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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Acquisition of causal models for local distributions in Bayesian networks.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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To specify a Bayesian network, a local distribution in the form of a conditional probability table, often of an effect conditioned on its n causes, needs to be acquired, one for each non-root node. Since the number of parameters to be assessed is generally exponential in n , improving the efficiency is an important concern in knowledge engineering. Non-impeding noisy-AND (NIN-AND) tree causal models reduce the number of parameters to being linear in n , while explicitly expressing both reinforcing and undermining interactions among causes. The key challenge in NIN-AND tree modeling is the acquisition of the NIN-AND tree structure. In this paper, we formulate a concise structure representation and an expressive causal interaction function of NIN-AND trees. Building on these representations, we propose two structural acquisition methods, which are applicable to both elicitation-based and machine learning-based acquisitions. Their accuracy is demonstrated through experimental evaluations.
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The influence of limited English proficiency on outcome in patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.
Patient Educ Couns
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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To evaluate how limited English proficiency affects treatment outcome in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with curative intent radiation therapy (RT).
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Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor ? (ER?) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer.
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FDG PET/CT in the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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FDG PET/CT has a growing role in the diagnosis and management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). FDG PET has greater efficacy for N and M staging than other modalities, which enables the treating oncologists to select the appropriate mode of treatment. FDG PET/CT helps in radiation therapy planning, provides valuable prognostic information, and is useful in the assessment of therapy response and in follow-up to detect recurrences.
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Effect of Taiwan mutation (D7H) on structures of amyloid-? peptides: replica exchange molecular dynamics study.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Recent experiments have shown that the Taiwan mutation (D7H) slows the fibril formation of amyloid peptides A?40 and A?42. Motivated by this finding, we have studied the influence of D7H mutation on structures of A? peptide monomers using the replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations with OPLS force field and implicit water model. Our study reveals that the mechanism behind modulation of aggregation rates is associated with decrease of ?-content and dynamics of the salt bridge D23-K28. Estimating the bending free energy of this salt bridge, we have found that, in agreement with the experiments, the fibril formation rate of both peptides A?40 and A?42 is reduced about two times by mutation.
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Local polymer replacement for neuron patterning and in situ neurite guidance.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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By locally dispensing poly-L-lysine (PLL) molecules with a FluidFM onto a protein and cell resistant poly-L-lysine-graft-polyethylene glycol (PLL-g-PEG) coated substrate, the antifouling layer can be replaced under the tip aperture by the cell adhesive PLL. We used this approach for guiding the adhesion and axonal outgrowth of embryonic hippocampal neurons in situ. Cultures of hippocampal neurons were chosen because they mostly contain pyramidal neurons. The hippocampus is known to be involved in memory formation, and the stages of network development are well characterized, which is an asset to fundamental research. After fabricating diffuse PLL spots with 10-250 ?m diameter, seeded hippocampal cells stick preferentially onto the spots migrating toward the spot center along the PLL gradient. Cell clusters were formed depending on the lateral size of the PLL dots and the density of seeded cells. In a second step of this protocol, the FluidFM is used to connect in situ the obtained clusters. The outgrowth of neurites, which are known to grow preferentially on adhesive substrates, is tailored by writing PLL lines. Antibody staining confirms that the outgrowing neurites are mostly axons, while the activity of the neurons is assessed by a calcium indicator, proving cell viability. The calcium signal intensity of two actively interconnected clusters showed to be correlated, corroborating the formation of vectored and polarized interconnections.
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Endosulfan induces COX-2 expression via NADPH oxidase and the ROS, MAPK, and Akt pathways.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Endosulfan (1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro-8,9,10-trinorborn-5-en-2,3-ylenebismet-hylene) is correlated with endocrine disruption, reproductive, and immune dysfunctions. Recently, endosulfan was shown to have an effect on inflammatory pathways, but its influence on cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) expression is unclear. This study investigated the effects of COX-2 and molecular mechanisms by endosulfan in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Endosulfan significantly induced COX-2 protein and mRNA levels, as well as COX-2 promoter-driven luciferase activity and the production of prostaglandin E2, a major COX-2 metabolite. Transfection experiments with several human COX-2 promoter constructs revealed that endosulfan activated NF-?B, C/EBP, AP-1, and CREB. Moreover, Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) were significantly activated by endosulfan. Moreover, endosulfan increased production of the ROS and the ROS-producing NAPDH-oxidase (NOX) family oxidases, NOX2, and NOX3. Endosulfan-induced Akt/MAPK pathways and COX-2 expression were attenuated by DPI, a specific NOX inhibitor, and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. These results demonstrate that endosulfan induces COX-2 expression via NADPH oxidase, ROS, and Akt/MAPK pathways. These findings provide further insight into the signal transduction pathways involved in the inflammatory effects of endosulfan.
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Ilimaquinone induces death receptor expression and sensitizes human colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of ROS-ERK/p38 MAPK-CHOP signaling pathways.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. However, development of resistance to TRAIL is a major obstacle to more effective cancer treatment. Therefore, novel pharmacological agents that enhance sensitivity to TRAIL are necessary. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which ilimaquinone isolated from a sea sponge sensitizes human colon cancer cells to TRAIL. Ilimaquinone pretreatment significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT 116 cells and sensitized colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through increased caspase-8, -3 activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA damage. Ilimaquinone also reduced the cell survival proteins Bcl2 and Bcl-xL, while strongly up-regulating death receptor (DR) 4 and DR5 expression. Induction of DR4 and DR5 by ilimaquinone was mediated through up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). The up-regulation of CHOP, DR4 and DR5 expression was mediated through activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Finally, the generation of ROS was required for CHOP and DR5 up-regulation by ilimaquinone. These results demonstrate that ilimaquinone enhanced the sensitivity of human colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through ROS-ERK/p38 MAPK-CHOP-mediated up-regulation of DR4 and DR5 expression, suggesting that ilimaquinone could be developed into an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug.
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FDG PET metabolic tumor volume segmentation and pathologic volume of primary human solid tumors.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The purpose of this study was to establish the correlation and reliability among the pathologic tumor volume and gradient and fixed threshold segmentations of (18)F-FDG PET metabolic tumor volume of human solid tumors.
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Race disparities attributed to volumetric tumor burden in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Background: To evaluate how gross tumor volume (GTV) affects treatment outcome among different race/ethnic groups in head and neck cancer patients receiving definitive radiotherapy (RT). Methods: Ninety one head and neck cancer patients were treated to a median RT dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions. The patient's self-reported race/ethnicity, primary tumor and nodal GTV were obtained. Two-year actuarial local, nodal, distant control, overall and disease-free survival were calculated. Results: The patients were categorized as white (n=43) or non-whites (n=48) which included 29 blacks, 11 Hispanics, 5 Asians and 3 other. The mean primary GTV was 21.0 cc and 39.9 cc for whites and non-whites, respectively (p=0.011). White patients reported improved overall survival of 85.4% compared to non-whites; 65.8%, p=0.006. Improvements in local, nodal control and disease-free survival rates were also observed. Conclusions: White patients demonstrated improved treatment outcomes compared to non-whites, which may be reflective of tumor volume.
