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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Serum Galactomannan Versus a Combination of Galactomannan and Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Aspergillus DNA Detection for Early Therapy of Invasive Aspergillosis in High-Risk Hematological Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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?The benefit of the combination of serum galactomannan (GM) assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of serum Aspergillus DNA for the early diagnosis and therapy of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in high-risk hematological patients remains unclear.
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Phase IV open-label study of the efficacy and safety of deferasirox after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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This is the first prospective study of deferasirox in adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with transfusional iron overload in hematologic malignancies. Patients at least six months post transplant were treated with deferasirox at a starting dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 52 weeks or until serum ferritin was less than 400 ng/mL on two consecutive occasions. Thirty patients were enrolled and 22 completed the study. A significant reduction from baseline in median serum ferritin and in liver iron concentration at 52 weeks was observed in the overall population: from 1440 to 755.5 ng/mL (P=0.002) and from 14.5 to 4.6 mg Fe/g dw (P=0.0007), respectively. Reduction in serum ferritin in patients who did not discontinue deferasirox therapy was significantly greater than that found in those who prematurely discontinued the treatment (from 1541 to 581 ng/mL vs. from 1416 to 1486 ng/mL; P=0.008). Drug-related adverse events, reported in 17 patients (56.7%), were mostly mild to moderate in severity. There were no drug-related serious adverse events. Twelve patients (40.0%) showed an increase of over 33% in serum creatinine compared to baseline and greater than the upper limit of normal on two consecutive visits. Two patients (6.7%) with active graft-versus-host disease showed an increase in alanine aminotransferase exceeding 10 times upper limit of normal; both resolved. In this prospective study, deferasirox provided a significant reduction in serum ferritin and liver iron concentration over one year of treatment in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with iron overload. In addition, the majority of adverse events related to deferasirox were mild or moderate in severity. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01335035).
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Unrelated cord blood transplantation for patients with primary or secondary myelofibrosis.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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To determine whether umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is an alternative cure for myelofibrosis (MF), we evaluated 35 UCBTs reported to Eurocord. Seven patients had secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at UCBT, and median age at UCBT was 54 years. Twenty-four patients received a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen, and 17 of 35 patients received total body irradiation (2 to 12 Gy)-fludarabine-cyclophosphamide (TCF) conditioning. The median follow-up was 24 months. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery at 60 days was 80%. Fifteen patients relapsed after UCBT. The 2-year overall survival and event-free-survival (EFS) rates were 44% and 30%, respectively. All patients given TCF achieved neutrophil and platelet recovery, and the use of TCF was associated with superior EFS in the RIC population (44% versus 0%, P = .001). Patients with transformation to AML had similar outcomes to patients with less advanced stages. In conclusion, despite graft failure remaining a major concern, the role of UCBT in the management of MF, especially using RIC TCF-based regimens, deserves further investigation to improve results.
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Effect of meropenem administration in extended infusion on the clinical outcome of febrile neutropenia: a retrospective observational study.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Information on the efficacy of extended meropenem administration in neutropenic patients is scarce. Our objective was to determine whether the administration of meropenem in a 4 h extended infusion (EI) leads to a better clinical outcome in patients with febrile neutropenia than the conventional short infusion (SI).
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Syngeneic transplantation in aplastic anemia: pre-transplant conditioning and peripheral blood are associated with improved engraftment: an observational study on behalf of the Severe Aplastic Anemia and Pediatric Diseases Working Parties of the European
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Aplastic anemia is usually treated with immunosuppression or allogeneic transplant, depending on patient and disease characteristics. Syngeneic transplant offers a rare treatment opportunity with minimal transplant-related mortality, and offers an insight into disease mechanisms. We present here a retrospective analysis of all syngeneic transplants for aplastic anemia reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Between 1976 and 2009, 88 patients received 113 transplants. Most transplants (n=85) were preceded by a conditioning regimen, 22 of these including anti-thymocyte globulin. About half of transplants with data available (39 of 86) were followed by posttransplant immunosuppression. Graft source was bone marrow in the majority of cases (n=77). Transplant practice changed over time with more transplants with conditioning and anti-thymocyte globulin as well as peripheral blood stem cells performed in later years. Ten year overall survival was 93% with 5 transplant-related deaths. Graft failure occurred in 32% of transplants. Risk of graft failure was significantly increased in transplants without conditioning, and with bone marrow as graft source. Lack of posttransplant immunosuppression also showed a trend towards increased risk of graft failure, while anti-thymocyte globulin did not have an influence. In summary, syngeneic transplant is associated with a significant risk of graft failure when no conditioning is given, but has an excellent long-term outcome. Furthermore, our comparatively large series enables us to recommend the use of pre-transplant conditioning rather than not and possibly to prefer peripheral blood as a stem cell source.
