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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Changes in 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and effects of angiotensin II receptor blockade during acute and prolonged high-altitude exposure: a randomized clinical trial.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Many hypertensive subjects travel to high altitudes, but little is known on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) changes and antihypertensive drugs' efficacy under acute and prolonged exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. In particular, the efficacy of angiotensin receptor blockers in this condition is unknown. This may be clinically relevant considering that renin-angiotensin system activity changes at altitude. The HIGHCARE-HIMALAYA study assessed changes in 24 h ABP under acute and prolonged exposure to increasing altitude and blood pressure-lowering efficacy and safety of an angiotensin receptor blockade in this setting.
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Acute high-altitude exposure reduces lung diffusion: data from the HIGHCARE Alps project.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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The causes and development of lung fluid, as well as the integrity of the alveolar-capillary membrane at high altitude, are undefined. This study was conceived to see whether fluid accumulates within the lung with acute high altitude exposure, and whether this is associated with alveolar capillary membrane damage. We studied lung carbon monoxide diffusion (DLCO), its components - membrane diffusion (DM) and capillary volume (VC) and alveolar volume (VA) measured in 43 healthy subjects in Milan (122 m) and after 1 and 3 days at Capanna Regina Margherita (4559 m). DLCO measurement was adjusted for hemoglobin and inspired oxygen. We also measured plasma surfactant derived protein B (SPB) and Receptor of Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE) as markers of alveolar-capillary membrane damage, and ultrasound lung comets as a marker of extravascular lung water. 21 subjects received acetazolamide and 22 placebo. DLCO was lower at Capanna Regina Margherita (day 1: 24.3 ± 4.7 and day 3: 23.6 ± 5.4 mL/mmHg/min), than in Milan (25.8 ± 5.5; p<0.001 vs. day 1 and 3) due to DM reduction (Milan: 50.5 ± 14.6 mL/mmHg/min, Capanna Regina Margherita day 1: 45.1 ± 11.5 mL/mmHg/min, day 3: 43.2 ± 13.9 mL/mmHg/min; p<0.05 Milan vs. day 3) with a partially compensatory VC increase (Milan: 96 ± 37 mL, Capanna Regina Margherita day 1: 152 ± 66 mL, day 3: 153 ± 59 mL; p<0.001 Milan vs. day 1 and day 3). Acetazolamide did not prevent the fall in DLCO albeit, between day 1 and 3, such a trend was observed. Regardless of treatment lung comets increased from 0 to 7.2 ± 3.6 (p<0.0001). SPB and RAGE were unchanged. Lung fluid increased at high altitude without evidence from plasma measurements, supporting alveolar-capillary damage.
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Changes in subendocardial viability ratio with acute high-altitude exposure and protective role of acetazolamide.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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High-altitude tourism is increasingly frequent, involving also subjects with manifest or subclinical coronary artery disease. Little is known, however, on the effects of altitude exposure on factors affecting coronary perfusion. The aim of our study was to assess myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio in healthy subjects during acute exposure at high altitude and to evaluate the effect of acetazolamide on this parameter. Forty-four subjects (21 men, age range: 24-59 years) were randomized to double-blind acetazolamide 250 mg bid or placebo. Subendocardial viability ratio and oxygen supply/demand ratio were estimated on carotid artery by means of a validated PulsePen tonometer, at sea level, before and after treatment, and after acute and more prolonged exposure to high altitude (4559 m). On arrival at high altitude, subendocardial viability ratio was reduced in both placebo (from 1.63±0.15 to 1.18±0.17; P<0.001) and acetazolamide (from 1.68±0.25 to 1.35±0.18; P<0.001) groups. Subendocardial viability ratio returned to sea level values (1.65±0.24) after 3 days at high altitude under acetazolamide but remained lower than at sea level under placebo (1.42±0.22; P<0.005 versus baseline). At high altitude, oxygen supply/demand ratio fell both under placebo (from 29.6±4.0 to 17.3±3.0; P<0.001) and acetazolamide (from 32.1±7.0 to 22.3±4.6; P<0.001), its values remaining always higher (P<0.001) on acetazolamide. Administration of acetazolamide may, thus, antagonize the reduction in subendocardial oxygen supply triggered by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Further studies involving also subjects with known or subclinical coronary artery disease are needed to confirm a protective action of acetazolamide on myocardial viability under high-altitude exposure.
