Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated organism from the different clinical samples in hospital. The emergence and dissemination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and growing resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics is making treatment of infections due to this organism increasingly difficult.
Immune complexes composed of IgG-opsonized pathogens, particles, or proteins are phagocytosed by macrophages through Fc? receptors (Fc?Rs). Macrophages primed with IFN? or other pro-inflammatory mediators respond to Fc?R engagement by secreting high levels of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). We found that unprimed macrophages produced lower levels of NO, which required efficient calcium (Ca(2+)) flux as demonstrated by using macrophages lacking selenoprotein K, which is required for Fc?R-induced Ca(2+) flux. Thus, we further investigated the signaling pathways involved in low output NO and its functional significance. Evaluation of inducible, endothelial, and neuronal nitric-oxide synthases (iNOS, eNOS, and nNOS) revealed that Fc?R stimulation in unprimed macrophages caused a marked Ca(2+)-dependent increase in both total and phosphorylated nNOS and slightly elevated levels of phosphorylated eNOS. Also activated were three MAP kinases, ERK, JNK, and p38, of which ERK activation was highly dependent on Ca(2+) flux. Inhibition of ERK reduced both nNOS activation and NO secretion. Finally, Transwell experiments showed that Fc?R-induced NO functioned to increase the phagocytic capacity of other macrophages and required both NOS and ERK activity. The production of NO by macrophages is conventionally attributed to iNOS, but we have revealed an iNOS-independent receptor/enzyme system in unprimed macrophages that produces low output NO. Under these conditions, Fc?R engagement relies on Ca(2+)-dependent ERK phosphorylation, which in turn increases nNOS and, to a lesser extent, eNOS, both of which produce low levels of NO that function to promote phagocytosis.
It has been suggested that JC virus (JCV) might travel to the central nervous system in infected B cells. Moreover, recent data suggest the presence of JCV in bone marrow plasma cells. However, the evidence for infection and replication of JCV in B cells is unclear. To address this question, we infected Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells with JCV and found that the viral genome decreased >1000-fold from days 0 to 20 after infection, which concurred with the absence of viral early and late messenger RNA transcripts and proteins. However, immunofluorescent images of B cells infected with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated JCV demonstrated that JCV enters the B cells, and DNase protection assay confirmed the presence of intact JCV virions inside the B cells. Moreover, JCV-infected B cells were able to transmit infection to naive glial cells. These data confirm that JCV nonproductively infects B cells and possibly uses them as a vehicle for transmigration across the blood-brain barrier.
Neurological complications such as inflammation, failure of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and neuronal death contribute to the mortality and morbidity associated with WNV-induced meningitis. Compromised BBB indicates the ability of the virus to gain entry into the CNS via the BBB, however, the underlying mechanisms, and the specific cell types associated with WNV-CNS trafficking are not well understood. Brain microvascular endothelial cells, the main component of the BBB, represent a barrier to virus dissemination into the CNS and could play key role in WNV spread via hematogenous route. To investigate WNV entry into the CNS, we infected primary human brain microvascular endothelial (HBMVE) cells with the neurovirulent strain of WNV (NY99) and examined WNV replication kinetics together with the changes in the expressions of key tight junction proteins (TJP) and cell adhesion molecules (CAM). WNV infection of HBMVE cells was productive as analyzed by plaque assay and qRT-PCR, and did not induce cytopathic effect. Increased mRNA and protein expressions of TJP (claudin-1) and CAM (vascular cell adhesion molecule and E-selectin) were observed at days 2 and 3 after infection, respectively, which coincided with the peak in WNV replication. Further, using an in vitro BBB model comprised of HBMVE cells, we demonstrate that cell-free WNV can cross the BBB, without compromising the BBB integrity. These data suggest that infection of HBMVE cells can facilitate entry of cell-free virus into the CNS without disturbing the BBB, and increased CAM may assist in the trafficking of WNV-infected immune cells into the CNS, via Trojan horse mechanism, thereby contributing to WNV dissemination in the CNS and associated pathology.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.