It is important to assess not only the total skeletal muscle mass, but also the intracellular and extracellular compartments of skeletal muscle to examine the actual relationship between skeletal muscle mass and physical functions. Segmental bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is a unique tool with which to assess intracellular and extracellular water in the limbs. The aim of the present study was to examine the application of segmental bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy to the assessment of skeletal muscle mass in the elderly.
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has been used to estimate skeletal muscle mass, but its application in the elderly is not optimal. The accuracy of BIA may be influenced by the expansion of extracellular water (ECW) relative to muscle mass with aging. Multi-frequency BIA (MFBIA) can evaluate the distribution between extracellular and intracellular water (ICW), and thus may be superior to single-frequency BIA (SFBIA) to estimate muscle mass in the elderly. A total of 58 elderly participants aged 65-85 years were recruited. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was obtained from computed tomography scans at the mid-thigh. Segmental SFBIA and MFBIA were measured for the upper legs. The index of the ratio of ECW and ICW was calculated using MFBIA. The correlation between muscle CSA and SFBIA was moderate (r = 0.68), but strong between muscle CSA and MFBIA (r = 0.85). ECW/ICW index was significantly and positively correlated with age (P < 0.001). SFBIA tends to significantly overestimate muscle CSA in subjects who had relative expansion of ECW in the thigh segment (P < 0.001). This trend was not observed for MFBIA (P = 0.42). Relative expansion of ECW was observed in older participants. The relative expansion of ECW affects the validity of traditional SFBIA, which is lowered when estimating muscle CSA in the elderly. By contrast, MFBIA was not affected by water distribution in thigh segments, thus rendering the validity of MFBIA for estimating thigh muscle CSA higher than SFBIA in the elderly.
Context: Previous research on American football injuries in Japan has focused on incidence proportion in terms of the number of injuries divided by the number of players. This is the first study to examine injury rates over several seasons. Objective: To conduct a prospective study of injuries in a Japanese Division I collegiate American football team over the 2007 through 2009 seasons. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Collegiate football team at Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan. Patients or Other Participants: All 289 athletes who played on the collegiate Division I football team during the 2007 through 2009 seasons. Main Outcome Measure(s): A certified athletic trainer kept a daily record of all practice and game injuries. Injury rates were calculated according to season, injury type, body part, severity, and mechanism. Injuries were also analyzed according to position of player, school year, and playing experience. Results: The game injury rate (GIR; 32.7 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures) was higher than the practice injury rate (PIR; 10.9 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures) over the 3 seasons (P < .05). The PIR was higher among Japanese players than the comparable United States collegiate football injury rates (5.8-7.0 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures). Ankle and foot injuries occurred more frequently during games, whereas thigh and gluteal injuries occurred more frequently during practices. Conclusions: Our data show differences between games and practices in terms of injury rates, body parts injured, and positions of players injured. The high PIR in Japan may be due to the increased contact during practices and length of practices compared with the United States. Further research involving multiple teams is recommended to validate the trends noted in this study. The expanded data set could assist in the development of safety regulations and preventive interventions for Japanese football.
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is used to assess skeletal muscle mass, although its application in the elderly has not been fully established. Several BIA modalities are available: single-frequency BIA (SFBIA), multifrequency BIA (MFBIA), and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The aim of this study was to examine the difference between SFBIA, MFBIA, and BIS for assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle strength in the elderly. A total of 405 elderly (74.2 ± 5.0 yr) individuals were recruited. Grip strength and isometric knee extension strength were measured. Segmental SFBIA, MFBIA, and BIS were measured for the arms and upper legs. Bioelectrical impedance indexes were calculated by squared segment length divided by impedance (L2/Z). Impedance at 5 and 50 kHz (Z5 and Z50) was used for SFBIA. Impedance of the intracellular component was calculated from MFBIA (Z250-5) and BIS (RICW). Correlation coefficients between knee extension strength and L2/Z5, L2/Z50, L2/RICW, and L2/Z250-5 of the upper legs were 0.661, 0.705, 0.790, and 0.808, respectively (P < 0.001). Correlation coefficients were significantly greater for MFBIA and BIS than SFBIA. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that L2/Z250-5 and L2/RICW had significantly larger areas under the curve for the diagnosis of muscle weakness compared with L2/Z5 and L2/Z50. Very similar results were observed for grip strength. Our findings suggest that MFBIA and BIS are better methods than SFBIA for assessing skeletal muscle strength in the elderly.
