The challenge of insulin use during Ramadan could be minimized, if people with diabetes are metabolically stable and are provided with structured education for at least 2-3 months pre-Ramadan. Although, American diabetes association (ADA) recommendations 2010 and South Asian Consensus Guideline 2012 deal with management of diabetes in Ramadan and changes in insulin dosage, no specific guidance on widely prescribed low-ratio premix insulin is currently available. Hence, the working group for insulin therapy in Ramadan, after collective analysis, evaluation, and opinion from clinical practice, have formulated a practical advice to empower physicians with pre-Ramadan preparation, dose adjustment, and treatment algorithm for self-titration of low-ratio premix insulin.
We previously defined macrophages harvested from the peritoneal cavity of nude mice with subcutaneous human pancreatic tumors as "tumor-educated-macrophages" (Edu) and macrophages harvested from mice without tumors as "naïve-macrophages" (Naïve), and demonstrated that Edu-macrophages promoted tumor growth and metastasis. In this study, Edu- and Naïve-macrophages were compared for their ability to enhance pancreatic cancer malignancy at the cellular level in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory efficacy of Zoledronic acid (ZA) on Edu-macrophage-enhanced metastasis was also determined. XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cells in Gelfoam co-cultured with Edu-macrophages proliferated to a greater extent compared to XPA1 cells cultured with Naïve-macrophages (P = 0.014). XPA1 cells exposed to conditioned medium harvested from Edu culture significantly increased proliferation (P = 0.016) and had more migration stimulation capability (P<0.001) compared to cultured cancer cells treated with the conditioned medium from Naïve. The mitotic index of the XPA1 cells, expressing GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm, significantly increased in vivo in the presence of Edu- compared to Naïve-macrophages (P = 0.001). Zoledronic acid (ZA) killed both Edu and Naïve in vitro. Edu promoted tumor growth and metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of the XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cell line. ZA reduced primary tumor growth (P = 0.006) and prevented metastasis (P = 0.025) promoted by Edu-macrophages. These results indicate that ZA inhibits enhanced primary tumor growth and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer induced by Edu-macrophages.
Realizing personalized medicine, which promises to enable early disease detection, efficient diagnostic staging, and therapeutic efficacy monitoring, hinges on biomarker quantification in patient samples. Yet, the lack of a sensitive technology and assay methodology to rapidly validate biomarker candidates continues to be a bottleneck for clinical translation. In our first direct and quantitative comparison of backscattering interferometry (BSI) to fluorescence sensing by ELISA, we show that BSI could aid in overcoming this limitation. The analytical validation study was performed against ELISA for two biomarkers for lung cancer detection: Cyfra 21-1 and Galectin-7. Spiked serum was used for calibration and comparison of analytical figures of merit, followed by analysis of blinded patient samples. Using the ELISA antibody as the probe chemistry in a mix-and-read assay, BSI provided significantly lower detection limits for spiked serum samples with each of the biomarkers. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for Cyrfa-21-1 was measured to be 230 pg/mL for BSI versus 4000 pg/mL for ELISA, and for Galectin-7, it was 13 pg/mL versus 500 pg/mL. The coefficient of variation for 5 day, triplicate determinations was <15% for BSI and <10% for ELISA. The two techniques correlated well, ranging from 3-29% difference for Cyfra 21-1 in a blinded patient sample analysis. The label-free and free-solution operation of BSI allowed for a significant improvement in analysis speed, with greater ease, improved LOQ values, and excellent day-to-day reproducibility. In this unoptimized format, BSI required 5.5-fold less sample quantity needed for ELISA (a 10 point calibration curve measured in triplicate required 36 ?L of serum for BSI vs 200 ?L for ELISA). The results indicate that the BSI platform can enable rapid, sensitive analytical validation of serum biomarkers and should significantly impact the validation bottleneck of biomarkers.
There are multiple environmental factors that influence a sensitized (IgE antibody positive) patient's predisposition to manifest allergic symptoms following allergen exposure. The majority of allergens are known to induce morbidity with chronic symptoms such as rhinitis, pruritis, dermatitis and urticaria.
