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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A cascade of care for diabetes in the United States: visualizing the gaps.
Ann. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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A "cascade-of-care" concept helped to address implementation gaps in HIV care.
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SREBP-1 Mediates Angiotensin II-Induced TGF-?1 Upregulation and Glomerular Fibrosis.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Angiotensin II is an important mediator of CKD of diverse etiology. A common pathologic feature of CKD is glomerular fibrosis, a central mediator of which is the profibrotic cytokine TGF-?. The mechanisms underlying the induction of TGF-? and matrix by angiotensin II are not completely understood. Recent studies showed that overexpression of the transcription factor SREBP-1 induces glomerular sclerosis and that angiotensin II can activate SREBP-1 in tubular cells. We thus studied whether SREBP-1 is activated by angiotensin II and mediates angiotensin II-induced profibrogenic responses in primary rat mesangial cells. Treatment of cells with angiotensin II induced the upregulation and activation of SREBP-1. Angiotensin II-induced activation of SREBP-1 required signaling through the angiotensin II type I receptor and activation of PI3K/Akt in addition to the chaperone SCAP and protease S1P. Notably, angiotensin II-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress was identified as a key mediator of Akt-SREBP-1 activation, and inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress or SREBP-1 prevented angiotensin II-induced SREBP-1 binding to the TGF-? promoter, TGF-? upregulation, and downstream fibronectin upregulation. Endoplasmic reticulum stress alone, however, did not induce TGF-? upregulation despite activating SREBP-1. Although not required for SREBP-1 activation by angiotensin II, EGF receptor signaling was necessary for activation of the SREBP-1 cotranscription factor Sp1, which provided a required second signal for TGF-? upregulation. In vivo, endoplasmic reticulum stress and SREBP-1-dependent effects were induced in glomeruli of angiotensin II-infused mice, and administration of the SREBP inhibitor fatostatin prevented angiotensin II-induced TGF-? upregulation and matrix accumulation. SREBP-1 and endoplasmic reticulum stress thus provide potential novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of CKD.
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New politics, an opportunity for maternal health advancement in eastern myanmar: an integrative review.
J Health Popul Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Myanmar (formerly Burma) is a southeast Asian country, with a long history of military dictatorship, human rights violations, and poor health indicators. The health situation is particularly dire among pregnant women in the ethnic minorities of the eastern provinces (Kachin, Shan, Mon, Karen and Karenni regions). This integrative review investigates the current status of maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar in the context of armed conflict between various separatist groups and the military regime. The review examines the underlying factors contributing to high maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar and assesses gaps in the existing research, suggesting areas for further research and policy response. Uncovered were a number of underlying factors uniquely contributing to maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar. These could be grouped into the following analytical themes: ongoing conflict, health system deficits, and political and socioeconomic influences. Abortion was interestingly not identified as an important contributor to maternal mortality. Recent political liberalization may provide space to act upon identified roles and opportunities for the Myanmar Government, the international community, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in a manner that positively impacts on maternal healthcare in the eastern regions of Myanmar. This review makes a number of recommendations to this effect.
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Cost of illness due to typhoid Fever in pemba, zanzibar, East Africa.
J Health Popul Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden of typhoid fever in Pemba, Zanzibar, East Africa. This study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness analysis from a societal perspective. It covered new episodes of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in patients presenting at the outpatient or inpatient departments of three district hospitals between May 2010 and December 2010. Cost of illness was the sum of direct costs and costs for productivity loss. Direct costs covered treatment, travel, and meals. Productivity costs were loss of income by patients and caregivers. The analysis included 17 episodes. The mean age of the patients, was 23 years (range=5-65, median=22). Thirty-five percent were inpatients, with a mean of 4.75 days of hospital stay (range=3-7, median=4.50). The mean cost for treatment alone during hospital care was US$ 21.97 at 2010 prices (US$ 1=1,430.50 Tanzanian Shilling?TSH). The average societal cost was US$ 154.47 per typhoid episode. The major expenditure was productivity cost due to lost wages of US$ 128.02 (83%). Our results contribute to the further economic evaluation of typhoid fever vaccination in Zanzibar and other sub-Saharan African countries.
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New withanolide, acyl and menthyl glucosides from fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal.
Acta Pol Pharm
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal (family: Solanaceae) are sweet, sedative, emetic, alterative and diuretic; used to treat asthma, biliousness, strangury, wounds, dyspepsia, flatulent colic, liver complaints and intestinal infections. Phytochemical investigation of the fruits yielded a withanolide tetraglucoside identified as (20S, 22R)-5alpha, 20alpha-diacetoxy-6beta-hydroxy- 1-oxowitha-2,24-dienolide-6-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6' --> 1")-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6" --> 1''')-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6''' --> 1''''-beta-D-glucopyranoside), a capryloyl hexaglucoside formulated as n-octanoyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6a --> 1b)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6b --> c)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6c --> 1d)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6d --> 1e)-glucopyranosyl-(6e --> 1f)-glucopyranoside and a menthyl tetraglucoside characterized as menthol-O-alpha-L-glucopyranosyl-(2a --> 1b)-O-alpha-L-glucopyranosyl-(2b --> 1c)-O-alpha-L-glucopyranosyl-(2c --> 1d)-O-alpha-L-glucopyranoside along with three fatty acid esters, n-nonacosanyl linolenate, n-octacosanyl linolenate and n-heptacosanyl linolenate. The structures of the isolated phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical means.
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Non-communicable diseases in South Asia: contemporary perspectives.
Br. Med. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as metabolic, cardiovascular, cancers, injuries and mental health disorders are increasingly contributing to the disease burden in South Asia, in light of demographic and epidemiologic transitions in the region. Home to one-quarter of the world's population, the region is also an important priority area for meeting global health targets. In this review, we describe the current burden of and trends in four common NCDs (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in South Asia.
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A comparison of infections and complications in central venous catheters in adults with solid tumours.
J Vasc Access
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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The aim of this study is to compare the complication rates of three vascular access devices in patients with solid tumours having infusion chemotherapy.
