defense against central nervous system (CNS) injuries and disorders. These highly plastic cells play dualistic roles in neuronal injury and recovery and are known for their ability to assume diverse phenotypes. A broad range of surface receptors are expressed on microglia and mediate microglial 'On' or 'Off' responses to signals from other host cells as well as invading microorganisms. The integrated actions of these receptors result in tightly regulated biological functions, including cell mobility, phagocytosis, the induction of acquired immunity, and trophic factor/inflammatory mediator release. Over the last few years, significant advances have been made toward deciphering the signaling mechanisms related to these receptors and their specific cellular functions. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of the surface receptors involved in microglial activation, with an emphasis on their engagement of distinct functional programs and their roles in CNS injuries. It will become evident from this review that microglial homeostasis is carefully maintained by multiple counterbalanced strategies, including, but not limited to, 'On' and 'Off' receptor signaling. Specific regulation of theses microglial receptors may be a promising therapeutic strategy against CNS injuries.
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Molecular characteristics and virulence factors in methicillin-susceptible, resistant, and heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus from central-southern China.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of nosocomial infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA), and compare the antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characteristic, and virulence factors in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), MRSA, and hVISA from central-southern China.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits the growth of pathogenic fungi: In vitro and in vivo studies.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) on pathogenic fungi, including Candida albicans (CA), Candida tropicalis (CT), Candida glabrata (CG), Candida parapsilosis (CP) and Candida krusei (CK), in vitro and in vivo. In total, 24 PA strains were collected from clinical specimens and identified by Gram staining, oxidase production and the API 20NE system. Cross-streak, disk diffusion and co-culture methods were used to observe the inhibitory effect of PA. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to analyze differences in the bacterial proteins of PA. A blood infection model in mice was used to evaluate the effect of PA on fungi in vivo. The in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that a number of PA isolates exhibited a marked inhibitory effect on pathogenic fungi, including CA, CT, CP, CG and CK, while other PA strains exhibited no effect. Therefore, PA exhibits an inhibitory effect on pathogenic fungi and this activity may be important in the treatment of patients. It was hypothesized that PA secretes various types of proteins to suppress the growth of fungal filaments, which subsequently inhibits pathogenic fungi.
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Fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor-nanofiltration membrane system at high water yield in antibiotic wastewater treatment.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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A double membrane system combining a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a nanofiltration (NF) membrane at the pilot scale was tested to treat real antibiotic wastewater at a pharmaceutical company in Wuxi (China). The water yield of the pilot system reached over 92 ± 5.6% through recycling the NF concentrate to the MBR tank. Results showed that the pilot scale system operated in good conditions throughout the entire experiment period and obtained excellent water quality in which the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon were stable at 35 and 5.7 mg/L, respectively. The antibiotic removal rates of both spiramycin (SPM) and new spiramycin in wastewater were over 95%. Organics analysis results showed that the main organics in the biological effluent were proteins, soluble microbial by-product-like, fulvic acid-like and humic-like substances. These organics could be perfectly rejected by the NF membrane. Most of the organics could be removed through recycling NF concentrate to the MBR tank and only a small part was discharged with NF concentrate and permeate.
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Computational study on the mechanisms and rate constants of the OH-initiated oxidation of ethyl vinyl ether in atmosphere.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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The hydroxylation reactions of ethyl vinyl ether (EVE) in the present of O2 and NO are analyzed by using MPWB1K/6-311++G(3df,2p)//MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. According to the calculated thermodynamic data, the detailed reaction mechanisms of EVE and OH are proposed. All of the ten possible reaction pathways are discussed. The major products of the title reaction are ethyl formate and formaldehyde, which is in accordance with experimental detection. The rate constants of the primary reactions over the temperature of 250-400K and the pressure range of 100-2000Torr are computed by employing MESMER program. At 298K and 760Torr, OH-addition channels are predominate and the total rate constant is ktot=4.53×10(-11)cm(3)molecule(-1)s(-1). The Arrhenius equation is obtained as ktot=6.27×10(-12)exp(611.5/T), according to the rate constants given at different temperatures. Finally, the atmospheric half life of EVE with respect to OH is estimated to be 2.13h.
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Rapid generation of privileged substructure-based compound libraries with structural diversity and drug-likeness.
ACS Comb Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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A library of privileged-substructure-based, heterocyclic compounds was constructed by a sequence of Ugi four-component reactions incorporating the indole motif and microwave-assisted cyclizations in branched pathways. Cheminformatic analysis confirmed that the library exhibited a high degree of structural diversity and good drug-likeness.