We identified acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) as part of a proteomic signature predicting the risk of having lung cancer. Because ACBP is known to regulate ?-oxidation, which in turn controls cellular proliferation, we hypothesized that ACBP contributes to regulation of cellular proliferation and survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by modulating ?-oxidation. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to confirm the tissue localization of ABCP in pre-invasive and invasive NSCLCs. We correlated ACBP gene expression levels in NSCLCs with clinical outcomes. In loss-of-function studies, we tested the effect of the downregulation of ACBP on cellular proliferation and apoptosis in normal bronchial and NSCLC cell lines. Using tritiated-palmitate ((3)H-palmitate), we measured ?-oxidation levels and tested the effect of etomoxir, a ?-oxidation inhibitor, on proliferation and apoptosis. MALDI-IMS and IHC analysis confirmed that ACBP is overexpressed in pre-invasive and invasive lung cancers. High ACBP gene expression levels in NSCLCs correlated with worse survival (HR = 1.73). We observed a 40% decrease in ?-oxidation and concordant decreases in proliferation and increases in apoptosis in ACBP-depleted NSCLC cells as compared with bronchial airway epithelial cells. Inhibition of ?-oxidation by etomoxir in ACBP-overexpressing cells produced dose-dependent decrease in proliferation and increase in apoptosis (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). These data suggest a role for ACBP in controlling lung cancer progression by regulating ?-oxidation.
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most aggressive subtype of lung cancer, with no early detection strategy or targeted therapy currently available. We hypothesized that difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) may identify membrane-associated proteins (MAPs) specific to SCLC, advance our understanding of SCLC biology, and discover new biomarkers of SCLC.
Several observational studies were conducted with vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) fasting during Ramadan, showing significantly lower incidences of hypoglycemia with vildagliptin versus sulfonylureas, including gliclazide. It was of interest to complement the existing real-life evidence with data from a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.
The XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cell line is dimorphic, with spindle stem-like cells and round non-stem cells. We report here the in vitro IC 50 values of stem-like and non-stem XPA1 human pancreatic cells cells for: (1) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), (2) cisplatinum (CDDP), (3) gemcitabine (GEM), and (4) tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R). IC 50 values of stem-like XPA1 cells were significantly higher than those of non-stem XPA1 cells for 5-FU (P = 0.007) and CDDP (P = 0.012). In contrast, there was no difference between the efficacy of A1-R on stem-like and non-stem XPA1 cells. In vivo, 5-FU and A1-R significantly reduced the tumor weight of non-stem XPA1 cells (5-FU; P = 0.028; A1-R; P = 0.011). In contrast, only A1-R significantly reduced tumor weight of stem-like XPA1 cells (P = 0.012). The combination A1-R with 5-FU improved the antitumor efficacy compared with 5-FU monotherapy on the stem-like cells (P = 0.004). The results of the present report indicate A1-R is a promising therapy for chemo-resistant pancreatic cancer stem-like cells.
Family structure, lack of reliable information, cost, and delay are usual concerns when deciding to perform BRCA analyses. Testing breast cancer tissues with four antibodies (MS110, lys27H3, vimentin, and KI67) in addition to grade evaluation enabled us to rapidly select patients for genetic testing identification. We constituted an initial breast cancer tissue microarray, considered as a learning set, comprising 27 BRCA1 and 81 sporadic tumors. A second independent validation set of 28 BRCA1 tumors was matched to 28 sporadic tumors using the same original conditions. We investigated morphological parameters and 21 markers by immunohistochemistry. A logistic regression model was used to select the minimal number of markers providing the best model to predict BRCA1 status. The model was applied to the validation set to estimate specificity and sensibility. In the initial set, univariate analyses identified 11 markers significantly associated with BRCA1 status. Then, the best multivariate model comprised only grade 3, MS110, Lys27H3, vimentin, and KI67. When applied to the validation set, BRCA1 tumors were correctly classified with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 81%. The performance of this model was superior when compared to other profiles. This study offers a new rapid and cost-effective method for the prescreening of patients at high risk of being BRCA1 mutation carriers, to guide genetic testing, and finally to provide appropriate preventive measures, advice, and treatments including targeted therapy to patients and their families.
We report here that XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cells are dimorphic. After injection in the spleen, XPA1 cells isolated from the primary tumor in the spleen were predominantly round; while cells isolated from the resulting liver metastasis and ascites were comprised of both round- and spindle-shaped cell types. Cancer cells previously grown in the spleen and re-implanted in the spleen developed large primary tumors in the spleen only. Cancer cells isolated from liver metastasis and re-transplanted to the spleen resulted in a primary tumor in the spleen and liver metastasis. Cancer cells derived from ascites and re-transplanted to the spleen developed primary tumors in the spleen and distant metastasis in the liver, lung, and diaphragm in addition to ascites formation. Spindle and round cells were differentially labeled with fluorescent proteins of different colors. After co-injection of the two cell types in the spleen, cells were isolated from the primary tumors, liver metastasis, and ascites and analyzed by color-coded fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). No significant differences between the percentages of spindle-shaped and round cancer cells in the primary tumor and the liver metastasis were observed. However, spindle-shaped cancer cells were enriched in the ascites. One hundred percent of the spindle-shaped and round cancer cells expressed CD44, suggesting that morphology and metastatic behavior rather than CD44 expression can distinguish the stem-like cells of the XPA1 pancreatic cancer cell line. The spindle-shaped cancer cells had the greater capability for distant metastasis and ascites formation, suggesting they are stem-like cells, which can be readily targeted for therapy.