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Characterization of carbapenem resistance mechanisms and in vitro synergistic activity of colistin plus meropenem in carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Unreasonable antibiotics consumption is rooted from the rapid emergence of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) with increasing treatment failure being noted. With this sound knowledge we collected consecutive isolates of K. pneumoniae and tested for the presence of different resistant mechanisms of carbapenem using various tests such as the modified Hodge test (MHT) and Metallo-?-Lactamase Confirmative Identification by Rosco Neo-Sensitabs(TM) -Carbapenemases (RNS). Isolates, in which resistant mechanism was not identified by the RNS, were tested for the presence of different mechanisms of carbapenem resistance using Phenylalanine arginine ? naphthylamide (PABN) based E-test. A single target polymerase chain reaction for blaNDM-1 gene was performed. Randomly selected 135 isolates were tested for in vitro meropenem-colistin synergy by an E-test method. Among 235 isolates collected, 98% showed carbapenemase production by MHT. RNS were positive in 97% of isolates which showed inhibition with dipicolinic acid signifying the production of MBL. None produced K. pneumoniae carbapenamases (KPC) or AmpC ?-Lactamase (AmpC BL). Eight isolates did not show inhibition with any of the inhibitor containing disks. 220 isolates (94%) were found to possess the blaNDM-1 . Among the 230 isolates positive by the MHT, 223 were MBLs positive by the RNS. Colistin-meropenem Synergy was observed only in small proportion (37%) of the study isolates. This needs further investigation with more accurate tests such as the time-kill assay. Colistin-meropenem combinations may have a role in the treatment of carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae and may possibly slow the selection of heteroresistant subpopulations during colistin therapy.
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A cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of a simplified cardiovascular management program in Tibet, China and Haryana, India: study design and rationale.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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In resource-poor areas of China and India, the cardiovascular disease burden is high, but availability of and access to quality healthcare is limited. Establishing a management scheme that utilizes the local infrastructure and builds healthcare capacity is essential for cardiovascular disease prevention and management. The study aims to develop, implement, and evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a simplified, evidence-based cardiovascular management program delivered by community healthcare workers in resource-constrained areas in Tibet, China and Haryana, India.
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Composite-walled magnetic microcapsules at the water-toluene interface by ligand polymerization.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The liquid-liquid interface has been exploited as a platform for devising gold and iron oxide nanoparticle (NP)-decorated composite microcapsules (MCs) by cross-linking between -OH groups of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) attached to the iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticle surface and starch attached to the gold (Au) nanoparticle surface in the presence of terephthaloyl chloride as a cross-linker. These nanoparticle-decorated capsules form a shell of both types of nanoparticles with water as the minor phase and toluene as the major phase. The morphology of these capsules has been characterized by optical, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy images, and the polymerization reaction has been established by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopic studies. The magnetic behavior of the capsules has been illustrated by using an external magnetic field to tailor the magnetic control of the capsules. The encapsulated phase was impregnated with dye molecules of three different sizes, viz., fluorescein isothiocyanate and its dextran conjugates, to investigate the permeability of the capsule wall by fluorescence spectroscopy. Interestingly, the microcapsules exhibit size-selective permeability across the capsule wall that points to their plausible applications in controlled encapsulation and release.
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Topographic characteristics of keratoconus among a sample of Jordanian patients.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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To identify topographic characteristics of keratoconus in a Jordanian sample.
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Are women in Kuwait aware of breast cancer and its diagnostic procedures?
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge and awareness of women in Kuwait with regard to risk factors, symptoms and diagnostic procedures of breast cancer. A total of 521 questionnaires were distributed among women in Kuwait. Results showed that 72% of respondents linked breast cancer factors to family history, while 69.7% scored abnormal breast enlargement as the most detectable symptom of the disease. Some 84% of participants had heard about self-examination, but knowledge about mammograms was limited to 48.6% and only 22.2% were familiar with diagnostic procedures. Some 22.9% of respondents identified the age over 40 years as the reasonable age to start mammogram screening. Risk factor awareness was independent on age groups (p>0.05), but both high education and family history increased the likelihood of postivie answers; the majority knew about a few factors such as aging, pregnancy after age 30, breast feeding for short time, menopause after age of 50, early puberty, and poor personal hygiene. In conclusion, 43.1% of participants had an overall good knowledge of breast cancer with regards to symptoms, risk factors and breast examination. Very highly significant associations (p<0.005) were evident for all groups except for respondents distributed by nationality (p=0.444). Early campaigns for screening the breast should be recommended to eliminate the confusion of wrong perceptions about malignant mammary disease.
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HIV and metabolic, body, and bone disorders: what we know from low- and middle-income countries.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Globally, the HIV epidemic is evolving. Life expectancy for HIV-infected individuals has been extended because of more effective and more widely available antiretroviral therapy. As a result, chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become important comorbid conditions. In particular, HIV-infected persons are increasingly at risk of developing metabolic (diabetes, dyslipidemias), body composition (lipodystrophy, overweight/obesity) and bone mineral density abnormalities. We have summarized the published epidemiological and clinical literature regarding these HIV-NCD comorbidities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We found important gaps in knowledge. Specifically, there are few studies that use standardized methods and metrics; consequently, prevalence or incidence data are not comparable. There are very little or no data regarding the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of clinical monitoring or therapeutic interventions for metabolic disorders in HIV-infected individuals. Also, although NCDs continue to grow in the HIV-negative population of most LMICs, there are few data comparing the incidence of NCD comorbidities between HIV-infected and HIV-negative populations. To address these gaps, we describe potential research and capacity development priorities for the future.
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Cellular changes of the colon after mechanical bowel preparation.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) on the intracellular environment, specifically evaluating butyrate transport, within the colon of the Sprague-Dawley rat.
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P53 nuclear stabilization is associated with FHIT loss and younger age of onset in squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue.
BMC Clin Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue (SCCT) is expected to harbor unique clinico-pathological and molecular genetic features since a significant proportion of patients are young and exhibit no association with tobacco or alcohol.
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Breast cancer: is there a viral connection?
