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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Iatrogenic post biopsy hemobilia with pseudoaneurysm.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Hemobilia is defined as bleeding into the biliary tree from an abnormal communication between a blood vessel and bile duct. It is an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and iatrogenic most of the times. We report a case of hemobilia secondary to percutaneous liver biopsy presenting with classical Quincke's triad in a young lady which was treated with combined biliary balloon sweep thrombectomy and transarterial embolization for complete resolution of symptoms.
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Phosphorylation sites of HER2/c-erbB-2: role in cell growth and in disease.
Acta Biochim. Pol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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The protein kinase c-erbB-2 belongs to the family of receptor tyrosine kinase and is involved in oncogenesis. The present study predicts different phosphorylation sites of HER2/c-erbB-2 which are important in preventing or developing cancer, especially breast cancer. Sequence homology showed highest homology (77%) with epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain. According to PROSITE search result, active sites of c-erbB-2 are N-lobe (glycine rich phosphate binding loop). Catalytic loop with presumptive catalytically active of Asp108 is phosphorylated by tyrosine protein kinase. A-loop, activation loop, becomes phosphorylated and activates the substrate binding. The study strengthens our knowledge regarding HER2 signaling by the detection of uncharacterized signaling proteins, establishing phosphorylation of an activation loop and helps us to make assumptions about the role of such previously unidentified proteins. On the basis of importance of HER2 in breast cancer as well as in other diseases, this study provides fruitful information for designing new therapeutic strategies.
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Outcome of pyeloplasty in children.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Hydronephrosis in children is a common congenital urologic problem with pelviureteric junction obstruction being its most common cause. This study was conducted to evaluate the outcome of pyeloplasty for congenital pelviureteric junction obstruction in children.
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Our experience with unusual gastrointestinal tract duplications in infants.
Afr J Paediatr Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Classical duplications may present along any part of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) from mouth to anus. Atypical or unusual rare varieties of GIT duplications may also occur, but with different anatomical features.
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Multitrophic microbial interactions for eco- and agro-biotechnological processes: theory and practice.
Trends Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Multitrophic level microbial loop interactions mediated by protist predators, bacteria, and viruses drive eco- and agro-biotechnological processes such as bioremediation, wastewater treatment, plant growth promotion, and ecosystem functioning. To what extent these microbial interactions are context-dependent in performing biotechnological and ecosystem processes remains largely unstudied. Theory-driven research may advance the understanding of eco-evolutionary processes underlying the patterns and functioning of microbial interactions for successful development of microbe-based biotechnologies for real world applications. This could also be a great avenue to test the validity or limitations of ecology theory for managing diverse microbial resources in an era of altering microbial niches, multitrophic interactions, and microbial diversity loss caused by climate and land use changes.
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Clinical, lifestyle, socioeconomic determinants and rate of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis in stroke free Pakistanis.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease (ICAD) is the most frequent etiology of stroke with high prevalence among Asians. Despite this, early determinants of ICAD have not been described from this region.
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?-Glucosidase and lipoxygenase inhibitory derivatives of cryptosporioptide from the endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis sp.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Two new cryptosporioptide-derived polyketides cryptosporioptides A (2) and B (3) were isolated from the extract of endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis sp. associated with the shrub, Viburnum tinus. The structures of the isolates were determined through spectral analysis including 1D NMR ((1)H, (13)C) and 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY) techniques, HR-FAB-MS and by comparison with the reported data of cryptosporioptide (1). The relative stereochemistry was assigned with the help of NOESY analysis, the molecular model, and comparison of the optical rotation values with the reference compound 1.
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Optical Properties of Some Novel 2,5-Disubstituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives and their Application as an Efficient Cell Staining Azo Dyes.
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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A series of six 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives with various length of conjugation have been synthesized and their optical properties including UV-visible absorption spectra, fluorescence emission spectra, molar absorption co-efficient, Stokes shift and the relative fluorescence quantum yield were measured in a variety of organic solvents. Correlation of the absorption spectra and fluorescence emission response of the 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives with the substituent effect revealed that the optical response can easily be tuned toward red shift by increasing conjugation length. The synthesized compounds were further employed in bioimaging assay in order to investigate their potential as an efficient cell staining agent using L-929 cells under confocal fluorescence microscope which showed scrupulous cell permeability and no toxicity as assessed by MTT assay.