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Catalytic mechanism of histone acetyltransferase p300: from the proton transfer to acetylation reaction.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The transcriptional coactivator and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300 acetylates the four core histones and other transcription factors to regulate a plethora of fundamental biological processes including cell growth, development, oncogenesis and apoptosis. Recent structural and biochemical studies on the p300 HAT domain revealed a Theorell-Chance, or "hit-and-run", catalytic mechanism. Nonetheless, the chemical mechanism of the entire reaction process including the proton transfer (PT) scheme and consequent acetylation reaction route remains unclear. In this study, a combined computational strategy consisting of molecular modeling, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation, and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulation was applied to elucidate these important issues. An initial p300/H3/Ac-CoA complex structure was modeled and optimized using a 100 ns MD simulation. Residues that play important roles in substrate binding and the acetylation reaction were comprehensively investigated. For the first time, these studies reveal a plausible PT scheme consisting of Y1394, D1507, and a conserved crystallographic water molecule, with all components of the scheme being stable during the MD simulation and the energy barrier low for PT to occur. The two-dimensional potential energy surface for the nucleophilic attack process was also calculated. The comparison of potential energies for two possible elimination half-reaction mechanisms revealed that Y1467 reprotonates the coenzyme-A leaving group to form product. This study provides new insights into the detailed catalytic mechanism of p300 and has important implications for the discovery of novel small molecule regulators for p300.
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rAAV/ABAD-DP-6His attenuates oxidative stress-induced injury of PC12 cells.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Our previous studies have revealed that amyloid ? (A?)-binding alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD) decoy peptide antagonizes A?42-induced neurotoxicity. However, whether it improves oxidative stress injury remains unclear. In this study, a recombinant adenovirus constitutively secreting and expressing A?-ABAD decoy peptide (rAAV/ABAD-DP-6His) was successfully constructed. Our results showed that rAAV/ABAD-DP-6His increased superoxide dismutase activity in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress-mediated injury of PC12 cells. Moreover, rAAV/ABAD-DP-6His decreased malondialdehyde content, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and the level of reactive oxygen species. rAAV/ABAD-DP-6His maintained the stability of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, the ATP level remained constant, and apoptosis was reduced. Overall, the results indicate that rAAV/ABAD-DP-6His generates the fusion peptide, A?-ABAD decoy peptide, which effectively protects PC12 cells from oxidative stress injury induced by hydrogen peroxide, thus exerting neuroprotective effects.
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Variability in the morphologic assessment of human sperm: use of the strict criteria recommended by the World Health Organization in 2010.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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To determine the variability in the recognition of normal sperm and various sperm defects using the strict criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (5th edition, 2010).
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Lipoxin A4 methyl ester ameliorates cognitive deficits induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through activating ERK/Nrf2 signaling pathway in rats.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is known for its powerful anti-inflammatory function. Current studies in vitro suggest that LXA4 possesses novel antioxidant effect. The aim of this study is to examine whether Lipoxin A4 methyl ester (LXA4 ME) has neuroprotective effects against chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and if so, whether the effects of LXA4 ME are associated with its potential antioxidant property. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) and randomly assigned into four groups: sham (sham-operated) group, vehicle (BCCAO+normal saline) group, LXA4 ME10 (BCCAO+LXA4 ME 10 ng per day) group and LXA4 ME100 (BCCAO+LXA4 ME 100 ng per day) group. LXA4 ME was administered through intracerebroventricular injection for 2 consecutive weeks. LXA4 ME significantly alleviated spatial learning and memory impairments, as assessed by Morris water maze and inhibited the loss of neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Biochemically, LXA4 ME phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and its nuclear translocation, as well as
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Influence of carrier filling ratio on the performance of moving bed biofilm reactor in treating coking wastewater.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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This study aims to evaluate the effect of carrier filling ratio on the performance of a moving bed biofilm reactor in degrading chemical oxygen demand, phenol, thiocyanate, and ammonia from coking wastewater at 20h of hydraulic retention time. The operational experiments under different carrier filling ratios ranging from 20% to 60% were investigated. The maximum removal efficiency of 89%, 99% and 99% for COD, phenol and thiocyanate, and minimum sensitivity to the increasing contaminants concentration in the influent were achieved at 50% carrier filling ratio. The Haldane competitive substrate inhibition kinetics model was used to describe the relationship between the oxygen uptake rate of ammonium oxidizers and the concentration of free ammonium. The highest biofilm microbial community functional diversity (Shannon's diversity index, H') and evenness (Shannon's evenness index, E') were obtained at 50% carrier filling ratio in all runs using a Biolog ECO microplate.
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Hypothalamus-anchored resting brain network changes before and after sertraline treatment in major depression.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Sertraline, one of the oldest antidepressants, remains to be the most efficacious treatment for depression. However, major depression disorder (MDD) is characterized by altered emotion processing and deficits in cognitive control. In cognitive interference tasks, patients with MDD have shown excessive hypothalamus activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of antidepressant treatment (sertraline) on hypothalamus-anchored resting brain circuitry. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on depressed patients (n = 12) both before and after antidepressant treatment. After eight weeks of antidepressant treatment, patients with depression showed significantly increased connectivity between the hypothalamus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, putamen, caudate, and claustrum. By contrast, decreased connectivity of the hypothalamus-related areas was primarily located in the inferior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, cingulated gyrus, precuneus, thalamus, and cerebellum. After eight weeks of antidepressant therapy, 8 out of the 12 depressed subjects achieved 70% reduction or better in depressive symptoms, as measured on the Hamilton depression rating scale. Our findings may infer that antidepressant treatment can alter the functional connectivity of the hypothalamus resting brain to achieve its therapeutic effect.