Adv Anat Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Viruses are known to be etiologically related to several types of human cancer. In several published studies, viruses such as human mammary tumor virus, human papillomaviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and measles virus have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a subset of breast cancers (BC). However, these studies have produced conflicting results, causing considerable controversy. In this context, recent demonstration of elevated levels of mutagenic antiviral enzyme APOBEC3B in a majority of BCs is a highly significant development, as it provides a possible mechanism for development of large numbers of mutations (kataegis) that characterize many of the BCs. It has also provided further impetus for revaluating the role of viruses in the pathogenesis of BC.
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The impact of nanoparticles on the mucosal translocation and transport of GLP-1 across the intestinal epithelium.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that is in the pipeline for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) therapy. However, oral administration of GLP-1 is hindered by the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and poor bioavailability. In this study, three nanosystems composed by three different biomaterials (poly(lactide-co-glycolide) polymer (PLGA), Witepsol E85 lipid (solid lipid nanoparticles, SLN) and porous silicon (PSi) were developed and loaded with GLP-1 to study their permeability in vitro. All the nanoparticles presented a size of approximately 200 nm. The nanoparticles' interaction with the mucus and the intestinal cells were enhanced after coating with chitosan (CS). PSi nanosystems presented the best association efficiency (AE) and loading degree (LD), even though a high AE was also observed for PLGA nanoparticles and SLN. Among all the nanosystems, PLGA and PSi were the only nanoparticles able to sustain the release of GLP-1 in biological fluids when coated with CS. This characteristic was also maintained when the nanosystems were in contact with the intestinal Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cell monolayers. The CS-coated PSi nanoparticles showed the highest GLP-1 permeation across the intestinal in vitro models. In conclusion, PLGA + CS and PSi + CS are promising nanocarriers for the oral delivery of GLP-1.
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Controlled human malaria infection of Tanzanians by intradermal injection of aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) by mosquito bite has been used to assess anti-malaria interventions in > 1,500 volunteers since development of methods for infecting mosquitoes by feeding on Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) gametocyte cultures. Such CHMIs have never been used in Africa. Aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Pf sporozoites, PfSPZ Challenge, were used to infect Dutch volunteers by intradermal injection. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess safety and infectivity of PfSPZ Challenge in adult male Tanzanians. Volunteers were injected intradermally with 10,000 (N = 12) or 25,000 (N = 12) PfSPZ or normal saline (N = 6). PfSPZ Challenge was well tolerated and safe. Eleven of 12 and 10 of 11 subjects, who received 10,000 and 25,000 PfSPZ respectively, developed parasitemia. In 10,000 versus 25,000 PfSPZ groups geometric mean days from injection to Pf positivity by thick blood film was 15.4 versus 13.5 (P = 0.023). Alpha-thalassemia heterozygosity had no apparent effect on infectivity. PfSPZ Challenge was safe, well tolerated, and infectious.
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Triterpene glycosides from red ginseng marc and their anti-inflammatory activities.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Three new triterpene glycosides ursan-3?,19?,22?-triol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl (2'?1?)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), ursan-3?,11?-diol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(6'?1?)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(6??1?)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(6??1?')-?-D-glucopyranoside (2) and lanost-5,24-dien-3?-ol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(6'?1?)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(6??1?)-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), together with one known compound were isolated and identified from the marc of red ginseng. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds (1-3) were investigated for anti-inflammatory effects using the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. In the cell proliferation assay, lipopolysaccharide stimulation decreased cell proliferation of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, but the suppression of cell proliferation was significantly protected by treatment with compounds 2 and 3. Compounds 2 and 3 had a suppressive effect on the production of nitric oxide (NO), and they inhibited mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and proinflammatory cytokines such as two interleukins and tumor necrosis factor-?. These findings suggest that compounds 2 and 3 have potential anti-inflammatory activities.
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Myocardial tissue phase mapping reveals impaired myocardial tissue velocities in obesity.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Although obesity is linked to heart failure on a population level, not all obese subjects develop cardiac failure. As a result, identifying obese subjects with subclinical changes in myocardial velocities may enable earlier detection of those susceptible to developing overt heart failure. As echocardiography is limited in obesity due to limited acoustic window, we used phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging to assess myocardial velocities in obese and normal weight subjects. Normal weight (BMI 23 ± 3; n = 40) and obese subjects (BMI 37 ± 7; n = 59) without identifiable cardiovascular risk factors underwent MRI (1.5 Tesla) to determine left ventricular myocardial velocities using phase contrast tissue phase mapping. Systolic function was not different between normal and obese subjects (LVEF 67 ± 5 vs 68 ± 4, p = 0.22). However, obesity was associated with significantly impaired peak radial and longitudinal diastolic myocardial velocity (by 13 and 19 % respectively, both p < 0.001). In addition time-to-peak longitudinal diastolic velocity was delayed in obesity (by 39 ms, p < 0.001). In addition, peak longitudinal diastolic strain was 20 % lower in obesity (p = 0.015) and time-to-peak longitudinal diastolic strain rate significantly delayed in obesity (by 92 ms, p < 0.001).Although peak radial systolic velocity was similar between obese and normal weight subjects (p = 0.14) peak longitudinal systolic velocity was 7 % lower in the obese cohort (p = 0.02). In obesity without co-morbidities, tissue phase mapping has shown subclinical changes in systolic and diastolic function. Given the link between obesity and heart failure, early detection of changes may become clinically important to prevent disease progression.
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New phytoconstituents from the aerial parts of Fumaria parviflora Lam.