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Metformin induces microRNA-34a to downregulate the Sirt1/Pgc-1?/Nrf2 pathway, leading to increased susceptibility of wild-type p53 cancer cells to oxidative stress and therapeutic agents.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) plays an important role in cellular redox balance and resistance to oxidative stress. Sirt1 exhibits oncogenic properties in wild-type p53 cancer cells, whereas it acts as a tumor suppressor in p53-mutated cancer cells. Here, we investigated the effects of metformin on Sirt1 expression in several cancer cell lines. Using human cancer cell lines that exhibit differential expression of p53, we found that metformin reduced Sirt1 protein levels in cancer cells bearing wild-type p53, but did not affect Sirt1 protein levels in cancer cell lines harboring mutant forms of p53. Metformin-induced p53 protein levels in wild-type p53 cancer cells resulted in upregulation of microRNA (miR)-34a. The use of a miR-34a inhibitor confirmed that metformin-induced miR-34a was required for Sirt1 downregulation. Metformin suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) coactivator-1? (Pgc-1?) expression and its downstream target Nrf2 in MCF-7 cells. Genetic tools demonstrated that the reduction of Sirt1 and Pgc-1? by metformin caused Nrf2 downregulation via suppression of PPAR? transcriptional activity. Metformin reduced heme oxygenase-1 and superoxide dismutase 2 but upregulated catalase expression in MCF-7 cells. Metformin-treated MCF-7 cells had no increase in basal levels of reactive oxygen species but were more susceptible to oxidative stress. Furthermore, upregulation of death receptor 5 by metformin-mediated Sirt1 downregulation enhanced the sensitivity of wild-type p53 cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that metformin induces miR-34a to suppress the Sirt1/Pgc-1?/Nrf2 pathway and increases susceptibility of wild-type p53 cancer cells to oxidative stress and TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
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3-(2-oxoethylidene)indolin-2-one derivatives activate Nrf2 and inhibit NF-?B: potential candidates for chemoprevention.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Induction of cytoprotective phase?2 enzymes through inhibition of Keap1, a repressor of transcription factor Nrf2, is a cancer-prevention strategy. Compounds that elicit antiinflammatory and cytoprotective effects are promising candidates for chemoprevention. Novel analogues of 1-methyl-3-(2-oxopropylidene)indolin-2-one ('supercinnamaldehyde'; SCA) were synthesized, and their abilities to induce cytoprotective responses through Nrf2 induction and to suppress inflammatory responses were examined. 1-Methyl-3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethylidene)indolin-2-one (6) was identified as the lead compound. The compounds showed induction of Nrf2-dependent phase?2 enzymes in Keap1+/+ mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), which was abrogated in Keap1-/- MEFs. The compounds also displayed a suppressive effect on NF-?B signaling that was at least partly responsible for inhibition of lipopolysaccharideinduced inflammatory responses. These SCA analogues exhibited cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities and may be developed further as chemopreventive agents.
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Head and neck squamous cell cancer (stages III and IV) induction chemotherapy assessment: value of FDG volumetric imaging parameters.
J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To evaluate whether the change in the metabolic tumour volume (MTV) or total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of the primary tumour, before and after induction chemotherapy, predicts outcome for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer (SCC).
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Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins attenuate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions via suppression of NF-?B and STAT1 and activation of Nrf2/ARE-mediated heme oxygenase-1.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The consequences of precipitously rising allergic skin inflammation rates worldwide have accelerated the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). Natural product-based agents with good efficacy and low risk of side effects offer promising prevention and treatment strategies for inflammation-related diseases. We have already reported that Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins (Changkil saponins, CKS) have many pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects, but its influence on AD remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of CKS, mainly platycodin D, on AD-like skin symptoms in mice and the possible mechanisms in cells.
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Leptin induces CYP1B1 expression in MCF-7 cells through ligand-independent activation of the ER? pathway.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Leptin, a hormone with multiple biological actions, is produced predominantly by adipose tissue. Among its functions, leptin can stimulate tumour cell growth. Oestrogen receptor ? (ER?), which plays an essential role in breast cancer development, can be transcriptionally activated in a ligand-independent manner. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on CYP1B1 expression and its mechanism in breast cancer cells. Leptin induced CYP1B1 protein, messenger RNA expression and promoter activity in ER?-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ER?-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, leptin increased 4-hydroxyoestradiol in MCF-7 cells. Also, ER? knockdown by siRNA significantly blocked the induction of CYP1B1 expression by leptin, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression via an ER?-dependent mechanism. Transient transfection with CYP1B1 deletion promoter constructs revealed that the oestrogen response element (ERE) plays important role in the up-regulation of CYP1B1 by leptin. Furthermore, leptin stimulated phosphorylation of ER? at serine residues 118 and 167 and increased ERE-luciferase activity, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression by ER? activation. Finally, we found that leptin activated ERK and Akt signalling pathways, which are upstream kinases related to ER? phosphorylation induced by leptin. Taken together, our results indicate that leptin-induced CYP1B1 expression is mediated by ligand-independent activation of the ER? pathway as a result of the activation of ERK and Akt in MCF-7 cells.
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Correlating planned radiation dose to the cochlea with primary site and tumor stage in patients with head and neck cancer treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy.
Med Dosim
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The aim of the study was to determine tumor characteristics that predict higher planned radiation (RT) dose to the cochlea in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). From 2004 to 2012, 99 patients with HNC underwent definitive IMRT to a median dose of 69.96Gy in 33 fractions, with the right and left cochlea-vestibular apparatus contoured for IMRT optimization as avoidance structures. If disease involvement was adjacent to the cochlea, preference was given to tumor coverage by prescription dose. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dose-volume histogram planning data, and mean planning dose to the cochlea (from left or right cochlea, receiving the greater amount of RT dose) was correlated to primary site and tumor stage. Mean (standard deviation) cochlear volume was 1.0 (0.60)cm(3) with maximum and mean planned doses of 31.9 (17.5)Gy and 22.1 (13.7)Gy, respectively. Mean planned dose (Gy) to cochlea by tumor site was as follows: oral cavity (18.6, 14.4), oropharynx (21.7, 9.1), nasopharynx (36.3, 10.4), hypopharynx (14.9, 7.1), larynx (2.1, 0.62), others including the parotid gland, temporal bone, and paranasal sinus (33.6, 24.0), and unknown primary (25.6, 6.7). Average mean planned dose (Gy) to the cochlea in T0-T2 and T3-T4 disease was 22.0 and 29.2Gy, respectively (p = 0.019). By site, a significant difference was noted for nasopharynx and others (31.6 and 50.7, p = 0.012) but not for oropharynx, oral cavity, and hypopharynx. Advanced T category predicted for higher mean cochlear dose, particularly for nasopharyngeal, parotid gland, temporal bone, and paranasal sinus HNC sites.
