Muscle wasting is common and insidious in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Loss of muscle quantity and quality reduces quality of life and increases mortality in ESRD patients. Additionally, secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) causes muscle atrophy. Meanwhile, vitamin D, which is used for SHPT treatment, plays an essential role in muscle growth.
We have developed a system for health promotion of regional inhabitants, using CATV network at Tsushima Island in Nagasaki, Japan from 2010 to 2012. This system was provided by five kinds of services such as safety confirmation system, monitoring system of vital signs, sharing system for healthcare information, supervised administration system (compliance check of medicines), and local community TV program. Based on this experience we have been challenging a new trial at Kinkai district in Nagasaki which is aimed to be sustainable and helpful servicesboth for patients and staffs.
Thalidomide is clinically recognized as a therapeutic agent for multiple myeloma and has been known to exert anti-angiogenic actions. Recent studies have suggested the involvement of angiogenesis in the progression of peritoneal fibrosis. The present study investigated the effects of thalidomide on the development of peritoneal fibrosis induced by injection of chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) into the mouse peritoneal cavity every other day for 3 weeks. Thalidomide was given orally every day. Peritoneal tissues were dissected out 21 days after CG injection. Expression of CD31 (as a marker of endothelial cells), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), ?-smooth muscle actin (as a marker of myofibroblasts), type III collagen and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? was examined using immunohistochemistry. CG group showed thickening of the submesothelial zone and increased numbers of vessels and myofibroblasts. Large numbers of VEGF-, PCNA-, and TGF-?-positive cells were observed in the submesothelial area. Thalidomide treatment significantly ameliorated submesothelial thickening and angiogenesis, and decreased numbers of PCNA- and VEGF-expressing cells, myofibroblasts, and TGF-?-positive cells. Moreover, thalidomide attenuated peritoneal permeability for creatinine, compared to the CG group. Our results indicate the potential utility of thalidomide for preventing peritoneal fibrosis.
Vitamin D plays an important role in calcium homeostasis and is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism among dialysis patients. The biologic activity of vitamin D and its analogs is mediated by vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is distributed widely throughout the body. Recent papers have revealed that low vitamin D levels are correlated with severe fibrosis in chronic diseases, including cystic fibrosis and hepatitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of vitamin D against the progression of peritoneal fibrosis.
Fabry disease--a genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in cell lysosomes resulting from an X-linked deficiency of ?-galactosidase A activity--presents with multiorgan manifestations, including progressive renal disease. Recently, its prevalence has been reported to be higher in hemodialysis (HD) patients than in the general population. We, therefore, examined patients on maintenance dialysis living in the Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, to clarify the prevalence of Fabry disease. We screened 933 patients on maintenance dialysis, who were residents of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan, for ?-galactosidase A activity using a dried blood spot on filter paper. Patients with low ?-galactosidase A activity were clinically assessed; subsequently, genetic analysis of the ?-Galactosidase A gene (MIM:30064) was performed in these patients. Of the 933 patients, 55 had low ?-galactosidase A activity; of these, one male and two females had ?-Galactosidase A mutations. The prevalence of Fabry disease was thus 0.32%, which was similar to that reported previously. However, one mutation was newly identified, while the E66Q mutation observed in two patients was as previously identified. These two patients with the E66Q mutation were excluded because of the possibility of polymorphism; the prevalence of Fabry disease in the HD population was finally calculated to be 0.11%. The prevalence of Fabry disease in patients on maintenance dialysis living in Nagasaki Prefecture was 0.32%. Dried blood spot screening was considered as a simple and effective method for screening patients on maintenance dialysis for Fabry disease.
A 50-year-old woman with a 1-month history of lower extremity edema and a 5 kg weight increase was admitted to our hospital with suspected nephrotic syndrome in October 1999. Urine protein level was 3.5 g per day, 10-15 erythrocytes in urine per high-power field, and serum albumin level 2.5 g/dl. Furthermore, an accumulation of pleural effusion was confirmed by chest X-ray. The results of a renal biopsy indicated slight mesangial proliferation in the glomeruli by light microscopy, and an immunofluorescence study confirmed the deposition of immunoglobulin (Ig) A and C3 in the mesangial area. Diffuse attenuation of foot processes and dense deposits in the mesangial area were observed by electron microscopy. Treatment with 40 mg/day of prednisolone was effective, and proteinuria was negative 1 month later. Because of this course, we diagnosed minimal change nephrotic syndrome complicated by mild-proliferative IgA nephropathy. In November 2000, there was a relapse of nephrotic syndrome, which was believed to be induced by an influenza vaccination, but response to increased steroid treatment was favorable, and proteinuria disappeared on day 13 of steroid increase. A second relapse in May 2001, showed steroid resistance with renal insufficiency, and an increase in the selectivity index to 0.195. Light microscopy revealed focal sclerotic lesions of the glomeruli, and an immunofluorescence study revealed attenuation of mesangial IgA and C3 deposition. These findings led to the diagnosis that minimal change nephrotic syndrome had transitioned to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, whereby mesangial IgA deposition was reduced by immunosuppressive treatment. Subsequently, her renal function gradually worsened to the point of end-stage renal failure by 27 months after the second relapse of nephrotic syndrome.
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