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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Treosulfan-Based Conditioning and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Nonmalignant Diseases: A Prospective Multicenter Trial.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Hematopoietic cell transplantation is an effective treatment for patients with nonmalignant diseases and for many is the only known cure. Conventional myeloablative regimens have been associated with unacceptably high early transplant-related mortality (TRM), particularly in patients with comorbid conditions. This prospective multicenter trial was designed to determine the safety and engraftment efficacy of treosulfan-based conditioning in patients with nonmalignant diseases. Thirty-one patients received HLA-matched related (n = 4) or unrelated (n = 27) grafts after conditioning with treosulfan (total dose, 42 g/m(2)), fludarabine (total dose, 150 mg/m(2)), ± thymoglobulin (6 mg/kg; n = 22). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of tacrolimus and methotrexate. All patients engrafted. Day-100 TRM was 0%. With a median follow-up of 2 years, the 2-year survival was 90%. Three patients died of GVHD, recurrent hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and a surgical complication, respectively. The cumulative incidences of grades II to IV and III to IV acute GVHD at day 100 and chronic GVHD at 2 years were 62%, 10%, and 21%, respectively. Patients who received thymoglobulin had a significantly lower incidence of grades III to IV acute GVHD (0% versus 33%; P = .005). These results indicate that the combination of treosulfan, fludarabine, and thymoglobulin is effective at establishing donor engraftment with low toxicity and improved survival in patients with nonmalignant diseases and support the need for future disease-specific clinical trials.
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Signaling by Fyn-ADAP via the Carma1-Bcl-10-MAP3K7 signalosome exclusively regulates inflammatory cytokine production in NK cells.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Inflammation is a critical component of the immune response. However, acute or chronic inflammation can be highly destructive. Uncontrolled inflammation forms the basis for allergy, asthma and various autoimmune disorders. Here we identified a signaling pathway that was exclusively responsible for the production of inflammatory cytokines but not for cytotoxicity. Recognition of tumor cells expressing the NK cell-activatory ligands H60 or CD137L by mouse natural killer (NK) cells led to efficient cytotoxicity and the production of inflammatory cytokines. Both of those effector functions required the kinases Lck, Fyn and PI(3)K (subunits p85? and p110?) and the signaling protein PLC-?2. However, a complex of Fyn and the adaptor ADAP exclusively regulated the production of inflammatory cytokines but not cytotoxicity in NK cells. That unique function of ADAP required a Carma1-Bcl-10-MAP3K7 signaling axis. Our results have identified molecules that can be targeted to regulate inflammation without compromising NK cell cytotoxicity.
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Immunomodulatory effects induced by cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 immunoglobulin with donor peripheral blood mononuclear cell infusion in canine major histocompatibility complex-haplo-identical non-myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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BACKGROUND AIMS. Previously, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) immunoglobulin (Ig) has been shown to allow sustained engraftment in dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-identical hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) after non-myeloablative conditioning with 100 cGy total body irradiation (TBI). In the current study, we investigated the efficacy of pre-transplant CTLA4-Ig in promoting engraftment across a DLA-mismatched barrier after non-myeloablative conditioning. METHODS. Eight dogs were treated with CTLA4-Ig and donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) prior to receiving 200 cGy TBI followed by transplantation of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from DLA haplo-identical littermates with post-grafting immunosuppression. A control group of six dogs was conditioned with 200 cGy only and transplanted with grafts from DLA haplo-identical littermates followed by post-grafting immunosuppression. RESULTS. In vitro and in vivo donor-specific hyporesponsiveness was demonstrated on day 0 before TBI in eight dogs that received CTLA4-Ig combined with donor PBMC infusions. Four of five dogs treated with increased doses of CTLA4-Ig achieved initial engraftment but eventually rejected, with a duration of mixed chimerism ranging from 12 to 22 weeks. CTLA4-Ig did not show any effect on host natural killer (NK) cell function in vitro or in vivo. No graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) was observed in dogs receiving CTLA4-Ig treatment. CONCLUSIONS. Non-myeloablative conditioning with 200 cGy TBI and CTLA4-Ig combined with donor PBMC infusion was able to overcome the T-cell barrier to achieve initial engraftment without GvHD in dogs receiving DLA haplo-identical grafts. However, rejection eventually occurred; we hypothesize because of the inability of CTLA4-Ig to abate natural killer cell function.