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Electrodeposition technique-dependent photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic properties of an In2S3/TiO2 nanotube array.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Electrodeposition is a very versatile tool to fabricate multicomponent TiO2 nanotube array (NTA) composites. However, the understanding of the correlation between the component structure and the fabrication technique has not been clearly investigated yet, though it has been observed that the performance of composites is bound up with the component structure. In this work, the photoelectrochemical properties of In2S3-TiO2 NTA composites prepared by CV electrodeposition, potentiostatic electrodeposition and pulse electrodeposition, respectively, were investigated. The results revealed that the as-prepared photoelectrodes exhibited electrodeposition technique-dependent properties, and the pulse prepared In2S3-TiO2 yielded the highest and stable photocurrent response, consequently exhibiting a superior photocatalytic activity in the degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP). This may be attributed to the homogeneous, ultra-fine structure of In2S3 nanoparticles (NPs), which brings about a high charge separation efficiency. Furthermore, the trapping tests showed that both radicals and holes were the main active species in the photocatalytic degradation of PNP. This work not only provided a firm basis for maximizing photocatalytic activity via tuning fabrication techniques but also gave a deep insight into the photocatalytic mechanism.
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Phase-modulated LA-REDOR: a robust, accurate and efficient solid-state NMR technique for distance measurements between a spin-1/2 and a quadrupole spin.
J. Magn. Reson.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Distances between a spin-1/2 and a spin>1/2 can be efficiently measured by a variety of magic-angle spinning solid state NMR methods such as Rotational Echo Adiabatic Passage Double Resonance (REAPDOR), Low-Alpha/Low-Amplitude REDOR (LA-REDOR) and Rotational-Echo Saturation-Pulse Double-Resonance (R/S-RESPDOR). In this manuscript we show that the incorporation of a phase modulation into a long quadrupolar recoupling pulse, lasting 10 rotor periods that are sandwiched between rotor-synchronized pairs of dipolar recoupling ? pulses, extends significantly the range of the values of the quadrupole moments that can be accessed by the experiment. We show by a combination of simulations and experiments that the new method, phase-modulated LA-REDOR, is very weakly dependent on the actual value of the radio-frequency field, and is highly robust with respect to off-resonance irradiation. The experimental results can be fitted by numerical simulations or using a universal formula corresponding to an equal-transition-probability model. Phase-modulated LA-REDOR (13)C{(11)B} and (15)N{(51)V} dipolar recoupling experiments confirm the accuracy and applicability of this new method.
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Phase grouping-based needle segmentation in 3-D trans-rectal ultrasound-guided prostate trans-perineal therapy.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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A robust and efficient needle segmentation method used to localize and track the needle in 3-D trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate therapy is proposed. The algorithmic procedure begins by cropping the 3-D US image containing a needle; then all voxels in the cropped 3-D image are grouped into different line support regions (LSRs) based on the outer product of the adjacent voxels' gradient vector. Two different needle axis extraction methods in the candidate LSR are presented: least-squares fitting and 3-D randomized Hough transform. Subsequent local optimization refines the position of the needle axis. Finally, the needle endpoint is localized by finding an intensity drop along the needle axis. The proposed methods were validated with 3-D TRUS tissue-mimicking agar phantom images, chicken breast phantom images and patient images obtained during prostate cryotherapy. The results of the in vivo test indicate that our method can localize the needle accurately and robustly with a needle endpoint localization accuracy <1.43 mm and detection accuracy >84%, which are favorable for 3-D TRUS-guided prostate trans-perineal therapy.
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Maternal high-fat diet affects Msi/Notch/Hes signaling in neural stem cells of offspring mice.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Numerous research have begun to reveal the importance of maternal nutrition in offspring brain development. Particularly, the maternal obesity or exposure to high-fat diet has been strongly suggested to exert irreversible impact on the structure and function of offspring's brain. However, it remains obscure about whether neonatal neural stem cells (NSCs) in offspring's brain are susceptible to maternal exposure to high-fat diet. Here we focused on the alternation in the Notch signaling in NSCs derived from neonatal mice, which had been given birth by female mice with a high-fat diet and found that, in fact, the high-fat diet administration imposed effects on not only maternal mice, indicated by the accumulation of viscera fat as well as the increase in body weight and serum total cholesterol, but also NSCs in the offspring's brain, where significant increase was observed in the expression of genes, either downstream of Notch signaling or regulating this pathway, which have been shown essential for the maturation of NSCs. Therefore, our data provided the first evidence for the potential effect of maternal exposure to the high-fat diet on the Notch signaling pathway in offspring's NSCs, indicating this altered signaling response might contribute to a profound change in offspring's brains as a result of maternal high-fat diet prior to and during gestation.
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Induced neural stem cells achieve long-term survival and functional integration in the adult mouse brain.
Stem Cell Reports
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Differentiated cells can be converted directly into multipotent neural stem cells (i.e., induced neural stem cells [iNSCs]). iNSCs offer an attractive alternative to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology with regard to regenerative therapies. Here, we show an in vivo long-term analysis of transplanted iNSCs in the adult mouse brain. iNSCs showed sound in vivo long-term survival rates without graft overgrowths. The cells displayed a neural multilineage potential with a clear bias toward astrocytes and a permanent downregulation of progenitor and cell-cycle markers, indicating that iNSCs are not predisposed to tumor formation. Furthermore, the formation of synaptic connections as well as neuronal and glial electrophysiological properties demonstrated that differentiated iNSCs migrated, functionally integrated, and interacted with the existing neuronal circuitry. We conclude that iNSC long-term transplantation is a safe procedure; moreover, it might represent an interesting tool for future personalized regenerative applications.
