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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Subfamily Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae), with description of one new species from Pakistan.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae) from Pakistan are summarized in this paper. Two species of Scutascirus Den Heyer (S. pirgus Chaudhri and Akbar and S. tactus Chaudhri and Akbar), ten species of Coleoscirus Berlese (C. baptos (Chaudhri and Akbar), C. carex (Inayatullah and Shahid), C. carnus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. comis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. disparis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. irroratus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. mardi (Inatullah and Shahid), C. raviensis Afzal, Ashfaq and Khan, C. tobaensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq, and Khan, and C. trudus Bashir, Afzal and Akbar), and three species of Pseudobonzia Smiley (P. ashfaqi Bashir, Afzal and Akbar, P. numida Chaudhri and Akbar, and P. parilus Chaudhri) have been previously reported. One new species of Pseudobonzia, Pseudobonzia bakeri SP N: , is herein described and illustrated. A key to the genera of the subfamily and keys to the species in each genus are given to incorporate the new species from Pakistan. Distribution records of all known species in Pakistan are also given.
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An independent occurrence of the chimeric P450 enzyme CYP337B3 of Helicoverpa armigera confers cypermethrin resistance in Pakistan.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The increasing resistance level of insect pest species is a major concern to agriculture worldwide. The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most important pest species due to being highly polyphagous, geographically widespread, and resistant towards many chemical classes of insecticides. We previously described the mechanism of fenvalerate resistance in Australian populations conferred by the chimeric cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP337B3, which arose by unequal crossing-over between CYP337B1 and CYP337B2. Here, we show that this mechanism is also present in the cypermethrin-resistant FSD strain from Pakistan. The Pakistani and the Australian CYP337B3 alleles differ by 18 synonymous and three nonsynonymous SNPs and additionally in the length and sequence of the intron. Nevertheless, the activity of both CYP337B3 proteins is comparable. We demonstrate that CYP337B3 is capable of metabolizing cypermethrin (trans- and especially cis-isomers) to the main metabolite 4'-hydroxycypermethrin, which exhibits no intrinsic toxicity towards susceptible larvae. In a bioassay, CYP337B3 confers a 7-fold resistance towards cypermethrin in FSD larvae compared to susceptible larvae from the Australian TWB strain lacking CYP337B3. Linkage analysis shows that presence of CYP337B3 accounts for most of the cypermethrin resistance in the FSD strain; up-regulation of other P450s in FSD plays no detectable role in resistance. The presence or absence of CYP337B3 can be easily detected by a simple PCR screen, providing a powerful tool to rapidly distinguish resistant from susceptible individuals in the field and to determine the geographical distribution of this resistance gene. Our results suggest that CYP337B3 evolved twice independently by unequal crossing-over between CYP337B2 and two different CYP337B1 alleles.
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Global analysis of population structure, spatial and temporal dynamics of genetic diversity, and evolutionary lineages of Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae).
Gene
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus is an economically important viral pathogen of Allium crops worldwide. A global analysis of known IYSV nucleocapsid gene (N gene) sequences was carried out to determine the comparative population structure, spatial and temporal dynamics with reference to its genetic diversity and evolution. A total of 98 complete N gene sequences (including 8 sequences reported in this study) available in GenBank and reported from 23 countries were characterized by in-silico RFLP analysis. Based on RFLP, 94% of the isolates could be grouped into NL or BR types while the rest belonged to neither group. The relative proportion of NL and BR types was 46% and 48%, respectively. A temporal shift in the IYSV genotypes with a greater incremental incidence of IYSVBR was found over IYSVNL before 2005 compared to after 2005. The virus population had at least one evolutionarily significant recombination event, involving IYSVBR and IYSVNL. Codon substitution studies did not identify any significant differences among the genotypes of IYSV. However, N gene codons were minimally positively selected, moderately negatively selected denoting the action of purifying selection, thus rejecting the theory of neutral mutation in IYSV population. However, one codon position (139) was found to be positively selected in all the genotypes. Population selection statistics in the IYSVBR, IYSVNL genotypes and in the population as a whole also revealed the action of purifying selection or population expansion, whereas IYSVother displayed a decrease in population size. Genetic differentiation studies showed inherent differentiation and infrequent gene flow between IYSVBR and IYSVNL genotypes corroborating the geographical confinement of these genotypes. Taken together the study suggests that the observed diversity in IYSV population and temporal shift in IYSVBR genotype is attributable to genetic recombination, abundance of purifying selection, insignificant positive selection and population expansion. Restricted gene flow between the two major IYSV genotypes further emphasizes the role of genetic drift in modeling the population architecture, evolutionary lineage and epidemiology of IYSV.
