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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Myelodysplastic syndrome evolving from aplastic anemia treated with immunosuppressive therapy: efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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A proportion of patients with aplastic anemia who are treated with immunosuppressive therapy develop clonal hematologic disorders, including myelodysplastic syndrome (post-aplastic anemia myelodysplastic syndrome). Many will proceed to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We identified 123 patients with post-aplastic anemia myelodysplastic syndrome who from 1991 through 2011 underwent allogeneic transplantation, and in a matched-pair analysis compared outcomes to that in 393 patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndrome. There was no difference in overall survival. There were no significant differences in regards to 5-year probabilities of relapse, non-relapse mortality, relapse-free and overall survival which were 14%, 40%, 46% and 49% for post-aplastic anemia myelodysplastic syndrome, and 20%, 33%, 47% and 49% for de novo myelodysplastic syndrome, respectively. Cytogenetic risk was independently associated with overall survival in both groups. Thus, transplant success in patients with post-aplastic anemia myelodysplastic syndrome was similar to that in patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndrome, and cytogenetic risk was the only significant prognostic factor for post-aplastic anemia myelodysplastic syndrome patients.
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells to treat complications following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Tissue Eng Part B Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a technologically complicated procedure that represents the only cure for many hematologic malignancies. However, HSCT is often complicated by life-threatening toxicities related to the chemo-radiation conditioning regimen, poor engraftment of donor HSCs, the hyperinflammatory syndrome of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), infection risks from immunosuppression, and end-organ damage. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs), also known as "mesenchymal stromal cells," not only play a nurturing role in the hematopoietic microenvironment but also can differentiate into other cell types of mesenchymal origin. MSCs are poorly immunogenic, and they can modulate immunological responses through interactions with a wide range of innate and adaptive immune cells to reduce inflammation. They are easily expanded ex vivo and after infusion, home to sites of injury and inflammation to promote tissue repair. Despite promising early trial results in HSCT with significant responses that have translated into survival benefits, there have been significant barriers to successful commercialization as an off-the-shelf therapy. Current efforts with MSCs in the HSCT setting are geared toward determining the factors determining potency, understanding the precise mechanisms of action in human HSCT, knowing their kinetics and fate, optimizing dose and schedule, incorporating biomarkers as response surrogates, addressing concerns about safety, optimizing clinical trial design, and negotiating the uncharted regulatory landscape for licensable cellular therapy.
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The clinical and financial burden of pre-emptive management of cytomegalovirus disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation-implications for preventative treatment approaches.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is rarely fatal, the management of CMV by pre-emptive medication for viral reactivation has toxicity and carries a financial burden. New strategies to prevent CMV reactivation with vaccines and antiviral T cells may represent an advance over pre-emptive strategies but have yet to be justified in terms of transplantation outcome and cost.
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells to treat tissue damage in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: correlation of biological markers with clinical responses.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) have been used to treat acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and other complications following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). We conducted a phase I trial using third party, early passage BMSCs for patients with steroid-refractory GVHD, tissue injury, or marrow failure following SCT to investigate safety and efficacy. To identify mechanisms of BMSC immunomodulation and tissue repair, patients were serially monitored for plasma GVHD biomarkers, cytokines, and lymphocyte phenotype. Ten subjects were infused a fixed dose of 2 × 10(6) BMSCs/kg intravenously weekly for three doses. There was no treatment-related toxicity (primary endpoint). Eight subjects were evaluable for response at 4 weeks after the last infusion. Five of the seven patients with steroid-refractory acute GVHD achieved a complete response, two of two patients with tissue injury (pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax) achieved resolution but there was no response in two subjects with delayed marrow failure. Rapid reductions in inflammatory cytokines were observed. Clinical responses correlated with a fall in biomarkers (Reg 3?, CK18, and Elafin) relevant for the site of GVHD or tissue injury. The GVHD complete responders survived significantly longer and had higher baseline absolute lymphocyte and central memory CD4 and CD8 counts. Cytokine changes also segregated with survival. These results confirm that BMSCs are associated with rapid clinical and biomarker responses in GVHD and tissue injury. However, BMSCs were ineffective in patients with prolonged GVHD with lower lymphocyte counts, which suggest that effective GVHD control by BMSCs requires a relatively intact immune system.