Physical activity level (PAL) is associated with all-cause mortality in the elderly. However, few studies have attempted to clarify the relationship between lifestyle and PAL in the elderly. This study aimed to examine the determinants of PAL in the elderly in terms of behavioral patterns and exercise intensity, and to validate the simplified physical activity record (sPAR).
The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between pitching ball velocity and segmental (trunk, upper arm, forearm, upper leg, and lower leg) and whole-body muscle volume (MV) in high school baseball pitchers. Forty-seven male high school pitchers (40 right-handers and seven left-handers; age, 16.2 ± 0.7 years; stature, 173.6 ± 4.9 cm; mass, 65.0 ± 6.8 kg, years of baseball experience, 7.5 ± 1.8 years; maximum pitching ball velocity, 119.0 ± 9.0 km/hour) participated in the study. Segmental and whole-body MV were measured using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maximum ball velocity was measured with a sports radar gun. The MV of the dominant arm was significantly larger than the MV of the non-dominant arm (P < 0.001). There was no difference in MV between the dominant and non-dominant legs. Whole-body MV was significantly correlated with ball velocity (r = 0.412, P < 0.01). Trunk MV was not correlated with ball velocity, but the MV for both lower legs, and the dominant upper leg, upper arm, and forearm were significantly correlated with ball velocity (P < 0.05). The results were not affected by age or years of baseball experience. Whole-body and segmental MV are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers. However, the contribution of the muscle mass on pitching ball velocity is limited, thus other fundamental factors (ie, pitching skill) are also important.
It is well known that loss of muscle mass (quantitative change) is a major change that occurs with aging. Qualitative changes in skeletal muscle, such as increased intramuscular fat, also occur as one ages. Enhanced echo intensity (EI) on ultrasonography images of skeletal muscle is believed to reflect muscle quality. Recent studies evaluating the quality of skeletal muscle using computer-aided gray scale analysis showed that EI is associated with muscle strength independently of age or muscle size in middle-aged and elderly women. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether muscle quality based on EI is associated with muscle strength independently of muscle size for elderly men.
Enhanced echo intensity (EI) on an ultrasound image of skeletal muscle indicates changes in muscle quality, including increases in intramuscular fibrous and adipose tissues. However, it is not known whether muscle quality assessed from the EI of computer-aided gray-scale analysis of an ultrasound image is associated with the muscle strength or body composition of a subject. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether muscle quality assessed from EI measured using gray-scale analysis is associated with muscle strength independently of age or muscle thickness (MT), and to examine the relationship between muscle EI and body composition. Ninety-two healthy women with a mean age of 70.4 ± 5.5 years (range, 51-87 years) dwelling in Kyoto, Japan, participated in the study. The MT, subcutaneous fat thickness (FT), and EI of the quadriceps femoris on the right extremity were assessed from transverse ultrasound images. Knee extensor isometric strength was used as a measure of the quadriceps femoris muscle strength. EI was significantly correlated with quadriceps strength independently of age or MT, and stepwise regression analysis revealed that MT and EI were independently associated with quadriceps strength. Importantly, EI showed no significant correlations with FT, percentage of body fat (%BF), or body mass index (BMI), while FT, BMI, and %BF did not significantly influence muscle strength. These data suggest that muscle quantity (i.e., MT) and muscle quality assessed from EI measured using computer-aided gray-scale analysis independently contribute to muscle strength in middle-aged and elderly persons.