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DNA barcoding of Bemisia tabaci complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) reveals southerly expansion of the dominant whitefly species on cotton in Pakistan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci complex) are an important pest of cotton in Pakistan, its taxonomic diversity is poorly understood. As DNA barcoding is an effective tool for resolving species complexes and analyzing species distributions, we used this approach to analyze genetic diversity in the B. tabaci complex and map the distribution of B. tabaci lineages in cotton growing areas of Pakistan.
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Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: culicidae) diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications.
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Recent advances in medicinal chemistry of sulfonamides. Rational design as anti-tumoral, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory agents.
Mini Rev Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Now-a-days, cancer is becoming one of the major problems of public health in the world. Pharmacology treatment is a way to increase quality and long life. Predominantly, in last decade sulfonamide derivatives have been described as potential carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. In the present work, we describe recent advances during the last decade in medicinal chemistry of sulfonamides derivatives with some examples of rational design as anti-tumoral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents. We show strategy design, structure-activity relationship, biological activity and advances of new sulfonamide compounds that have more health significance than some clinically used sulfonamides.
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Inhibitory Effect of Bacopasides on Spontaneous Morphine Withdrawal Induced Depression in Mice.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Bacopa monnieri is a perennial herb with a world known image as a nootropic. We investigated the effect of Bacopa monnieri methanolic extract (Mt Ext BM) 10, 20, and 30?mg/kg body weight (b.w) on acquisition and expression of morphine withdrawal induced depression in mice. Locally available Bacopa monnieri (BM) was screened for contents of Bacoside A3 , Bacopasaponin C, and Bacopaside II using HPLC with UV. Morphine dependence was induced in mice using twice daily escalating chronic morphine treatments (20-65?mg/kg b.w) for eight consecutive days. Morphine withdrawal induced depression was assayed in animals using forced swimming test (FST), three days after last morphine injection. The HPLC analysis revealed that Mt-ext BM contained Bacoside A3 as major component, i.e. 4?µg in each mg of extract. The chronic treatment with Met Ext BM 10, 20, and 30?mg/kg b.w. dosing significantly inhibited opioid withdrawal induced depression in mice. These findings imply a newer potential role of Bacopa monnieri in the clinical management of opioid withdrawal induced depression which can be attributed to Bacoside A3 . Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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DNA barcode analysis of butterfly species from Pakistan points towards regional endemism.
Mol Ecol Resour
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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DNA barcodes were obtained for 81 butterfly species belonging to 52 genera from sites in north-central Pakistan to test the utility of barcoding for their identification and to gain a better understanding of regional barcode variation. These species represent 25% of the butterfly fauna of Pakistan and belong to five families, although the Nymphalidae were dominant, comprising 38% of the total specimens. Barcode analysis showed that maximum conspecific divergence was 1.6%, while there was 1.7-14.3% divergence from the nearest neighbour species. Barcode records for 55 species showed <2% sequence divergence to records in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), but only 26 of these cases involved specimens from neighbouring India and Central Asia. Analysis revealed that most species showed little incremental sequence variation when specimens from other regions were considered, but a threefold increase was noted in a few cases. There was a clear gap between maximum intraspecific and minimum nearest neighbour distance for all 81 species. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that members of each species formed a monophyletic cluster with strong bootstrap support. The barcode results revealed two provisional species that could not be clearly linked to known taxa, while 24 other species gained their first coverage. Future work should extend the barcode reference library to include all butterfly species from Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries to gain a better understanding of regional variation in barcode sequences in this topographically and climatically complex region.
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Global risk of pharmaceutical contamination from highly populated developing countries.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Global pharmaceutical industry has relocated from the west to Asian countries to ensure competitive advantage. This industrial relocation has posed serious threats to the environment. The present study was carried out to assess the possible pharmaceutical contamination in the environment of emerging pharmaceutical manufacturing countries (Bangladesh, China, India and Pakistan). Although these countries have made tremendous progress in the pharmaceutical sector but most of their industrial units discharge wastewater into domestic sewage network without any treatment. The application of untreated wastewater (industrial and domestic) and biosolids (sewage sludge and manure) in agriculture causes the contamination of surface water, soil, groundwater, and the entire food web with pharmaceutical compounds (PCs), their metabolites and transformed products (TPs), and multidrug resistant microbes. This pharmaceutical contamination in Asian countries poses global risks via product export and international traveling. Several prospective research hypotheses including the development of new analytical methods to monitor these PCs/TPs and their metabolites, highly resistant microbial strains, and mixture toxicity as a consequence of pharmaceutical contamination in these emerging pharmaceutical exporters have also been proposed based on the available literature.