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Recombinant human factor VIIa for alveolar hemorrhage following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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The mortality rate of alveolar hemorrhage (AH) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is greater than 60% with supportive care and high-dose steroid therapy. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis to assess the benefits and risks of recombinant human factor VIIa (rFVIIa) as a therapeutic adjunct for AH. Between 2005 and 2012, 57 episodes of AH occurred in 37 patients. Fourteen episodes (in 14 patients) were treated with steroids alone, and 43 episodes (in 23 patients) were treated with steroids and rFVIIa. The median steroid dose was 1.9 mg/kg/d (interquartile range [IQR], 0.8 to 3.5 mg/kg/d; methylprednisolone equivalents) and did not differ statistically between the 2 groups. The median rFVIIa dose was 41 ?g/kg (IQR, 39 to 62 ?g/kg), and a median of 3 doses (IQR, 2 to 17) was administered per episode. Concurrent infection was diagnosed in 65% of the episodes. Patients had moderately severe hypoxia (median PaO2/FiO2, 193 [IQR, 141 to 262]); 72% required mechanical ventilation, and 42% survived to extubation. The addition of rFVIIa did not alter time to resolution of AH (P = .50), duration of mechanical ventilation (P = .89), duration of oxygen supplementation (P = .55), or hospital mortality (P = .27). Four possible thrombotic events (9% of 43 episodes) occurred with rFVIIa. rFVIIa in combination with corticosteroids did not confer clear clinical advantages compared with corticosteroids alone. In patients with AH following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, clinical factors (ie, worsening infection, multiple organ failure, or recrudescence of primary disease) may be more important than the benefit of enhanced hemostasis from rFVIIa.
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Ultra-low dose interleukin-2 promotes immune-modulating function of regulatory T cells and natural killer cells in healthy volunteers.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) expands regulatory T cells (Tregs) and natural killer (NK) cells after stem cell transplantation (SCT) and may reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We hypothesized that ultra-low dose (ULD) IL-2 could serve as an immune-modulating agent for stem cell donors to prevent GVHD following SCT. However, the safety, dose level, and immune signatures of ULD IL-2 in immune-competent healthy subjects remain unknown. Here, we have characterized the phenotype and function of Tregs and NK cells as well as the gene expression and cytokine profiles of 21 healthy volunteers receiving 50,000 to 200,000 units/m(2)/day IL-2 for 5 days. ULD IL-2 was well tolerated and induced a significant increase in the frequency of Tregs with increased suppressive function. There was a marked expansion of CD56(bright) NK cells with enhanced interferon-? (IFN-?) production. Serum cytokine profiling demonstrated increase of IFN-? induced protein 10 (IP-10). Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in a highly restricted set of genes, including FOXP3, IL-2RA, and CISH. This is the first study to evaluate global immune-modulating function of ULD IL-2 in healthy subjects and to support the future studies administrating ULD IL-2 to stem cell donors.
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Identification of a permissible HLA mismatch in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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In subjects mismatched in the HLA alleles C*03:03/C*03:04 no allogeneic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses are detected in vitro. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with unrelated donors (UDs) showed no association between the HLA-C allele mismatches (CAMMs) and adverse outcomes; antigen mismatches at this and mismatches other HLA loci are deleterious. The absence of effect of the CAMM may have resulted from the predominance of the mismatch C*03:03/C*03:04. Patients with hematologic malignancies receiving UD HSCT matched in 8/8 and 7/8 HLA alleles were examined. Transplants mismatched in HLA-C antigens or mismatched in HLA-A, -B, or -DRB1 presented significant differences (P < .0001) in mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.37, 1.30), disease-free survival (HR = 1.33, 1.27), treatment-related mortality (HR = 1.54, 1.54), and grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (HR = 1.49, 1.77) compared with the 8/8 group; transplants mismatched in other CAMMs had similar outcomes with HR ranging from 1.34 to 172 for these endpoints. The C*03:03/C*03:04 mismatched and the 8/8 matched groups had identical outcomes (HR ranging from 0.96-1.05). The previous finding that CAMMs do not associate with adverse outcomes is explained by the predominance (69%) of the mismatch C*03:03/03:04 in this group that is better tolerated than other HLA mismatches.
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Radiation exposure from diagnostic procedures following allogeneic stem cell transplantation - How much is acceptable?
Hematology
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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Frequent diagnostic radiology procedures in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients raise concern about the potential harm from incidental radiation.
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Amino acid substitution at peptide-binding pockets of HLA class I molecules increases risk of severe acute GVHD and mortality.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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HLA disparity has a negative impact on the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied the independent impact of amino acid substitution (AAS) at peptide-binding positions 9, 99, 116, and 156, and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor binding position 77 of HLA-A, B, or C, on the risks for grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, treatment-related mortality (TRM), relapse, and overall survival. In multivariate analysis, a mismatch at HLA-C position 116 was associated with increased risk for severe acute GVHD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-1.82, P = .0016). Mismatch at HLA-C position 99 was associated with increased transplant-related mortality (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.1-1.69, P = .0038). Mismatch at HLA-B position 9 was associated with increased chronic GVHD (HR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.36-3.82, P = .0018). No AAS were significantly associated with outcome at HLA-A. Specific AAS pair combinations with a frequency >30 were tested for association with HCT outcomes. Cysteine to tyrosine substitution at position 99 of HLA-C was associated with increased TRM (HR = 1.78, 95% = CI 1.27-2.51, P = .0009). These results demonstrate that donor-recipient mismatch for certain peptide-binding residues of the HLA class I molecule is associated with increased risk for acute and chronic GVHD and death.