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Combination of the hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index and the European group for blood and marrow transplantation score allows a better stratification of high-risk patients undergoing reduced-toxicity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transp
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
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This study was conducted to determine whether the integration of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) score would improve individual capacity for stratification of high-risk HCT candidates. A total of 442 consecutive patients receiving an allogeneic HCT after reduced-toxicity conditioning was included. Final HCT-CI and EBMT scores were calculated and validated. Then, patients were grouped into a 6-category new combination model according to the HCT-CI (0, 1 to 2, ?3) and EBMT scores (0 to 3, 4 to 7), and the models predictive capacity was also evaluated. Median HCT-CI and EBMT scores were 3 and 4, respectively. Increased HCT-CI was associated with higher 4-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and lower 4-year overall survival (OS), whereas a high EBMT score was associated with higher 4-year NRM. The HCT-CI showed a trend for a better predictive capacity than the EBMT score (c-statistic .6 versus .54, P = .1). According to the new model, patients within HCT-CI of 0 and HCT-CI of 1 to 2 groups had similar risk of NRM independently of their EBMT score. Within the HCT-CI ? 3 group, patients with low EBMT score showed lower NRM (25% versus 40%, P = .04) and a trend to higher OS (52% versus 36%, P = .06) than patients with a high EBMT score. Moreover, patients with HCT-CI ? 3 and EBMT score 0 to 3 had similar outcomes than those with HCT-CI of 1 to 2. In conclusion, the combination of HCT-CI and the EBMT score is feasible and might contribute to a better identification of high-risk patients, improving selection of best allogeneic HCT candidates.
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Natural history and prognostic impact of oligoclonal humoral response in patients with multiple myeloma after autologous stem cell transplantation: long-term results from a single institution.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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The emergence of an oligoclonal humoral response, resulting in the appearance of a different serum M-protein to that observed at diagnosis is a well-recognized event after autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma in complete response, and it has been considered to be a benign phenomenon. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence, biological characteristics and prognostic value of the oligoclonal bands in patients with myeloma who underwent autologous transplantation at our institution in the last 18 years. We proceed with a retrospective systematic review of all serum and urine immunofixation studies performed in the 211 patients with multiple myeloma who underwent melphalan-based autologous transplantation. Oligoclonal bands were observed in 34% of the patients, with a significantly higher prevalence with the use of novel agents versus conventional chemotherapy in induction (63% vs. 22%; P=0.0001). The incidence of oligoclonal bands was most frequent in non-IgG isotype, particularly in light chain only myeloma. The oligoclonal phenomenon was almost exclusive to patients in complete remission compared to other degrees of response (87% vs. 13%; P=0.0001), and lasted for a median of 1.35 years, persisting during follow up in all patients except in those who relapsed. In prognostic terms, the presence of oligoclonality resulted in a significantly longer progression-free and overall survival. Patients with oligoclonal humoral response lasting for more than one year after transplantation had a significantly longer clinical progression-free and overall survival than those with shorter duration (P=0.008 and P=0.0001, respectively), likely reflecting the importance of a robust humoral immune response.
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Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of bacteremia following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 720 adult patients.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Bacteremia is the most frequent infectious complication during neutropenia in patients receiving autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence, characteristics, risk factors, and outcome of bacteremia during the early period after ASCT. A total of 720 patients undergoing ASCT in two observational prospective consecutive multicenter studies of the Programa Español para el Tratamiento de las Hemopatías group were analyzed. Bacteremia occurred in 20 % of patients. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most frequent (66 %) among the gram-positive agents and Escherichia coli (49 %) among the gram-negative agents. Multivariate analysis showed that the length of neutropenia <1?×?10(9)/L (more than 9 days) [relative risk (RR) of 2.6, p?