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High-altitude hypoxia and periodic breathing during sleep: gender-related differences.
J Sleep Res
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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High-altitude exposure is characterized by the appearance of periodic breathing during sleep. Only limited evidence is available, however, on the presence of gender-related differences in this breathing pattern. In 37 healthy subjects, 23 male and 14 female, we performed nocturnal cardio-respiratory monitoring in the following conditions: (1) sea level; (2) first/second night at an altitude of 3400 m; (3) first/second night at an altitude of 5400 m and after a 10 day sojourn at 5400 m. At sea level, a normal breathing pattern was observed in all subjects throughout the night. At 3400 m the apnea-hypopnea index was 40.3 ± 33.0 in males (central apneas 77.6%, central hypopneas 22.4%) and 2.4 ± 2.8 in females (central apneas 58.2%, central hypopneas 41.8%; P < 0.01). During the first recording at 5400 m, the apnea-hypopnea index was 87.5 ± 35.7 in males (central apneas 60.0%, central hypopneas 40.0%) and 41.1 ± 44.0 in females (central apneas 73.2%, central hypopneas 26.8%; P < 0.01), again with a higher frequency of central events in males as seen at lower altitude. Similar results were observed after 10 days. With increasing altitude, there was also a progressive reduction in respiratory cycle length during central apneas in males (26.9 ± 3.4 s at 3400 m and 22.6 ± 3.7 s at 5400 m). Females, who displayed a significant number of central apneas only at the highest reached altitude, were characterized by longer cycle length than males at similar altitude (30.1 ± 5.8 s at 5400 m). In conclusion, at high altitude, nocturnal periodic breathing affects males more than females. Females started to present a significant number of central sleep apneas only at the highest reached altitude. After 10 days at 5400 m gender differences in the apnea-hypopnea index similar to those observed after acute exposure were still observed, accompanied by differences in respiratory cycle length.
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Modulation of urinary peptidome in humans exposed to high altitude hypoxia.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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The exposure of healthy subjects to high altitude represents a model to explore the pathophysiology of diseases related to tissue hypoxia and to evaluate pharmacological approaches potentially useful as a therapy for chronic diseases related to hypoxia. We explored the urinary peptidome to detect alterations induced by the exposure of subjects to different altitudes (sea level, high altitude = 3500 m, very high altitude = 5400 m) and to pharmacological treatment. Urine samples were collected from 47 subjects, randomly and blindly assigned to placebo (n = 24) or Telmisartan (n = 23). Samples were purified by the use of magnetic beads, then analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. Results showed that the urinary peptidome is not affected by the administration of Telmisartan, neither at the sea level nor at high and very high altitudes. In contrast, the urinary protein profiles are modified when subjects are exposed to high and very high altitudes, and we detected six peptides differentially expressed in hypobaric hypoxia at high or very high altitude compared to the sea level. Two of them were identified as fragments of the glycoprotein uromodulin and of the ?1-antitrypsin. This is the first proteomic study showing that hypobaric hypoxia conditions affect the urinary peptidome.
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Index measured at an intermediate altitude to predict impending acute mountain sickness.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a neurological disorder that may be unpredictably experienced by subjects ascending at a high altitude. The aim of the present study was to develop a predictive index, measured at an intermediate altitude, to predict the onset of AMS at a higher altitude.