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Proceedings from the National Cancer Institutes Second International Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Part I. Biology of relapse after transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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In the National Cancer Institutes Second Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, the Scientific/Educational Session on the Biology of Relapse discussed recent advances in understanding some of the host-, disease-, and transplantation-related contributions to relapse, emphasizing concepts with potential therapeutic implications. Relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents tumor escape, from the cytotoxic effects of the conditioning regimen and from immunologic control mediated by reconstituted lymphocyte populations. Factors influencing the biology of the therapeutic graft-versus-malignancy (GVM) effect-and relapse-include conditioning regimen effects on lymphocyte populations and homeostasis, immunologic niches, and the tumor microenvironment; reconstitution of lymphocyte populations and establishment of functional immune competence; and genetic heterogeneity within the malignancy defining potential for clonal escape. Recent developments in T cell and natural killer cell homeostasis and reconstitution are reviewed, with implications for prevention and treatment of relapse, as is the application of modern genome sequencing to defining the biologic basis of GVM, clonal escape, and relapse after HSCT.
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Proceedings from the National Cancer Institutes Second International Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Part II. Autologous Transplantation-Novel Agents and Immunomodulatory Strateg
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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In the National Cancer Institutes Second International Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, the Scientific/Educational Session on Autologous Transplantation addressed the role of novel agents and immunomodulatory strategies in management of relapse after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). Concepts were illustrated through in-depth discussion of multiple myeloma, with broader discussion of areas relevant for relapse of other malignancies as well as in the setting of allogeneic transplantation. Dr. Hari provided an overview of the epidemiology of relapse after AHSCT in multiple myeloma, addressing clinical patterns, management implications, and treatment options at relapse, highlighting the implications of novel therapeutic agents in initial, maintenance, and relapse treatment. Dr. Avigan discussed current concepts in tumor vaccine design, including whole cell and antigen-specific strategies, use of an AHSCT platform to reverse tumor-associated immunosuppression and tolerance, and combining vaccines with immunomodulatory agents to promote establishment of durable antitumor immunity. Dr. Hsu reviewed the immunogenetics of natural killer (NK) cells and general NK biology, the clinical importance of autologous NK activity (eg, lymphoma and neuroblastoma), the impact of existing therapies on promotion of NK cell activity (eg, immunomodulatory drugs, monoclonal antibodies), and strategies for enhancing autologous and allogeneic NK cell effects through NK cell gene profiling.
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Proceedings from the National Cancer Institutes Second International Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Part III. Prevention and Treatment of Relapse after Allogeneic Transplantatio
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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In the Second Annual National Cancer Institutes Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, the Scientific/Educational Session on the Prevention and Treatment of Relapse after Allogeneic Transplantation highlighted progress in developing new therapeutic approaches since the first relapse workshop. Recent insights that might provide a basis for the development of novel, practical clinical trials were emphasized, including utilization of newer agents, optimization of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), and investigation of novel cellular therapies. Dr. de Lima discussed pre-emptive and maintenance strategies to prevent relapse after transplantation, for example, recent promising results suggestive of enhanced graft-versus-tumor activity with hypomethylating agents. Dr. Schmid provided an overview of adjunctive strategies to improve cell therapy for relapse, including cytoreduction before DLI, combination of targeted agents with DLI, and considerations in use of second transplantations. Dr. Porter addressed strategies to enhance T cell function, including ex vivo activated T cells and T cell engineering, and immunomodulatory approaches to enhance T cell function in vivo, including exogenous cytokines and modulation of costimulatory pathways.
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Repair of Impaired Pulmonary Function Is Possible in Very-Long-Term Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Survivors.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Both early- and late-onset noninfectious pulmonary injury are important contributors to the nonrelapse mortality seen after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), particularly in subjects conditioned with high-dose total body irradiation (TBI). To characterize the kinetics of recovery from pulmonary injury in long-term survivors, we collected data on 138 subjects who survived > 3 years (median survival, 10.2 years) after predominantly TBI-based allo-SCT from their HLA-matched siblings. Baseline pulmonary function tests served as the reference for subsequent measurements at 3, 5, 10, and 15 years for each survivor. The only parameter showing a clinically and statistically significant decline post-transplant was adjusted diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), which reached a nadir at 5 years but surprisingly normalized at the 10-year mark. Multivariable modeling identified chronic graft-versus-host disease (P < .02) and abnormal baseline-adjusted DLCO (P < .03) as the only significant factors associated with the decline in adjusted DLCO at 5 years but excluded smoking, conditioning intensity, baseline C-reactive protein level, TBI dose to the lungs, disease, and demographic variables. In conclusion, pulmonary injury as monitored by the adjusted DLCO continues to deteriorate in the first 5 years after allo-SCT but recovers at 10 years.