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Volumetric tumor burden and its effect on brachial plexus dosimetry in head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy.
Med Dosim
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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To determine the effect of gross tumor volume of the primary (GTV-P) and nodal (GTV-N) disease on planned radiation dose to the brachial plexus (BP) in head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Overall, 75 patients underwent definitive IMRT to a median total dose of 69.96Gy in 33 fractions. The right BP and left BP were prospectively contoured as separate organs at risk. The GTV was related to BP dose using the unpaired t-test. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to determine optimized volumetric thresholds of GTV-P and GTV-N corresponding to a maximum BP dose cutoff of > 66Gy. Multivariate analyses were performed to account for factors associated with a higher maximal BP dose. A higher maximum BP dose (> 66 vs ? 66Gy) correlated with a greater mean GTV-P (79.5 vs 30.8cc; p = 0.001) and ipsilateral GTV-N (60.6 vs 19.8cc; p = 0.014). When dichotomized by the optimized nodal volume, patients with an ipsilateral GTV-N ? 4.9 vs < 4.9cc had a significant difference in maximum BP dose (64.2 vs 59.4Gy; p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that an ipsilateral GTV-N ? 4.9cc was an independent predictor for the BP to receive a maximal dose of > 66Gy when adjusted individually for BP volume, GTV-P, the use of a low anterior neck field technique, total planned radiation dose, and tumor category. Although both the primary and the nodal tumor volumes affected the BP maximal dose, the ipsilateral nodal tumor volume (GTV-N ? 4.9cc) was an independent predictor for high maximal BP dose constraints in head and neck IMRT.
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Histomorphochemical comparison of microfracture as a first-line and a salvage procedure: is microfracture still a viable option for knee cartilage repair in a salvage situation?
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Microfracture is considered as the first-line procedure for knee cartilage repair, but the results of microfracture seem less predictable and rather controversial in a salvage situation. Thus, the purpose of the study was to histomorphochemically compare microfracture as a salvage procedure with microfracture as a first-line procedure in a rabbit model. We hypothesized that microfracture in a salvage situation would result in histomorphochemically inferior cartilage repair compared to microfracture as a first-line procedure, and the inferiority would be attributed to less migration of reparable marrow cells to the defect due to destruction of microarchitecture of the subchondral bone. Thirty-six New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups: (i) untreated full-thickness chondral defect, (ii) single microfracture treatment (first microfracture group), and (iii) repeated microfracture in 8 weeks after the first procedure (second microfracture group). In each group, rabbits were sacrificed at the end of 8 weeks, and osteochondral specimens at the repair sites were obtained for histomorphochemical analysis. Results showed that microfracture as a salvage procedure resulted in overall inferior cartilage repair histomorphochemically compared with microfracture as a first-line procedure, which correlated with deteriorative changes in the quality of underlying subchondral bone rather than intrinsic incapability to recruit the reparative cells in the defect area. In conclusion, although a comparable number of reparable cells and a mechanically weakened subchondral bone are anticipated, more study is necessary to clearly determine when a microfracture should be performed in a situation.
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Saponins from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum Suppresses TGF?1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Via Repression of PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2 and Smad2/3 Pathway in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) is a multifunctional cytokine that induces growth arrest, tissue fibrosis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through activation of Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways. EMT is the differentiation switch by which polarized epithelial cells differentiate into contractile and motile mesenchymal cells. Our previous studies have shown that saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (CKS) have antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimetastatic, and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CKS on TGF?1-induced alterations characteristic of EMT in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. We found that CKS-treated cells displayed inhibited TGF?1-mediated E-cadherin downregulation and Vimentin upregulation and also retained epithelial morphology. Furthermore, TGF?1-increased Snail expression, a repressor of E-cadherin and an inducer of the EMT, was reduced by CKS. CKS inhibited TGF?1-induced phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Inhibition of PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 also blocked TGF?1-induced GSK-3? phosphorylation and Snail activation. Furthermore, TGF?1-increased Snail expression was reduced by selective inhibitors of Akt and ERK1/2. Moreover, CKS treatment attenuated TGF?1-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation and upregulated Smad7 expression. These results indicate that pretreatment with the CKS inhibits the TGF?1-induced EMT through PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, GSK-3? and Smad2/3 in human lung carcinoma cells.
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Radiation exposure and the risk of mortality from noncancer respiratory diseases in the life span study, 1950-2005.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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An apparent association between radiation exposure and noncancer respiratory diseases (NCRD) in the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors has been reported, but the biological validity of that observation is uncertain. This study investigated the possibility of radiation causation of noncancer respiratory diseases in detail by examining subtypes of noncancer respiratory diseases, temporal associations, and the potential for misdiagnosis and other confounding factors. A total of 5,515 NCRD diagnoses listed as the underlying cause of death on the death certificate were observed among the 86,611 LSS subjects with estimated weighted absorbed lung doses. Radiation dose-response analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazard regression for pneumonia/influenza, other acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. The linear excess relative risks (ERR) per gray (Gy) were 0.17 (95% CI 0.08, 0.27) for all NCRD and 0.20 (CI 0.09, 0.34) for pneumonia/influenza, which accounted for 63% of noncancer respiratory disease deaths. Adjustments for lifestyle and sociodemographic variations had almost no impact on the risk estimates. However, adjustments for indications of cancer and/or cardiovascular disease decreased the risk estimates, with ERR for total noncancer respiratory diseases declined by 35% from 0.17 to 0.11. Although it was impossible to fully adjust for the misdiagnosis of other diseases as noncancer respiratory diseases deaths in this study because of limitations of available data, nevertheless, the associations were reduced or eliminated by the adjustment that could be made. This helps demonstrates that the association between noncancer respiratory diseases and radiation exposure in previous reports could be in part be attributed to coincident cancer and/or cardiovascular diseases.
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Genipin induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression via NADPH oxidase, MAPKs, AP-1, and NF-?B in RAW 264.7 cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Genipin is a compound found in gardenia fruit extract with diverse pharmacological activities. However, the mechanism underlying genipin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of genipin on COX-2 expression and determined that exposure to genipin dose-dependently enhanced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major COX-2 metabolite, in RAW 264.7 cells. These effects were mediated by genipin-induced activation of the COX-2 promoter, as well as AP-1 and NF-?B luciferase constructs. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt and MAPKs were also significantly activated by genipin, and Akt and MAPKs inhibitors (PD98059, SB20358, SP600125, and LY294002) inhibited genipin-induced COX-2 expression. Moreover, genipin increased production of the ROS and the ROS-producing NAPDH-oxidase (NOX) family oxidases, NOX2 and NOX3. Inhibition of NADPH with diphenyleneiodonium attenuated ROS production, COX-2 expression and NF-?B and AP-1 activation. These results suggest that the molecular mechanism mediating ROS-dependent COX-2 up-regulation and PGE2 production by genipin involves activation of Akt, MAPKs and AP-1/NF-?B.