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Transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 regulates natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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Carma1, a caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase, initiates a unique signaling cascade via Bcl10 and Malt1 in NK cells. Carma1 deficiency results in reduced phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and activation of NF-?B that lead to impaired NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production. However, the precise identities of the downstream signaling molecules that link Carma1 to these effector functions were not defined. Here we show that transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is abundantly present in NK cells, and activation via NKG2D results in its phosphorylation. Lack of Carma1 considerably reduced TAK1 phosphorylation, demonstrating the dependence of TAK1 on Carma1 in NKG2D-mediated NK cell activations. Pharmacological inhibitor to TAK1 significantly reduced NK-mediated cytotoxicity and its potential to generate IFN-?, GM-CSF, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, and RANTES. Conditional in vivo knockdown of TAK1 in NK cells from Mx1Cre(+)TAK1(fx/fx) mice resulted in impaired NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine/chemokine production. Inhibition or conditional knockdown of TAK1 severely impaired the NKG2D-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 and activation of NF-?B and AP1. Our results show that TAK1 links Carma1 to NK cell-mediated effector functions.
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Evaluation of posttransplant methotrexate to facilitate engraftment in the canine major histocompatibility complex-haploidentical nonmyeloablative transplant model.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2010
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Posttransplant cyclophosphamide has been shown to control graft-versus-host disease and facilitate engraftment in the major histocompatibility complex-haploidentical transplant setting. Here, we hypothesized that methotrexate (MTX) could be used in a similar fashion. In patients with genetic diseases, the use of MTX rather than an alkylating agent such as cyclophosphamide would be preferable due to its reduced risk of promoting secondary malignancies.
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ASH evidence-based guidelines: is there a role for second allogeneic transplant after relapse?
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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A 35-year-old male with a FLT3(+) AML underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant using a myeloablative non-total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning regimen from his HLA-matched sibling donor. Following transplantation, he developed grade II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) that resolved with increasing immunosuppression. The medications were subsequently discontinued, and he did not develop any evidence of chronic GVHD. Eighteen months after transplant, while off all immunosuppression, he developed fatigue and a blood count showed circulating blasts consistent with relapse of his disease. Among the various therapeutic questions is whether there is a role for a second allogeneic transplant to treat his disease and if so, at what time, with what conditioning, and with which type of donor.
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Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 4. Comparison of maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) and meta-[(211)At]astatobenzoate conjugates for labeling anti-CD45 antibodies with [(211)At]astatine.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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An investigation was conducted to compare the in vivo tissue distribution of a rat antimurine CD45 monoclonal antibody (30F11) and an irrelevant mAbs (CA12.10C12) labeled with (211)At using two different labeling methods. In the investigation, the mAbs were also labeled with (125)I to assess the in vivo stability of the labeling methods toward deastatination. One labeling method employed N-hydroxysuccinimidyl meta-[(211)At]astatobenzoate, [(211)At]1c, and N-hydroxysuccinimidyl meta-[(125)I]iodobenzoate, [(125)I]1b, in conjugation reactions to obtain the radiolabeled mAbs. The other labeling method involved conjugation of a maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) derivative, 2, with sulfhydryl groups on the mAbs, followed by labeling of the mAb-2 conjugates using Na[(211)At]At or Na[(125)I]I and chloramine-T. Concentrations of the (211)At/(125)I pair of radiolabeled mAbs in selected tissues were examined in BALB/c mice at 1, 4, and 24 h post injection (pi). The co-injected anti-CD45 mAb, 30F11, labeled with [(125)I]1b and [(211)At]1c targeted the CD45-bearing cells in the spleen with the percent injected dose (%ID) of (125)I in that tissue being 13.31 ± 0.78; 17.43 ± 2.56; 5.23 ± 0.50; and (211)At being 6.56 ± 0.40; 10.14 ± 1.49; 7.52 ± 0.79 at 1, 4, and 24 h pi (respectively). However, better targeting (or retention) of the (125)I and (211)At was obtained for 30F11 conjugated with the closo-decaborate(2-), 2. The %ID in the spleen of (125)I (i.e., [(125)I]30F11-2) being 21.15 ± 1.33; 22.22 ± 1.95; 12.41 ± 0.75; and (211)At (i.e., [(211)At]30F11-2) being 22.78 ± 1.29; 25.05 ± 2.35; 17.30 ± 1.20 at 1, 4, and 24 h pi (respectively). In contrast, the irrelevant mAb, CA12.10C12, labeled with (125)I or (211)At by either method had less than 0.8% ID in the spleen at any time point, except for [(211)At]CA12.10C12-1c, which had 1.62 ± 0.14%ID and 1.21 ± 0.08%ID at 1 and 4 h pi. The higher spleen concentrations in that conjugate appear to be due to in vivo deastatination. Differences in (125)I and (211)At concentrations in lung, neck, and stomach indicate that the meta-[(211)At]benzoyl conjugates underwent deastatination, whereas the (211)At-labeled closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates were very stable to in vivo deastatination. In summary, using the closo-decaborate(2-) (211)At labeling approach resulted in higher concentrations of (211)At in target tissue (spleen) and higher stability to in vivo deastatination in this model. These findings, along with the simpler and higher-yielding (211)At-labeling method, provide the basis for using the closo-decaborate(2-) labeling reagent, 2, in our continued studies of the application of (211)At-labeled mAbs for conditioning in hematopoietic cell transplantation.