J Adv Pharm Technol Res
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae) is an annual herb found throughout the world. Traditionally it has great significance in various disorders. In folk medicine of Turkey it is used against hepato-biliary dysfunction and imported from Iran. In Charaka and Sushruta, it is recommended for treatment of fevers, blood disorders, chronic skin diseases, urinary diseases and cough. The compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel (60-120 mesh) as stationary phase and structure of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of its aerial parts led to the isolation of five new compounds characterized as (5?H,11?H)-8-oxo-homoiridolide (1), n-docosanyl-2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl salicylate (2), 2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylenedodecan-10-oyl-12, 15-olide14-O-?-D-xylopyranoside (3), 4-oxo-stigmast-5-en-3?-ol-D-glucopyranoside (4) and salicylic acid-O-?-D-xylopyranoside (5) along with the known compounds ?-D-glucopyranosyl hexadecanoate (6) and ?-D-glucopyranosyl- (2 ? 1')-?-D-glucopyranoside (7). The isolated compounds are useful as they will provide essential data and information for the further researchers and development of effective analytical marker for identity, purity and quality control of this traditional plant in future.
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Frequent migration of introduced cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses among Middle Eastern countries.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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In the early 2000s, two cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses were introduced into the eastern Mediterranean basin: the Old World Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) and the New World Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV). These viruses have been emerging in parallel over the last decade in Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine.
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Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.
Marie Ng, Tom Fleming, Margaret Robinson, Blake Thomson, Nicholas Graetz, Christopher Margono, Erin C Mullany, Stan Biryukov, Cristiana Abbafati, Semaw Ferede Abera, Jerry P Abraham, Niveen M E Abu-Rmeileh, Tom Achoki, Fadia S AlBuhairan, Zewdie A Alemu, Rafael Alfonso, Mohammed K Ali, Raghib Ali, Nelson Alvis Guzman, Walid Ammar, Palwasha Anwari, Amitava Banerjee, Simón Barquera, Sanjay Basu, Derrick A Bennett, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Jed Blore, Norberto Cabral, Ismael Campos Nonato, Jung-Chen Chang, Rajiv Chowdhury, Karen J Courville, Michael H Criqui, David K Cundiff, Kaustubh C Dabhadkar, Lalit Dandona, Adrian Davis, Anand Dayama, Samath D Dharmaratne, Eric L Ding, Adnan M Durrani, Alireza Esteghamati, Farshad Farzadfar, Derek F J Fay, Valery L Feigin, Abraham Flaxman, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Atsushi Goto, Mark A Green, Rajeev Gupta, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Graeme J Hankey, Heather C Harewood, Rasmus Havmoeller, Simon Hay, Lucia Hernandez, Abdullatif Husseini, Bulat T Idrisov, Nayu Ikeda, Farhad Islami, Eiman Jahangir, Simerjot K Jassal, Sun Ha Jee, Mona Jeffreys, Jost B Jonas, Edmond K Kabagambe, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan Khalifa, André Pascal Kengne, Yousef Saleh Khader, Young-Ho Khang, Daniel Kim, Ruth W Kimokoti, Jonas M Kinge, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Soewarta Kosen, Gene Kwan, Taavi Lai, Mall Leinsalu, Yichong Li, Xiaofeng Liang, Shiwei Liu, Giancarlo Logroscino, Paulo A Lotufo, Yuan Lu, Jixiang Ma, Nana Kwaku Mainoo, George A Mensah, Tony R Merriman, Ali H Mokdad, Joanna Moschandreas, Mohsen Naghavi, Aliya Naheed, Devina Nand, K M Venkat Narayan, Erica Leigh Nelson, Marian L Neuhouser, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Samuel O Oti, Andrea Pedroza, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Nobhojit Roy, Uchechukwu Sampson, Hyeyoung Seo, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Kenji Shibuya, Rahman Shiri, Ivy Shiue, Gitanjali M Singh, Jasvinder A Singh, Vegard Skirbekk, Nicolas J C Stapelberg, Lela Sturua, Bryan L Sykes, Martin Tobias, Bach X Tran, Leonardo Trasande, Hideaki Toyoshima, Steven van de Vijver, Tommi J Vasankari, J Lennert Veerman, Gustavo Velásquez-Meléndez, Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov, Stein Emil Vollset, Theo Vos, Claire Wang, Xiaorong Wang, Elisabete Weiderpass, Andrea Werdecker, Jonathan L Wright, Y Claire Yang, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Jihyun Yoon, Seok-Jun Yoon, Yong Zhao, Maigeng Zhou, Shankuan Zhu, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray, Emmanuela Gakidou.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013.
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Delivery, immediate newborn and cord care practices in Pemba Tanzania: a qualitative study of community, hospital staff and community level care providers for knowledge, attitudes, belief systems and practices.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Deaths during the neonatal period account for almost two-thirds of all deaths in the first year of life and 40 percent of deaths before the age of five. Most of these deaths could be prevented through proven cost-effective interventions. Although there are some recent data from sub-Saharan Africa, but there is paucity of qualitative data from Zanzibar and cord care practices data from most of East Africa. We undertook a qualitative study in Pemba Island as a pilot to explore the attitudes, beliefs and practices of the community and health workers related to delivery, newborn and cord care with the potential to inform the main chlorhexidine (CHX) trial.
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Changes in diabetes-related complications in the United States, 1990-2010.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Preventive care for adults with diabetes has improved substantially in recent decades. We examined trends in the incidence of diabetes-related complications in the United States from 1990 through 2010.
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Interfacial assembly of ZnO quantum dots into giant supramolecular architectures.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) stabilised zinc oxide (ZnO) quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesised by refluxing zinc acetate dihydrate in methanol under alkaline condition and re-dispersed into water by centrifugation. Aqueous dispersion of PABA-stabilised ZnO QDs was taken with seven different organic solvents in test tubes and subjected to diazo reaction under specified conditions. It was seen that the quantum dots assembled into diverse superstructures depending on the nature of the immiscible solvent at the aqueous-organic interface. The assemblies so obtained have been characterised by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), optical, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images. It has been observed that the ensuing supramolecular assemblies exhibit significant electrical conductivity and photoluminescence properties.