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Correlation of mucositis during head and neck radiotherapy with computed tomography perfusion imaging of the oropharyngeal mucosa.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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The objective of this study was to correlate changes in computed tomography perfusion (CTP) parameters in the oropharyngeal mucosa following start of radiotherapy (RT) with acute mucositis in head and neck cancer patients.
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Acute gastrointestinal toxicity and tumor response with preoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy for rectal cancer.
Gastrointest Cancer Res
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (preopCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer is associated with grade 3 or higher acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. This study was conducted to determine whether intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) significantly reduces acute GI toxicity, compared to 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) in preopCRT for rectal cancer.
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Mollugin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis by suppressing fatty acid synthase in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Mollugin is a naphthohydroquine found in the roots of Rubia cordifolia, and has been reported to have a variety of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which mollugin exerts anti-tumor effect in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. Our results showed that mollugin exhibited potent inhibitory effects on cancer cell proliferation, especially in HER2-overexpressing SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells and SK-OV-3 human ovarian cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner without affecting immortalized normal mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Furthermore, we found that a blockade of Akt/SREBP-1c signaling through mollugin treatment significantly reduced FAS expression and subsequently suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. Mollugin treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition of HER2 gene expression at the transcriptional level, potentially in part through suppression of NF-?B activation. The combination of mollugin with a MEK1/2 inhibitor may be required in order to achieve optimal efficacy in HER2-overexpressing cancers. These data provide evidence that mollugin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells by blocking expression of the FAS gene through modulation of a HER2/Akt/SREBP-1c signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that mollugin is a novel modulator of the HER2 pathway in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells with a potential role in the treatment and prevention of human breast and ovarian cancer with HER2 overexpression.
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Antitumor efficacy of piperine in the treatment of human HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Piperine is a bioactive component of black pepper, Piper nigrum Linn, commonly used for daily consumption and in traditional medicine. Here, the molecular mechanisms by which piperine exerts antitumor effects in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells was investigated. The results showed that piperine strongly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Furthermore, piperine inhibited HER2 gene expression at the transcriptional level. Blockade of ERK1/2 signaling by piperine significantly reduced SREBP-1 and FAS expression. Piperine strongly suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through inhibition of AP-1 and NF-?B activation by interfering with ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Akt signaling pathways resulting in a reduction in migration. Finally, piperine pretreatment enhanced sensitization to paclitaxel killing in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Our findings suggest that piperine may be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer with HER2 overexpression.
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Exchangeable colloidal AFM probes for the quantification of irreversible and long-term interactions.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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An original method is presented to study single-colloid interaction with a substrate in liquid environment. Colloids, either in solution or adsorbed on a surface, are fixed by suction against the aperture of a microchanneled atomic force microscopy cantilever. Their adhesion to the substrate is measured, followed by their release via a short overpressure surge. Such colloid exchange procedure allows for 1), the quick variation of differently functionalized colloids within the same experiment; 2), the investigation of long-term interactions by leaving the colloids on a surface for a defined time before detaching them; and 3), the inspection of irreversible interactions. After validation of the method by reproducing literature results obtained with traditional colloidal atomic force microscopy, the serial use of colloids with different surface functionalization was shown on a micropatterned surface. Finally, concanavalin A-coated colloids were allowed to adsorb on human embryonic kidney cells and then detached one by one. The adhesion between cells and colloids was up to 60 nN, whereas individual cells adhered with 20 nN to the glass substrate. A cellular elastic modulus of 0.8 kPa was determined using the attached colloid as indenter.
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Cone-beam computed tomography image guided therapy to evaluate lumpectomy cavity variation before and during breast radiotherapy.
J Appl Clin Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of change (RoC) in the size of the lumpectomy cavity (LC) before and during breast radiotherapy (RT) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), relative to the initial LC volume at CT simulation (CTVLC) and timing from surgery. A prospective institutional review board-approved study included 26 patients undergoing breast RT: 20 whole breast irradiation (WBI) patients and six partial breast irradiation (PBI) patients, with surgical clips outlining the LC. The patients underwent CT simulation (CTsim) followed by five CBCTs during RT, once daily for PBI and once weekly for WBI. The distance between surgical clips and their centroid (D) acted as a surrogate for LC size. The RoC of the LC size, defined as the percentage change of D between two scans divided by the time interval in days between the scans, was calculated before (CTsim to CBCT1) and during RT (CBCT1 to CBCT5). The mean RoC of D for all patients before starting RT was -0.25%/day (range, -1.3 to 1.4) and for WBI patients during RT was -0.15%/day (range, -0.45 to 0.40). Stratified by median CTVLC, the RoC before RT for large CTVLC group (? 25.7 cc) was 15 times higher (-0.47%/day) than for small CTVLC group (< 25.7 cc) (-0.03%/day), p = 0.06. For patients undergoing CTsim < 42 days from surgery, the RoC before RT was -0.43%/day compared to -0.07%/day for patients undergoing CTsim ? 42 days from surgery, p = 0.12. For breast cancer RT, the rate of change of the LC is affected by the initial cavity size and the timing from surgery. Resimulation closer to the time of boost treatment should be considered in patients who are initially simulated within six weeks of surgery and/or with large CTVLC.
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S-allyl cysteine attenuates free fatty acid-induced lipogenesis in human HepG2 cells through activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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S-Allyl cysteine (SAC), a nontoxic garlic compound, has a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. In this report, we provide evidence that SAC prevented free fatty acid (FFA)-induced lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. SAC significantly reduced FFA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, caspase activation and subsequent cell death. Also, SAC mitigated total cellular lipid and triglyceride accumulation in steatotic HepG2 cells. SAC significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, SAC down-regulated the levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and its target genes, including ACC and fatty acid synthase. Use of a specific inhibitor showed that SAC activated AMPK via calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK) and silent information regulator T1. Our results demonstrate that SAC activates AMPK through CaMKK and inhibits SREBP-1-mediated hepatic lipogenesis. Therefore, SAC has therapeutic potential for preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
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Outcomes in head and neck oncologic surgery at academic medical centers in the United States.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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To evaluate the impact of case volume and other variables on outcomes after head and neck oncologic surgery was performed at academic medical centers in the United States.
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Economic impact of a head and neck oncologic surgeon: The case mix index.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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Head and neck oncologic surgery is a time-consuming specialty that requires extensive resources and manpower. Case mix index (CMI) is used in evaluating the complexity and economic impact of surgeons. Head and neck oncologic surgeons generate significant revenue for hospitals, yet compensation is relatively low.
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A quantitative assessment of volumetric and anatomic changes of the parotid gland during intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer using serial computed tomography.