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Transmission and expansion of HOXB4-induced leukemia in two immunosuppressed dogs: implications for a new canine leukemia model.
Exp. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
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There are currently no large animal models to study the biology of leukemia and development of novel antileukemia therapies. We have previously shown that dogs transplanted with homeobox B4 (HOXB4)-transduced autologous CD34(+) cells developed myeloid leukemia associated with HOXB4 overexpression. Here we describe the transmission, engraftment, and expansion of these canine leukemia cells into two genetically unrelated, immunosuppressed dogs.
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Biodistributions, myelosuppression, and toxicities in mice treated with an anti-CD45 antibody labeled with the alpha-emitting radionuclides bismuth-213 or astatine-211.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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We previously investigated the potential of targeted radiotherapy using a bismuth-213 ((213)Bi)-labeled anti-CD45 antibody to replace total body irradiation as conditioning for hematopoietic cell transplantation in a canine model. Although this approach allowed sustained marrow engraftment, limited availability, high cost, and short half-life of (213)Bi induced us to investigate an alternative alpha-emitting radionuclide, astatine-211 ((211)At), for the same application. Biodistribution and toxicity studies were conducted with conjugates of the anti-murine CD45 antibody 30F11 with either (213)Bi or (211)At. Mice were injected with 2 to 50 muCi on 10 microg or 20 muCi on 2 or 40 microg of 30F11 conjugate. Biodistribution studies showed that the spleen contained the highest concentration of radioactivity, ranging from 167 +/- 23% to 417 +/- 109% injected dose/gram (% ID/g) after injection of the (211)At conjugate and 45 +/- 9% to 166 +/- 11% ID/g after injection of the (213)Bi conjugate. The higher concentrations observed for (211)At-labeled 30F11 were due to its longer half-life, which permitted better localization of isotope to the spleen before decay. (211)At was more effective at producing myelosuppression for the same quantity of injected radioactivity. All mice injected with 20 or 50 muCi (211)At, but none with the same quantities of (213)Bi, had lethal myeloablation. Severe reversible acute hepatic toxicity occurred with 50 muCi (213)Bi, but not with lower doses of (213)Bi or with any dose of (211)At. No renal toxicity occurred with either radionuclide. The data suggest that smaller quantities of (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 antibody are sufficient to achieve myelosuppression and myeloablation with less nonhematologic toxicity compared with (213)Bi-labeled antibody.
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IL-22: An Evolutionary Missing-Link Authenticating the Role of the Immune System in Tissue Regeneration.
J Cancer
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Tissue regeneration is a critical component of organ maintenance. The ability of lymphocytes to kill pathogen-infected cells has been well-studied. However, the necessity for lymphocytes to participate in reconstruction of destroyed tissues has not been explored until recently. Interleukin (IL)-22, a newly defined cytokine exclusively produced by subsets of lymphocytes, provides the strongest proof yet for the tissue regenerative potentials of the immune system. IL-22 plays an obligatory role in epithelial homeostasis in the gut, liver and lung. The receptor for IL-22 (IL-22R1 and IL-10R2) is predominantly expressed by epithelial cells. While the pro-inflammatory effect is questioned, the pro-constructive potential of IL-22 is well established. It is evident from the response to IL-22, that epithelial cells not only produce anti-microbial peptides but also actively proliferate. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR?t) transcription factor are required for IL-22 generation from Lymphoid Tissue inducer cells LTi, Th22 and NK-like cells. However, IL-22 production from conventional NK cells is independent of AhR and ROR?t. In this review, we present a case for a paradigm shift in how we define the function of the immune system. This would include tissue regeneration as a legitimate immune function.