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Proteus mirabilis alleviates zinc toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays) plants.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Plant-associated bacteria can have beneficial effects on the growth and health of their host. However, the role of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), under metal stress, has not been widely investigated. The present study investigated the possible mandatory role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in protecting plants from zinc (Zn) toxicity. The exposure of maize plants to 50µM zinc inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll, total soluble protein and strongly increased accumulation of Zn in both root and shoot. Similarly, Zn enhanced hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondaldehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking with novel Zn tolerant bacterial strain Proteus mirabilis (ZK1) isolated zinc (Zn) contaminated soil, alleviated the negative effect of Zn on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Zn. Furthermore, strain ZK1 significantly enhanced the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid but lowered the Proline accumulation in Zn stressed plants. The results suggested that the inoculation of Zea mays plants with P. mirabilis during an earlier growth period could be related to its plant growth promoting activities and avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Zn, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity.
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Self-Assembled Alluaudite Na2 Fe3-x Mnx (PO4 )3 Micro/Nanocompounds for Sodium-Ion Battery Electrodes: A New Insight into Their Electronic and Geometric Structure.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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A series of alluaudite Na2 Fe3-x Mnx (PO4 )3 microcompounds, which self-assembled from primary nanorods, were prepared successfully through a solvothermal method. As a promising candidate cathode for sodium-ion batteries, it is necessary to obtain a deeper understanding of the relationship between the structure and physicochemical properties of these materials. The local electronic and geometric environments were systematically investigated, for the first time, by using a combination of soft/hard X-ray absorption, IR, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results show that the electrochemical performance is not only associated with morphology, but also with the electronic and crystalline structure. With the introduction of manganese into the lattice, the long-range order maintains the isostructural framework and the lattice parameters expand as expected. However, for short-range order, PO4 tetrahedra and MO6 octahedra (M=Fe and Mn) become more severely distorted as a function of Mn concentration. Meanwhile, larger MnO6 octahedra will compress the space of FeO6 octahedra, which will result in stronger core/electron-electron interactions for Fe, as characterized by hard/soft X-ray absorption spectra. These slight changes in the electronic and local structures lead to different electrochemical performances with changes to the manganese content. Moreover, other physicochemical properties, such as magnetic behavior, are also confirmed to be correlated with these different electron interactions and local geometric environments.
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of stomach presenting with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration syndrome.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Paraneoplastic syndromes are most often diagnosed in the setting of a known malignancy. It is not uncommon for a paraneoplastic disorder to develop before a cancer is identified. While syndrome of cerebellar degeneration has been identified as a paraneoplastic manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma, thymoma, lung and breast cancer, ovarian and testicular tumors, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, follicular lymphoma and adenocarcinoma of stomach, its association with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and particularly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma has not been established previously. This case report describes the primary presentation with signs of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration as the only manifestation of an underlying diffuse large B-cell lymphoma making it the first of its kind to be formally reported. Furthermore, it also includes the identification of associated paraneoplastic antibodies for this particular syndrome.
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Fungal phenalenones: chemistry, biology, biosynthesis and phylogeny.
Nat Prod Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Covering up to the end of August 2013. Phenalenones are members of a unique class of natural polyketides exhibiting diverse biological potential. This is a comprehensive review of 72 phenalenones with diverse structural features originating from fungal sources. Their bioactive potential and structure elucidation are discussed along with a review of their biosynthetic pathways and the taxonomical relationship between the fungi producing these natural products.
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Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-hyperglycemic Activities of Novel 3,4-Disubstituted 1,2,4-Triazol-5(4H)-one Derivatives.
Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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A new series of 3,4-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one 5a-r, bearing various methoxyphenyl, fluorophenyl, tolyl and phenyl groups, was synthesized by the dehydrocyclization of hydrazinecarboxamides 4a-r by refluxing in a 2 N sodium hydroxide solution. Hydrazinecarboxamides 4a-r was synthesized via the condensation of the corresponding aralkanoic acid hydrazides, 3a-g, with fluoro-, tolyl- and methoxyphenylisocyanates. The newly synthesized compounds (5ar) were characterized by IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR analyses. The structure of one compound 5a was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All of the synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic (?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibition) activity to identify new drugs that might be useful in preventing damage related to diabetes and inflammation. Compounds 5j, 5k and 5m decrease the expression of type II collagen in a dose dependent manner; similarly 5l decrease the COX-2 expression of rabbit articular chondrocytes in a dose dependent manner possessing potent anti-inflammatory potential while some of derivatives including 5c, 5e, 5g and 5h cause inflammation. Meanwhile, excellent ?-glucosidase and moderate ?-amylase inhibitory profiles against carbohydrate modulating enzymes were demonstrated by compounds 5b, 5f, 5k and 5q compared to the reference standard acarbose, and compounds 5g, 5h, 5i, 5j, 5l and 5o exhibited moderate to low enzyme inhibition potential among the series.