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Male survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a long term persisting risk of cardiovascular events.
Exp. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Long-term survivors of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We retrospectively studied cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in 109 SCT survivors (62 males, 47 females; median age 34 years) 5 years or more after bone marrow (15) or T cell-depleted peripheral blood (94) SCT for CML (56), acute leukemia (29), MDS (13), and others (11). One death and two cardiovascular events were reported. At 5 and 10 years after SCT, respectively, 44% and 52% had abnormal lipid profiles; 23% of 5-year survivors met the Adult Treatment Panel III threshold for dyslipidemia treatment, which is substantially higher than the age-matched general population. There were significant increases in prevalence of hypertension (p < 0.001), diabetes (p = 0.018), and body mass index (p = 0.044) after SCT compared with baseline. The Framingham general cardiovascular risk score in males at 5 years after SCT projected a doubling (median 10.4% vs. 5.4%) in the 10-year risk of cardiovascular events. Females received HRT after SCT, and none had increased FGCRS. Chronic GVHD and C-reactive protein were not associated with CVRF at any time. All CVRFs stabilized between 5 and 10 years after SCT. Thus, SCT survivors have sustained elevations in CVRFs. Males have a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events in their second and third decade after SCT.
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The impact of HLA unidirectional mismatches on the outcome of myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with unrelated donors.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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The impact of HLA homozygosity at mismatched (MM) loci on the outcome of 2687 myeloablative unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantations performed for malignant disease was evaluated among 4 groups: 7/8 bidirectional MM transplants (donor and recipient heterozygous MM, n = 1393), 7/8 host-versus-graft (HVG) vector MM (recipient homozygous, n = 112), 7/8 graft-versus-host (GVH) vector MM (donor homozygous, n = 119), and 8/8 matches (n = 1063). Multivariate analyses found 7/8 GVH (P = .001) and bidirectional MM groups (P < .0001) had significantly worse transplant-related mortality and overall and disease-free survival than the 8/8 match group, a difference not observed with the 7/8 HVG MM group (P > .01). The 3 7/8 groups differed only for grades III-IV acute GVH disease (GVHD), where HVG MM had less GVHD than the 7/8 bidirectional MM (hazard ratio [HR] 0.52, P = .0016) and GVH MM (HR 0.43, P = .0009) groups but not the 8/8 group (HR 0.83, P = .39). There were no differences between the 7/8 groups for relapse, chronic GVHD, neutrophil engraftment, or graft failure. GVH MM have the same risk as 7/8 bidirectional MM. 7/8 HVG MM confer a reduced risk of acute GVHD without an increased risk of disease relapse or graft failure compared with a 7/8 bidirectional MM.
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Human herpes 6 virus encephalitis complicating allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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To describe the presentation and management of encephalitis due to human herpes 6 virus (HHV-6) in patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT), via retrospective chart review.
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Evolution of the donor T-cell repertoire in recipients in the second decade after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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After allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), T lymphocyte function is reestablished from the donors postthymic T cells and through thymic T-cell neogenesis. The immune repertoire and its relation to that of the donor have not been characterized in detail in long-term adult SCT survivors. We studied 21 healthy patients in their second decade after a myeloablative SCT for hematologic malignancy (median follow-up, 12 years). Immune profiles were compared with donor samples cryopreserved at transplant and beyond 10 years from SCT. Only one recipient was on continuing immunosuppression. Compared with the donor at transplant, there was no significant difference in CD4, CD8, natural killer, and B-cell blood counts. However, compared with donors, recipients had significantly fewer naive T cells, lower T-cell receptor excision circle levels, fewer CD4 central memory cells, more effector CD8(+) cells, and more regulatory T cells. TCR repertoire analysis showed no significant difference in complexity of TCRV? spectratype between recipients and donors, although spectratype profiles had diverged with both gain and loss of donor repertoire peaks in the recipient. In conclusion, long-term allogeneic SCT survivors have subtle defects in their immune profile consistent with defective thymic function but compatible with normal health. This study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00106925.