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HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS screening of bioactive components from Rhus coriaria L. (Sumac) fruits.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Rhus coriaria L. (sumac) is an important crop widely used in the Mediterranean basin as a food spice, and also in folk medicine, due to its health-promoting properties. Phytochemicals present in plant foods are in part responsible for these consequent health benefits. Nevertheless, detailed information on these bioactive compounds is still scarce. Therefore, the present work was aimed at investigating the phytochemical components of sumac fruit epicarp using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS in two different ionisation modes. The proposed method provided tentative identification of 211 phenolic and other phyto-constituents, most of which have not been described so far in R. coriaria fruits. More than 180 phytochemicals (tannins, (iso)flavonoids, terpenoids, etc.) are reported herein in sumac fruits for the first time. The obtained results highlight the importance of R. coriaria as a promising source of functional ingredients, and boost its potential use in the food and nutraceutical industries.
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Two new phenolic compounds from Ficus rumphii and their antiproliferative activity.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Two new compounds 2 and 4, along with two known compounds 1 and 3, were isolated for the first time from 95% ethanolic extract of the leaves of Ficus rumphii. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physical evidences (elemental analysis, UV, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectra) and comparison with the literature compounds. Structural authentication of compound 4 was further validated by single-crystal X-ray analysis and DFT calculations. The compounds 1-4 were screened for in vitro cytotoxicity against cancer and non-cancer cells and also tested for genotoxicity (comet assay). Compounds 2 and 4 displayed significant activity against HL-60 with IC50 values of 3.3 and 2.3 ?M, respectively. The results revealed that compound 4 has better prospectus to act as cancer chemotherapeutic candidate which warrants further in vivo anticancer investigations.
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Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial evaluation of a novel compound N-octacosan 7? ol, from Fumaria parviflora Lam.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumaraceae) is widely used in traditional as well as folkloric system of medicine from ancient. It is commonly known as 'Pitpapra' or 'Shahtrah' in Indian traditional system of medicine and used for treating numerous ailments like diarrhea, fever, influenza, blood purifier and other complications. The object of the present study was to evaluate the Antileishmanial, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic potential of isolated compound.
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Trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors by obesity level in adults in the United States, NHANES 1999-2010.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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To assess whether trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors by among overweight and obese US adults have improved.
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Aliphatic and eudesmalolide esters extracted from the roots of Inula racemosa Hook.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Phytochemical investigation of hydroalcoholic extract of the root of Inula racemosa Hook.
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ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The increasing frequency and antibiotic resistance among extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing bacteria are posing a serious threat. This study sought to investigate the frequency and antibiotic susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae at a tertiary care hospital.
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Evaluate the Malocclusion in Subjects Reporting for Orthodontic Treatment among Saudi Population in Asser Region.
J Int Oral Health
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Oral health is an important component of general health and is associated with the development of a healthy personality. The malocclusion has been shown to affects oral health, leads to increased prevalence of dental caries and may result in temporo-mandibular joint disorders. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate the malocclusion in subjects reporting for orthodontic treatment among Saudi population in Asser region by using Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI).
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Molecular characterization of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) from Palestine.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The incidence of watermelon chlorotic stunt disease and molecular characterization of the Palestinian isolate of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV-[PAL]) are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from watermelon Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants were tested for WmCSV-[PAL] infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA). Disease incidence ranged between 25%-98% in watermelon fields in the studied area, 77% of leaf samples collected from Jenin were found to be mixed infected with WmCSV-[PAL] and SLCV. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of WmCSV-[PAL] were amplified and sequenced, and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank. Sequence analysis of virus genomes showed that DNA-A and DNA-B had 97.6%-99.42% and 93.16%-98.26% nucleotide identity with other virus isolates in the region, respectively. Sequence analysis also revealed that the Palestinian isolate of WmCSV shared the highest nucleotide identity with an isolate from Israel suggesting that the virus was introduced to Palestine from Israel.
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Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in Asian Indians with young onset type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
J. Diabetes Complicat.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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To assess the prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in people with young onset type 1 (T1DM-Y) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM-Y).
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Do we produce enough fruits and vegetables to meet global health need?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Low fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally, but much of the world's population does not consume the recommended servings of FV daily. It remains unknown whether global supply of FV is sufficient to meet current and growing population needs. We sought to determine whether supply of FV is sufficient to meet current and growing population needs, globally and in individual countries.
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Interstate variation in modifiable risk factors and cardiovascular mortality in the United States.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We investigated the role of state-level differences in modifiable cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in contributing to state disparities in cardiovascular mortality rates in the US.
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Gastroprotective Effect of Freeze Dried Stripped Snakehead Fish (Channa striata Bloch.) Aqueous Extract against Aspirin Induced Ulcerogenesis in Pylorus Ligated Rats.
ISRN Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Channa striata (Bloch.) is a fresh water fish belonging to the family Channidae. The stripped snakehead fish possesses wide range of medicinal properties. In view of traditional use of C. striata for wound healing, the present study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of orally administered freeze dried aqueous extract of Channa striata (AECS) in experimentally induced gastric ulcers in Wistar rats. Aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation model was used for the assessment of antiulcer activity and Ranitidine (50?mg/kg) was employed as the standard drug. The various gastric parameters like volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidities, ulcer index, and levels of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde were determined. AECS at concentrations of 40% and 50% w/v significantly decreased the volume of gastric juice and increased the levels of catalase while considerable decrease in free and total acidities and increase in superoxide dismutase were observed with the treatment of standard drug and AECS (50% w/v). All the test doses of AECS markedly decreased ulcer index and malondialdehyde compared to the standard drug whereas AECS 30% w/v did not alter volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidities, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. From these findings, it can be concluded that AECS is devoid of acid neutralizing effects at lower doses and possesses antisecretory and antiulcer activities and this could be related to its antioxidant mechanism.
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Global rural diabetes prevalence: a systematic review and meta-analysis covering 1990-2012.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate diabetes prevalence in rural areas globally and how it has changed over time in high-income countries (HIC) and low-middle income countries (LMIC).
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Dynamics of insulin-like factor 3 and its receptor expression in boar testes.