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Arabidopsis ABCG14 protein controls the acropetal translocation of root-synthesized cytokinins.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Cytokinins are a major group of phytohormones regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. However, in contrast to the well-defined polar transport of auxins, the molecular basis of cytokinin transport is poorly understood. Here we show that an ATP-binding cassette transporter in Arabidopsis, AtABCG14, is essential for the acropetal (root to shoot) translocation of the root-synthesized cytokinins. AtABCG14 is expressed primarily in the pericycle and stelar cells of roots. Knocking out AtABCG14 strongly impairs the translocation of trans-zeatin (tZ)-type cytokinins from roots to shoots, thereby affecting the plant's growth and development. AtABCG14 localizes to the plasma membrane of transformed cells. In planta feeding of C(14) or C(13)-labelled tZ suggests that it acts as an efflux pump and its presence in the cells directly correlates with the transport of the fed cytokinin. Therefore, AtABCG14 is a transporter likely involved in the long-distance translocation of cytokinins in planta.
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Spatio-temporally smoothed coherence factor for ultrasound imaging.
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Coherence-factor-like beamforming methods, such as the coherence factor (CF), the phase coherence factor (PCF), or the sign coherence factor (SCF), have been applied to suppress side and/or grating lobes and clutter in ultrasound imaging. These adaptive weighting factors can be implemented effectively with low computational complexity to improve image contrast properties. However, because of low SNR, the resulting images may suffer from deficiencies, including reduced overall image brightness, increased speckle variance, black-region artifacts surrounding hyperechoic objects, and underestimated magnitudes of point targets. To overcome these artifacts, a new spatio-temporal smoothing procedure is introduced to the CF method. It results in a smoothed coherence factor which measures the signal coherence among the beamsums of the divided subarrays over the duration of a transmit pulse. In addition, the procedure is extended to the SCF using the sign bits of the received signals. Simulated and real experimental data sets demonstrate that the proposed methods can improve the robustness of the CF and SCF with reduced speckle variance and significant removal of black-region artifacts, while preserving the ability to suppress clutter. Consequently, image contrast can be enhanced, especially for anechoic cysts.
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Optically encoded nanoprobes using single walled carbon nanotube as the building scaffold for magnetic field guided cell imaging.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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We construct a novel fluorescent, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) encoded and magnetic nanoprobe for live cell imaging. To fabricate this nanoprobe, single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is used as the building scaffold while gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and quantum dots (QDs) are employed as the building blocks. Here, Au NPs serve as the SERS substrate and QDs act as the fluorescent agent. Au NPs and SPIONs are first adsorbed on the SWNT via electrostatic interactions. Then a silica layer is coated on the SWNT. Finally, QDs are attached on the silica shell. With such a structure, various optical signals can be readily encoded to the nanoprobe simply by using different Raman molecules and QDs with different emission wavelengths. Experimental results show that the as-prepared nanoprobe exhibits well fluorescence and SERS performance. Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrate that the nanoprobe can fulfill magnetic field guided fluorescence and SERS dual mode imaging of live cells. As a fascinating optical encoding material and a multifunctional nanoplatform, the presented nanoprobe holds genuine potential in future biosensing applications.
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Hyper-IL-15 suppresses metastatic and autochthonous liver cancer by promoting tumour-specific CD8(+) T cell responses.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Liver cancer has a very dismal prognosis due to lack of effective therapy. Here, we studied the therapeutic effects of hyper-interleukin15 (hyper-IL-15), which is composed of IL-15 and the sushi domain of the IL-15 receptor ? chain, on metastatic and autochthonous liver cancers.
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Role of Ca/CaN/NFAT signaling in IL-4 expression by splenic lymphocytes exposed to phthalate (2-ethylhexyl) ester in spleen lymphocytes.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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The aims of present study were to investigate the effect of phthalate (2-ethylhexyl) ester (DEHP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on Th1/Th2 balance signaling for interleukin 4 (IL-4) expression in splenic lymphocytes, and contribution of MEHP to any hypothesized changes in vitro. Primary splenic lymphocytes were exposed to DEHP/MEHP. ELISA and Western blotting were used to detect proteins. Confocal-microscopy was used to examine nuclear translocation. Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) DNA binding activity was examined by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. DEHP significantly increased IL-4 and interferon gamma (IFN-?) level, and reduced Th1/Th2 ratio (reflected by IFN-?/IL-4) with 5 ?g/L Concanavalin A (ConA) treatment. While MEHP reduced Th1/Th2 ratio (represented by IFN-?/IL-6). IL-4 mRNA was significantly increased by DEHP but not by MEHP after PMA and Ion treatment. DEHP significantly inhibited NFATp protein in cytosol and nucleus. DEHP augmented nuclear translocation of NFATc in transfected EL4 cells and NFAT DNA-binding activity. DEHP-mediated enhancement of calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) protein, and NFAT and IL-4 expression were abrogated by calcium antagonist verapamil and CaN inhibitor tarcolimus. Ca(2+)/calmodulin antagonist chlorpromazine significantly suppressed IL-4 and CaN production with no NFAT mRNA change. Our study suggests that DEHP and MEHP impact Th1/Th2 balance by modulating different cytokines. DEHP-affected IL-4 expression through Ca/CaN/NFAT signaling pathway, but no effect was discovered for MEHP.