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High-altitude exposure of three weeks duration increases lung diffusing capacity in humans.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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high-altitude adaptation leads to progressive increase in arterial Pa(O2). In addition to increased ventilation, better arterial oxygenation may reflect improvements in lung gas exchange. Previous investigations reveal alterations at the alveolar-capillary barrier indicative of decreased resistance to gas exchange with prolonged hypoxia adaptation, but how quickly this occurs is unknown. Carbon monoxide lung diffusing capacity and its major determinants, hemoglobin, alveolar volume, pulmonary capillary blood volume, and alveolar-capillary membrane diffusion, have never been examined with early high-altitude adaptation.
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Effects of beta-blockade on exercise performance at high altitude: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing the efficacy of nebivolol versus carvedilol in healthy subjects.
Cardiovasc Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Exposure to high altitude (HA) hypoxia decreases exercise performance in healthy subjects. Although ?-blockers are known to affect exercise capacity in normoxia, no data are available comparing selective and nonselective ?-adrenergic blockade on exercise performance in healthy subjects acutely exposed to HA hypoxia. We compared the impact of nebivolol and carvedilol on exercise capacity in healthy subjects acutely exposed to HA hypobaric hypoxia.
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Genetic variation in angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene influences extent of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy independent of blood pressure.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2010
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), an inherited primary cardiac disorder mostly caused by defective sarcomeric proteins, serves as a model to investigate left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). HCM manifests extreme variability in the degree and distribution of LVH, even in patients with the same causal mutation. Genes coding for renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system components have been studied as hypertrophy modifiers in HCM, with emphasis on the angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R). However, Ang II binding to Ang II type 2 receptors (AT(2)R) also has hypertrophy-modulating effects.
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Modulation of hepcidin production during hypoxia-induced erythropoiesis in humans in vivo: data from the HIGHCARE project.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2010
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Iron is tightly connected to oxygen homeostasis and erythropoiesis. Our aim was to better understand how hypoxia regulates iron acquisition for erythropoiesis in humans, a topic relevant to common hypoxia-related disorders. Forty-seven healthy volunteers participated in the HIGHCARE project. Blood samples were collected at sea level and after acute and chronic exposure to high altitude (3400-5400 m above sea level). We investigated the modifications in hematocrit, serum iron indices, erythropoietin, markers of erythropoietic activity, interleukin-6, and serum hepcidin. Hepcidin decreased within 40 hours after acute hypoxia exposure (P < .05) at 3400 m, reaching the lowest level at 5400 m (80% reduction). Erythropoietin significantly increased (P < .001) within 16 hours after hypoxia exposure followed by a marked erythropoietic response supported by the increased iron supply. Growth differentiation factor-15 progressively increased during the study period. Serum ferritin showed a very rapid decrease, suggesting the existence of hypoxia-dependent mechanism(s) regulating storage iron mobilization. The strong correlation between serum ferritin and hepcidin at each point during the study indicates that iron itself or the kinetics of iron use in response to hypoxia may signal hepcidin down-regulation. The combined and significant changes in other variables probably contribute to the suppression of hepcidin in this setting.
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Acute effects of levosimendan on mitral regurgitation and diastolic function in patients with advanced chronic heart failure.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown)
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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We analyzed the inodilator properties of levosimendan in patients with chronic heart failure and severe functional mitral regurgitation.
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Prognostic value of chromogranin A in chronic heart failure: data from the GISSI-Heart Failure trial.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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To assess the association between circulating levels of chromogranin A (CgA) and outcome in a large population of patients with chronic heart failure (HF).
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Statins, antihypertensive treatment, and blood pressure control in clinic and over 24 hours: evidence from PHYLLIS randomised double blind trial.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2010
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To investigate the possibility that statins reduce blood pressure as well as cholesterol concentrations through clinic and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.
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Continuous positive airway pressure increases haemoglobin O2 saturation after acute but not prolonged altitude exposure.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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It is unknown whether subclinical high-altitude pulmonary oedema reduces spontaneously after prolonged altitude exposure. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) removes extravascular lung fluids and improves haemoglobin oxygen saturation in acute cardiogenic oedema. We evaluated the presence of pulmonary extravascular fluid increase by assessing CPAP effects on haemoglobin oxygen saturation under acute and prolonged altitude exposure.