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Distinct deleterious effects of cyclosporine and tacrolimus and combined tacrolimus-sirolimus on endothelial cells: protective effect of defibrotide.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Endothelial dysfunction seems to be a key factor in the development of several complications observed early after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The conditioning regimen and many other factors associated with the procedure are responsible for this endothelial damage. The effects of immunosuppressive agents on endothelial function have not been explored in detail. We evaluated the effects of 3 drugs commonly used in HSCT: 2 calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A (CSA) and tacrolimus (TAC), and an inhibitor of mTOR, sirolimus (SIR). We also evaluated the effect of the combination of TAC and SIR (TAC+SIR), which is used increasingly in clinical practice. Microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were exposed to these drugs to evaluate changes in (1) intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression on the cell surface, assessed by immunofluorescence labeling and expressed as the mean gray value (MGV); (2) reactivity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) toward platelets, upon exposure of the ECM to circulating blood; and (3) whole-blood clot formation, assessed by thromboelastometry. Studies were conducted in the absence and presence of defibrotide (DF) to assess its possible protective effect. The exposure of HMEC-1 to CSA and TAC+SIR significantly increased the expression of ICAM-1 (157.5 ± 11.6 and 153.4 ± 9.5 MGV, respectively, versus 105.7 ± 6.5 MGV in controls [both P < .05]). TAC applied alone increased ICAM-1 slightly (120.3 ± 8.2 MGV), and SIR had no effect (108.9 ± 7.4 MGV). ECM reactivity increased significantly only in response to CSA (surface covered by platelets of 41.2% ± 5.4% versus 30.1% ± 2.0%, P < .05). DF attenuated all these changes. No significant changes in the viscoelastic properties of clot formation were observed in any condition with blood samples incubated in vitro. In conclusion, CSA and TAC+SIR had a proinflammatory effect, but only CSA exhibited an additional prothrombotic effect. Interestingly, DF exerted clear protective anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects on the endothelium.
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Unrelated cord blood transplantation: outcomes after single-unit intrabone injection compared with double-unit intravenous injection in patients with hematological malignancies.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is associated with delayed hematopoietic recovery. Intrabone injection of cord blood cells (IB-UCBT) and double-UCBT (dUCBT) are designed to circumvent this problem.
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Fatal immune hemolytic anemia following allogeneic stem cell transplantation: report of 2 cases and review of literature.
Transfus Med Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Immune hemolytic anemia is a well-recognized complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There are 4 possible causes for this complication. First, antibodies present in the recipient destroy donor cells. Second, donor red cell antibodies at the time of stem cell infusion are transferred to the recipient. Third, sometimes, engrafted donor lymphocytes cause active production of red cell antibodies. Fourth, another cause of hemolysis after allogeneic HSCT is autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). It is thought to be due to antibodies produced by the donors immune system against antigens on red cells of donor origin. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia after allogeneic HSCT is rare, it is still not well characterized, and it represents a life-threatening situation. We describe 2 patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with intensive chemotherapy and umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation (UCBT). One patient developed AIHA at day +182 and the other at day +212 after receiving UCBT. Patients received 5 and 7 line treatment options, respectively, including continuous corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, splenectomy, cyclophosphamide, plasma exchange, rituximab, bortezomib, and eculizumab. However, both patients died because of massive hemolysis after 85 and 106 days of intensive treatment, respectively. These cases reflect the extreme difficulty in the therapeutic management of patients with AIHA following UCBT. After an extensive review of the literature, the exact physiopathologic mechanisms of AIHA after allogeneic HSCT in general, and after UCBT in particular, and therefore an effective treatment remain unknown.
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Impact of hyperferritinemia on the outcome of reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for lymphoid malignancies.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Hyperferritinemia has been associated with adverse outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) with myeloablative conditioning. However, its characteristics and impact on the outcome in the reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and in the lymphoid malignancy settings are far from clear. The study includes 201 adult patients undergoing allo-HCT with RIC (allo-RIC) for lymphoid malignancies with a median follow-up for survivors of 52 months (range, 3 to 123). Median serum ferritin level at allo-RIC was 379 ng/mL (range, 4 to 10,790). In the multivariate analysis, patients with hyperferritinemia at transplantation (>399 ng/mL) showed lower 4-year overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.8 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2 to 2.8]; P = .008), higher nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (HR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 3.2]; P = .03), and higher infection-related mortality (HR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1 to 4.8]; P = .02) than patients without hyperferritinemia. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment and 100-day NRM were similar between both groups. The adverse outcome associated with hyperferritinemia seemed higher in patients without major comorbidities and was not influenced by the elevation of acute phase reactants. Our results indicate that high ferritin levels at HCT are associated with an adverse outcome after allo-RIC in patients with lymphoid malignancies.
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Recommendations for the treatment of invasive fungal infection caused by filamentous fungi in the hematological patient.
Rev Esp Quimioter
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2011
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Antifungal treatment in the hematological patient has reached a high complexity with the advent of new antifungals and diagnostic tests, which have resulted in different therapeutic strategies. The use of the most appropriate treatment in each case is essential in infections with such a high mortality. The availability of recommendations as those here reported based on the best evidence and developed by a large panel of 48 specialists aimed to answer when is indicated to treat and which agents should be used, considering different aspects of the patient (risk of fungal infection, clinical manifestations, galactomanann test, chest CT scan and previous prophylaxis) may help clinicians to improve the results.
