Hepatitis infection has a high prevalence in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Our objective was to evaluate clinical characteristics and survival of patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who were hepatitis B and/or C (HBV/HCV) positive. We reviewed 224 patents diagnosed with DLBCL and found 21 to be HBV/HCV positive (9.3%). Significant differences were found in the number of nodal regions affected, four in HBV/HCV positive versus two in virus negative patients, and in liver involvement, which was greater in HBV/HCV positive patients (28.6% vs. 10%, p = 0.028). No significant differences were found in the two groups with respect to the number of relapses or the probability of overall or progression-free survival. Despite the finding of differences with respect to stage, total number of nodal regions affected and liver involvement, HBV/HCV positive and negative patients with DLBCL should receive the same treatment, and the disease responds and evolves equally.
Tumor-derived exosomes mediate tumorigenesis by facilitating tumor growth, metastasis, development of drug resistance, and immunosuppression. However, little is known about the exosomes isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with lung neoplasm. Exosomes isolated in plasma and BAL from 30 and 75 patients with tumor and nontumor pathology were quantified by acetylcholinesterase activity and characterized by Western Blot, Electron Microscopy, and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis. Differences in exosome cargo were analyzed by miRNA quantitative PCR in pooled samples and validated in a second series of patients. More exosomes were detected in plasma than in BAL in both groups (P < 0.001). The most miRNAs evaluated by PCR array were detected in tumor plasma, tumor BAL, and nontumor BAL pools, but only 56% were detected in the nontumor plasma pool. Comparing the top miRNAs with the highest levels detected in each pool, we found close homology only between the BAL samples of the two pathologies. In tumor plasma, we found a higher percentage of miRNAs with increased levels than in tumor BAL or in nontumor plasma. The data reveal differences between BAL and plasma exosome amount and miRNA content.
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a heterogeneous group of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoproliferative processes, mainly composed of mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome, the aggressive forms of which lack an effective treatment. The molecular pathogenesis of CTCL is largely unknown, although neoplastic cells show increased signaling from T-cell receptors (TCRs). DNAs from 11 patients with CTCL, both normal and tumoral, were target-enriched and sequenced by massive parallel sequencing for a selection of 524 TCR-signaling-related genes. Identified variants were validated by capillary sequencing. Multiple mutations were found that affected several signaling pathways, such as TCRs, nuclear factor ?B, or Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, but PLCG1 was found to be mutated in 3 samples, 2 of which featured a redundant mutation (c.1034T>C, S345F) in exon 11 that affects the PLCx protein catalytic domain. This mutation was further analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction genotyping in a new cohort of 42 patients with CTCL, where it was found in 19% of samples. Immunohistochemical analysis for nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) showed that PLCG1-mutated cases exhibited strong NFAT nuclear immunostaining. Functional studies demonstrated that PLCG1 mutants elicited increased downstream signaling toward NFAT activation, and inhibition of this pathway resulted in reduced CTCL cell proliferation and cell viability. Thus, increased proliferative and survival mechanisms in CTCL may partially depend on the acquisition of somatic mutations in PLCG1 and other genes that are essential for normal T-cell differentiation.
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a uniformly fatal disease and most patients will present with advanced stage. Treatment outcomes remain unsatisfactory, with low long-term survival rates. Standard treatment, such as palliative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, offers a median survival not exceeding 1 year. Hence, considerable efforts have started to be made in order to identify new biological agents which may safely and effectively be administered to advanced NSCLC patients. Two cancer cell pathways in particular have been exploited, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) pathways. However, novel targeted therapies that interfere with other dysregulated pathways in lung cancer are already in the clinic. This review outlines the most promising research approaches to the treatment of NSCLC, discussed according to the specific molecular pathway targeted.
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of malignancy-related mortality worldwide, with over one million cases diagnosed yearly. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for >80% of all lung cancers. Because lung cancer is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage, chemotherapy (CT) is the mainstay of management. Conventional treatment of NSCLC has apparently reached a plateau of effectiveness in improving survival of patients, and treatment outcomes must still be considered disappointing. Hence, considerable efforts have been made in order to identify novel targeted agents that interfere with other dysregulated pathways in advanced NSCLC patients. In order to further improve the results of targeted therapy, we should not forget that lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease with multiple mutations, and it is unlikely that any single signaling pathway drives the oncogenic behaviour of all tumours. The relative failure of some targeted therapies may be a result of multilevel cross-stimulation among the targets of the new biological agents along several pathways of signal transduction that lead to neoplastic events. Thus, blocking only one of these pathways allows others to act as salvage or escape mechanisms for cancer cells. We summarize the most promising research approaches to the treatment of NSCLC, with particular attention to drugs with multiple targets or combining targeted therapies.
Primary brain lymphoma is a rare variant of extranodal non-Hodgkins B-cell lymphoma. In >90% of cases, this is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with CD20 expression and is confined to the brain, meninges, spinal cord, and eyes. It accounts for fewer than 7% of primary brain tumors. Its incidence has been rising in recent years in immunocompetent patients in their fifth and sixth decades. The rate of relapse after initial therapy based on high-dose methotrexate and/or total brain irradiation is high. There is no consensus for treating relapse, which ranges from retreatment with high doses of methotrexate, polychemotherapy, high doses of chemotherapy backed up by autologous stem-cell transplant to intrathecal chemotherapy, with widely differing results. Given the lack of consensus and poor results, new therapy options have appeared, including immunotherapy with rituximab. At a systemic level, alongside chemotherapy, its results are very modest and limited due to the low concentration it reaches in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, its intrathecal and intraventricular use, though only isolated cases have been reported, has provided promising results.
Inflammation and fibrogenesis are directly related to chronic liver disease progression, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Currently there are few therapeutic options available to inhibit liver fibrosis. We have evaluated the hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic potential of orally-administered 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) in Mdr2(-/-) mice, a clinically relevant model of sclerosing cholangitis and spontaneous biliary fibrosis, followed at later stages by HCC development.
We designed a prospective study to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction of 42 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with Rituximab-based chemotherapy in a 1-h infusion. Our patients were not selected on the basis of their cardiac status. Cardiac history and other forms of co-morbidity were to be identified on entry. Before treatment, basal left ventricular ejection function (LVEF) was measured and every 6 months after treatment. Most patients were treated with CHOP-Rituximab combinations (79%). A drop in the post-treatment ejection fraction of over 10% from the pre-treatment base figure was found in 13 patients (31% of the total of the series, 39% of those receiving adriamycin-based chemotherapy). None of the patients without adriamycin had a decrease in LVEF. Three patients with drop >10% recovered normally, but when LVEF decreased by over 15%, which occurred in six patients (14.2%), none of them recovered normal level. Patients with normal systolic function had LVEF with a mean of 64.09 (+/-3.86) and patients with decreased systolic function had LVEF with a mean of 59.38 (+/-5.43). Though the data in this study suggest that rapid-infusion Rituximab does not cause relevant cardiac toxicity, there was a high percentage of reductions in LVEF of over 10%.
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