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Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma of Parapharyngeal Space: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
Head Neck Pathol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) of the parapharyngeal space is a rare malignant tumor. Only eleven cases of FDCS of the parapharyngeal space have been reported in English literature. Most of the reported cases developed tumor recurrence within 1 year or had metastasis. Because of the rarity of FDCS in the parapharyngeal space and peculiar histology, it can be misdiagnosed as undifferentiated carcinoma or meningioma. Therefore, pathologists should be aware of the existence of FDCS in this location. This paper aims to report a unique case of FDCS of the parapharyngeal space without recurrence in 26 months follow up with a review of the literature.
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The smart 2-(2-fluorobenzoyl)-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydrazinecarbothioamide functionalized as Ni(II) sensor in micromolar concentration level and its application in live cell imaging.
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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In recent years, fluorescent probes for the detection of environmentally and biologically important metal cations have received extensive attention for designing and development of fluorescent chemosensors. Herein, we report the photophysical results of 2-(2-fluorobenzoyl)-N-(2-methoxyphenyl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (4) functionalized as Ni (II) sensor in micromolar concentration level. Through fluorescence titration at 488 nm, we were confirmed that ligand 4 showed the remarkable emission by complexation between 4 and Ni (II) while it appeared no emission in case of the competitive ions (Cr(3+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ba(2+), Cu(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), Cu(+), Cs(+)). Furthermore, ligand 4 exhibited no toxicity with precise cell permeability toward normal living cells using L929 cell lines in bio imaging experiment investigated through confocal fluorescence microscope. The non-toxic behavior of ligand 4 (assessed by MTT assay) and its ability to track the Ni(2+) in living cells suggest its possibility to use in biological system as nickel sensor.
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A new prognostic scoring system for perforation peritonitis secondary to duodenal ulcers.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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To identify prognostic factors for perforated duodenal ulcers and to devise and assess a new scoring system.
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Influence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as PGPR on oxidative stress tolerance in wheat under Zn stress.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), whose role is still underestimated, plays an important (or perhaps essential) role in improving plant growth. The comprehensive understanding of bacterial plant growth promoting mechanism helps to get sustainable agriculture production under biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, plant growth promoting (PGP) bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa having maximum inhibitory concentration of 1500mg kg(-1) against Zn was isolated from arable land, irrigated with industrial effluent and evaluated to determine it bioremediation potential. The study was mainly focused on plant biomass production, nutrient uptake and oxidative stress tolerance in relation to the activities of antioxidative enzymes and the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants. The oxidative stress tolerance was measured by estimating the MDA accumulation as well as H2O2 production in wheat plants under Zn (1000mg kg(-1)) stress and inoculation of soil with Zn resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Zn in rooting medium reduced the plant growth, leaf photosynthetic pigments as well as uptake of N and P. However, content of MDA and H2O2 increased at higher concentration of Zn. Inoculation of P. aeruginosa improved the uptake of P and N in wheat plants with an increase in leaf chlorophyll, total soluble protein and plant biomass production. Analysis of plant root and shoot disclosed that Zn concentration was significantly lowered in P. aeruginosa inoculated zinc stressed plants as compare to the plants grown under Zn stress only. The amelioration of adverse effects of Zn stress on biomass production due to P. aeruginosa inoculation was related with enhanced antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, POD and CAT), and the contents of non-enzymatic components such as ascorbic acid and total phenolics (TPC) as compare to Zn-treated plants. The up-gradation in antioxidative defense mechanism, resulted a reduction in H2O2 and MDA content due to the scavenging of ROS by antioxidants. It was concluded that P. aeruginosa is an ideal candidate for bioremediation and wheat growth promotion against Zn-induced oxidative stress by improving the availability of necessary nutrient, eliciting antioxidant defense system as well as by lowering the Zn metal uptake.