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Valganciclovir as pre-emptive therapy for cytomegalovirus infection in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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In haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in both the early and late post-transplant period. Ganciclovir (GCV) is the treatment of choice for CMV, but requires intravenous administration, a fact that complicates its long-term use. Oral valganciclovir (VGCV) and intravenous GCV were recently shown to have similar efficacy for pre-emptive CMV treatment in solid organ transplant recipients, but relatively limited data are available in HSCT recipients. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of VGCV versus intravenous GCV or foscarnet (FOS) for pre-emptive therapy of active CMV infection in allogeneic HSCT and to determine the incidence of adverse effects and relapses.
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Pneumonia in allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients: a multicenter prospective study.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2011
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Pneumonia is a common cause of mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) but updated and prospective information is partial. The aim of this nationwide prospective study is to determine the current epidemiology, etiology, and outcome of pneumonia in allo-HSCT recipients. From September-2003 to November-2005, 112 episodes in 427 consecutive allo-HSCT recipients were included (incidence 52.2 per 100 allo-HSCT/yr), and 72 of them (64.3%) were microbiologically defined pneumonia. Bacterial pneumonia (44.4%) was more frequent than fungal (29.2%) and viral pneumonia (19.4%). The most frequent microorganisms in each group were: Escherichia coli (n = 7, 8.9%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 4, 5.0%), cytomegalovirus (n = 12, 15.4%), and Aspergillus spp. (n = 12, 15.4%). The development of pneumonia and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was associated with increased mortality after allo-HSCT, and the probability of survival was significantly lower in patients that had at least one pneumonia episode (p < 0.01). Pneumonia development in the first 100 d after transplantation, fungal etiology, GVHD, acute respiratory failure, and septic shock were associated with increased mortality after pneumonia. Our results show that pneumonia remains a frequent infectious complication after allo-HSCT, contributing to significant mortality, and provide a large current experience with the incidence, etiology and outcome of pneumonia in these patients.
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Non-myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of severe idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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A 40-year-old man with severe chronic idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia complicated with opportunistic infections was successfully treated with non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. After conditioning with fludarabine plus low dose of total-body irradiation, CD34+ peripheral blood stem cells obtained by leukapheresis from his HLA-identical sister were infused. T cell and myeloid complete chimerism was achieved at day +28 and remained stable during the follow-up period. The patient did not develop infectious complications during the procedure. At 35?months of follow-up, his CD4+ T cell count was 1019 cells per microliter. Non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be considered a treatment option for patients with severe forms of idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia.
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Update on fungemia in oncology and hematology.
Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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The present article is an update of the literature on fungemia in onco-hematologic patients. A multidisciplinary group of Spanish physicians with an interest in this field selected the most important papers published lately. Papers from the fields of epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis, outcome, prevention and treatment are discussed. Important aspects of these studies include the assessment of different strategies in the management of fever in neutropenic patients. Moreover, early identification of patients at risk of fungal infections, as well as identification of patients at risk for fluconazole-resistant strains are topics of increasing interest.
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The incidence of veno-occlusive disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has diminished and the outcome improved over the last decade.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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The evolution of the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) was analyzed in 845 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (allo-HSCTs) performed over 24 years. A total of 117 patients and 73 patients developed VOD following the Seattle and the Baltimore diagnostic criteria, respectively (cumulative incidence 13.8% and 8.8%). The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the period 1985 to 1996 than in 1997 to 2008 (11.5% vs 6.5%; P = .01). This decline was because of the low incidence of VOD among reduced-intensity conditioning-HSCT (RIC-HSCT) (2.1%) and the reduction among those receiving myeloablative-HSCT from unrelated donors (32.7% vs 10.5%, P = .001). A total of 35 patients had severe VOD (26 with multiorgan failure [MOF]), and 20 died by VOD (cumulative mortality rate 17.3%, Seattle, or 22.5%, Baltimore). The mortality declined since 1997 (from 22% to 9%; P = .06, Seattle, and from 36% to 14%; P = .04, Baltimore), with the introduction of defibrotide being the only relevant change in the management of patients. This occurred even though the severity of VOD was similar in both periods. Among those with MOF, only 2 of 8 (25%) receiving defibrotide died versus 14 of 18 (78%) receiving other treatments (P = .007). Myeloablative conditioning, previous liver disease, poor performance status, and alternative donors were the variables with higher impact on VOD development. In summary, although VOD remains a dreaded early complication of HSCT, technical and therapeutic progress in recent decades have notably reduced its incidence and improved the outcome.