A standardized method for assessing the physical fitness of elderly adults has not yet been established. In this study, we developed an index of physical fitness age (fitness age score, FAS) for older Japanese adults and investigated sex differences based on the estimated FAS. Healthy elderly adults (52 men, 70 women) who underwent physical fitness tests once yearly for 7 years between 2002 and 2008 were included in this study. The age of the participants at the beginning of this study ranged from 60.0 to 83.0 years. The physical fitness tests consisted of 13 items to measure balance, agility, flexibility, muscle strength, and endurance. Three criteria were used to evaluate fitness markers of aging: (1) significant cross-sectional correlation with age; (2) significant longitudinal change with age consistent with the cross-sectional correlation; and (3) significant stability of individual differences. We developed an equation to assess individual FAS values using the first principal component derived from principal component analysis. Five candidate fitness markers of aging (10-m walking time, functional reach, one leg stand with eyes open, vertical jump and grip strength) were selected from the 13 physical fitness tests. Individual FAS was predicted from these five fitness markers using a principal component model. Individual FAS showed high longitudinal stability for age-related changes. This investigation of the longitudinal changes of individual FAS revealed that women had relatively lower physical fitness compared with men, but their rate of physical fitness aging was slower than that of men.
This study tested whether cerebral oxygenation affects cognitive function during exercise. We measured reaction times (RT) of 12 participants while they performed a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task, at rest and while cycling. In the exercise condition, participants performed the cognitive task at rest and while cycling at three workloads [40, 60, and 80% of peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text])]. In the control condition, the workload was fixed at 20 W. RT was divided into premotor and motor components based on surface electromyographic recordings. The premotor component of RT (premotor time) was used to evaluate the effects of acute exercise on cognitive function. Cerebral oxygenation was monitored during the cognitive task over the right frontal cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy. In the exercise condition, we found that premotor time significantly decreased during exercise at 60% peak [Formula: see text] relative to rest. However, this improvement was not observed during exercise at 80% peak [Formula: see text]. In the control condition, premotor time did not change during exercise. Cerebral oxygenation during exercise at 60% peak [Formula: see text] was not significantly different from that at rest, while cerebral oxygenation substantially decreased during exercise at 80% peak [Formula: see text]. The present results suggest that an improvement in cognitive function occurs during moderate exercise, independent of cerebral oxygenation.
Skeletal muscle tissue holds a large volume of water partitioned into extracellular water (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW) fractions. As the ECW may not be related to muscle strength directly, we hypothesized that excluding ECW from muscle volume would strengthen the correlation with muscle strength.
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an affordable, non-invasive, easy-to-operate, and fast alternative method to assess body composition. However, BIA tends to overestimate the percent body fat (%BF) in lean elderly and underestimate %BF in obese elderly people. This study examined whether proximal electrode placement eliminates this problem. Forty-two elderly men and women (64-96 years) who had a wide range of BMI [22.4 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2) (mean +/- SD), range 16.8-33.9 kg/m(2)] and %BF (11.3-44.8%) participated in this study. Using (2)H and (18)O dilutions as the criterion for measuring total body water (TBW), we compared various BIA electrode placements; wrist-to-ankle, arm-to-arm, leg-to-leg, elbow-to-knee, five- and nine-segment models, and the combination of distal (wrists or ankles) and proximal (elbows or knees) electrodes. TBW was most strongly correlated with the square height divided by the impedance between the knees and elbows (H(2)/Z (proximal); r = 0.965, P < 0.001). In the wrist-to-ankle, arm-to-arm, leg-to-leg, and five-segment models, we observed systematic errors associated with %BF (P < 0.05). After including the impedance ratio of the proximal to distal segments (P/D) as an independent variable, none of the BIA methods examined showed any systematic bias against %BF. In addition, all methods were able to estimate TBW more accurately (e.g., in the wrist-to-ankle model, from R(2) = 0.90, SEE = 1.69 kg to R(2) = 0.94, SEE = 1.30 kg). The results suggest that BIA using distal electrodes alone tends to overestimate TBW in obese and underestimate TBW in lean subjects, while proximal electrodes improve the accuracy of body composition measurements.