J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Relaxin-like factor (RLF), now mainly known as insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), is essential for testis descent during fetal development; however, its function in the adult testis is still being elucidated. As a major step toward understanding the as-yet-unknown function of INSL3 in boars, this study aimed to develop a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for boar INSL3, characterize the dynamics of INSL3 expression during development, and demonstrate the expression of the INSL3 hormone-receptor system in the testis. All samples were collected from Duroc boars. The sensitivity of the assay system established was 8.2?pg/well (164?pg/ml), and no cross-reactivity with other hormones, such as porcine relaxin, was observed. Circulating INSL3 was shown to increase progressively during development. INSL3 secreted from the Leydig cells was released not only into the blood circulation but also into the interstitial and seminiferous compartments in sufficient concentrations. A testicular fractionation study revealed that its receptor RXFP2 transcripts were expressed mainly in testicular germ cells. In addition, INSL3 bound to the germ cell membranes in a hormone-specific and saturable manner. These results reveal that INSL3 secreted into the interstitial compartment from the Leydig cells is transported into the seminiferous compartments, where its receptor RXFP2 is expressed mainly in the germ cells to which INSL3 binds, suggesting that INSL3 functions as a paracrine factor on seminiferous germ cells.
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Finishing and Polishing Procedures of Composite Restorations by Saudi Dentists: A Cross-sectional Study.
J Contemp Dent Pract
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and practices of Saudi dentists in finishing and polishing composite restorations. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among 306 Saudi dentists from March to April 2012. The collected data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2010 program and descriptive statistics were obtained. Results: Completed questionnaires were returned by 191 participants, giving a response rate of 62.4%. 115 (65.7%) respondents are using fine diamond finishing burs for finishing occlusal surfaces, 82 (48%) used fine aluminum oxide finishing discs for finishing facial surfaces, 130 (76%) used diamond finishing strips for finishing interproximal surfaces.121 (63.4%) respondents were of the view that the type of filler content has a major influence in providing color stability to the composite restoration and 137 (72.1%) believed nano-composites provided enhanced color stability. Conclusion: Dentists in Saudi Arabia are aware of the benefits of proper finishing and polishing of composite restorations. They however need to use finishing and polishing burs, disks, strips and pastes in a sequential series. Usage of composite polishing pastes and composite surface sealants should be emphasized in undergraduate curriculum. Keywords: Composite restoration, Finishing, Dentists, Saudi Arabia. How to cite this article: AlQarni MA, Togoo RA, Al Shahrani I, Phani CRS. Finishing and Polishing Procedures of Composite Restorations by Saudi Dentists: A Cross-sectional Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):657-661. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.
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Isolation and identification of new phytoconstituents from the fruit extract of Amomum subulatum Roxb.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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The fruits of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) (large cardamom), cultivated in the northern Himalayas, are used to treat stomach disorders, pulmonary diseases and liver complaints. Phytochemical investigation of the fruits led to the isolation of four new chemical compounds characterised as geranil-3(10)-en-9-olyl octadec-9-enoate, geranil-3(10)-en-9-carboxyl-?-d-arabinopyranoside, geranilan-9-carboxy-?-l-arabinopyranoside and stigmast-5-en-3?-ol-3?-d-arabinopyranosyl-2-(3?-methoxy) benzoate-3-octadec-9?,12?,15?-trienoate, along with the known compounds oleodilinolein and glyceryl trilinoleniate on the basis of spectral data analysis.
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Immunisation coverage and its associations in rural Tanzanian infants.
Rural Remote Health
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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In Tanzania, vaccination rates (VRs) range from 80% to 90% for standard vaccines, but little information is available about rural populations and nomadic pastoralists. This study investigates levels and trends of the immunisation status of infants at eight mobile reproductive-and-child-health (RCH) clinics in a rural area in northern Tanzania (with a large multi-tribal population that has a significant population of nomadic pastoralists) for the years 1998, 1999, 2006 and 2007. In addition, the influence of tribal affiliation and health system-related factors on the immunisation status in this population is analysed.
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Lean People with Dysglycemia Have a Worse Metabolic Profile Than Centrally Obese People Without Dysglycemia.
Diabetes Technol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Abstract Aim: This study compared metabolic profiles of Asian Indians with normal waist circumference (WC) and dysglycemia versus those with high WC without dysglycemia. Subjects and Methods: In 2,350 subjects ?20 years of age from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study with full anthropometric and biochemical characterization, high WC was defined as ?90?cm in males and ?80?cm in females. Dysglycemia was defined as prediabetes (fasting plasma glucose ?100?mg/dL and/or 2-h plasma glucose ?140?mg/dL) or diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ?126?mg/dL, 2-h plasma glucose ?200?mg/dL, or treatment for diagnosed diabetes). Coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as known myocardial infarction or Q waves on electrocardiography. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore factors associated with CAD. Results: Of the subjects, 260 (11.1%) had dysglycemia with normal WC, and 679 (28.9%), had high WC without dysglycemia. Compared with subjects with high WC without dysglycemia, those with dysglycemia/normal WC, adjusted for age, were more likely to be males (P<0.001) and have higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.05), higher serum triglycerides (P<0.001), higher tumor necrosis factor-? (P<0.001), lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<0.05), and higher prevalence of CAD (6.3% vs. 2.0%; odds ratio 3.25 [95% confidence interval 1.52-6.94]; P=0.002). Conclusions: Dysglycemia is associated with a worse cardiometabolic profile than central obesity alone.
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Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with situs inversus totalis: case report with review of literature.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Situs inversus totalis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which can cause diagnostic confusion in a lot of clinical conditions including calculous cholecystitis due to the reversed anatomical positions of abdominal viscera. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is much more challenging in the presence of this disorder due to loss of usual orientation. We present a case of a 43-year-old woman who was diagnosed at our centre to have calculous cholecystitis in the presence of situs inversus totalis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely after adjustment of the positions of the team inside the operative theatre and of the port sites. The patient tolerated the operation very well and was discharged home after 24h. On follow-up visit the patient was doing very well and completely free of symptoms.
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Brucella spp isolated from respiratory sample and grown in Mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT).