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Prevention of chemotherapy-induced left ventricular dysfunction with enalapril and carvedilol: rationale and design of the OVERCOME trial.
J. Card. Fail.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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The current treatment of hematologic malignancies includes diverse potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy agents, including high-dose myeloablative regimens used in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Many of these treatments could induce left ventricular dysfunction (LVD), and limit their efficacy. Angiotensin-converting enzime inhibitors and beta-blockers prevent LVD and prolong survival after infarction, and recent animal and pilot clinical studies suggest that they can prevent the development of chemotherapy-induced cardiac toxicity.
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Pretransplantation liver function impacts on the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a study of 455 patients.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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Liver dysfunction is frequent before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). However, its characteristics and impact on transplantation outcomes are uncertain, especially in the reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) setting. We analyzed 455 patients receiving an allo-SCT in 3 Spanish centers. Pretransplantation aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), total bilirubin, and international normalized ratio were analyzed. Pretransplantation liver function test abnormalities were found in 94 (22%) patients. The most frequent cause of pretransplantation liver dysfunction was isolated elevation of GGT/AP (n = 49, 53%). Patients with high bilirubin levels before allo-SCT showed higher 4-year nonrelapse mortality (4y-NRM) (hazard ratio [HR] 2 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.8] P = .02) and patients with high GGT levels showed higher 100-day NRM and lower 4-year overall survival (OS) (HR 3.4 [95% CI 1.8-6.7] P < .001, and HR 2 [95% CI 1.4-3], P = .001), respectively. High levels of transaminases did not influence on survival or mortality. In conclusion, hepatic dysfunction before allo-SCT is frequent and has an impact on transplantation outcomes. The best indicator of liver dysfunction still has to be determined.
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[Guidelines for the treatment of Invasive Candidiasis and other yeasts. Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC). 2010 Update].
Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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These guidelines are an update of the recommendations of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) that were issued in 2004 (Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2004, 22:32-9) on the treatment of Invasive Candidiasis and infections produced by other yeasts. This 2010 update includes a comprehensive review of the new drugs that have appeared in recent years, as well as the levels of evidence for recommending them. These guidelines have been developed following the rules of the SEIMC by a working group composed of specialists in infectious diseases, clinical microbiology, critical care medicine, paediatrics and oncology-haematology. It provides a series of general recommendations regarding the management of invasive candidiasis and other yeast infections, as well as specific guidelines for prophylaxis and treatment, which have been divided into four sections: oncology-haematology, solid organ transplantation recipients, critical patients, and paediatric patients.
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Multiple myeloma in serologic complete remission after autologous stem cell transplantation: impact of bone marrow plasma cell assessment by conventional morphology on disease progression.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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The current definition of complete remission (CR) in multiple myeloma (MM) requires a negative serum and urine immunofixation (IFE) and <5% bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs). The aim of this study was to determine the value of BMPCs count by standard microscopic evaluation in patients with MM in serologic CR after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Thirty-five patients with a median follow-up after ASCT of 7.3 years were studied. The percentage of BMPCs was an independent predictor of progression in multivariate model (hazard ratio 2.02, P = .009). Patients with >1.5% BMPCs (median: 0.8%) after ASCT had an increased risk of progression (P = .016) and a trend toward a shorter survival (P = .195). In conclusion, conventional morphology of bone marrow is a useful and rapid tool as a first step to assess the residual tumor mass in patients with MM in CR after ASCT, and it constitutes a strong predictor for disease progression.
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[Prophylaxis and treatment of invasive fungal infection in neutropenic patients].
Rev Esp Quimioter
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2010
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Prophylaxis and treatment constitute the basis for reducing the mortality due to IFI. Prophylaxis is currently the standard practice in most hospitals and is recommended by the principal guidelines. Fluconazole has proved to be useful to prevent and reduce the mortality due to yeast IFI in several contexts. Although its use has led to the emergence of some resistant strains of Candida, it has not been a generalized problem and the number of lives saved has been worth it. But its major disadvantage is the lack of impact on IFI by molds. So, in patients at high risk for IFI due to filamentous fungi, it is necessary the employ of extended spectrum drugs. For the empirical and preemptive approach, it is necessary to have in mind which fungi have to be covered and the spectrum of the available antifungal agents. For the treatment of established infection by Candida spp., before the identification of species, we must consider different host (like the use or not of prophylactic fluconazole) and clinical factors (like the evidence or not of diseminated infection or severe sepsis). Primary combination of antifungal agents for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis has to be considered in cases of central nervous system disease, respiratory failure, serious sepsis, and extensive or cavitated pulmonary lesions.