Since the advent of the new proteomics era more than a decade ago, large-scale studies of protein profiling have been exploited to identify the distinctive molecular signatures in a wide array of biological systems spanning areas of basic biological research, various disease states, and biomarker discovery directed toward therapeutic applications. Recent advances in protein separation and identification techniques have significantly improved proteomics approaches, leading to enhancement of the depth and breadth of proteome coverage. Proteomic signatures specific for invasive lung cancer and preinvasive lesions have begun to emerge. In this review we provide a critical assessment of the state of recent advances in proteomic approaches and the biological lessons they have yielded, with specific emphasis on the discovery of biomarker signatures for the early detection of lung cancer.
Genome-wide association studies have identified many common genetic variants that are associated with polygenic traits, and have typically been performed with individuals of recent European ancestry. In these populations, many common variants are tightly correlated, with the perfect or near-perfect proxies for the functional or true variant showing equivalent evidence of association, considerably limiting the resolution of fine mapping. Populations with recent African ancestry often have less extensive and/or different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and have been proposed to be useful in fine-mapping studies. Here, we strongly replicate and fine map in populations of predominantly African ancestry the association between variation at the FTO locus and body mass index (BMI) that is well established in populations of European ancestry. We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms that are correlated with the signal of association in individuals of European ancestry but that have varying degrees of correlation in African-derived individuals. Most of the variants, including one previously proposed as functionally important, have no significant association with BMI, but two variants, rs3751812 and rs9941349, show strong evidence of association (P = 2.58 x 10(-6) and 3.61 x 10(-6) in a meta-analysis of 9881 individuals). Thus, we have both strongly replicated this association in African-ancestry populations and narrowed the list of potentially causal variants to those that are correlated with rs3751812 and rs9941349 in African-derived populations. This study illustrates the potential of using populations with different LD patterns to fine map associations and helps pave the way for genetically guided functional studies at the FTO locus.
It has been recently hypothesized that many of the signals detected in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to T2D and other diseases, despite being observed to common variants, might in fact result from causal mutations that are rare. One prediction of this hypothesis is that the allelic associations should be population-specific, as the causal mutations arose after the migrations that established different populations around the world. We selected 19 common variants found to be reproducibly associated to T2D risk in European populations and studied them in a large multiethnic case-control study (6,142 cases and 7,403 controls) among men and women from 5 racial/ethnic groups (European Americans, African Americans, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians). In analysis pooled across ethnic groups, the allelic associations were in the same direction as the original report for all 19 variants, and 14 of the 19 were significantly associated with risk. In summing the number of risk alleles for each individual, the per-allele associations were highly statistically significant (P<10(-4)) and similar in all populations (odds ratios 1.09-1.12) except in Japanese Americans the estimated effect per allele was larger than in the other populations (1.20; P(het)?= 3.8×10(-4)). We did not observe ethnic differences in the distribution of risk that would explain the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes in these groups as compared to European Americans. The consistency of allelic associations in diverse racial/ethnic groups is not predicted under the hypothesis of Goldstein regarding "synthetic associations" of rare mutations in T2D.
Tumor-microenvironment interactions are increasingly recognized to influence tumor progression. To understand the competitive dynamics of tumor cells in diverse microenvironments, we experimentally parameterized a hybrid discrete-continuum mathematical model with phenotypic trait data from a set of related mammary cell lines with normal, transformed, or tumorigenic properties. Surprisingly, in a resource-rich microenvironment, with few limitations on proliferation or migration, transformed (but not tumorigenic) cells were most successful and outcompeted other cell types in heterogeneous tumor simulations. Conversely, constrained microenvironments with limitations on space and/or growth factors gave a selective advantage to phenotypes derived from tumorigenic cell lines. Analysis of the relative performance of each phenotype in constrained versus unconstrained microenvironments revealed that, although all cell types grew more slowly in resource-constrained microenvironments, the most aggressive cells were least affected by microenvironmental constraints. A game theory model testing the relationship between microenvironment resource availability and competitive cellular dynamics supports the concept that microenvironmental independence is an advantageous cellular trait in resource-limited microenvironments.
We have previously identified solute-linked carrier family A1 member 5 (SLC1A5) as an overexpressed protein in a shotgun proteomic analysis of stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) when compared with matched controls. We hypothesized that overexpression of SLC1A5 occurs to meet the metabolic demand for lung cancer cell growth and survival.
