JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Oral HHV-8 replication among women in Mombasa, Kenya.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) replication in the oropharynx may play an important role in HHV-8 transmission and contribute to the development of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in some individuals. Studies in the United States and Europe report high rates of HHV-8 DNA detection in saliva of HHV-8 infected men, but little is known about the natural history of HHV-8 among persons in sub-Saharan Africa, where prevalence of HHV-8 infection and KS is greatest. To address this gap, this study evaluated oral HHV-8 replication in a cohort of 40 HHV-8 seropositive Kenyan women. Study clinicians collected daily oral swabs from participants for up to 30 consecutive days, and swab samples were tested for HHV-8 DNA using quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction. HHV-8 was detected at least once in 27 (68%) participants, and the overall shedding rate was 23%. On days with HHV-8 detection, mean HHV-8 quantity was 4.5?log10 ?copies/ml. Among HIV-infected women, CD4 count ?500?cells/mm(3) versus <500?cells/mm(3) was associated with higher HHV-8 copy number (4.8?log10 ?copies/ml vs. 3.4?log10 ?copies/ml; coef 1.2 [95% CI, 0.5-1.9]; P?=?0.001) and a higher HHV-8 shedding rate (49% vs.12%; RR, 4.2 [95% CI, 0.8-21.4]; P?=?0.08). No other factors were associated with HHV-8 shedding rate or copy number. The study demonstrates high rates and quantity of HHV-8 in the oropharynx of HHV-8 seropositive African women. These findings support the observation that oral replication is an essential feature of HHV-8 infection, with likely implications for HHV-8 transmission and KS pathogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
High-dose valacyclovir decreases plasma HIV-1 RNA more than standard-dose acyclovir in persons coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2: a randomized crossover trial.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Standard doses of herpes simplex virus (HSV) suppressive therapy reduce plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (0.25-0.53 log10 copies per milliliter) among HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfected persons. Postulated mechanisms for this effect include direct inhibition of HIV-1 by acyclovir or indirect reduction by decreasing HSV-associated inflammation. We hypothesized that high-dose valacyclovir would further reduce plasma HIV-1 RNA and that the effect would be mediated by greater suppression of HSV shedding.
Related JoVE Video
Clinician and patient recognition of anogenital herpes disease in HIV positive men who have sex with men.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anogenital ulcers caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. When compared with clinician examination, HIV/HSV-2 coinfected men who have sex with men are frequently unaware of anogenital ulcers. These data highlight the importance of condom use and the need for new HSV-2 prevention strategies.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment with valacyclovir, famciclovir, or antiretrovirals reduces human herpesvirus-8 replication in HIV-1 seropositive men.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) replication is a key factor in Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and Castleman disease pathogenesis. In vitro data suggest that antivirals inhibit HHV-8 replication, but little data exist in humans. Daily oropharyngeal swabs were analyzed from HIV/HHV-8 dually infected men enrolled in three previous clinical trials of valacyclovir and famciclovir for HIV-1 and/or HSV-2 suppression. Fifty-eight participants contributed 6,036 swabs. HHV-8 was detected in 1,128 (19%) of 6,036 swabs, including 618 (21%) of 2,992 on placebo, 323 (15%) of 2,221 on valacyclovir, and 187 (23%) of 823 on famciclovir. After adjusting for baseline HIV viral load and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use, an 18% reduction in HHV-8 shedding frequency (IRR 0.822; P?=?0.011) was found in participants on valacyclovir and a 30% reduction (IRR 0.700; P?
Related JoVE Video
Determinants of aspirin metabolism in healthy men and women: effects of dietary inducers of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.
J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interindividual variation in aspirin (ASA) metabolism is attributed to concomitant use of drugs or alcohol, urine pH, ethnicity, sex, and genetic variants in UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). Little is known about the effects of diet.
Related JoVE Video
The effects of daily distress and personality on genital HSV shedding and lesions in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of acyclovir in HSV-2 seropositive women.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are ubiquitous in humans, but the determinants of clinical and virologic severity are not completely understood. Prior research has suggested that psychological distress can be a co-factor in reactivation of latent HSV infection. Personality traits such as extraversion and neuroticism influence stress attributions and may inform the relationship between psychological distress and health outcomes. Earlier studies in this area have primarily focused on subjective reports of HSV lesion recurrence, but such reports may be influenced by both personality traits and distress. We report results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of acyclovir in 19 women for whom personality was assessed at baseline and daily assessments of genital lesions, stress, anxiety, and depression levels were collected for 22 weeks. In addition, daily swabs of the genital mucosa were collected to assess HSV-2 viral reactivation. We found that daily stress predicted genital lesion frequency, and that daily stress, anxiety, and depression predicted genital lesion onset approximately 5 days before onset. Anxiety was also associated with genital lesions 3 days after onset. Distress and viral reactivation were not associated; and no personality traits were associated with any of the outcomes. These results support the hypothesis that psychological distress is both a cause and a consequence of genital lesion episodes.