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Immune reconstitution in recipients of photodepleted HLA-identical sibling donor stem cell transplantations: T cell subset frequencies predict outcome.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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We evaluated an ex vivo photodepletion (PD) technique to selectively deplete graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) alloreacting T cells given to 24 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients. Donor lymphocytes were activated by 72-hour exposure to irradiated in vitro expanded recipient T lymphocytes and pulsed with a TH9402 photosensitizer. Alloactivated T cells preferentially retaining the photosensitizer were eliminated by light exposure. The PD product showed an inverted CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio with greatest depletion occurring in the CD4(+) naive and central memory populations. In contrast, the CD8(+) naive and effector cells were relatively conserved, reflecting the differential extrusion of TH9402 by T cell subsets. Cytomegalovirus reactive T cells were reduced in the PD product and in recipient blood 100 days after SCT when compared with contemporaneous HLA-identical sibling donor T cell-depleted SCT recipients. Although PD SCT recipients experienced similar absolute lymphocyte counts during the first 100 days after SCT, they achieved 100% donor T cell chimerism more rapidly and had higher CD8(+) naive T cell counts early after SCT. SCT recipients of PD products with the lowest CD4 central memory content had the highest risk of developing chronic GVHD (cGVHD) (P = .04) and a poorer survival (P = .03). Although the persistence of CD8(+) naive T cells may have contributed to important antileukemia responses resulting in a relatively low relapse rate, our findings emphasize the role of donor memory T cells and CD4 cells in establishing immune competence post-SCT. Although PD is associated with excellent outcomes in the haploidentical setting, the low frequency of alloactivations in HLA-matched pairs makes the PD approach used by our group for allodepletion in HLA-matched sibling transplantations an inefficient technique.
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Selectively T cell-depleted allografts from HLA-matched sibling donors followed by low-dose posttransplantation immunosuppression to improve transplantation outcome in patients with hematologic malignancies.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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We evaluated a photodepletion technique to selectively deplete host-reacting T cells from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling stem cell transplantations with the goal of reducing posttransplantation immunosuppression to improve antimalignancy effects postallografting. Donor lymphocytes were stimulated with irradiated expanded recipient T lymphocytes in an ex vivo mixed lymphocyte reaction. Alloactivated T cells preferentially retaining the photosensitizer 4,5-dibromorhodamine 123 (TH9402) were eliminated by exposure to visible light. Twenty-four patients with hematologic malignancies (16 high risk) conditioned with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and totalbody irradiation received a CD34-selected stem cell allograft from an HLA-matched sibling along with 5 × 10(6)/kg selectively depleted donor T cells. Low-dose cyclosporine was used for posttransplantation immunosuppression. Eleven patients survived at a median of 30 months. Probabilities (± SEM) for overall and disease-free survival are 39% ± 12% and 30% ± 12%, respectively, whereas grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was 13% ± 7%. Six patients relapsed, with a relapse probability of 27% ± 10%. These results suggest that selectively photodepleted allografts in matched sibling transplantations followed by low-dose immunosuppression may protect against severe aGVHD but is associated with delayed immune recovery.
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Relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Expert Rev Hematol
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2010
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Since allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) represents an intensive curative treatment for high-risk malignancies, its failure to prevent relapse leaves few options for successful salvage treatment. While many patients have a high early mortality from relapse, some respond and have sustained remissions, and a minority has a second chance of cure with appropriate therapy. The prognosis for relapsed hematological malignancies after SCT depends on four factors: the time elapsed from SCT to relapse (with relapses occurring within 6 months having the worst prognosis), the disease type (with chronic leukemias and some lymphomas having a second possibility of cure with further treatment), the disease burden and site of relapse (with better treatment success if disease is treated early), and the conditions of the first transplant (with superior outcome for patients where there is an opportunity to increase either the alloimmune effect, the specificity of the antileukemia effect with targeted agents or the intensity of the conditioning in a second transplant). These features direct treatments toward either modified second transplants, chemotherapy, targeted antileukemia therapy, immunotherapy or palliative care.
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Heat shock protein 90 regulates the expression of Wilms tumor 1 protein in myeloid leukemias.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2010
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The aberrant overexpression of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) in myeloid leukemia plays an important role in blast cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy. High expression of WT1 is also associated with relapse and shortened disease-free survival in patients. However, the mechanisms by which WT1 expression is regulated in leukemia remain unclear. Here, we report that heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which plays a critical role in the folding and maturation of several oncogenic proteins, associates with WT1 protein and stabilizes its expression. Pharmacologic inhibition of Hsp90 resulted in ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-dependant degradation of WT1. RNAi-mediated silencing of WT1 reduced the survival of leukemia cells and increased the sensitivity of these cells to chemotherapy and Hsp90 inhibition. Furthermore, Hsp90 inhibitors 17-AAG [17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin] and STA-9090 significantly reduced the growth of myeloid leukemia xenografts in vivo and effectively down-regulated the expression of WT1 and its downstream target proteins, c-Myc and Bcl-2. Collectively, our studies identify WT1 as a novel Hsp90 client and support the crucial role for the WT1-Hsp90 interaction in maintaining leukemia cell survival. These findings have significant implications for developing effective therapies for myeloid leukemias and offer a strategy to inhibit the oncogenic functions of WT1 by clinically available Hsp90 inhibitors.