Med Dosim
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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To evaluate the change in volume and movement of the parotid gland measured by serial contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans in patients with head and neck cancer treated with parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). A prospective study was performed on 13 patients with head and neck cancer undergoing dose-painted IMRT to 69.96Gy in 33 fractions. Serial computed tomography scans were performed at baseline, weeks 2, 4, and 6 of radiotherapy (RT), and at 6 weeks post-RT. The parotid volume was contoured at each scan, and the movement of the medial and lateral borders was measured. The patients body weight was recorded at each corresponding week during RT. Regression analyses were performed to ascertain the rate of change during treatment as a percent change per fraction in parotid volume and distance relative to baseline. The mean parotid volume decreased by 37.3% from baseline to week 6 of RT. The overall rate of change in parotid volume during RT was-1.30% per fraction (-1.67% and-0.91% per fraction in?31Gy and<31Gy mean planned parotid dose groups, respectively, p = 0.0004). The movement of parotid borders was greater in the?31Gy mean parotid dose group compared with the<31Gy group (0.22% per fraction and 0.14% per fraction for the lateral border and 0.19% per fraction and 0.06% per fraction for the medial border, respectively). The median change in body weight was-7.4% (range, 0.75% to-17.5%) during RT. A positive correlation was noted between change in body weight and parotid volume during the course of RT (Spearman correlation coefficient, r = 0.66, p<0.01). Head and neck IMRT results in a volume loss of the parotid gland, which is related to the planned parotid dose, and the patients weight loss during RT.
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Metformin inhibits heme oxygenase-1 expression in cancer cells through inactivation of Raf-ERK-Nrf2 signaling and AMPK-independent pathways.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Resistance to therapy is the major obstacle to more effective cancer treatment. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is often highly up-regulated in tumor tissues, and its expression is further increased in response to therapies. It has been suggested that inhibition of HO-1 expression is a potential therapeutic approach to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-tumor effects of metformin are mediated by suppression of HO-1 expression in cancer cells. Our results indicate that metformin strongly suppresses HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human hepatic carcinoma HepG2, cervical cancer HeLa, and non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells. Metformin also markedly reduced Nrf2 mRNA and protein levels in whole cell lysates and suppressed tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ)-induced Nrf2 protein stability and antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activity in HepG2 cells. We also found that metformin regulation of Nrf2 expression is mediated by a Keap1-independent mechanism and that metformin significantly attenuated Raf-ERK signaling to suppress Nrf2 expression in cancer cells. Inhibition of Raf-ERK signaling by PD98059 decreased Nrf2 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells, confirming that the inhibition of Nrf2 expression is mediated by an attenuation of Raf-ERK signaling in cancer cells. The inactivation of AMPK by siRNA, DN-AMPK or the pharmacological AMPK inhibitor compound C, revealed that metformin reduced HO-1 expression in an AMPK-independent manner. These results highlight the Raf-ERK-Nrf2 axis as a new molecular target in anticancer therapy in response to metformin treatment.
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3-Caffeoyl, 4-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid from Salicornia herbacea attenuates high glucose-induced hepatic lipogenesis in human HepG2 cells through activation of the liver kinase B1 and silent information regulator T1/AMPK-dependent pathway.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Increasing evidence indicates that polyphenols may protect against metabolic disease through activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The aims of our study were to provide new data on the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the role of the phenolic compound, 3-caffeoyl, 4-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid (CDCQ) from Salicornia herbacea, in the prevention of high glucose-induced lipogenesis in human HepG2 cells.
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Clinical correlation of previously undetected cancer-related incidental findings on CT planning scans for radiation therapy.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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The purpose of our study was to determine the management and cancer outcome of incidental cancer-related findings reported on CT radiation treatment planning scans.
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The size and phospholipid composition of lipid droplets can influence their proteome.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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The proteomic makeup of lipid droplets (LDs) is believed to regulate the function of LDs, which are now recognized as important cellular organelles that are associated with many human metabolic disorders. However, factors that help determine LD proteome remain to be identified and characterized. Here we analyzed the phospholipid and protein composition of LDs isolated from wild type (WT) yeast cells, and also from fld1?, cds1, and ino2? mutant cells which produce supersized LDs. LDs of fld1? and WT cells exhibited similar phospholipid profiles, whereas LDs of cds1 and ino2? strains had a higher (cds1) or lower (ino2?) percentage of phosphatidylcholine than those of WT, respectively. Unexpectedly, the presence of most known LD resident proteins was greatly reduced in the LD fraction isolated from cds1 and ino2?, including neutral lipid hydrolases. Consistent with this result, mobilization of neutral lipids was seriously impaired in these two strains. Contrary to the reduction of LD resident proteins, the Hsp90 family molecular chaperones, Hsc82 and Hsp82, were greatly increased in the LD fractions of cds1 and ino2? strains without changes at the level of expression. These data demonstrate the impact of LD phopholipids and size on the makeup of LD proteome.
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Use of 18F-FDG PET/CT as a predictive biomarker of outcome in patients with head-and-neck non-squamous cell carcinoma.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2011
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The purpose of this article is to establish whether pretreatment (18)F-FDG uptake predicts disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival in patients with head-and-neck non-squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
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Disability-adjusted life years (DALY) for cancer in Japan in 2000.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2011
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We used disability-adjusted life years (DALY) to estimate the cancer burden in Japan for the year 2000.
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Gender, Alcohol Consumption Patterns, and Engagement in Sexually Intimate Behaviors Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Nha Trang, Viet Nam.
Youth Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted with 880 youth (16 to 24 years) in Nha Trang City to assess relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors. A timeline followback method was employed. Chi-square, generalized logit modeling and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the sample, 78.2% male and 56.1% female respondents ever consumed alcohol. Males reporting sexual behaviors (vaginal, anal, oral sex) had a significantly higher calculated peak BAC of 0.151 compared to 0.082 for males reporting no sexual intimacy (p < .0001). Females reporting sexual behaviors had a peak BAC of 0.072 compared to 0.027 for those reporting no sexual intimacy (p = .016). Fifty percent of (33/66) males and 30.4% (7/23) females report event specific drinking and engagement in sexual behaviors. Males reporting 11+ drinks in 30 days had more sexual partners than those reporting 1 to 10 drinks (p = .037). Data suggest different physical and psychosocial mediators between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors by gender.
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Estimation of premature mortality from oral cancer in Japan, 1995 and 2005.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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To better understand the picture of premature death from oral cancer, we estimated years of life lost (YLL) and average years of life lost (AYLL) of this cancer for the years 1995 and 2005 in Japan.
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Implications of previously undetected incidental findings on 3D CT simulation scans for radiation therapy.
Pract Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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To determine the frequency of significant incidental findings on diagnostic quality simulation computed tomographic (CT) scans for radiotherapy planning.