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Extensive soft-tissue involvement by plasmablastic myeloma arising from displaced humeral fractures.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2010
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A 44-yr-old man with IgG-lambda multiple myeloma reached a complete response after induction chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation and maintenance therapy with interferon ?2b and prednisone 4 yr later, he presented an increase in the M-protein plus extramedullary myeloma involvement with sacrum and clivus plasmacytomas. Treatment with bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone plus local radiotherapy was initiated. The patient developed a bilateral humeral pathological fracture. Surgical osteosynthesis of both humeri was performed with no immediate complications. Two months later, he developed a prominent swelling in both deltoid areas with fever and high serum LDH levels. X-ray examination showed a displacement of bone fragments of both humeri. Humerus CT scan showed a bilateral fracture in proximal diaphysis with posterior displacement. A magnetic resonance of right scapular region revealed a very extensive infiltration originated in the humerus. A fine-needle punction showed a diffuse plasmablastic infiltration. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of extramedullary myeloma with extensive soft-tissue involvement, originated at the fractured lytic lesions, which was likely triggered by bone surgery. This direct mechanism of myeloma spread has been observed in experimental myeloma mouse models.
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Defibrotide prevents the activation of macrovascular and microvascular endothelia caused by soluble factors released to blood by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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Endothelial activation and damage occur in association with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Several of the early complications associated with HSCT seem to have a microvascular location. Through the present study, we have characterized the activation and damage of endothelial cells of both macro (HUVEC) and microvascular (HMEC) origin, occurring early after autologous HSCT, and the potential protective effect of defibrotide (DF). Sera samples from patients were collected before conditioning (Pre), at the time of transplantation (day 0), and at days 7, 14, and 21 after autologous HSCT. Changes in the expression of endothelial cell receptors at the surface, presence and reactivity of extracellular adhesive proteins, and the signaling pathways involved were analyzed. The expression of ICAM-1 at the cell surface increased progressively in both HUVEC and HMEC. However, a more prothrombotic profile was denoted for HMEC, in particular at the time of transplantation (day 0), reflecting the deleterious effect of the conditioning treatment on the endothelium, especially at a microvascular location. Interestingly, this observation correlated with a higher increase in the expression of both tissue factor and von Willebrand factor on the extracellular matrix, together with activation of intracellular p38 MAPK and Akt. Previous exposure and continuous incubation of cells with DF prevented the signs of activation and damage induced by the autologous sera. These observations corroborate that conditioning treatment in autologous HSCT induces a proinflammatory and a prothrombotic phenotype, especially at a microvascular location, and indicate that DF has protective antiinflammatory and antithrombotic effects in this setting.
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma beyond 2010.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is considered the gold standard in the frontline therapy of younger patients with multiple myeloma because it results in higher complete remission (CR) rates and longer event-free survival than conventional chemotherapy. The greatest benefit from ASCT is obtained in patients achieving CR after transplantation, the likelihood of CR being associated with the M-protein size at the time of transplantation. The incorporation of novel agents results in higher pre- and posttransplantation CR rates. Induction with bortezomib-containing regimens is encouraging in patients with poor-risk cytogenetics. However, longer follow-up is required to assess the impact of this increased CR on long-term survival. The results of posttransplantation consolidation/maintenance with new drugs are encouraging. All this indicates that, in the era of novel agents, high-dose therapy should be optimized rather than replaced. Because of its high transplantation-related mortality, myeloablative allografting has been generally replaced by reduced-intensity conditioning (reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation). The best results are achieved after a debulky ASCT, with a progression-free survival plateau of 25% to 30% beyond 6 years from reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation. The development of novel reduced-intensity preparative regimens and peri- and posttransplantation strategies aimed at minimizing graft-versus-host disease, and enhancing the graft-versus-myeloma effect are key issues.