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Should we routinely expose recurrent laryngeal nerve(s) during thyroid surgery?
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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To compare the frequency of recurrent laryngeal nerve(s) (RLNs) palsy after various thyroid procedures with and without identification of recurrent laryngeal nerve during the operation. STUDY DESign: Randomized controlled trial.
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Evaluating the capacity of plant DNA barcodes to discriminate species of cotton (Gossypium: Malvaceae).
Mol Ecol Resour
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Although two plastid regions have been adopted as the standard markers for plant DNA barcoding, their limited resolution has provoked the consideration of other gene regions, especially in taxonomically diverse genera. The genus Gossypium (cotton) includes eight diploid genome groups (A-G, and K) and five allotetraploid species which are difficult to discriminate morphologically. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of three widely used markers (matK, rbcL, and ITS2) in the discrimination of 20 diploid and five tetraploid species of cotton. Sequences were analysed locus-wise and in combinations to determine the most effective strategy for species identification. Sequence recovery was high, ranging from 92% to 100% with mean pairwise interspecific distance highest for ITS2 (3.68%) and lowest for rbcL (0.43%). At a 0.5% threshold, the combination of matK+ITS2 produced the greatest number of species clusters. Based on best match analysis, the combination of matK+ITS2 was best, while based on all species barcodes analysis, ITS2 gave the highest percentage of correct species identifications (98.93%). The combination of sequences for all three markers produced the best resolved tree. The disparity index test based on matK+rbcL+ITS2 was significant (P < 0.05) for a higher number of species pairs than the individual gene sequences. Although all three barcodes separated the species with respect to their genome type, no single combination of barcodes could differentiate all the Gossypium species, and tetraploid species were particularly difficult.
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Use of recombinant tobacco mosaic virus to achieve RNA interference in plants against the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is an important plant pest with a very broad plant host range. P. citri is a phloem feeder and loss of plant vigor and stunting are characteristic symptoms induced on a range of host plants, but P. citri also reduces fruit quality and causes fruit drop leading to significant yield reductions. Better strategies for managing this pest are greatly needed. RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging tool for functional genomics studies and is being investigated as a practical tool for highly targeted insect control. Here we investigated whether RNAi effects can be induced in P. citri and whether candidate mRNAs could be identified as possible targets for RNAi-based P. citri control. RNAi effects were induced in P. citri, as demonstrated by specific target reductions of P. citri actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs after injection of the corresponding specific double-stranded RNA inducers. We also used recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to express these RNAi effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that P. citri showed lower fecundity and pronounced death of crawlers after feeding on recombinant TMV-infected plants. Taken together, our data show that actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs are potential targets for RNAi against P. citri, and that recombinant TMV is an effective tool for evaluating candidate RNAi effectors in plants.
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Benzyl 2-{4-[2-(4-chloro-benzoyl-amino)-eth-yl]phen-oxy}-2-methyl-propionate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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In the title compound, C(26)H(26)ClNO(4), the central phenyl-ene ring is oriented at dihedral angles of 5.06?(14) and 64.14?(5)°, respectively, with respect to aromatic rings of the benzyl and chloro-phenyl groups. The centroid-centroid distance between the central phenyl-ene ring and the aromatic ring of the benzyl group is 4.028?(12)?Å. In the crystal, inter-molecular N-H?O hydrogen bond generate a chain along (100). C-H?O inter-actions are also observed.
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4-[(4-Meth-oxy-benzene-sulfonamido)-meth-yl]cyclo-hexane-1-carb-oxy-lic acid.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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In the title compound, C(15)H(21)NO(5)S, two crystallographically independent mol-ecules are linked into a dimer by a pair of N-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming an R(2) (2)(8) ring motif. In the crystal, mol-ecules are further linked by inter-molecular O-H?O hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional network parallel to (012). Additional stabilization is provided by weak inter-molecular C-H?O hydrogen bonds.