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Regional abnormalities of myocardial deformation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: correlations with delayed enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic disease histologically characterized by a profound disarray of myocardial fibres and by local fibrosis. We sought to characterize regional left ventricular contractility in HCM patients using deformation analysis and to compare it with the presence or absence of delayed enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR).
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Abnormal blood pressure response to exercise occurs more frequently in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with the R92W troponin T mutation than in those with myosin mutations.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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Abnormal blood pressure response to exercise is reported to occur in up to a third of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cases and is associated with an increased risk of death, particularly in the young, but it is not known whether the HCM-causing mutation influences blood pressure response to exercise. The purpose of this article is to ascertain whether the blood pressure response to exercise differs among carriers of the R92W mutation in the cardiac troponin T gene (TNNT2), which has been associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death in young males; carriers of mutations in the cardiac beta-myosin heavy chain gene (MYH7); and their noncarrier relatives. Thirty R92W(TNNT2) carriers, 51 MYH7 mutation carriers, and 68 of their noncarrier relatives were subjected to bicycle ergonometric exercise testing to assess blood pressure response to, as well as heart rate recovery after, exercise. Additional echocardiographic and demographic details were documented for all participants. R92W(TNNT2) carriers demonstrated significantly more abnormal blood pressure responses to exercise (P = .021; odds ratio 3.03; confidence interval 1.13-8.12) and smaller increases in systolic blood pressure than MYH7 mutation carriers or related noncarrier control individuals. Although abnormal blood pressure response occurred at similar frequencies in males in all groups (23%-26%), the percentage of R92W(TNNT2) females with abnormal blood pressure response was 64%, compared with 25% for MYH7 and 22% for noncarriers. Therefore, these results show that blood pressure response to exercise is influenced by genotype and gender in patients with HCM.
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Home blood pressure telemonitoring improves hypertension control in general practice. The TeleBPCare study.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2009
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Self blood pressure monitoring at home may improve blood pressure control and patients compliance with treatment, but its implementation in daily practice faces difficulties. Teletransmission facilities may offer a more efficient approach to long-term home blood pressure monitoring.
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Effects of slow deep breathing at high altitude on oxygen saturation, pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics.
PLoS ONE
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Slow deep breathing improves blood oxygenation (Sp(O2)) and affects hemodynamics in hypoxic patients. We investigated the ventilatory and hemodynamic effects of slow deep breathing in normal subjects at high altitude. We collected data in healthy lowlanders staying either at 4559 m for 2-3 days (Study A; N?=?39) or at 5400 m for 12-16 days (Study B; N?=?28). Study variables, including Sp(O2) and systemic and pulmonary arterial pressure, were assessed before, during and after 15 minutes of breathing at 6 breaths/min. At the end of slow breathing, an increase in Sp(O2) (Study A: from 80.2±7.7% to 89.5±8.2%; Study B: from 81.0±4.2% to 88.6±4.5; both p<0.001) and significant reductions in systemic and pulmonary arterial pressure occurred. This was associated with increased tidal volume and no changes in minute ventilation or pulmonary CO diffusion. Slow deep breathing improves ventilation efficiency for oxygen as shown by blood oxygenation increase, and it reduces systemic and pulmonary blood pressure at high altitude but does not change pulmonary gas diffusion.
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Role of birth weight and postnatal growth on pulse wave velocity in teenagers.
J Adolesc Health
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Low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth appear to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The aim of the present study was to characterize the factors determining pulse wave velocity (PWV) in teenagers and, in particular, to verify the relationship with birth weight, postnatal growth, timing of adiposity rebound, lifestyle, and hemodynamic parameters.
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Effects of acetazolamide on central blood pressure, peripheral blood pressure, and arterial distensibility at acute high altitude exposure.
Eur. Heart J.
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We assessed the haemodynamic changes induced by exposure to high altitude hypoxia and the effects on them of acetazolamide, a drug prescribed to prevent and treat mountain sickness.
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