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HLA-C antigen mismatch is associated with worse outcome in unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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The association between HLA matching and outcome in unrelated-donor peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation has not yet been established. In the present study, a total of 1933 unrelated donor-recipient pairs who underwent PBSC transplantation between 1999 and 2006 for acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, or chronic myelogenous leukemia and received high-resolution HLA typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 were included in the analysis. Outcomes were compared between HLA-matched and HLA-mismatched pairs, adjusting for patient and transplant characteristics. Matching for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 alleles (8/8 match) was associated with better survival at 1 year compared with 7/8 HLA-matched pairs (56% vs 47%). Using 8/8 HLA-matched patients as the baseline (n = 1243), HLA-C antigen mismatches (n = 189) were statistically significantly associated with lower leukemia-free survival (relative risk [RR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.64; P = .0010), and increased risk for mortality (RR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.16-1.70; P = .0005), treatment-related mortality (RR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.25-2.08; P = .0002), and grade III-IV graft-versus-host disease (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.50-2.62; P < .0001). HLA-B antigen or allele mismatching was associated with an increased risk for acute GVHD grade III-IV. No statistically significant differences in outcome were observed for HLA-C allele (n = 61), HLA-A antigen/allele (n = 136), HLA-DRB1 allele (n = 39), or HLA-DQ antigen/allele (n = 114) mismatches compared with 8/8 HLA-matched pairs. HLA mismatch was not associated with relapse or chronic GVHD. HLA-C antigen-mismatched unrelated PBSC donors were associated with worse outcomes compared with 8/8 HLA-matched donors. The studys limited power due to small sample size precludes conclusions about other mismatches.
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Multiparameter flow cytometry for the diagnosis and monitoring of small GPI-deficient cellular populations.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-negative blood cells are diagnostic for Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH). Marrow failure states are often associated with GPI-negative cell populations. Quantification of small clonal populations of GPI-negative cells influences clinical decisions to administer immunosuppressive therapy in marrow failure states (aplastic anemia or myelodysplastic syndrome) and to monitor minimal residual disease after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT). We studied the reliability of high-resolution flow cytometry markers operating at the limits of detection.
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Accelerated bone mineral density loss occurs with similar incidence and severity, but with different risk factors, after autologous versus allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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Bone mineral density (BMD) loss occurs commonly in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), primarily because of steroid use, but little is known about BMD change post-autologous HCT. In a prospective study of 206 consecutive first HCT patients, we measured acute BMD change at the lumbar spine and dual femur between baseline and day +100, and evaluated risk factors for bone loss. Accelerated BMD loss in this 4-month period occurred after both autologous and allogeneic HCT with similar severity (median, 0.03 g/cm(2) versus 0.03 g/cm(2) at the spine; 0.03 g/cm(2) versus 0.05 g/cm(2) at the femur, respectively). This is equivalent to 7 to 17 years worth of bone loss by aging. Risk factors for BMD loss were different between autologous and allogeneic HCT patients: lymphoma was associated with greater bone loss after autologous HCT than myeloma, whereas higher steroid dose was the most significant risk factor after allogeneic HCT. Multivariable risk models explained 11% to 30% of the variation in HCT-related BMD change. Surprisingly, BMD loss post-autologous HCT occurred with similar incidence and severity to allogeneic HCT, even in the absence of steroid use. Evaluation of clinical strategies to prevent and reverse HCT-related BMD loss is necessary in both autologous and allogeneic HCT patients.
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A deletion polymorphism in glutathione-S-transferase mu (GSTM1) and/or theta (GSTT1) is associated with an increased risk of toxicity after autologous blood and marrow transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Toxicity after blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) has interindividual variability that may be explained by common genetic polymorphisms in critical pathways. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes detoxify the reactive oxygen species generated by chemotherapy agents and radiation. We investigated whether deletion polymorphisms in 2 GST genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) were associated with toxicity after autologous or allogeneic BMT. The study population was selected from 699 consecutive BMT patients from 2 centers in Buffalo, NY, and Moscow, Russia, of whom 321 (203 autologous, 118 allogeneic BMT) had available banked samples and amplifiable DNA. Fifty percent of patients were homozygous null for GSTM1, which did not vary by center; however, the GSTT1 homozygous null deletion polymorphism occurred more frequently in patients treated in Moscow (38% versus 18%, P < .001). Overall grade 2-4 regimen-related toxicity occurred in 56%, with nearly 1 in 5 patients having 2 or more organ systems affected. Among autologous BMT patients, a deletion polymorphism in 1 or both genes was significantly associated with increased occurrence of overall toxicity (71% versus 56%, P = .034) and mucositis (74% versus 55%, P = .006). GSTM1 and/or GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms were not associated with toxicity after allogeneic BMT. Future studies may allow for individualized genetic risk stratification.