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4-[(4-Methyl-benzene-sulfonamido)-meth-yl]cyclo-hexa-necarb-oxy-lic acid.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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The title compound, C(15)H(21)NO(4)S, crystallized with two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit in which the dihedral angles between the mean planes of the benzene and cyclo-hexane rings are 78.3?(2) and 67.6?(2)°. The substituents of the cyclo-hexyl rings are in equatorial orientations. In the crystal, both mol-ecules form R(2) (2)(6) carb-oxy-lic acid inversion dimers via pairs of O-H?O hydrogen bonds. Further N-H?O and C-H?O inter-actions generate a three-dimensional network.
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Correction of airway obstruction in congenital micrognathia by mandibular distraction osteogenesis.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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Varying degrees of upper airway obstruction is almost universally present in patients of congenital micrognathia which needs to be corrected as early as possible. This allows appropriate feeding and growth and prevents long-term complications such as pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale. We report the case of a tracheostomy-dependent, 4-year-old child with congenital micrognathia who was treated with mandibular distraction osteogenesis. This is the treatment of choice for surgical correction of mandibular hypoplasia and for the challenging airway management in infants. Once a bone length of 2 cm was achieved through distraction osteogenesis, the child was completely relieved of respiratory obstruction and tracheostomy tube was removed through the process of decannulation.
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RNA2 of TRV SYM breaks the rules for tobravirus genome structure.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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Currently, all of the RNA2 molecules described for all of the more than thirty sequenced isolates of the three tobraviruses, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), Pea early-browning virus (PEBV) and Pepper ringspot virus (PepRSV), have the virus coat protein (CP) gene located in the 5 proximal position. However, sequencing of the RNA2 of the SYM isolate of TRV revealed that this isolate has a unique genome structure in which the virus CP gene is located in the central region of RNA2 downstream of three completely novel open reading frames (ORFN1, ORFN2 and ORFN3). An infectious clone of SYM RNA2 was constructed and mutations were introduced separately into each of the novel genes to interrupt their translation. However, none of the mutations resulted in any noticeable change in the ability of TRV RNA1 or RNA2 to replicate and move systemically in the leaves or roots of infected plants. In addition, individual expression of the novel ORFs either from a Potato virus X (PVX) vector or from a binary plasmid in Agrobacterium tumefaciens did not reveal any potential function.
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Double image encryption by using iterative random binary encoding in gyrator domains.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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We propose a double image encryption by using random binary encoding and gyrator transform. Two secret images are first regarded as the real part and imaginary part of complex function. Chaotic map is used for obtaining random binary matrix. The real part and imaginary part of complex function are exchanged under the control of random binary data. An iterative structure composed of the random binary encoding method is designed and employed for enhancing the security of encryption algorithm. The parameters in chaotic map and gyrator transform serve as the keys of this encryption scheme. Some numerical simulations have been made, to demonstrate the performance this algorithm.
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Total thyroidectomy as primary elective procedure in multinodular thyroid disease.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2009
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Multinodular goitre is one of the commonest thyroid diseases encountered in the practice of surgery. The most common surgery being performed for multinodular goitre is subtotal thyroidectomy. Total thyroidectomy is designed to remove all of the thyroid tissue. The objective of this study was to evaluate total thyroidectomy as a primary elective procedure for treatment of multinodular thyroid disease. This descriptive study was carried out at Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi from June 2003 to September 2006.
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Use of Morus alba-Bombyx mori as a useful template to assess Pb entrance in the food chain from wastewater.
Environ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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This study focused on a 75-d microplot experiment to access lead (Pb) entrance into the terrestrial ecosystem using Morus alba (mulberry) and Bombyx mori (silkworm) as pollution indicator sources. The Pb(II) mobility in different systems was in the following order: synthetic effluents > soil > plant > larva > larva-fecal. The Pb(II) mobility from an inorganic source to different life forms was found to be highly dependent on soil pH and the concentration of Pb in synthetic effluents. At lower concentrations, Pb was less lethal to B. mori larvae. Fifth instars of B. mori were found to be more tolerant to toxicity caused by Pb compared with lower instars. M. alba was not a hyperaccumulator plant because Pb(II) concentration was <1,000 mg/kg at all soil pHs and Pb(II) concentrations in effluents. The maximum amount of Pb(II) detected in soil, mulberry leaves, silkworm larvae, and silkworm feces was 326.5 +/- 0.04, 42.78 +/- 0.02, 61.24 +/- 0.02, and 22.3 +/- 0.02 mg/kg, respectively.