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Evolving molecular epidemiological profile of human immunodeficiency virus 1 in the southwest border of China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We have previously reported in Xishuangbanna (Banna) Dai Autonomous Prefecture, a well-developed tourist destination in the southwest border of China, that HIV-1 transmitted dominantly through heterosexual contact with less divergent genotypes and few drug resistant mutations. Due to the rapid increase of newly diagnosed HIV-1 cases per year in Banna in recent years, it's important to evaluate the evolution of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology for the better understanding of ongoing HIV-1 outbreak in this region.
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In Silico target fishing: addressing a "Big Data" problem by ligand-based similarity rankings with data fusion.
J Cheminform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ligand-based in silico target fishing can be used to identify the potential interacting target of bioactive ligands, which is useful for understanding the polypharmacology and safety profile of existing drugs. The underlying principle of the approach is that known bioactive ligands can be used as reference to predict the targets for a new compound.
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Estimation of acute oral toxicity in rat using local lazy learning.
J Cheminform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Acute toxicity means the ability of a substance to cause adverse effects within a short period following dosing or exposure, which is usually the first step in the toxicological investigations of unknown substances. The median lethal dose, LD50, is frequently used as a general indicator of a substance's acute toxicity, and there is a high demand on developing non-animal-based prediction of LD50. Unfortunately, it is difficult to accurately predict compound LD50 using a single QSAR model, because the acute toxicity may involve complex mechanisms and multiple biochemical processes.
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A comparison of screening methods to identify waterlogging tolerance in the field in Brassica napus L. during plant ontogeny.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Waterlogging tolerance is typically evaluated at a specific development stage, with an implicit assumption that differences in waterlogging tolerance expressed in these systems will result in improved yield performance in fields. It is necessary to examine these criteria in fields. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to screen waterlogging tolerance in 25 rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) varieties at different developmental stages, such as seedling establishment stage and seedling stage at controlled environment, and maturity stage in the fields. The assessments for physiological parameters at three growth stages suggest that there were difference of waterlogging tolerance at all the development stages, providing an important basis for further development of breeding more tolerant materials. The results indicated that flash waterlogging restricts plant growth and growth is still restored after removal of the stress. Correlation analysis between waterlogging tolerance coefficient (WTC) of yield and other traits revealed that there was consistency in waterlogging tolerance of the genotypes until maturity, and good tolerance at seedling establishment stage and seedling stage can guarantee tolerance in later stages. The waterlogging-tolerant plants could be selected using some specific traits at any stage, and selections would be more effective at the seedling establishment stage. Thus, our study provides a method for screening waterlogging tolerance, which would enable the suitable basis for initial selection of a large number of germplasm or breeding populations for waterlogging tolerance and help for verifying their potential utility in crop-improvement.
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Arabidopsis Kelch Repeat F-Box Proteins Regulate Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis via Controlling the Turnover of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) catalyzes the first rate-limiting step in the phenylpropanoid pathway, which controls carbon flux to a variety of bioactive small-molecule aromatic compounds, and to lignin, the structural component of the cell wall. PAL is regulated at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Our knowledge about the transcriptional regulation of PAL is relatively comprehensive, but our knowledge of the molecular basis of the posttranslational regulation of PAL remains limited. Here, we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis thaliana Kelch repeat F-box (KFB) proteins KFB01, KFB20, and KFB50 physically interact with four PAL isozymes and mediate their proteolytic turnover via the ubiquitination-26S proteasome pathway. The KFB genes are differentially expressed in Arabidopsis tissues and respond to developmental and environmental cues. Up- or downregulation of their expression reciprocally affects the stability of the PAL enzymes, consequently altering the levels of phenylpropanoids. These data suggest that the KFB-mediated protein ubiquitination and degradation regulates the proteolysis of PALs, thus posttranslationally regulating phenylpropanoid metabolism. Characterizing the KFB-mediated proteolysis of PAL enzymes may inform future strategies for manipulating the synthesis of bioactive phenolics.
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Effect of Ancillary Ligand on Electronic Structure as Probed by (51)V Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for Vanadium-o-Dioxolene Complexes.