Related JoVE Video
Persistent genital herpes simplex virus-2 shedding years following the first clinical episode.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with newly acquired genital herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection have virus frequently detected at the genital mucosa. Rates of genital shedding initially decrease over time after infection, but data on long-term viral shedding are lacking.
Related JoVE Video
DNA vaccine delivery by densely-packed and short microprojection arrays to skin protects against vaginal HSV-2 challenge.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is an unmet medical need for a prophylactic vaccine against herpes simplex virus (HSV). DNA vaccines and cutaneous vaccination have been tried for many applications, but few reports combine this vaccine composition and administration route. We compared DNA administration using the Nanopatchâ„¢, a solid microprojection device coated with vaccine comprised of thousands of short (110 ?m) densly-packed projections (70 ?m spacing), to standard intramuscular DNA vaccination in a mouse model of vaginal HSV-2 infection. A dose-response relationship was established for immunogenicity and survival in both vaccination routes. Appropriate doses administered by Nanopatchâ„¢ were highly immunogenic and enabled mouse survival. Vaginal HSV-2 DNA copy number day 1 post challenge correlated with survival, indicating that vaccine-elicited acquired immune responses can act quickly and locally. Solid, short, densely-packed arrays of microprojections applied to the skin are thus a promising route of administration for DNA vaccines.
Related JoVE Video
Gender differences in clinical presentation and outcomes of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has increased dramatically among women in sub-Saharan Africa since the onset of the HIV pandemic, but data on KS disease in women are limited. To identify gender-related differences in KS presentation and outcomes, we evaluated the clinical manifestations and response in men and women with AIDS-associated KS in Uganda.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of HIV infection and Kaposi sarcoma on human herpesvirus-8 mucosal replication and dissemination in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the leading cause of cancer in Uganda and occurs in people with and without HIV. Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) replication is important both in transmission of HHV-8 and progression to KS. We characterized the sites and frequency of HHV-8 detection in Ugandans with and without HIV and KS.
Related JoVE Video
Citrus fruit intake is associated with lower serum bilirubin concentration among women with the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 glucuronidates bilirubin, estrogens, and xenobiotic compounds. The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism results in lower promoter activity due to 7 thymine-adenine (TA) repeats rather than the more common 6 TA repeats. Previously, we showed that serum bilirubin, a marker of UGT1A1 activity, was lower among individuals homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism (7/7) when randomized to a high fruit and vegetable (F&V) diet, whereas there was no effect in individuals with the wild-type (6/6) and heterozygous (6/7) genotypes. Our objective here was to determine if we could detect genotype x diet interactions on bilirubin concentrations in an observational study. Healthy nonsmoking men (n = 146) and women (n = 147), recruited from the Seattle area, provided blood samples for genotyping and bilirubin measurements. We used multiple linear regression to assess the relationships among UGT1A1 genotype, bilirubin concentrations, and consumption of specific F&V [cruciferous vegetables, citrus fruits, and soy foods (n = 268)] based on FFQ and F&V from 6 botanical families [Cruciferae, Rosaceae, Rutaceae, Umbelliferae, Solanaceae, and Leguminosae (n = 261)] based on 3-d food records. We observed a significant interaction of UGT1A1 genotype and citrus consumption among women. Women with the 7/7 genotype who consumed > or = 0.5 daily servings of citrus fruit or foods from the Rutaceae botanical family had approximately 30% lower serum bilirubin than those with the same genotype who consumed less, whereas 6/6 and 6/7 genotypes did not differ by consumption (P for interaction = 0.006 and 0.03, respectively). These results suggest that citrus consumption may increase UGT1A1 activity among women with the 7/7 genotype.
Related JoVE Video
A prospective cohort study of partner testing for herpes simplex virus and sexual behavior during pregnancy.
J. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated whether serotesting sexual partners of pregnant women for herpes simplex virus (HSV) improves adherence to safer-sex practices.
Related JoVE Video
Extravaginal reservoirs of vaginal bacteria as risk factors for incident bacterial vaginosis.
J. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) represents shifts in microbiota from Lactobacillus spp. to diverse anaerobes. Although antibiotics relieve symptoms and temporarily eradicate BV-associated bacteria (BVAB), BV usually recurs. We investigated the role of extravaginal BVAB reservoirs in recurrence.
Related JoVE Video
Standard-dose and high-dose daily antiviral therapy for short episodes of genital HSV-2 reactivation: three randomised, open-label, cross-over trials.
Lancet
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Skin and mucosal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) shedding predominantly occurs in short subclinical episodes. We assessed whether standard-dose or high-dose antiviral therapy reduces the frequency of such shedding.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.