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Correlating computed tomography perfusion changes in the pharyngeal constrictor muscles during head-and-neck radiotherapy to dysphagia outcome.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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To measure changes in perfusion of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles (PCM) using CT perfusion (CTP) imaging during a course of definitive radiotherapy (RT) in head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients and correlate with dysphagia outcome after RT.
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Prospective cohort study evaluating the relationship between salted food intake and gastrointestinal tract cancer mortality in Japan.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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To investigate whether a high salted food intake increases the risk of gastrointestinal tract cancer mortality.
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Premature mortality due to stroke and trend in stroke mortality in Japan (1980-2005).
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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Although a downward trend in stroke mortality over the last decades has been observed in many countries, stroke remains an important contributor to the total burden of disease. In the present study, we provided additional measures, namely years of life lost (YLLs) and average years of life lost (AYLLs) to reflect the burden of this condition in Japan.
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Brachial plexus contouring with CT and MR imaging in radiation therapy planning for head and neck cancer.
Radiographics
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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With the increasing use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of head and neck cancer, radiation oncologists are expected to have an in-depth knowledge of the computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging anatomy of this region to be able to accurately characterize tumor extent and define organs at risk for potential radiation injury. The brachial plexus is a complex anatomic structure in the head and neck adjacent to diseased nodes and elective nodal volumes (ie, nodal areas that are prophylactically treated because they are at high risk for micrometastatic disease) and should, therefore, be carefully identified and contoured at CT prior to IMRT planning. A number of multi-institutional protocols mandate contouring the brachial plexus as an "avoidance structure" (ie, a structure or volume that is at risk for complications of radiation therapy) in the planning of head and neck radiation therapy, and, although little information exists on the best method of doing so consistently, contouring may be facilitated with fusion CT-MR imaging software. With three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, the brachial plexus is not routinely contoured; therefore, its dose limits are not evaluated in treatment planning. In contrast, with IMRT, tolerance doses can be set to limit the maximum dose to the brachial plexus to 60 Gy in most radiation protocols, although the true radiation tolerance dose in patients with head and neck cancer has been mentioned only sporadically in the literature. Additional studies will be required to determine if identification of the brachial plexus as an avoidance structure prior to radiation therapy planning improves treatment outcome in patients with head and neck cancer and reduces long-term toxicity in this structure.
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Rural and urban Vietnamese mothers utilization of healthcare resources for children under 6 years with pneumonia and associated symptoms.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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Worldwide, pneumonia causes 14% of deaths among children and infants (ages 4 weeks to 5 years). UNICEF and WHO have established treatment guidelines to reduce risk of death from pneumonia including caregiver symptom recognition, appropriate care, and use of antibiotics. In June 2008, cross-sectional survey data were collected in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam with 329 mothers of children under 6 years. In relation to pneumonia and associated symptoms (fever >38 °C, strong cough, "fast or difficult" breathing), data were collected on perceptions of symptom severity and child vulnerability, reported healthcare utilization including use of antibiotics, sources of health information, and barriers to care. Pearsons chi square, independent t tests, and multinomial analysis were conducted to assess different patterns of reported healthcare utilization in relation to residency (rural/urban), mothers education, and household income. Outcomes include rural and urban residency-based patterns related to perceptions of childs vulnerability and symptom severity, health facility utilization and barriers to care, and reported use of antibiotics during previous episodes of pneumonia. Implications include the need to target different healthcare facilities in urban and rural Viet Nam in relation to education about symptoms of childhood pneumonia and associated treatments.
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Can daytime use of bed nets not treated with insecticide reduce the risk of dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in Vietnam?
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bed net use and elucidate the effect of daytime bed net use on preventing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) among children in Vietnam. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey and a matched case-control study in Khanh Hoa Province where not only some pre-schoolchildren but also some school children, who take a nap during lunch break prior to returning to school, used bed nets during the day. Among 36,901 children 2-10 years of age, most used untreated bed nets during the night (98.3%) compared with 8.4% during the day. The results of the case-control study, which defined 151 cases who were hospitalized with DHF in the provincial hospitals and 604 age-matched neighborhood controls, did not support our hypothesis that children using untreated bed nets during the day are less likely to be hospitalized with DHF (adjusted odds ratio = 0.56, 95% confidence interval = 0.23-1.39).
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The decrease in average years of life lost due to breast cancer in Japan during the period from 1995 to 2006.
Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women in Japan. Its mortality rate has been increased in recent years. However, there has been no study examining the changes in premature mortality in Japanese women. In the present study, using two health indicators, years of life lost (YLL) and average of years of life lost (AYLL), we estimated the premature mortality due to breast cancer in Japan during the period from 1995 to 2006. YLL indicates how many years that life of a patient was shortened with the presence of cancer, and AYLL provides an average loss of expected years of life among these deceased persons. Results showed an increase in total YLL due to this condition from 204,840.6 years in 1995 to 255,046.9 years in 2006. In each calendar year, YLL remained the highest in the group aged 50-59 years, accounting for 32%-36% of annual YLL. In contrast, we found a decrease in AYLL of breast cancer from 26.4 years in 1995 to 22.8 years in 2006; namely, breast cancer patients who died in 2006 lived an average 3.6 years longer than those who died in 1995. In conclusion, we show the decrease in AYLL of breast cancer deaths, despite the increase in total numbers of annual YLL during the study period. Thus, women with breast cancer have benefited from postponement of the deaths in 2006, compared to those in 1995, which may be related to the improvements in medical health care or appropriate prevention.
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Parent-youth communication and concordance between parents and adolescents on reported engagement in social relationships and sexually intimate behaviors in Hanoi and Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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Parent-child communication is associated with positive outcomes for youths engagement in sexual behaviors. Limited data are available regarding parent-child communication in transitional countries. We present data from Vietnamese parent-youth dyads on parent reproductive health (RH) knowledge, comfort of communication, frequency of talk, and discordancy between youths reported and parents perceptions for engagement in relationships and sexually intimate behaviors.
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Dietary patterns and risk of stomach cancer mortality: the Japan collaborative cohort study.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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We sought to examine associations between dietary patterns and the risk of stomach cancer mortality in a cohort study in Japan.
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Chronic kidney disease in children: the National Paediatric Hospital experience in Hanoi, Vietnam.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2009
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The goal of this descriptive study was to evaluate the aetiology and the socioeconomic status in hospitalized children in Hanoi and propose solutions to improve prevention and basic health care of patients with chronic kidney disease in Hanoi City.
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Emerging applications of stereotactic radiotherapy in head and neck cancer.
Neurosurg Focus
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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Advances in the management of locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) have been focused on treatment intensification, including concomitant chemoradiotherapy, biological agents, and combining surgery with chemoradiotherapy. Despite these improvements, locoregional recurrence still constitutes the main pattern of treatment failure. As improvements in radiotherapy delivery and image-guided therapy have come to fruition, the principles of stereotactic radiosurgery are now being applied to extracranial sites, leading to stereotactic body radiotherapy. This article focuses on the emerging evidence for the use of stereotactic body radiotherapy for treatment of HNC as a boost after conventional external-beam radiotherapy, and also as reirradiation in recurrent or second primary HNC.