This study evaluated the validity of the total energy expenditure (TEE) estimated using uniaxial (ACCuni) and triaxial (ACCtri) accelerometers in the elderly. Thirty-two healthy elderly (64-87 years) participated in this study. TEE was measured using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method (TEE(DLW)). TEE(ACCuni) (6.79 +/- 1.08 MJ day(-1)) was significantly lower than TEE(DLW) (7.85 +/- 1.54 MJ day(-1)) and showed wider limits of agreement (-3.15 to 1.12 MJ day(-1)) with a smaller correlation coefficient (r = 0.703). TEE(ACCtri) (7.88 +/- 1.27 MJ day(-1)) did not differ from TEE(DLW) and showed narrower limits of agreement (-1.64 to 1.72 MJ day(-1)) with a larger correlation coefficient (r = 0.835, P < 0.001). The estimated intensities of light activities were significantly lower with ACCuni. Greater mediolateral acceleration was observed during 6-min walk tests. The results suggest that ACCtri is a better choice than ACCuni for assessing TEE in the elderly.
This study was performed to ascertain the relationships between oral motor functions, such as those of the tongue and lips, and age in the community-dwelling elderly, as well as to investigate the effects of these factors on masticatory performance. The subjects were 268 healthy elderly Japanese living in Kyoto. They were divided into four age groups and further classified into the following two groups by the presence or absence of posterior occlusal support: Eichner A or B1-B3 (group A), and Eichner B4 or C (group B). They were wearing removable or fixed dentures if they had missing teeth. Oral function evaluation items included (1) masticatory performance and (2) oral motor skills. Significant differences were noted among the age groups in tongue pressure within group A (P < 0.01) and group B (P < 0.05), and in the number of repetitions of the syllables /ta/ and /ka/ in group B (/ta/: P < 0.05, /ka/; P < 0.01). The number of natural teeth (beta = 0.463, P < 0.001) in group A and tongue pressure (beta = 0.436, P < 0.001) in group B were the only predictors of masticatory performance when the data were analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The tongue may compensate for the missing teeth in masticatory performance of those elderly who have lost their natural teeth. The results of this study highlight the importance of tongue function in masticatory performance.
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been shown to differ among regions, including rural-urban regional differences within nations. This study obtained simultaneous accelerometry-derived physical activity, 24 h activity, and food records to clarify the potential contributing factors to rural-urban differences in childhood overweight and obesity in Japan. Sixth-grade children (n = 227, 11-12 years old) from two urban elementary schools in Kyoto and four rural elementary schools in Tohoku participated in the study. The children were instructed to wear a pedometer that included a uniaxial accelerometer and, assisted by their parents, keep minute-by-minute 24 h activity and food records. For 12 children, the total energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method that was used to correct the Lifecorder-predicted activity energy expenditure and physical activity level. The overweight and obesity prevalence was significantly higher in rural than in urban children. The number of steps per day, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and duration of walking to school were significantly lower in rural than in urban children. In contrast, the reported energy intake did not differ significantly between the regions. The physical activity and duration of the walk to school were significantly correlated with body mass index. Rural children had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity, and this may be at least partly caused by lower physical activity, especially less time spent walking to school, than urban children.
Online or Web-based measurement systems have been proposed as convenient methods for collecting physical activity data. We developed two Web-based physical activity systems-the 24-hour Physical Activity Record Web (24hPAR WEB) and 7 days Recall Web (7daysRecall WEB).
Strenuous exercise may have the detrimental effects on visual perception. However, it is unclear whether visual resolution is related to the detrimental effects on visual perception. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the effects of strenuous exercise on visual perception are dependent on visual resolution. Given that visual resolution decreases in the periphery of the visual field, we hypothesized that if visual resolution plays a role in the detrimental effects on visual perception, the detrimental effects may be exaggerated toward the periphery of the visual field. Simple visual reaction time was measured at rest and during cycling at 40% and 75% peak oxygen uptakes (VO(2)). Visual stimuli were randomly presented at 2°, 10°, 30°, and 50° to either the right or left of the midpoint between the eyes with equal probability. RT was fractionated into premotor and motor components (i.e. premotor time and motor time) based on electromyographic recording. The premotor time during exercise at 40% peak VO(2) was not different from that at rest. In contrast, the premotor time during exercise at 75% peak VO(2) was significantly longer than that at rest (p=0.018). The increase in the premotor time was observed irrespective of eccentricity, and the detrimental effects were not exaggerated toward the periphery of the visual field. The motor time was not affected by exercise. The current findings suggest that the detrimental effects of strenuous exercise on visual perception are independent of visual resolution.
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