CrystEngComm
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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A series of vanadium(V) complexes with o-dioxolene (catecholato) ligands and an ancillary ligand, (N-(salicylideneaminato)ethylenediamine) (hensal), were investigated using (51)V solid-state magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy ((51)V MAS NMR) to assess the local environment of the vanadium(V). The solid-state (51)V NMR parameters of vanadium(V) complexes with a related potentially tetradentate ancillary ligand (N-salicylidene-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine) (h2shed) were previously shown to be associated with the size of the HOMO-LUMO gap in the complex, and as such provide insights on the interaction between metal ion and ligand (P. B. Chatterjee, et al., Inorg. Chem 50 (2011) 9794). Our results show that the modification of the ancillary ligand does not impact the observed trend between complexes ranging from catechols with electron rich to electron poor substituents. However, the ancillary ligand does impact the size of the HOMO-LUMO separation in the parent complex and thus the solid-state vanadium NMR chemical shift of the unsubstituted vanadium complex. For these complexes significant changes observed in the isotropic shifts and more modest changes detected in the CQ reflect the electronic changes in the complex as the catechol is varied. However, no obvious trend was observed in the chemical shift anisotropies (?? and ??) with the variation in the catechol. The electronic changes in the coordination environment of the vanadium can be described using solid-state (51)V NMR spectroscopy.
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Diagnosis of multiple primary lung cancer: A systematic review.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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A substantial percentage (8%) of all newly diagnosed cancer cases are in patients with previous tumours, with a similar trend in lung cancer. Cases of multiple primary lung cancer (MPLC) are increasing worldwide, due to improved diagnostic and surveillance mechanisms and the ageing population. Diagnosis of MPLC is complicated by difficulties in distinguishing it from lung cancer metastasis. Clinicopathological assessment, diagnosis and management have evolved, but remain severely limited by the lack of robust and dependable molecular markers for the differential diagnosis of metastasis and MPLC. This systematic review evaluates diagnostic criteria for MPLC, and the subsequent management and success rates. The incorporation of molecular biology techniques into the diagnostic process for MPLC is also discussed.
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In silico site of metabolism prediction for human UGT-catalyzed reactions.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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?The human uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme family catalyzes the glucuronidation of the glycosyl group of a nucleotide sugar to an acceptor compound (substrate), which is the most common conjugation pathway that serves to protect the organism from the potential toxicity of xenobiotics. Moreover, it could affect the pharmacological profile of a drug. Therefore, it is important to identify the metabolically labile sites for glucuronidation.
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Combinatorial Pharmacophore Modeling of Organic Cation Transporter 2 (OCT2) Inhibitors: Insights into Multiple Inhibitory Mechanisms.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) is responsible for the entry step of many drugs in renal elimination, of which the changing activity may cause unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs). To develop drugs with favorable safety profile and provide instruction for rational clinical drug administration, it is of great interest to investigate the multiple mechanisms of OCT2 inhibition. In this study, we designed a combinatorial scheme to screen the optimum combination of pharmacophores from a pool of hypotheses established based on 162 OCT2 inhibitors. Among them, one single pharmacophore hypothesis represents a potential binding mode that may account for one unique inhibitory mechanism, and the obtained pharmacophore combination describes the multimechanisms of OCT2 inhibition. The final model consists of four individual pharmacophores, i.e., DHPR18, APR2, PRR5 and HHR4. Given a query ligand, it is considered as an inhibitor if it matches at least one of the hypotheses, or a noninhibitor if it fails to match any of four hypotheses. Our combinatorial pharmacophore model performs reasonably well to discriminate inhibitors and noninhibitors, yielding an overall accuracy around 0.70 for a test set containing 81 OCT2 inhibitors and 218 noninhibitors. Intriguingly, we found that the number of matched hypotheses was positively correlated with inhibition rate, which coincides with the pharmacophore modeling result of P-gp substrate binding. Further analysis suggested that the hypothesis PRR5 was responsible for competitive inhibition of OCT2, and other hypotheses were important for interaction between the inhibitor and OCT2. In light of the results, a hypothetical model for inhibiting transporting mediated by OCT2 was proposed.
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X-linked microtubule-associated protein, Mid1, regulates axon development.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Opitz syndrome (OS) is a genetic neurological disorder. The gene responsible for the X-linked form of OS, Midline-1 (MID1), encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates the degradation of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Ac). However, how Mid1 functions during neural development is largely unknown. In this study, we provide data from in vitro and in vivo experiments suggesting that silencing Mid1 in developing neurons promotes axon growth and branch formation, resulting in a disruption of callosal axon projections in the contralateral cortex. In addition, a similar phenotype of axonal development was observed in the Mid1 knockout mouse. This defect was largely due to the accumulation of PP2Ac in Mid1-depleted cells as further down-regulation of PP2Ac rescued the axonal phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that Mid1-dependent PP2Ac turnover is important for normal axonal development and that dysregulation of this process may contribute to the underlying cause of OS.