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Endothelial dysfunction after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: role of the conditioning regimen and the type of transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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There is endothelial activation and damage in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The impact of the conditioning and type of HSCT on endothelial dysfunction in the early phases of HSCT has been evaluated. Plasma samples were obtained before and at different times after autologous and allogeneic HSCT with and without early complications. Changes in soluble markers of endothelial damage (VWF, ADAMTS-13, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, and sTNFRI) were measured. There were changes in all markers evaluated that followed different patterns in auto and allo settings. For VWF and sTNRI, progressive increases from day Pre to day 14 and to day 21 were observed in the auto and the allo group, respectively. ADAMTS-13 activity correlated inversely with VWF levels. Levels of sVCAM-1 decreased until day 7, and raised significantly to day 14 and to day 21 in the auto and the allo HSCT, respectively. No significant changes were detected for sICAM-1. Our results confirm that there is endothelial damage at the early phases of HSCT, apparently induced by the consecutive effects of the conditioning, the proinflammatory agents used during transplantation, the translocation of endotoxins across the damaged gastrointestinal tract, and the engraftment. However, the comparative analysis between patients with and without complications suggests that none of these markers has diagnostic or prognostic value.
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Unrelated transplantation for poor-prognosis adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: long-term outcome analysis and study of the impact of hematopoietic graft source.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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Adults with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (HR-ALL) have a poor outcome with standard chemotherapy and usually undergo unrelated stem cell transplantation (SCT) if a matched sibling donor is not available. We analyzed the outcome of adult patients with unrelated SCT for HR-ALL and studied the possible effect of the hematopoietic stem cell source of the transplant. A total of 149 adult patients (median age, 29 years, range, 15-59 years) with HR-ALL underwent unrelated SCT in 13 Spanish institutions between 2000 and 2007. Patients in first complete remission (CR1) at transplantation had at least one adverse prognostic factor (advanced age, adverse cytogenetics, hyperleukocytosis, or slow response to induction therapy). ALL was in CR1 in 81 patients (54%), in second CR (CR2) in 37 patients (25%), in third CR (CR3) in 11 patients (7%), and with overt disease in 20 patients (13%). The hematopoietic source was unrelated cord blood (UCB) in 62 patients and an unrelated donor (UD) in 87 patients. The patients undergoing UCB-SCT and UD-SCT were comparable in terms of the main clinical and biological features of ALL, except for a higher frequency of patients with more overt disease in the UCB-SCT group. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years between the 2 groups. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) was significantly lower in the UCB-SCT group (P = .021). The probability of relapse at 1 year was 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7%-27%) for the UD-SCT group and 27% (95% CI, 14%-40%) for the UCB-SCT group (P = .088), respectively. Only disease status at transplantation (CR1, 41% [95% CI, 18%-64%] vs CR2, 51% [95% CI, 17%-85%] vs advanced disease, 66% [95% CI, 46%-86%]; P = .001) and the absence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (74% [95% CI, 46%-100%] vs 33% [95% CI, 17%-49%]; P = .034) were significant factors for relapse. All unrelated transplantation modalities were associated with high treatment-related mortality for adult HR-ALL patients without a sibling donor. UCB-SCT and UD-SCT were found to be equivalent options. Disease status at transplantation and chronic GVHD were the main factors influencing relapse in both transplantation modalities.
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Abnormal serum free light chain ratio in patients with multiple myeloma in complete remission has strong association with the presence of oligoclonal bands: implications for stringent complete remission definition.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
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The prevalence of an abnormal serum free light chain (FLC) ratio in 34 patients with multiple myeloma in complete response (CR) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was studied. Fourteen of 34 patients (41.2%) showed an abnormal FLC ratio. The frequency of abnormal FLC ratio in patients with or without oligoclonal bands was 72.7% versus 26%, respectively (P = .023). The median value of FLC ratio was 2.55 (95% confidence interval, 1.89-3.20) in patients with oligoclonal bands versus 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-1.04) for those with no oligoclonal bands (P = .011). This is the first report showing that the presence of oligoclonal bands in patients with multiple myeloma in CR frequently results in an abnormal FLC ratio. Because an oligoclonal immune response is associated with a good outcome, our results question the current definition of stringent CR and support that the prognostic impact of oligoclonal bands should be also assessed on multivariate analysis.
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Imipenem/cilastatin with or without glycopeptide as initial antibiotic therapy for recipients of autologous stem cell transplantation: results of a Spanish multicenter study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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We analyzed the efficacy of imipenem/cilastatin alone (group I, 197 patients) or in combination with a glycopeptide (group I + G, 231 patients) as first-line antibiotic therapy for 2 consecutive cohorts of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) recipients with febrile neutropenia. From June 2001 to June 2002, patients received imipenem/cilastatin (500 mg/6 hours), and from July 2002 to December 2003, they received imipenem/cilastatin as for group I plus a glycopeptide (vancomycin, 1 g/12 hours or teicoplanin, 400 mg/day). Fever of unknown origin accounted for 33.5% of episodes (66 patients) in group I and 50% of episodes (116 patients) in group I + G (P = .005). Bacteremia occurred in 55 patients (28%) in group I and in 51 patients (22%) in group I + G (P = .16). Resolution of fever without modification of the therapy regimen was observed in 108 patients (55%) and 159 patients (69%) in groups I and I + G, respectively (P = .003). The median interval to defervescence (4 days) and overall mortality were similar between groups. Inclusion of a glycopeptide in the initial antibiotic regimen for febrile neutropenia results in a higher success rate without modifying the regimen. However, glycopeptide inclusion does not improve the interval to defervescence or mortality rate.