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Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risk assessment of selected metals in soil around a natural water reservoir, Pakistan.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Contaminants in surface soil can directly pose significant human health risks through oral ingestion, dermal contact and particle inhalation, especially for children. Both non-cancer and cancer risks associated with selected metal levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) were evaluated in surface soil around Mangla Lake during summer and winter. The results based on average pseudo-total metal concentrations followed the decreasing order: Fe (4038mg/kg)>Mn (394mg/kg)>Zn (40mg/kg)>Pb (17mg/kg)>Cr (21mg/kg)>Cu (15mg/kg)>Cd (1.3mg/kg) during summer and Fe (3673mg/kg)>Mn (407mg/kg)>Zn (30mg/kg)>Cr (26mg/kg)>Pb (26mg/kg)>Cu (14mg/kg)>Cd (1.8mg/kg) during winter. Present metal levels in the soil were also compared with other studies and guideline values which showed significant increase in the metal concentrations in this study. The metal levels also showed considerable spatial variations around the lake. The correlation study and multivariate principal component analysis revealed significant anthropogenic contributions of the metals in soils. Aqua-regia extractable (pseudo-total) contents were used as the reference to establish the percentage of bioavailability. After considering the bioavailability (Cd>Pb>Cr>Zn>Cu>Fe>Mn during both seasons), the non-cancer and cancer risks posed by Cd, Pb and Cr was relatively higher than rest of the metals, though the overall hazard index (HI) and cancer risk levels were within the safe limits (1.0 and 1.0E-06, respectively). The overall cancer risk to the adults based on pseudo-total metal concentrations exceeded the target value (1.0E-06), mainly contributed by Cr. A method considering bioavailability is suggested to produce a more realistic estimation for human health risks of trace metals contamination in soil.
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Seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in five draught equine populated metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Equine piroplasmosis (EP) caused by intraerythrocytic parasites (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi) is an emerging equine disease of world-wide distribution. In Pakistan, the prevalence and incidence of EP are unknown. In order to obtain the first insights into the prevalence of the disease, a total of 430 equids, including 33 mules, 65 horses and 332 donkeys, aging from ? 5 to ? 10 years of either sex, from five metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan, were serologically tested for the presence of antibodies directed against B. caballi and T. equi, using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Out of 430 equid serum samples tested, 226 (52.6%, 95% CI 47.7-57.4) were found cELISA positive for EP (T. equi and/or B. caballi infections). The overall seroprevalence of EP was 41.2% (95% CI 36.5-46.0) for T. equi and 21.6% (95% CI 17.8-25.8) for B. caballi. A small proportion of equids (10.2%, 95% CI 7.5-13.5) was seropositive for both T. equi and B. caballi. Seroprevalence of T. equi was significantly higher (P<0.01) in equines from the metropolis of Lahore (66.7%, 95% CI 54.3-77.6) and in horses (56.9%, 95% CI 44.0-69.2). Multivariable logistic regression model analysis indicated that factors associated with prevalence of EP were being an equine species kept in metropolis Lahore (OR=4.24, 95% CI 2.28-7.90), horse (OR=2.82, 95% CI 1.53-5.20) and male equids (OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.15-2.86).
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Time for change: conventional interferon regimes should not be the standard of care for management of Pakistani genotype-3 in chronic hepatitis C.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy and side effect profile of conventional interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin for treating chronic hepatitis C genotype-3 infections in Pakistan. The study was conducted on treating 220 treatment-naïve individuals at KRL Hospital with conventional interferon given for 6 months. Both the response and side effects were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics. Out of total cohort, 84.92% (169 out of 199) achieved end of treatment response (ETR) while 63.31% (126 out of 199) achieved sustained virological response (SVR). Leukopenia, gastrointestinal and miscellaneous systemic complaints were the most common adverse effects. In the context of a low ETR and SVR but a similar side effect profile as that of pegylated regimes, conventional therapy needs to be replaced with peg-interferon as the treatment of choice.
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Bioactive behavior of silicon substituted calcium phosphate based bioceramics for bone regeneration.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Bone graft substitutes are widely used for bone regeneration and repair in defect sites resulting from aging, disease, trauma, or accident. With invariably increasing clinical demands, there is an urgent need to produce artificial materials, which are readily available and are capable of fast and guided skeletal repair. Calcium phosphate based bioactive ceramics are extensively utilized in bone regeneration and repair applications. Silicon is often utilized as a substituent or a dopant in these bioceramics, since it significantly enhances the ultimate properties of conventional biomaterials such as surface chemical structure, mechanical strength, bioactivity, biocompatibility, etc. This article presents an overview of the silicon substituted bioceramics, which have emerged as efficient bone replacement and bone regeneration materials. Thus, the role of silicon in enhancing the biological performance and bone forming capabilities of conventional calcium phosphate based bioceramics is identified and reviewed.
