The Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae) from Pakistan are summarized in this paper. Two species of Scutascirus Den Heyer (S. pirgus Chaudhri and Akbar and S. tactus Chaudhri and Akbar), ten species of Coleoscirus Berlese (C. baptos (Chaudhri and Akbar), C. carex (Inayatullah and Shahid), C. carnus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. comis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. disparis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. irroratus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. mardi (Inatullah and Shahid), C. raviensis Afzal, Ashfaq and Khan, C. tobaensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq, and Khan, and C. trudus Bashir, Afzal and Akbar), and three species of Pseudobonzia Smiley (P. ashfaqi Bashir, Afzal and Akbar, P. numida Chaudhri and Akbar, and P. parilus Chaudhri) have been previously reported. One new species of Pseudobonzia, Pseudobonzia bakeri SP N: , is herein described and illustrated. A key to the genera of the subfamily and keys to the species in each genus are given to incorporate the new species from Pakistan. Distribution records of all known species in Pakistan are also given.
Antioxidizing enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidae) are important enzymatic systems used to degrade hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, thereby lowering intracellular hydrogen peroxide levels. Entomopathogenic fungi display increased activities of antioxidizing enzymes during growth and germination, which is necessary to counteract the hyperoxidant state produced by oxidative metabolism. We studied the influence of different carbon sources on antioxidizing enzyme production by Isaria fumosorosea to determine the importance of antioxiding enzymes induction in fungal germination, stress tolerance and virulence. Conidia produced by colonies grown on hydrocarbons showed higher rates of enzyme activities compared to the control and the enzyme activities of the conidia produced on n-octacosane were higher than all the other treatments. The lipid peroxidation activities were observed as an indicative marker of oxidative damage to cells and the lowest levels of lipid peroxidation activities were observed for n-octacosane treatment. The increased enzyme activities of n-octacosane- grown conidia were accompanied by higher levels of resistance to exogenous hydrogen peroxide, reduction in germination time and higher virulence against Spodoptera exigua. Our study has helped to identify that increased activities of antioxidizing enzymes can improve the germination and tolerance to antioxidant stress response of I. fumosorosea.
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