Bacteriophage receptor binding proteins (RBPs) confer host specificity. We previously identified a putative RBP (Gp047) from the campylobacter lytic phage NCTC 12673 and demonstrated that Gp047 has a broader host range than its parent phage. While NCTC 12673 recognizes the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of a limited number of Campylobacter jejuni isolates, Gp047 binds to a majority of C. jejuni and related Campylobacter coli strains. In this study, we demonstrate that Gp047 also binds to acapsular mutants, suggesting that unlike the parent phage, CPS is not the receptor for Gp047. Affinity chromatography and far-western analyses of C. jejuni lysates using Gp047 followed by mass spectrometry indicated that Gp047 binds to the major flagellin protein, FlaA. Since C. jejuni flagellin is extensively glycosylated, we investigated this binding specificity further and demonstrate that Gp047 only recognizes flagellin decorated with acetamidino-modified pseudaminic acid. This binding activity is localized to the C-terminal quarter of the protein and both wild type and coccoid forms of C. jejuni are recognized. In addition, Gp047 treatment agglutinates vegetative cells and reduces their motility. Since Gp047 is highly conserved among all campylobacter phages sequenced to date, it is likely that this protein plays an important role in the phage lifecycle.
We present a novel phage receptor binding protein-based magnetic separation and pre-enrichment method as an alternative to the immunomagnetic separation methods by replacing antibodies with bacteriophage receptor binding proteins (RBPs). We couple the proposed RBP-based magnetic separation with real time PCR for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni cells in artificially contaminated skim milk, milk with 2% fat and chicken broth. Recovery rates, assessed by real time PCR, were greater than 80% for the samples spiked with as low as 100 cfu mL(-1) of C. jejuni cells. The specificity of capture was confirmed using Salmonella Typhimurium as a negative control where no bacteria were captured on the RBP-derivatized magnetic beads. The combination of RBP-based magnetic separation and real time PCR improved PCR sensitivity and allowed the detection of C. jejuni cells in milk and chicken broth samples without a time consuming pre-enrichment step through culturing. The total sample preparation and analysis time in the proposed RBP-based enrichment method coupled with real time PCR was less than 3 h.
Most Campylobacter bacteriophages isolated to date have long contractile tails and belong to the family Myoviridae. Based on their morphology, genome size and endonuclease restriction profile, Campylobacter phages were originally divided into three groups. The recent genome sequencing of seven virulent campylophages reveal further details of the relationships between these phages at the genome organization level. This article details the morphological and genomic features among the campylophages, investigates their taxonomic position, and proposes the creation of two new genera, the "Cp220likevirus" and "Cp8unalikevirus" within a proposed subfamily, the "Eucampyvirinae"
Transposon mutagenesis has been applied to a hyper-invasive clinical isolate of Campylobacter jejuni, 01/51. A random transposon mutant library was screened in an in vitro assay of invasion and 26 mutants with a significant reduction in invasion were identified. Given that the invasion potential of C. jejuni is relatively poor compared to other enteric pathogens, the use of a hyper-invasive strain was advantageous as it greatly facilitated the identification of mutants with reduced invasion. The location of the transposon insertion in 23 of these mutants has been determined; all but three of the insertions are in genes also present in the genome-sequenced strain NCTC 11168. Eight of the mutants contain transposon insertions in one region of the genome (approximately 14 kb), which when compared with the genome of NCTC 11168 overlaps with one of the previously reported plasticity regions and is likely to be involved in genomic variation between strains. Further characterization of one of the mutants within this region has identified a gene that might be involved in adhesion to host cells.
Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial food-borne enteritis worldwide, and invasion into intestinal epithelial cells is an important virulence mechanism. Recently we reported the identification of hyperinvasive C. jejuni strains and created a number of transposon mutants of one of these strains, some of which exhibited reduced invasion into INT-407 and Caco-2 cells. In one such mutant the transposon had inserted into a homologue of cj1136, which encodes a putative galactosyltransferase according to the annotation of the C. jejuni NCTC11168 genome. In the current study, we investigated the role of cj1136 in C. jejuni virulence, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis, and host colonization by targeted mutagenesis and complementation of the mutation. The cj1136 mutant showed a significant reduction in invasion into human intestinal epithelial cells compared to the wild-type strain 01/51. Invasion levels were partially restored on complementing the mutation. The inactivation of cj1136 resulted in the production of truncated LOS, while biosynthesis of a full-length LOS molecule was restored in the complemented strain. The cj1136 mutant showed an increase in sensitivity to the bile salts sodium taurocholate and sodium deoxycholate and significantly increased sensitivity to polymyxin B compared to the parental strain. Importantly, the ability of the mutant to colonize 1-day-old chicks was also significantly impaired. This study confirms that a putative galactosyltransferase encoded by cj1136 is involved in LOS biosynthesis and is important for C. jejuni virulence, as disruption of this gene and the resultant truncation of LOS affect both colonization in vivo and invasiveness in vitro.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.