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Clinical relevance of natural killer cells following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
J Cancer
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Natural killer (NK) cells are one of the first cells to recover following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and are believed to play an important role in facilitating engraftment or preventing post-transplant infection and tumor recurrence. Recent studies have provided novel insights into the mechanisms by which NK cells mediate these highly clinically relevant immunological functions. In particular, the ability of NK cells to reduce the risk of graft versus host disease (GVHD) and increase the graft versus leukemia effect (GVL) in the setting of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical HSCT highlights their clinical potentials. NK cells also mediate anti-viral protection, in particular against cytomegalovirus (CMV), an infection that causes significant morbidity and mortality following transplant. Another crucial function of NK cells is providing protection against bacterial infections at the mucosal barriers. NK cells achieve this by promoting anti-microbial defenses and regeneration of epithelial cells. These recent exciting findings provide a strong basis for the formulation of novel NK cell-based immunotherapies. In this review, we summarize the recent advances related to the mechanisms, functions, and future clinical prospects of NK cells that can impact post-transplant outcomes.
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IQGAP1: a regulator of intracellular spacetime relativity.
J. Immunol.
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Activating and inhibiting receptors of lymphocytes collect valuable information about their mikròs kósmos. This information is essential to initiate or to turn off complex signaling pathways. Irrespective of these advances, our knowledge on how these intracellular activation cascades are coordinated in a spatiotemporal manner is far from complete. Among multiple explanations, the scaffolding proteins have emerged as a critical piece of this evolutionary tangram. Among many, IQGAP1 is one of the essential scaffolding proteins that coordinate multiple signaling pathways. IQGAP1 possesses multiple protein interaction motifs to achieve its scaffolding functions. Using these domains, IQGAP1 has been shown to regulate a number of essential cellular events. This includes actin polymerization, tubulin multimerization, microtubule organizing center formation, calcium/calmodulin signaling, Pak/Raf/Mek1/2-mediated Erk1/2 activation, formation of maestrosome, E-cadherin, and CD44-mediated signaling and glycogen synthase kinase-3/adenomatous polyposis coli-mediated ?-catenin activation. In this review, we summarize the recent developments and exciting new findings of cellular functions of IQGAP1.
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High-throughput detection method for influenza virus.
J Vis Exp
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Influenza virus is a respiratory pathogen that causes a high degree of morbidity and mortality every year in multiple parts of the world. Therefore, precise diagnosis of the infecting strain and rapid high-throughput screening of vast numbers of clinical samples is paramount to control the spread of pandemic infections. Current clinical diagnoses of influenza infections are based on serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction, direct specimen immunofluorescence and cell culture (1,2). Here, we report the development of a novel diagnostic technique used to detect live influenza viruses. We used the mouse-adapted human A/PR/8/34 (PR8, H1N1) virus (3) to test the efficacy of this technique using MDCK cells (4). MDCK cells (10(4) or 5 x 10(3) per well) were cultured in 96- or 384-well plates, infected with PR8 and viral proteins were detected using anti-M2 followed by an IR dye-conjugated secondary antibody. M2 (5) and hemagglutinin (1) are two major marker proteins used in many different diagnostic assays. Employing IR-dye-conjugated secondary antibodies minimized the autofluorescence associated with other fluorescent dyes. The use of anti-M2 antibody allowed us to use the antigen-specific fluorescence intensity as a direct metric of viral quantity. To enumerate the fluorescence intensity, we used the LI-COR Odyssey-based IR scanner. This system uses two channel laser-based IR detections to identify fluorophores and differentiate them from background noise. The first channel excites at 680 nm and emits at 700 nm to help quantify the background. The second channel detects fluorophores that excite at 780 nm and emit at 800 nm. Scanning of PR8-infected MDCK cells in the IR scanner indicated a viral titer-dependent bright fluorescence. A positive correlation of fluorescence intensity to virus titer starting from 10(2)-10(5) PFU could be consistently observed. Minimal but detectable positivity consistently seen with 10(2)-10(3) PFU PR8 viral titers demonstrated the high sensitivity of the near-IR dyes. The signal-to-noise ratio was determined by comparing the mock-infected or isotype antibody-treated MDCK cells. Using the fluorescence intensities from 96- or 384-well plate formats, we constructed standard titration curves. In these calculations, the first variable is the viral titer while the second variable is the fluorescence intensity. Therefore, we used the exponential distribution to generate a curve-fit to determine the polynomial relationship between the viral titers and fluorescence intensities. Collectively, we conclude that IR dye-based protein detection system can help diagnose infecting viral strains and precisely enumerate the titer of the infecting pathogens.
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The Wisconsin approach to newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
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Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a life-threatening disease of infants that is curable with hematopoietic cell transplantation if detected early. Population-based screening for SCID using the T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay began in Wisconsin in 2008; 5 infants with SCID or other forms of severe T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) have been detected, and no infants with SCID have been missed. This review will provide an overview of the TREC screening assay and an update of the findings from Wisconsin on all infants screened from January 1, 2008, until December 31, 2010. Importantly, we give practical recommendations regarding newborn population-based screening using the TREC assay, including the evaluation and care of infants detected.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.