Ann Saudi Med
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Brucellosis remains endemic in many countries including Saudi Arabia. The disinfection of objects and surfaces contaminated with Brucella spp is not difficult, but we encountered a situation in which the organism survived the decontamination and liquefaction procedure adopted for AFB culture. A sputum specimen from a patient was sent for TB culture and the BACTEC MGIT 960 system isolated an organism identified as Brucella spp. The blood cultures and the serological testing had confirmed this case to be brucellosis. Isolation of Brucella spp from sputum samples is rare; this case appears to be the first of its kind. As the clinical presentation of TB may mimic brucellosis and vice versa, we recommend that handling specimens from all cases of undiagnosed PUO should be done with care because of the possibility that it may contain either of these organisms.
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Umbelliferone beta-D-galactopyranoside from Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. an ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone beta-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat.
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Synthesis, characterization, DNA-binding studies and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of new 3-formyl chromone derivatives.
J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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A series of new substituted 3-formyl chromone derivatives (4-6) were synthesized by one step reaction methodology by knoevenagel condensation, structurally similar to known bisintercalators. The new compounds were characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS and analytical data. The in vitro DNA binding profile of compounds (4-6) was carried out by absorption, fluorescence and viscosity measurements. It was found that synthesized compounds, especially compound 6 (evident from binding constant value) bind strongly with calf thymus DNA, presumably via an intercalation mode. Additionally, molecular docking studies of compounds (4-6) were carried out with B-DNA (PDBID: 1BNA) which revealed that partial intercalative mode of mechanism is operational in synthesized compounds (4-6) with CT-DNA. The binding constants evaluated from fluorescence spectroscopy of compounds with CT-DNA follows the order compound 6>compound 5>compound 4. All the compounds (4-6) were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay. It can be inferred from data, that compound (6) showed potent AChE inhibition having IC50=0.27?M, almost in vicinity to reference drug Tacrine (IC50=0.19?M).
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Key health themes and reporting of numerical cigarette-waterpipe equivalence in online news articles reporting on waterpipe tobacco smoking: a content analysis.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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There is anecdotal evidence that health messages interpreted from waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) research are inconsistent, such as comparing the health effects of one WTS session with that of 100 cigarettes. This study aimed to identify key health themes about WTS discussed by online news media, and how numerical cigarette-waterpipe equivalence (CWE) was being interpreted.
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Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among hypertensive patients in Palestine.
Complement Ther Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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To explore the frequency of CAM use among hypertensive patients in Palestine, determine demographic characteristics that may increase the likelihood of CAM use and to find out how benefits were perceived by patients.
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Improving forensic mental health care for Aboriginal Australians: Challenges and opportunities.
Int J Ment Health Nurs
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Mental illnesses constitute a major burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders (hereafter Aboriginal Australians), who are also overrepresented in the prison system. A legacy of colonization compounds such prevalence, and is further exacerbated by the persistence of racial discrimination and insensitivity across many sectors, including health. This research completed in a Western Australian forensic mental health setting identifies non-Aboriginal health professionals support needs to deliver high-quality, culturally-safe care to Aboriginal patients. Data were collected from health professionals using an online survey and 10 semistructured interviews. Survey and interview results found that ongoing education was needed for staff to provide culturally-safe care, where Aboriginal knowledge, beliefs, and values were respected. The findings also support previous research linking Aboriginal health providers to improved health outcomes for Aboriginal patients. In a colonized country, such as Australia, education programmes that critically reflect on power relations privileging white Anglo-Australian cultural dominance and subjugating Aboriginal knowledge, beliefs, and values are important to identify factors promoting or compromising the care of Aboriginal patients and developing a deeper understanding of cultural safety and its clinical application. Organizational commitment is needed to translate the findings to support non-Aboriginal health professionals deliver high-quality care to Aboriginal patients that is respectful of cultural differences.
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Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm mimicking Mirizzi syndrome.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Acute cholecystitis leading to development of a pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery is a very rare complication; however, a pseudoaneurysm resulting in gallbladder neck compression with dilatation of intrahepatic duct giving a Mirizzi syndrome like presentation is virtually unreported to the best of our knowledge. We report a case of a 60 years male patient who presented in emergency department with right hypochondrial pain and mild jaundice. Initial diagnosis of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm causing compression of neck of gallbladder and common bile duct was made on ultrasound examination. This was resulting in gross distention of gallbladder and mild dilatation of intrahepatic ducts. Findings were confirmed on CT scan. Later successful selective transcatheter arterial embolization of the aneurysm and percutaneous cholecystostomy were performed.
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Lingual nerve injury following use of a supraglottic airway device.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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We present the case of a 64-year-old woman who lost sensation on the left side of her tongue after an orthopaedic procedure under general anaesthetic. It provides evidence that anaesthetic airway devices can injure the lingual nerve.
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Six-year retrospective study of reconstructive options for defects of the skull base after resection of tumour.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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The successful management of tumours that involve the skull base depends on resection and reconstruction of the defect. The challenge is to create a protective vascularised seal between the intracranial contents and the adjacent paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, and oral cavity. Failure to create a protective barrier for the intracranial contents can result in cerebrospinal fistulas, potentially fatal infections, and radiotherapy being delayed. Local or regional flaps may be adequate for small defects, but larger ones require microsurgical free tissue transfer. As a part of the skull base surgical team, we present our experience in the reconstruction of defects after resection of tumours. A total of 41 patients had operations over a 6-year period from January 2004 to January 2010, and 26 free tissue transfer flaps and 20 local or regional flaps (46 flaps) were used for reconstruction. Ninety-two percent of the free flaps were successful. We also report details on disease, complications, and survival at 3, 6, and 12 months. Survival depended not only on the type of disease, coexisting conditions, and adequate resection of tumour, but equally on the reconstruction of the defect.
