Adipose tissue (AT) is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal) and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents). Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1-1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28-63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle) 38-44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in "other organs" was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle), as well as in the "rest" of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose) or not-specialized (liver, muscle) tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed.
There are two types of adipose tissue in the body whose function appears to be clearly differentiated. White adipose tissue stores energy reserves as fat, whereas the metabolic function of brown adipose tissue is lipid oxidation to produce heat. A good balance between them is important to maintain energy homeostasis. The concept of white adipose tissue has radically changed in the past decades, and is now considered as an endocrine organ that secretes many factors with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions. In addition, we can no longer consider white adipose tissue as a single tissue, because it shows different metabolic profiles in its different locations, with also different implications. Although the characteristic cell of adipose tissue is the adipocyte, this is not the only cell type present in adipose tissue, neither the most abundant. Other cell types in adipose tissue described include stem cells, preadipocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. The balance between these different cell types and their expression profile is closely related to maintenance of energy homeostasis. Increases in adipocyte size, number and type of lymphocytes, and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to the metabolic syndrome diseases. The study of regulation of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and stem cells, and understanding of the interrelationship between the different cell types will provide new targets for action against these diseases.
In the metabolic syndrome, glucocorticoid activity is increased, but circulating levels show little change. Most of blood glucocorticoids are bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), which liver expression and circulating levels are higher in females than in males. Since blood hormones are also bound to blood cells, and the size of this compartment is considerable for androgens and estrogens, we analyzed whether sex or eating a cafeteria diet altered the compartmentation of corticosterone in rat blood. The main corticosterone compartment in rat blood is that specifically bound to plasma proteins, with smaller compartments bound to blood cells or free. Cafeteria diet increased the expression of liver CBG gene, binding plasma capacity and the proportion of blood cell-bound corticosterone. There were marked sex differences in blood corticosterone compartmentation in rats, which were unrelated to testosterone. The use of a monoclonal antibody ELISA and a polyclonal Western blot for plasma CBG compared with both specific plasma binding of corticosterone and CBG gene expression suggested the existence of different forms of CBG, with varying affinities for corticosterone in males and females, since ELISA data showed higher plasma CBG for males, but binding and Western blot analyses (plus liver gene expression) and higher physiological effectiveness for females. Good cross-reactivity to the antigen for polyclonal CBG antibody suggests that in all cases we were measuring CBG. The different immunoreactivity and binding affinity may help explain the marked sex-related differences in plasma hormone binding as sex-linked different proportions of CBG forms.
To substantiate the relation between obesity and oxidative stress and to assess the potential beneficial properties of a grapeseed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), the amelioration of obesity with oleoyl-estrone (OE), and the possible combined effect of GSPE and OE on the hepatic and renal antioxidant enzyme system in obesity-induced oxidative stress.
Oleoyl-estrone (OE) is a powerful anti-obesity compound that decreases food intake, decreases insulin resistance and circulating cholesterol. OE stimulates a severe loss of body fat by decreasing adipose tissue lipid synthesis and maintaining lipolysis. Therefore, the body economy loses lipid energy because energy expenditure is maintained. This study analyses the discrepancy between OE effects and the distribution of labelled OE in plasma. Estrone radioimmunoassay of organic solvent plasma extracts of rats treated with OE showed the massive presence of acyl-estrone, but saponification did not release estrone, but containing similar unknown compound. Analysis of label distribution in plasma after oral gavages of (3)H-OE showed the presence of a more hydrophilic compound than OE or any estrogen as well as (3)H(2)O, formed from (3)H-OE in the acidic stomach medium. OE was not attached to a specific transporter in plasma. Through serum HPLC analysis we found W, a labelled derivative more hydrophilic than OE or estrone. The results were confirmed using (14)C-OE. HPLC-MS/MS studies showed that plasma OE levels were one order of magnitude lower than those of W. When liver cell cytosols from rats laden with (3)H-OE were incubated with nuclei from untreated rats, the OE-derived label (i.e., Ws) was found attached to nuclear DNA. Neither estradiol nor estrone interfered with its binding. W is a fairly hydrophilic compound of low molecular weight containing the estrone nucleus, but it is not an ester because saponification or esterases do not yield estrone as OE does. It is concluded that OE acts through its conversion to W, its active form; which binds to a nuclear receptor different from that of estrogen. The estimated W serum levels are proportional to the pharmacological OE effects in vivo. We postulate W as a new type of hormone that exerts the full range of in vivo effects thus far attributed to OE. The full identification of W is anticipated to open the way for the development of new OE-like anti-obesity drugs.