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Exposure to excess estradiol or leptin during pregnancy increases mammary cancer risk and prevents parity-induced protective genomic changes in rats.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Using a preclinical model, we investigated whether excess estradiol (E2) or leptin during pregnancy affects maternal mammary tumorigenesis in rats initiated by administering carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) on day 50. Two weeks later, rats were mated, and pregnant dams were treated daily with 10 ?g of 17?-estradiol, 15 ?g of leptin, or vehicle from gestation day 8 to 19. Tumor development was assessed separately during weeks 1 to 12 and 13 to 22 after DMBA administration, because pregnancy is known to induce a transient increase in breast cancer risk, followed by a persistent reduction. Parous rats developed less (32%) mammary tumors than nulliparous rats (59%, P < 0.001), and the majority (93%) of tumors in the parous rats appeared before week 13 (vs. 41% in nulliparous rats), indicating that pregnancy induced a transient increase in breast cancer risk. Parous rats exposed to leptin (final tumor incidence 65%) or E2 (45%) during pregnancy developed mammary tumors throughout the tumor-monitoring period, similar to nulliparous control rats, and the incidence was significantly higher in both the leptin- and E2-exposed dams after week 12 than in the vehicle-exposed parous dams (P < 0.001). The mammary glands of the exposed parous rats contained significantly more proliferating cells (P < 0.001). In addition, the E2- or leptin-treated parous rats did not exhibit the protective genomic signature induced by pregnancy and seen in the parous control rats. Specifically, these rats exhibited downregulation of genes involved in differentiation and immune functions and upregulation of genes involved in angiogenesis, growth, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
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Electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic Acid modified glassy carbon electrode.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs) was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA) modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with ?-solanine and ?-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 ?M to 28 ?M and the detection limit was 0.3 ?M. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors.
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Identification of novel small molecules as inhibitors of hepatitis C virus by structure-based virtual screening.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/NS4A serine protease is essential for viral replication, which is regarded as a promising drug target for developing direct-acting anti-HCV agents. In this study, sixteen novel compounds with cell-based HCV replicon activity ranging from 3.0 to 28.2 ?M (IC50) were successfully identified by means of structure-based virtual screening. Compound 5 and compound 11, with an IC50 of 3.0 ?M and 5.1 ?M, respectively, are the two most potent molecules with low cytotoxicity.
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Protective effect of donepezil hydrochloride on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of donepezil hydrochloride (DH) on the expression of the calpain I-cyclin-dependent kinase5/p25 (CDK5/p25) pathway in the hippocampal CA1 region in mice with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Mice were randomly divided and assigned to the sham operation group (SO), the model group (MG) and the DH treatment group (TG). The pathological appearance of the hippocampal CA1 region and the expression of calpain I and CDK5/p25, were observed on the 4th, 6th and 8th week of the I/R surgery. Within the same time periods, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were also determined. At each postoperative time point, the normal neuron count in the hippocampal CA1 region in the MG was significantly lower than that in the SO (P<0.05), whereas the calpain I and CDK5/p25 expression, SOD activity and MDA content in the MG were significantly higher than those in the SO (P<0.05). The normal neuron count of the hippocampal CA1 region in the TG increased significantly (P<0.05), whereas the calpain I and CDK5/p25 expression, SOD activity and MDA content in the TG were significantly lower than those in the MG (P<0.05). DH has protective effects against ischemic damage. The ability of DH to improve learning and memory in mice may be due to its ability to decrease the expression of the calpain I-CDK5/p25 pathway and reduce oxidative damage.
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Association of oxysterol binding protein-related protein 9 polymorphism with cerebral infarction in Hunan Han population.
Ir J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Oxysterol binding protein-related protein 9 (ORP9) may be related to the pathogenesis of cerebral infarction since it is closely related with glucose and lipid metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate the genetic relationship between ORP9 gene polymorphisms and cerebral infarction (CI) in Hunan Han population.
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In silico prediction of cytochrome P450-mediated site of metabolism (SOM).
Protein Pept. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Drug metabolism is a major consideration for modifying drug clearance and also a primary source for drug metabolite- induced toxicity. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are the major enzymes involved in drug metabolism and bioactivation, accounting for almost 75% of the total drug metabolism. Predicting the sites of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of drug-like molecules using in silico methods would be highly beneficial and time efficient. An ideal system would enable researchers to make a confident elimination decision based purely on the structure of a new compound. In this review, several tools and models for predicting probable site of metabolism (SOM) have been compared and discussed. The methods are generally based on enzyme structure, ligand structure, and combined methods. Although all the methods have certain accuracy and considerable progress has been made, the results of the calculations still need careful inspection.
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Genetic code-guided protein synthesis and folding in Escherichia coli.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Universal genetic codes are degenerated with 61 codons specifying 20 amino acids, thus creating synonymous codons for a single amino acid. Synonymous codons have been shown to affect protein properties in a given organism. To address this issue and explore how Escherichia coli selects its "codon-preferred" DNA template(s) for synthesis of proteins with required properties, we have designed synonymous codon libraries based on an antibody (scFv) sequence and carried out bacterial expression and screening for variants with altered properties. As a result, 342 codon variants have been identified, differing significantly in protein solubility and functionality while retaining the identical original amino acid sequence. The soluble expression level varied from completely insoluble aggregates to a soluble yield of ~2.5 mg/liter, whereas the antigen-binding activity changed from no binding at all to a binding affinity of > 10(-8) m. Not only does our work demonstrate the involvement of genetic codes in regulating protein synthesis and folding but it also provides a novel screening strategy for producing improved proteins without the need to substitute amino acids.
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Cholesterol-?1 AR interaction versus cholesterol-?2 AR interaction.