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Fish intake and the risk of fatal prostate cancer: findings from a cohort study in Japan.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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We investigated the relationship between the intake of fish and the risk of death from prostate cancer.
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Proton radiation therapy for primary sphenoid sinus malignancies: treatment outcome and prognostic factors.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
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The purpose of this study was to determine treatment outcome and prognostic factors in patients with locally advanced primary sphenoid sinus malignancy treated with proton radiation therapy.
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Effects of oral health care on salivary flow rate in patients with type 2 diabetes: preliminary study.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the authors oral health care program on the stimulated whole salivary flow rate and buffer capacity before and after a 6-month intervention. The authors conducted the intervention study among 25 participants with diabetes. The salivary flow rate and buffer capacity were evaluated before and after this intervention. Overall, the results showed a significant increase in salivary flow rate and no significant change in buffer capacity. Also, it was likely that salivary flow rate significantly increased among patients with more than 20 remaining teeth and patients with well-controlled diabetes. The findings suggest that this program for type 2 diabetes led to an increase in the stimulated whole salivary flow rate.
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Relationship between serum levels of superoxide dismutase activity and subsequent risk of lung cancer mortality: Findings from a nested case-control study within the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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The expression of superoxide dismutases (SODs) has been shown to differ between lung tumor and tumor-free tissues. In the present study, we investigated the association between serum SOD activity and the risk of lung cancer mortality, based on a nested case-control design study within the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study, with a sample of 193 lung cancer patients and 573 matched controls. Blood samples were obtained at the baseline and stored at -80 degrees C until analysis for SOD levels. Serum levels of SODs were divided into quartiles, with the first quartile used as the reference. A conditional logistic model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for lung cancer mortality associated with serum SOD quartile levels. The adjusted ORs and 95% CIs for the second, third; and fourth SOD quartiles were 0.80 (95%CI: 0.49-1.29), 1.32 (0.78-2.25), and 1.07 (0.60-1.89), respectively. In analyses stratified by observation period, the adjusted ORs of the respective quartiles were 0.56 (95%CI: 0.30-1.07), 1.16 ( 0.57-2.37), and 1.11 (0.52-2.35) for the period from the baseline to 1994; and the adjusted ORs of 1.36 (95%CI: 0.65-2.85), 1.71 (0.75-3.87), and 1.06 (0.44-2.53) for the period after 1994. To conclude, we found no significant association between serum SOD level and the risk of deaths from lung cancer in the present study.
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Relationship between serum levels of superoxide dismutase activity and subsequent risk of cancer mortality: Findings from a nested case-control study within the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are antioxidant enzymes that play a role in the defense system of the body. They may be involved in protection against carcinogenesis processes. In the present study, we investigate the association between serum SOD activity and the risk of deaths due to all cancers combined, based on a nested case-control study within the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study of 914 cancer deaths and 2,739 matched controls. Blood samples were obtained at the baseline and stored at -80 degrees C until analysis for SOD levels. Serum levels of SODs were divided into quartiles, with the first quartile used as the reference. A conditional logistic model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for total cancer mortality associated with serum SOD quartile levels. The adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the second, third and fourth SOD quartiles were 0.96 (95%CI: 0.77-1.19), 1.18 (0.92-1.51), and 1.32 (1.04-1.69), respectively. In analyses stratified by observation period, the adjusted ORs of the respective quartiles were 0.81 (95%CI: 0.60-1.08), 0.98 (0.70-1.37), and 1.28 (0.92-1.79) for the period from the baseline to 1994; and the adjusted ORs were 1.18 (95%CI: 0.85-1.63), 1.47 (1.04-2.10), and 1.41 (1.00-2.04) for the period after 1994. To conclude, we found a slightly positive association between serum SOD level and the risk of all cancer mortality in the present study. Elevated serum SOD levels might reflect a response to oxidative stress, and then may predict a state of excess reactive oxygen species in the carcinogenesis process. Detailed studies of associations between serum SOD levels and cancers in specific sites should now be performed, with attention to particular tumour types.
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Years of life lost due to cancer in a cohort study in Japan.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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We estimated the burden of cancer using mortality and years of life lost according to life tables in a cohort study in Japan.
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Enhanced SWIFT acquisition with chaotic compressed sensing by designing the measurement matrix with hyperbolic-secant signals.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
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Sweep imaging Fourier transform (SWIFT) is an efficient (fast and quiet) specialized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method for imaging tissues or organs that give only short-lived signals due to fast spin-spin relaxation rates. Based on the idea of compressed sensing, this paper proposes a novel method for further enhancing SWIFT using chaotic compressed sensing (CCS-SWIFT). With reduced number of measurements, CCS-SWIFT effectively faster than SWIFT. In comparison with a recently proposed chaotic compressed sensing method for standard MRI (CCS-MRI), simulation results showed that CCS-SWIFT outperforms CCS-MRI in terms of the normalized relative error in the image reconstruction and the probability of exact reconstruction.
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A Prognostic Volumetric Threshold of Gross Tumor Volume in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Treated With Radiotherapy.
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
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OBJECTIVES:: To determine the prognostic utility of a volumetric threshold for gross tumor volume (GTV) of the primary and nodal disease when accounting for the TNM classification in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS:: From 2004 to 2011, 79 HNC patients were treated to a median dose of 70 Gy, using intensity-modulated RT in 78.5% and 3-dimensional conformal RT in 21.5% with 83.5% receiving concurrent chemotherapy. Primary (GTV-P) and nodal (GTV-N) GTVs were derived from computed tomography (CT)-based contours for RT planning, of which 89.7% were aided by positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Local (LC), nodal (NC), distant (DC) control, and overall survival (OS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method. RESULTS:: With a median follow-up of 27.1 months GTV-P, threshold of <32.9 cm (mean value) compared with ?32.9 cm, correlated with improved 2-year LC (96.2% vs. 63.9%, P<0.0001), NC (100% vs. 69.2%, P<0.0001), DC (87.9% vs. 64.2%, P=0.001), and OS (88.4% vs. 58.6%, P=0.001). GTV-P demonstrated its prognostic utility in multivariate analyses when adjusted for tumor category, cancer site, and chemotherapy regimen. Nodal GTV (mean, 34.0 cm) was not predictive of nodal control and survival. CONCLUSIONS:: A volumetric threshold of the primary tumor may be used as an independent prognostic factor in patients with HNC undergoing definitive RT.