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Caveolin-1 promotes gastric cancer progression by up-regulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition by crosstalk of signalling mechanisms under hypoxic condition.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Gastric cancer is the second most fatal common form of cancer. The crosstalk among signalling pathways that results in the acceleration of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a pivotal role in the molecular mechanism of gastric carcinogenesis. To understand the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the expression pattern was studied in human gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and also in AGS and KATO III cell lines. Here, we show that during hypoxic condition, the increase in the levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) results in a significant decrease in the expression of caveolin-1 which is regulated by heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). The reduced levels of Cav-1 correlated with the increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation resulting in the significant activation of its downstream target STAT3. Accumulation of pSTAT3 in the nucleus results in the decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of mesenchymal markers (Slug, ?-SMA, N-cadherin and vimentin). Crosstalk of EGFR and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) signalling with Wnt signalling enhances cell proliferation, cell survival and upregulates EMT. There was no significant alteration in the expression of epithelial and mesenchymal molecules in both the cell lines studied. Thus, we provide evidence that Cav-1 was modulated by HSP90 and functions as a crucial regulator of EMT in gastric cancer.
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Achievement of goals in U.S. diabetes care, 1999-2010.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Tracking national progress in diabetes care may aid in the evaluation of past efforts and identify residual gaps in care.
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Systems and capacity to address noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are increasingly getting attention from different forums, including media outlets, health agencies, and the public and private sectors. Progress is being made in addressing NCDs, though more slowly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as compared with high-income settings. Here, we offer an analysis of the challenges faced in LMICs. We discuss realistic strategies to understand and develop capacity needs (workforce, finances, and infrastructure) and systems (institutions and processes) to sustainably optimize NCD prevention and care in LMICs.
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Evidence of reduced ?-cell function in Asian Indians with mild dysglycemia.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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To examine ?-cell function across a spectrum of glycemia among Asian Indians, a population experiencing type 2 diabetes development at young ages despite low BMI.
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Bowel block in pancreatitis.
J Clin Diagn Res
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Acute pancreatitis is a multisystem disorder which can result in a variety of complications. Vascular complications can occur commonly in acute pancreatitis. Splenic artery rupture, aneurysms; gastro duodenal artery aneurysms; splenic venous thrombosis; portal venous thrombosis and rarely, superior mesenteric venous thrombosis, are the vascular complications of pancreatitis. Ischaemic stricture of the small bowel can occur secondary to pancreatitis, but it is extremely rare. Hence, we are reporting this case of a proximal jejunal stricture which occurred secondary to the pancreatitis which was caused by a superior mesenteric thrombosis.
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Prostaglandin Analogous and Antioxidant Activity Mediated Gastroprotective Action of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. Flower Methanolic Extract against Chemically Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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The present study was conducted to evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect and recognize the basic mechanism of action of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. flowers. T. divaricata flower methanolic extract (TDFME) was screened for antiulcer activity versus aspirin and ethanol induced gastric ulcers at three doses-125, 250, and 500?mg/kg-orally using misoprostol as a standard. Besides histopathological examination, seven parameters, that is, ulcer index, total protein, nonprotein sulphhydryls, mucin, catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels, were estimated. In addition to HPLC profiling, GC-MS analysis and electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectral (ESI-HRMS) analysis of crude TDFME were carried out in an attempt to identify known phytochemicals present in the extract on the basis of m/z value. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, mucin, and nonprotein sulphhydryls, while they revealed a reduction in ulcer index, the levels of total protein, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological observations also demonstrated the protective effect. Though all the doses of TDFME exhibited gastroprotective function, higher doses were found to be more effective. Mass spectral analysis gave a few characteristic m/z values suggesting the presence of a few known indole alkaloids, while HPLC profiling highlighted the complexity of the extract. TDFME was found to exhibit its gastroprotective effect through antioxidant mechanism and by enhancing the production of gastric mucous.
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Associations of ?-cell function and insulin resistance with youth-onset type 2 diabetes and prediabetes among Asian Indians.
Diabetes Technol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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This study examined ?-cell function and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) in Asian Indian youth with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM-Y) and prediabetes.
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A novel technique for modified B-Lynch suture for the control of atonic postpartum haemorrhage.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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The B-Lynch brace suture technique is a life-saving procedure. It is a simple and safe alternative to hysterectomy. Thus, it preserves fertility with less surgical morbidity. In this case series, we evaluated the use of a novel modification of the B-Lynch brace suture to minimise its potential reported complications. Five women with intractable primary atonic postpartum haemorrhage were reported. They were initially managed with bilateral uterine artery ligation. The procedure was resorted to women who did not respond to ligation. The procedure is efficient. Women were followed up for up to 24 months to report any complications.
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Long-term clinical outcomes after unprotected left main coronary artery stenting in an all-comers patient population.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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The goal of treating patients with coronary artery disease is to improve survival and relieve symptoms. Several studies have compared the safety and efficacy of left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenting and coronary-artery bypass grafting in case control and randomized trials.
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Diabetes in the Middle East and North Africa.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Even though the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region had the highest comparative prevalence of diabetes in 2012, little is known about the nuances of diabetes risk and capacity to address the burdens. To provide a comprehensive overview, we reviewed the literature on diabetes in the MENA region.
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Are recommended standards for diabetes care met in Central and South America? A systematic review.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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We evaluated quality of diabetes care in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) of Central and South America by documenting the ability to meet the guideline-recommended targets. We also identified barriers to achieving goals of treatment and characteristics of successful programs.
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Fruit and vegetable purchasing patterns and preferences in South Delhi.
Ecol Food Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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This study examines associations between consumer characteristics, beliefs, and preferences and fruit and vegetable (FV) purchasing and intake in South Delhi, India. Home interviews were conducted with 245 households, using a structured questionnaire to assess FV consumption and purchasing frequency, spending, place of purchase, mode of travel, knowledge and attitudes toward organics, and beliefs about barriers to FV consumption. In-depth interviews with 62 experts and key informants validated survey findings that street vendors and markets are currently the dominant source of FV in South Delhi and that affordability, not accessibility, is the main barrier to increasing FV intake.
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First Dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (?75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods) with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.
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Enhanced glycemic control, pancreas protective, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects by umbelliferon-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(2(I)???1(II))-?-D-glucopyranoside in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of umbelliferon-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(2I???1II)-?-D-glucopyranoside (UFD) from Aegle marmelos Corr. on serum glucose, lipid profile and free radical scavenging activity in normal and STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rats.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.