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Generalized cutis laxa and fibrillar glomerulopathy resulting from IgG Deposition in IgG-lambda Monoclonal Gammopathy: pulmonary hemorrhage during stem cell mobilization and complete hematological response with bortezomib and dexamethasone therapy.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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The case of a 52-years-old man with generalized acquired cutis laxa associated with IgG-lambda monoclonal gammopathy and nephrotic syndrome with renal failure (due to fibrillar glomerulopathy resulting from IgG deposition) is reported. A peripheral blood autologous stem cell transplant was planned, but the procedure was complicated by severe pulmonary hemorrhage during stem cells mobilization with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Treatment with bortezomib and dexamethasome was subsequently started and a complete hematological response was achieved. Finally, the complete hematological response with the disappearance of the toxic M-protein allows the possibility of a long-term benefit with a kidney transplant followed by an autologous bone marrow transplant.
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The release of soluble factors contributing to endothelial activation and damage after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is not limited to the allogeneic setting and involves several pathogenic mechanisms.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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This study evaluated the relative impact of the intensity of the conditioning regimen and the alloreactivity in the endothelial dysfunction occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). It involved a comparative analysis of the effect of incubating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs) with serum samples from patients receiving autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) or unrelated donor allo-HSCT. In both groups, blood samples were collected through a central line before conditioning (Pre), before transplantation (day 0), and at days 7, 14, and 21 after transplantation. Changes in the expression of EC receptors and adhesion proteins, adhesion of leukocytes and platelets under flow, and signaling pathways were analyzed. Endothelial activation and damage were observed in both groups, but with differing patterns. All markers of endothelial dysfunction demonstrated a progressive increase from day Pre to day 14 in the auto-HSCT group and exhibited 2 peaks of maximal expression (at days 0 and 21) in the allo-HSCT group. Both treatments induced a proinflammatory state (ie, expression of adhesion receptors, leukocyte adhesion, and p38 MAPK activation) and cell proliferation (ie, morphology and activation of ErK42/44). Prothrombotic changes (ie, von Willebrand factor expression and platelet adhesion) predominated after allo-HSCT, and a proapoptotic tendency (ie, activation of SAPK/JNK) was seen only in this group. These findings indicate that endothelial activation and damage after HSCT also occur in the autologous setting and affect macrovascular ECs. After the initial damage induced by the conditioning regimen, other factors, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) toxicity, engraftment, and alloreactivity, may contribute to the endothelial damage seen during HSCT. Further studies are needed to explore the association between this endothelial damage and the vascular complications associated with HSCT.
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Multifocal hepatic cystic mass as first manifestation of metastatic spinal hemangiopericytoma.
Int J Surg Case Rep
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Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare vascular tumors with a high malignant potential. Hepatic metastases from HPC are very infrequent and usually show a distinctive solid aspect with a surrounding pseudocapsule.
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Bortezomib/dexamethasone followed by autologous stem cell transplantation as front line treatment for light-chain deposition disease.
Eur. J. Haematol.
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Limited data has been published on the treatment results in patients with light-chain deposition disease (LCDD). Whenever possible, high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been the first treatment option, achieving somehow better results than conventional therapy. However, and based on the promising results obtained by treating patients with light-chain amyloidosis with bortezomib/dexamethasone, new treatment options appear in LCDD. Herein, we describe three patients with LCDD treated with bortezomib/dexamethasone followed by high-dose melphalan and autologous transplantation. We believe that this new approach should be the treatment of choice in this disease. In addition, those patients achieving hematologic complete response after ASCT could benefit from a kidney transplant if the renal impairment requiring dialysis persists.
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Impact of MiRSNPs on survival and progression in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation.
Clin. Cancer Res.
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A distinctive new group of polymorphisms is constituted by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in miRNA processing machinery in miRNA precursor molecules and in miRNA-binding sites, known as miRSNPs. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prognostic impact of six miRSNPs in patients with multiple myeloma and analyze the functional consequences.
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