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Topical application of Pleurotus eryngii extracts inhibits 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice by the regulation of Th1/Th2 balance.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
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Pleurotus eryngii is a nutritional and medicinal food rich in polysaccharides that enhance the host immune system as a response to various diseases. The present study investigated the effects of P. eryngii extracts (PEE) on the progress of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). We evaluated skin dermatitis severity, ear thickness, histopathological examination, and cytokines level in DNCB-applied mice treated with PEE. Continuous treatment of PEE inhibited the development of the AD-like skin lesions. PEE suppressed DNCB-induced dermatitis severity, serum level of IgE and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), and mRNA expression of TNF-?, INF-?, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in mice. In addition, PEE reduced thickness of the dermis and dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells and mast cells in histopathological examination. These results indicate that PEE inhibits allergic contact dermatitis through the modulating of T helper (Th)1 and Th2 responses and diminishing the inflammatory cells and mast cells infiltration in the skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.
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Phillyrin attenuates high glucose-induced lipid accumulation in human HepG2 hepatocytes through the activation of LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent signalling.
Food Chem
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Phillyrin, an active constituent found in many medicinal plants and certain functional foods, has anti-obesity activity in vivo. The aim of our study was to provide new data on the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the role of phillyrin in the prevention of high glucose-induced lipid accumulation in human HepG2 hepatocytes. We found that phillyrin suppressed high glucose-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Phillyrin strongly inhibited high glucose-induced fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression by modulating sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) activation. Moreover, use of the pharmacological AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor compound C revealed that AMPK is essential for suppressing SREBP-1c expression in phillyrin-treated cells. Finally, we found that liver kinase B1 (LKB1) phosphorylation is required for the phillyrin-enhanced activation of AMPK in HepG2 hepatocytes. These results indicate that phillyrin prevents lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells by blocking the expression of SREBP-1c and FAS through LKB1/AMPK activation, suggesting that phillyrin is a novel AMPK activator with a role in the prevention and treatment of obesity.
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PET/CT of cancer patients: part 2, deformable registration imaging before and after chemotherapy for radiation treatment planning in head and neck cancer.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
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The purpose of this perspective is to discuss the use of deformable registration as a tool for image fusion to integrate information from PET/CT scans obtained before and after chemotherapy to assist definition of radiation targets in the management of head and neck cancer.
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Deformable registration of preoperative PET/CT with postoperative radiation therapy planning CT in head and neck cancer.
Radiographics
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In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), precise target delineation is important to avoid underdosing areas at risk for recurrence and overdosing adjacent normal tissue. In postoperative radiation therapy of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), surgical extirpation of tumor, anatomic changes resulting from tissue removal, and surgical reconstruction often obscure anatomic detail and may make it difficult to identify high-risk target volumes at postoperative planning computed tomography (CT). Positron emission tomography (PET)/CT can significantly affect CT-based tumor contours by providing information on both biologic and metabolic features of cancer. To incorporate diagnostic PET/CT into target delineation at postoperative CT, an advanced image registration method is required to overcome significant differences in patient position and anatomy between the imaging studies. Rigid registration can account for only linear or uniform transformation between the imaging datasets within six degrees of freedom (three rotations and three translations). However, deformable registration can account for significant temporal and anatomic changes between the corresponding images by computing nonlinear and nonuniform relationships between the volume elements across the imaging datasets. Use of deformable registration to integrate preoperative PET/CT with postoperative treatment planning CT is a powerful tool for target volume delineation in HNC patients undergoing postoperative IMRT.
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Posttreatment CT and MR imaging in head and neck cancer: what the radiologist needs to know.
Radiographics
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In patients with head and neck cancer, posttreatment imaging can be complicated and difficult to interpret because of the complexity of the surgical procedures performed and the postirradiation changes, but such imaging is critical for the evaluation of (a) the response to therapy and (b) tumor control. Posttreatment changes are affected by the type of surgery performed, reconstruction, neck dissection, and radiation therapy. Three types of flaps are used for reconstruction in the head and neck region: (a) the local flap, with geometric repositioning of adjacent tissue; (b) the pedicle flap, with rotation of donor tissue and preservation of the original vascular system; and (c) the free flap, with transfer of tissue that is revascularized by using microvascular surgical techniques. The posttreatment imaging findings in patients with head and neck cancer can be divided into four groups: altered anatomy secondary to surgical reconstruction, tumor recurrence, potential postsurgical complications, and possible postirradiation changes. Potential postsurgical complications are wound infection, abscess, fistula, flap necrosis, hematoma, chylous fistula, and serous retention. Possible postirradiation changes include mucosal necrosis, osteoradionecrosis, radiation-induced vasculopathy, radiation pneumonitis, radiation lung fibrosis, radiation-induced brain necrosis, and radiation-induced secondary malignancies. A familiarity with the imaging characteristics of posttreatment changes and of the potential complications caused by surgery and irradiation and an ability to differentiate these findings from tumor recurrence are essential for posttreatment surveillance and follow-up management of patients with head and neck cancer.
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Evaluation of three adolescent sexual health programs in ha noi and khanh hoa province, Vietnam.
AIDS Res Treat
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With an increase in sexual activity among young adults in Vietnam and associated risks, there is a need for evidence-based sexual health interventions. This evaluation of three sexual health programs based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was conducted in 12 communes in Ha Noi, Nha Trang City, and Ninh Hoa District. Inclusion criteria included unmarried youth 15-20 years residing in selected communes. Communes were randomly allocated to an intervention, and participants were randomly selected within each commune. The intervention programs included Vietnamese Focus on Kids (VFOK), the gender-based program Exploring the World of Adolescents (EWA), and EWA plus parental and health provider education (EWA+). Programs were delivered over a ten-week period in the communities by locally trained facilitators. The gender-based EWA program with parental involvement (EWA+) compared to VFOK showed significantly greater increase in knowledge. EWA+ in comparison to VFOK also showed significant decrease at immediate postintervention for intention to have sex. Sustained changes are observed in all three interventions for self-efficacy condom use, self-efficacy abstinence, response efficacy for condoms, extrinsic rewards, and perceived vulnerability for HIV. These findings suggest that theory-based community programs contribute to sustained changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual risk among Vietnamese adolescents.
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Superior prognostic utility of gross and metabolic tumor volume compared to standardized uptake value using PET/CT in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.
Ann Nucl Med
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To compare the prognostic utility of the 2-[(18)F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D: -glucose (FDG) maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)), primary gross tumor volume (GTV), and FDG metabolic tumor volume (MTV) for disease control and survival in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) undergoing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).
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Reproductive factors in relation to ovarian cancer: a case-control study in Northern Vietnam.
Contraception
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Ovarian cancer, one of the most common cancers in women and the most serious gynecologic cancer, is known to be influenced by reproductive factors, but these factors have not previously been examined in Vietnamese women.
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Daily orthogonal kilovoltage imaging using a gantry-mounted on-board imaging system results in a reduction in radiation therapy delivery errors.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
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To determine whether the use of routine image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) using pretreatment on-board imaging (OBI) with orthogonal kilovoltage X-rays reduces treatment delivery errors.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.