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N-(4-Bromo-phenyl-sulfon-yl)isonicotino-hydrazide.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2009
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The title compound, C(12)H(10)BrN(3)O(3)S, crystallizes with two crystallographically independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The dihedral angles between the two six-membered rings in the mol-ecules are 34.1?(3) and 45.1?(2)°. In the crystal structure, mol-ecules are connected via N-H?O and N-H?N hydrogen bonding.
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A review of valproate in psychiatric practice.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
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Valproate (2-propylpentanoate) is available as valproic acid, sodium valproate and semisodium valproate. It has actions on dopamine, GABA and glutamate neurotransmission and intracellular signaling. Its main psychiatric use is to treat bipolar disorder. It has been used in other psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder, but data are insufficient to recommend this. In acute mania, valproate monotherapy has similar efficacy to antipsychotic drugs and lithium whereas the combination of valproate and an antipsychotic is more effective than either drug alone. In maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder, valproate monotherapy has comparable efficacy to olanzapine although placebo-controlled evidence is limited. Maintenance treatment with valproate and quetiapine or olanzapine is more efficacious than valproate alone when an acute episode responds to the combination. Common adverse effects of valproate include weight gain, gastrointestinal symptoms, sedation, tremor and mild elevation of hepatic enzymes. Serious hepatic toxicity is rare in adults. Many adverse effects are dose related and resolve with dose reduction. Valproate is teratogenic and specifically associated with neural tube defect. Preliminary evidence has linked in utero exposure to decreased verbal intelligence in the offspring. These effects, plus a probable increased risk of polycystic ovary syndrome, limit valproates use in women of childbearing potential.
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N-Acetyl-4-(benzene-sulfonamido)benzene-sulfonamide.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2009
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In the mol-ecule of the title compound, C(14)H(14)N(2)O(5)S(2), the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 77.75?(9)°. The acetamide group is planar [maximum deviation = 0.002?(3)?Å] and oriented at dihedral angles of 13.49?(21) and 73.94?(10)° with respect to the aromatic rings. An intra-molecular C-H?O inter-action results in the formation of a six-membered ring. In the crystal structure, inter-molecular N-H?O and C-H?O inter-actions link the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional network, forming R(2) (2)(20) ring motifs.
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1-Methyl-4-[1-(1-phenyl-ethyl-idene)-hydrazin-2-yl-idene]-3,4-dihydro-1H-2?(6),1-benzothia-zine-2,2-dione.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
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In the title compound, C(17)H(17)N(3)O(2)S, the phenyl ring is oriented at dihedral angles of 8.5?(2) and 1.17?(14)°, respectively, to the C=N-N plane and the fused aromatic ring. The thia-zine ring adopts an envelope conformation with the S atom at the flap. In the crystal, a weak C-H?O inter-action connects the mol-ecules, forming a helical chain along the a axis.
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4-Methyl-N-{4-[(5-methyl-1,2-oxazol-3-yl)sulfamo-yl]phen-yl}benzene-sulfonamide.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
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In the title compound, C(17)H(17)N(3)O(5)S(2), the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 81.27?(8)° and the heterocyclic ring is oriented at 9.1?(2) and 76.01?(9)° with respect to these rings. Mol-ecules are connected via N-H?N and N-H?O hydrogen bonds, generating an R(2) (2)(8) motif, into chains running along the [001] direction. There is also an intra-molecular C-H?O hydrogen bond completing an S(6) ring motif. The polymeric chains are inter-linked through inter-molecular C-H?O hydrogen bonds.
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Methyl 4-{[(4-methyl-phen-yl)sulfon-yl]amino}-benzoate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
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In the mol-ecule of the title compound, C(15)H(15)NO(4)S, the dihedral angle between the two rings is 88.05?(7)°. The methyl ester group is nearly coplanar with the adjacent ring [dihedral angle = 2.81?(10)°], whereas it is oriented at 86.90?(9)° with respect to the plane of the ring attached to the -SO(2)- group. Weak intra-molecular C-H?O hydrogen bonding completes S(5) and S(6) ring motifs. The mol-ecules form one-dimensional polymeric C(8) chains along the [010] direction due to N-H?O hydrogen bonding and these chains are linked by C-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.