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Longipetalosides A-C, new steroidal saponins from Tribulus longipetalus.
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Longipetalosides A-C (1-3); three new furostane steroidal saponins together with (25S)-5?-furastan-3?,22,26-triol (4) and gitogenin (5) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the whole plant of Tribulus longipetalus. The structures of these compounds (1-5) were established by using 1D ((1)H, (13)C) and 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry (ESIMS, HRESIMS), and in comparison with literature data reported for related compounds. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against enzymes ?-glucosidase, lipoxygenase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase. Only the compounds 4 and 5 were found as the inhibitors of enzyme ?-glucosidase with IC50 values of 33.5±0.22 and 37.2±0.18?M, respectively.
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Facile synthesis, cytotoxicity and bioimaging of Fe(3+) selective fluorescent chemosensor.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The designing and development of fluorescent chemosensors have recently been intensively explored for sensitive and specific detection of environmentally and biologically relevant metal ions in aqueous solution and living cells. Herein, we report the photophysical results of alanine substituted rhodamine B derivative 3 having specific binding affinity toward Fe(3+) with micro molar concentration level. Through fluorescence titration at 599nm, we were confirmed that ligand 3 exhibited ratiometric fluorescence response with remarkable enhancement in emission intensity by complexation between 3 and Fe(3+) while it appeared no emission in case of the competitive ions (Sc(3+), Yb(3+), In(3+), Ce(3+), Sm(3+), Cr(3+), Sn(2+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ba(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Ag(+), Cs(+), Cu(+), K(+)) in aqueous/methanol (60:40, v/v) at neutral pH. However, the fluorescence as well as colorimetric response of ligand-iron complex solution was quenched by addition of KCN which snatches the Fe(3+) from complex and turn off the sensor confirming the recognition process was reversible. Furthermore, bioimaging studies against L-929 cells (mouse fibroblast cells) and BHK-21 (hamster kidney fibroblast), through confocal fluorescence microscopic experiment indicated that ligand showed good permeability and minimum toxicity against the tested cell lines.
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Isolating, screening and applying chromium reducing bacteria to promote growth and yield of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in chromium contaminated soils.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)], extensively used in different industries, is one of the most toxic heavy metals. The Cr (VI) reducing bacteria could be helpful in decreasing its toxic effects. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Cr (VI) reducing bacteria to improve growth and yield of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) in Cr-contaminated soils. Most of the selected bacterial isolates significantly increased the growth and yield of okra. Maximum response was observed in the plants inoculated with the isolate K12 where plant height, root length, fruit weight and number of fruits per plant increased up to 77.5 percent, 72.6 percent, 1.4 fold and 2.9 fold, respectively. Moreover, inoculation with bacteria caused significant decrease in Cr (VI) concentration in soil and plant parts across all treatments. The maximum decrease of 69.6, 56.1 and 40.0 percent in Cr (VI) concentrations in soil, plant vegetative parts and plant reproductive parts, respectively, was observed in the treatment inoculated with the strain K12. Based on amplification, sequencing and analysis of 16S rDNA sequence, the strain K12 was found belonging to genus Brucella and was designated as Brucella sp. K12. These findings suggest that the strain K12 may serve as a potential bioresource to improve crop production in Cr-contaminated soils.
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Appendicular Band Syndrome simulating Appendicular Mass in a Child.
APSP J Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Appendicular band syndrome is an exceedingly rare surgical emergency that may lead to intestinal obstruction and strangulation. We report a case of 2-year-old boy who presented with acute intestinal obstruction with a mass in right iliac fossa (RIF). At exploration, an inflamed appendix had entrapped a loop of terminal ileum leading to its strangulation and gangrene. The appendectomy and resection of gangrenous gut were done with formation of an ileostomy.
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Colovaginoplasty in a case of mayer-rokitansky-kuster-hauser syndrome.