Proteins
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Two 8-µs all-atom molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on the two highly homologous G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subtypes, ?1 - and ?2 -adrenergic receptors, which were embedded in a lipid bilayer with randomly dispersed cholesterol molecules. During the simulations, cholesterol molecules accumulate to different surface regions of the two receptors, suggesting the subtype specificity of cholesterol-?-adrenergic receptor interaction and providing some clues to the physiological difference of the two subtypes. Meanwhile, comparison between the two receptors in interacting with cholesterols shed some new light on general determinants of cholesterol binding to GPCRs. Our results indicate that although the concave surface, charged residues and aromatic residues are important, neither of these stabilizing factors is indispensable for a cholesterol interaction site. Different combinations of these factors lead to the diversified binding modes of cholesterol binding to the receptors. Our long-time simulations, for the first time, revealed the pathway of a cholesterol molecule entering the consensus cholesterol motif (CCM) site, and the binding process of cholesterol to CCM is accompanied by a side chain flipping of the conserved Trp4.50. Moreover, the simulation results suggest that the I-/V-/L-rich region on the extracellular parts of helix 6 might be an alternatively conserved cholesterol-binding site for the class-A GPCRs. Proteins 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Genome Sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca SA2, an Endophytic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Isolated from the Pioneer Grass Psammochloa villosa.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Klebsiella oxytoca strain SA2 is an endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from the pioneer grass Psammochloa villosa, which grows in the moving sand dunes of Ordos Plateau, China. The SA2 genome sequence provides the genetic background for understanding its endophytic lifestyle and survival in association with grass in nitrogen-poor environments.
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Combined bioremediation of atrazine-contaminated soil by Pennisetum and Arthrobacter sp. strain DNS10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Strain DNS10 was isolated from the black soil collected from the northeast of China which had been cultivated with atrazine as the sole nitrogen source. Pennisetum is a common plant in Heilongjiang Province of China. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of plant-microbe joint interactions (Arthrobacter sp. DNS10 + Pennisetum) in atrazine degradation compared with single-strain and single-plant effects. Plant-microbe joint interactions degraded 98.10 % of the atrazine, while single strain and single plant only degraded 87.38 and 66.71 % after a 30-day experimental period, respectively. The results indicated that plant-microbe joint interactions had a better degradation effect. Meanwhile, we found that plant-microbe joint interactions showed a higher microbial diversity. The results of microbial diversity illustrated that the positive effects of cropping could improve soil microbial growth and activity. In addition, we planted atrazine-sensitive plants (soybean) in the soil after repair. The results showed that soybean growth in soil previously treated with the plant-microbe joint interactions treatment was better compared with other treatments after 20 days of growth. This was further proved that the soil is more conducive for crop cultivation. Hence, plant-microbe joint interactions are considered to be a potential tool in the remediation of atrazine-contaminated soil.
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Self-assembled pH-Responsive Hyaluronic Acid-g-poly (L-histidine) Copolymer Micelles for Targeted Intracellular Delivery of Doxorubicin.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Hyaluronic acid (HA) was conjugated with hydrophobic poly(L-histidine) (PHis) to prepare a pH-responsive and tumor-targeted copolymer, hyaluronic acid-g-poly(L-histidine) (HA-PHis), for use as a carrier for anti-cancer drugs. The effect of the degree of substitution (DS) on the pH-responsive behaviour of HA-PHis copolymer micelles was confirmed by studies of particles of different size. In vitro drug release studies demonstrated that DOX was released from HA-PHis micelles in a pH-dependent manner. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that all the blank micelles were nontoxic. However, MTT assay against Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells (overexpressed CD44 receptors) showed that DOX-loaded micelles with a low PHis DS were highly cytotoxicity. Cellular uptake experiments revealed that these pH-responsive HA-PHis micelles taken up in great amounts by receptor-mediated endocytosis and DOX was efficiently delivered into cytosol. Moreover, micelles with the lowest DS exhibited the highest degree of cellular uptake, which indicated that the micelles were internalized into cells via CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis and the carboxylic groups of HA are the active binding sites for CD44 receptors. Endocytosis inhibition experiments and confocal images demonstrated that HA-PHis micelles were internalized into cells mainly via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and delivered to lysosomes, triggering release of DOX into the cytoplasm. These results confirm that the biocompatible pH-responsive HA-PHis micelles are a promising nanosystem for the intracellular targeted delivery of DOX.
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OH-initiated oxidation mechanisms and kinetics of 2,4,4-Tribrominated diphenyl ether.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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2,4,4-Tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE-28) was selected as a typical congener of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to examine its fate both in the atmosphere and in water solution. All the calculations were obtained at the ground state. The mechanism result shows that the oxidations between BDE-28 and OH radicals are highly feasible especially at the less-brominated phenyl ring. Hydroxylated dibrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are formed through direct bromine-substitution reactions (P1?P3) or secondary reactions of OH-adducts (P4?P8). Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) resulting from o-OH-PBDEs are favored products compared with polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) generated by bromophenols and their radicals. The complete degradation of OH adducts in the presence of O2/NO, which generates unsaturated ketones and aldehydes, is less feasible compared with the H-abstraction pathways by O2. Aqueous solution reduces the feasibility between BDE-28 and the OH radical. The rate constant of BDE-28 and the OH radical is determined to be 1.79 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with an atmospheric lifetime of 6.7 days.
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