In the present study we intended to determine how BAT (brown adipose tissue) maintained thermogenesis under treatment with OE (oleoyl-oestrone), a powerful slimming hormone that sheds off body lipid but maintains the metabolic rate. Overweight male rats were subjected to daily gavages of 10 nmol/g of OE or vehicle (control) for 10 days. A PF (pair-fed) vehicle-receiving group was used to discount the effects attributable to energy availability limitation. Interscapular BAT mass, lipid, DNA, mRNA and the RT-PCR (real-time PCR) expression of lipid and energy metabolism genes for enzymes and regulatory proteins were measured. BAT mass and lipid were decreased in OE and PF, with the latter showing a marked reduction in tissue mRNA. Maintenance of perilipin gene expression in PF and OE rats despite the loss of lipid suggests the preservation of the vacuolar interactive surface, a critical factor for thermogenic responsiveness. OE and, to a lesser extent, PF maintained the expression of genes controlling lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation, but markedly decreased the expression of those genes involved in lipogenic and acyl-glycerol synthesis. OE did not affect UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1) (decreased in PF), beta(3) adrenergic receptors or hormone-sensitive lipase gene mRNAs, which may translate in maintaining a full thermogenic system potential. OE rats were able to maintain a less energetically stressed BAT (probably through glucose utilization) than PF rats. These changes were not paralleled in PF rats, in which lower thermogenesis and glucose preservation resulted in a heavier toll on internal fat stores. Thus the mechanism of action of OE is more complex and tissue-specific than previously assumed.
White adipose tissue (WAT) is a disperse organ acting as energy storage depot and endocrine/paracrine controlling factor in the management of energy availability and inflammation. WAT sites response under energy-related stress is not uniform. In the present study we have analyzed how different WAT sites respond to limited food restriction as a way to better understand the role of WAT in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome.
We intended to determine how the liver copes with the massive handling of lipids induced by OE (oleoyl-oestrone), as well as to characterize and differentiate the actual OE effects from those that may be only the consequence of decreased food intake. Thus we used male rats treated with oral OE (10 nmol/g per day) compared with a vehicle only PF (pair-fed) group and controls fed ad libitum (vehicle only). Plasma parameters, and total liver lipids, glycogen, DNA and total mRNA were measured. RNA was extracted and used for real-time PCR analysis of the gene expression of enzymes and regulatory factors of liver energy metabolism. Most hepatic proteins showed similar gene expressions in OE and controls, but the differences widened between OE and PF rats, showing that OE effects could not be merely attributed to a lower energy intake. The liver of OE-treated rats largely maintained its ability to mobilize glucose for the synthesis of fats; this was achieved in part by a peculiar combination of regulative modifications that facilitate both fatty acid disposal and restrained glucose utilization under conditions of limited food supply but ample availability of internal energy stores. In conclusion, the results presented suggest that the effect of OE on liver metabolism may be (at least in part) mediated through an insulin-sensitivity-dependent modulation of the expression of SREBP-1c (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-1c), resulting in the unique combined effect of mildly increased (or maintained) glucose disposal but also limited enhancement of lipogenesis.
Oleoyl-estrone (OE) decreases energy intake while maintaining glucose homeostasis, and energy expenditure at the expense of body fat. White adipose tissue (WAT) depots behave differently under starvation, postprandial state and pharmacologically induced lipolysis.
Oleoyl-estrone (OE) induces a marked loss of body fat in rats by maintaining energy expenditure, body protein and blood glucose despite decreasing food intake. OE increases glucocorticoids, but they arrest OE lipid-mobilization. We studied here whether OE induces a direct effect on adrenal glands function as part of this feedback regulation. Dietary overweight male rats were given oral 10nmol/g OE gavages for ten days. A group (PF) of pair-fed to OE rats, and controls received vehicle-only gavages. OE rats lost slightly more body than PF, but had larger adrenal glands. Tissue corticosterone levels, and gene expressions for glucocorticoid-synthesizing enzymes were increased in OE versus controls and PF; thus, we assumed that adrenal growth affected essentially its cortex since OE also lowered the expression of the medullar catecholamine synthesis enzyme genes. Serum corticosterone was higher in PF than in OE and controls, but liver expression of corticosteroid-disposing steroid 5alpha-reductase was 3x larger in OE than PF and controls. Circulating glucocorticoids changed little under OE, in spite of higher adrenal gland and liver content, hinting at modulation of glucocorticoid turnover as instrumental in their purported increased activity. In conclusion, we have observed that OE considerable enhanced the expression of the genes controlling the synthesis of glucocorticoids from cholesterol in the rat and increasing the adrenal glands corticosterone, size and cellularity, but also the liver disposal of corticosteroids, suggesting that OE increases corticosterone synthesis and degradation (i.e. serum turnover), a process not driven by limited energy availability but directly related to the administration of OE.
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