Advances in proteomic analysis of human samples are driving critical aspects of biomarker discovery and the identification of molecular pathways involved in disease etiology. Toward that end, in this report we are the first to use a standardized shotgun proteomic analysis method for in-depth tissue protein profiling of the two major subtypes of nonsmall cell lung cancer and normal lung tissues. We identified 3621 proteins from the analysis of pooled human samples of squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and control specimens. In addition to proteins previously shown to be implicated in lung cancer, we have identified new pathways and multiple new differentially expressed proteins of potential interest as therapeutic targets or diagnostic biomarkers, including some that were not identified by transcriptome profiling. Up-regulation of these proteins was confirmed by multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. A subset of these proteins was found to be detectable and differentially present in the peripheral blood of cases and matched controls. Label-free shotgun proteomic analysis allows definition of lung tumor proteomes, identification of biomarker candidates, and potential targets for therapy.
The chemosensitivity of circulating PC-3 human prostate cancer cells, isolated from nude mice orthotopically implanted with PC-3, was compared to that of the parental PC-3 cells. PC-3 and circulating PC-3, both labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), were seeded in 96-well plates. The MTT assay was then performed at 24, 48, and 72 hours, comparing control cultures to cultures treated with cisplatin at 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 ?m/ml, and docetaxel at 10, 20, 25 and 50 ?m/ml at each time point. The circulating tumor cells (CTCs) exhibited a significantly increased sensitivity to both cisplatin and docetaxel when compared to PC-3 parental cells, with docetaxel having the greater efficacy. The future goal, based on these studies, is the culture of CTCs from cancer patients peripheral blood for chemosensitivity testing, for improved individualized therapy.
Using biomarkers to select the most at-risk population, to detect the disease while measurable and yet not clinically apparent has been the goal of many investigations. Recent advances in molecular strategies and analytic platforms, including genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have identified increasing numbers of potential biomarkers in the blood, urine, exhaled breath condensate, bronchial specimens, saliva, and sputum, but none have yet moved to the clinical setting. Therefore, there is a recognized gap between the promise and the product delivery in the cancer biomarker field. In this review, we define clinical contexts where risk and diagnostic biomarkers may have use in the management of lung cancer, identify the most relevant candidate biomarkers of early detection, provide their state of development, and finally discuss critical aspects of study design in molecular biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer.
We have previously demonstrated the increased metastatic potential of human prostate cancer circulating tumor cells (CTC), compared to their parental cells, in both orthotopic mouse models and the chick embryo model. In the current study, we asked whether an extracellular matrix (ECM), produced by human foreskin fibroblasts in culture, could inhibit PC-3 human prostate cancer CTC metastasis in the chick embryo model. The chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of 18 chicken embryos were inoculated with either PC-3 human prostate cancer cells or PC-3 CTCs, both stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Embryos were divided into six groups: PC-3 parental-cell control; PC-3 plus soluble ECM; PC-3 parental cells plus semi-solid ECM; PC-3 CTC control; PC-3 CTC plus soluble ECM, and PC-3 CTC plus semi-solid ECM. Twelve hours following inoculation of the cells, a single dose of 100 ?l of either soluble or semi-solid ECM was added to the appropriate group. Embryo brains were removed on day 8 post-inoculation, and were processed for cryosectioning. Imaging was performed on the cryosections using a scanning laser microscope in order to count metastatic foci. PC-3 controls had an average of 11.1 metastatic foci compared to 2.55 in the PC-3 plus soluble ECM group and 2.76 (p<0.0001) in the PC-3 plus semi-solid ECM group (p<0.0001). ECM treatment had even greater efficacy on the CTC cells, with an average of 30.9 metastatic foci in the CTC controls compared to 4.38 in the CTC plus soluble ECM group (p<0.0001) and 4.18 in the CTC plus semi-solid ECM group (p<0.0001). The results demonstrate that reduction of CTC metastatic potential is possible, in this case with an ECM produced by human foreskin fibroblasts in culture.
Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made in establishing genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American, Australian and European collaborative meta-analysis of 14 studies consisting of 5,530 cases (?95th percentile of body mass index (BMI)) and 8,318 controls (<50th percentile of BMI) of European ancestry. Taking forward the eight newly discovered signals yielding association with P < 5 × 10(-6) in nine independent data sets (2,818 cases and 4,083 controls), we observed two loci that yielded genome-wide significant combined P values near OLFM4 at 13q14 (rs9568856; P = 1.82 × 10(-9); odds ratio (OR) = 1.22) and within HOXB5 at 17q21 (rs9299; P = 3.54 × 10(-9); OR = 1.14). Both loci continued to show association when two extreme childhood obesity cohorts were included (2,214 cases and 2,674 controls). These two loci also yielded directionally consistent associations in a previous meta-analysis of adult BMI(1).
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