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Mesenchymal stem cells in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) of bone marrow (BM) origin not only provide the supportive microenvironmental niche for hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) but are capable of differentiating into various cell types of mesenchymal origin, such as bone, fat and cartilage. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that MSC have low inherent immunogenicity, modulate/suppress immunologic responses through interactions with immune cells, and home to damaged tissues to participate in regeneration processes through their diverse biologic properties. MSC derived from BM are being evaluated for a wide range of clinical applications, including disorders as diverse as myocardial infarction and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 1. However, their use in HSC transplantation, either for enhancement of hematopoietic engraftment or for treatment/prevention of graft-versus-host disease, is far ahead of other indications. Ease of isolation and ex vivo expansion of MSC, combined with their intriguing immunomodulatory properties and their impressive record of safety in a wide variety of clinical trials, make these cells promising candidates for further investigation.
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A comparison of measured creatinine clearance versus calculated glomerular filtration rate for assessment of renal function before autologous and allogeneic BMT.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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Common blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) eligibility criteria include a minimum glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that may vary by regimen intensity. GFR is often estimated by measurement of creatinine clearance in a 24-hour urine collection (24-hr CrCl), an inconvenient and error-prone method that overestimates GFR. The study objectives were to determine which of 6 GFR calculations: Cockroft-Gault (CG), modified CG (mCG), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 1 (MDRD1), MDRD2, Jelliffe, and Wright, consistently underestimated measured 24-hr CrCl pre-BMT. We retrospectively analyzed 98 consecutive allogeneic (n = 48) or autologous (n = 50) adult BMT patients from January 2006 to April 2007. All 6 formulas were significantly (P < .001) correlated with 24-hr CrCl with R = 0.64 (Wright), 0.63 (CG), 0.61 (mCG), 0.61 (Jelliffe), 0.54 (MDRD2), and 0.50 (MDRD1). When compared to the measured 24-hr CrCl, MDRD2 consistently underestimated it in the highest proportion of patients (66%, P < .001), compared with MDRD1 (65%, P < .001), Jelliffe (61%, P = NS), mCG (55%, P = NS), Wright (34%, P < .001), and CG (34%, P = .001). Measured 24-hr CrCl, pre-BMT serum Cr, and all 6 equations were not predictive of renal regimen-related toxicity (RRT) post-BMT. The Wright and CG formulas are closest to, but overestimate 24-hr CrCl in 66% of patients. In comparison, MDRD2 consistently underestimates 24-hr CrCl in 66%. Although MDRD2 is the most conservative formula, all 6 formulas gave reasonable estimates of GFR and any of the 6 equations can replace the measured 24-hr CrCl. Larger analyses and transplantation of patients with GFR <50 mL/min may better define subgroups at risk for renal RRT.
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Seeing whats out of sight: wireless capsule endoscopys unique ability to visualize and accurately assess the severity of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host-disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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Early recognition of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GI GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) is vital to initiation of therapy. However, the most common location, the small bowel (SB), is difficult to access with upper and lower endoscopy (UGE/LGE). Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a noninvasive technology allowing complete SB evaluation. The capsule location can also be tracked to identify motility derangements. From August 2006 to July 2007, 11 alloHSCT patients with GI symptoms underwent WCE, and visual grading was performed. UGE and LGE with biopsies were done when clinically indicated. All patients had evidence of probable acute GVHD (aGVHD) on WCE. WCE revealed lesions of greater severity than those seen by UGE or LGE in most patients. WCE demonstrated that 45% of patients had delayed gastric transit time. WCE is an excellent, noninvasive method for assessing GI GVHD, with the ability to more accurately assess the severity of GVHD, evaluate clinical symptoms, and follow response to treatment.
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Immune deficits in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients.
Mycopathologia
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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Immune deficits account for the high frequency of life threatening bacterial, viral, and fungal opportunistic infections seen in allogeneic HSCT recipients. Despite advances in infectious disease management, the integrity of host defenses remains the mainstay of defense. The intensity of the preparative regimen, degree of HLA matching, source of stem cells (marrow, blood, or cord), extent of T-cell depletion, and immunosuppressive therapy are some of the factors that impact the kinetics, characteristics, and quality of immune reconstitution. Graft-versus-host disease and its prophylaxis or treatment produce a host environment that is particularly vulnerable to infections. Mucosal disruption and prolonged severe neutropenia usually confine their impact to the early course of transplant. After initial engraftment, HSCT recipients remain at great risk for opportunistic infections and this is related to prolonged and severe T-lymphocyte dysfunction of a complex multifactorial nature. B cell dysfunction is less problematic clinically, but includes deficiencies of immunoglobulin subclasses and impaired ability to mount a vaccine response. Advances in understanding of these immune deficits have resulted in successful strategies including revaccination, growth factors, thymic protection, and adoptive cellular therapy with antigen-specific cells.
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Acute myeloid leukemia and diabetes insipidus with monosomy 7.
Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2009
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The predisposition of monosomy 7 to diabetes insipidus (DI) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) led us to ask whether AML associated with monosomy 7 and DI will differ from AML associated with other karyotype aberrations and DI and whether the outcome of patients with AML and DI will differ from those without DI. We describe 2 patients from Roswell Park Cancer Institute and discuss 29 additional cases from the literature. AML with monosomy 7 and DI (n = 25) had a trend towards a lower complete remission (p = 0.0936) and worse survival (p = 0.0480) than AML with other karyotype changes and DI (n = 6). Further, AML with monosomy 7 and DI had worse complete remission rate and overall survival than AML with monosomy 7 but without DI. In conclusion, it appears that AML with monosomy 7 and DI is a disease entity with specifically poor outcome.
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Donor lymphocyte count and thymic activity predict lymphocyte recovery and outcomes after matched-sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Haematologica
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Delayed immune recovery is a characteristic feature of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult recipients. Although recipient thymic T-cell neogenesis contributes to T-cell regeneration after transplantation, thymic recovery in the transplant recipient decreases with increasing age, and is diminished by intensive preconditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease. In adult recipients, most events that determine transplant success or failure occur during the period when the majority of circulating T cells is derived from the donors post thymic T-cell repertoire. As a result, the make-up of the donor lymphocyte compartment may strongly influence immune recovery and transplant outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine donor lymphocyte counts in a series of patients undergoing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant to identify the potential contribution of donor regulatory and conventional T lymphocyte populations to immune recovery and transplant outcomes. We examined donor lymphocyte subset counts in relation to post-transplant lymphocyte recovery and transplant events in 220 consecutive myeloablative, T-cell-depleted, HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with hematologic malignancies. In a multivariate analysis, absolute numbers of donor CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants were associated with overall survival (P=0.032). The donors absolute lymphocyte count and thymic production of regulatory T cells were both associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.002 and P=0.022, respectively). In conclusion, these results identify donor immune characteristics that are associated with lymphocyte recovery, extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease, and survival in the recipient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study reported here was performed using peripheral blood samples drawn from donors and patients enrolled in the ClinicalTrials.gov-registered trials NCT00001623, NCT00001873, NCT00353860, NCT00066300, NCT00079391, and NCT00398346.
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HLA DR15 antigen status does not impact graft-versus-host disease or survival in HLA-matched sibling transplantation for hematologic malignancies.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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The HLA class II DRB1 antigen DR15 is an important prognostic marker in immune-mediated marrow failure states. DR15 has also been associated with favorable outcomes (reduced acute graft-versus-host disease [aGVHD] and relapse) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. To elucidate the impact of DR15 on transplantation outcomes, we conducted a retrospective study of 2891 recipients of first allogeneic stem cell transplant from HLA-matched sibling donors for the treatment of acute leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) between 1990 and 2007. All patients received conventional myeloablative conditioning, T-replete grafts, and cyclosporine plus methotrexate-based GVHD prophylaxis. DNA-based HLA typing allowed categorization of 732 patients (25.3%) as positive and 2159 patients (74.7%) as negative for DRB1*15:01 or *15:02 (DR15). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the HLA DR15 positive and negative groups. In univariate analysis, HLA-DR15 status had no impact on neutrophil engraftment, aGVHD, chronic GVHD (cGVHD), treatment-related mortality, relapse, disease-free survival, or overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, DR15 status showed no significant difference in aGVHD, cGVHD, OS, or relapse. In conclusion, DR15 status had no impact on major HLA-matched sibling donor hematopoietic cell transplant outcomes in this large and homogenous cohort of patients with leukemia and MDS.
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HLA-matched sibling transplantation for severe aplastic anemia: impact of HLA DR15 antigen status on engraftment, graft-versus-host disease, and overall survival.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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The HLA class II DRB1 antigen DR15 (common alleles *1501, *1502) is an important marker in the pathobiology of severe aplastic anemia (SAA). We studied 1204 recipients of HLA-matched sibling bone marrow transplantation for SAA to determine whether HLA DR15 status (as determined by allele-level typing) affected hematopoietic recovery, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), or overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, secondary graft failure rate at 2 years was lower in patients who were HLA DR15+ (hazard ratio = 0.46, P = .01). However, neutrophil recovery at day -28, platelet recovery at day -100, acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, and overall mortality were independent of DR15 status. The 5-year probabilities of OS, after adjusting for age, race, performance score, transplant-conditioning regimen, and year of transplantation, were 78% and 81% for patients who were HLA DR15+ and HLA DR15-, respectively (P = .35). In conclusion, DR15 status is associated with secondary graft failure after HLA-matched sibling bone marrow transplantation for SAA but has no significant impact on survival.
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Female long-term survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: evaluation and management.
Semin. Hematol.
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Female long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) incur a significant burden of late effects. Genital graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), human papillomavirus (HPV) reactivation, ovarian failure and infertility, sexual dysfunction, and osteoporosis are concerns that can significantly impact quality of life. This review examines the risk, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and implications of these common complications. Recommendations are provided for evaluation and management of these late effects and other obstetric and gynecologic issues that may arise in this patient population.
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