APSP J Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) is characterized by various abnormalities of paramesonephric duct structures; vaginal aplasia being the commonest anomaly in the spectrum. We report a 17-year-old girl; a case of MRKHS with vaginal agenesis. The cervix was present but atretic; uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries were normal. There were no associated renal or skeletal defects. Colovaginoplasty was done to bridge the gap between uterus and introitus. Postoperatively, small part of colovaginoplasty flap became necrotic posteriorly, which was ultimately managed by insetting of labial flap.
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Dissolved concentrations, sources, and risk evaluation of selected metals in surface water from Mangla Lake, Pakistan.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The present study is carried out for the assessment of water quality parameters and selected metals levels in surface water from Mangla Lake, Pakistan. The metal levels (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average levels of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb were higher than the allowable concentrations set by national and international agencies. Principal component analysis indicated significant anthropogenic contributions of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb in the water reservoir. Noncarcinogenic risk assessment was then evaluated using Hazard Quotient (HQ(ing/derm)) and Hazard Index (HI(ing/derm)) following USEPA methodology. For adults and children, Cd, Co, Cr, and Pb (HQ(ing) > 1) emerged as the most important pollutants leading to noncarcinogenic concerns via ingestion route, whereas there was no risk via dermal contact of surface water. This study helps in establishing pollutant loading reduction goal and the total maximum daily loads, and consequently contributes to preserve public health and develop water conservation strategy.
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Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis.
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Neisseria meningitidis native outer membrane vesicles containing different LPS glycoforms adjuvant meningococcal and non-meningococcal antigens.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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We evaluated the adjuvant effect of a modified glycoform of LPS (LgtB-LpxL1) as compared to the non-modified glycoform Lpxl1 serogroup B meningococcal H44/76 native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs), on immune responses to vaccination with recombinant meningococcal protein, rPorA, tetanus toxoid or meningococcal serogroup C capsular polysaccharide. We used LgtB-LpxL1 LPS because the disruption of lgtB, which results in the exposure of N-acetylglucosamine-galactose-glucose residues in the LPS outer core, has been shown to enhance the activation of human dendritic cells in vitro. Responses were compared to a monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)-based adjuvant and to aluminium hydroxide suspension. The nOMVs induced serum IgG responses against each of the three antigens comparable to those obtained with MPL or aluminium salt. However, nOMVs elicited (i) a lower IgG1/IgG2a ratio against rPorA, and (ii) serum bactericidal antibody titres superior to those achieved with aluminium salt, reaching similar titers to those obtained with MPL. Similarly, bactericidal antibody titres induced following immunisation with meningococcal serogroup C polysaccharide and nOMVs were similar to those obtained using MPL, but better than with aluminium salt. Immunisation with tetanus toxoid and nOMVs resulted in similar levels of tetanus toxoid-specific IgG as when adjuvanted with aluminium salt. These results highlight the potential utility of meningococcal LpxL1 LPS-containing nOMVs as an adjuvant for recombinant meningococcal protein vaccines, as well as suggest their possible use with a variety of other antigens.
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A novel maltotriose hydrolyzing thermo-acidophilic pullulan hydrolase type III from Thermococcus kodakarensis.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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A novel thermoacidophilic pullulan hydrolyzing enzyme (TK-PUL) from hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis that efficiently hydrolyzes starch under industrial conditions in the absence of any additional metal ions was cloned and characterized. TK-PUL possessed both pullulanase and ?-amylase activities. Highest activities were observed at 95 ? 100 °C. Although the enzyme was active over a broad pH range (3.0 ? 8.5), the pH optimum for both activities was 3.5 (in acetate buffer) and 4.2 (in citrate buffer). TK-PUL was stable for several hours at 90 °C. Half-life at 100 °C was 45 min when incubated either at pH 6.5 or 8.5. The Km value towards pullulan was 2 mg mL(-1) with a Vmax of 109 U mg(-1). Metal ions were not required for the activity and stability of recombinant TK-PUL. The enzyme was able to hydrolyze both ?-1,6- and ?-1,4-glycosidic linkages in pullulan. The most preferred substrate, after pullulan, was ?-cyclodextrin that is a novel feature for this type of enzymes. Additionally the enzyme hydrolyzed a variety of polysaccharides including starch, glycogen, dextrin, amylose, amylopectin and cyclodextrins (?, ?, ?) mainly into maltose. A unique feature of TK-PUL was the ability to hydrolyze maltotriose into maltose and glucose.
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The genus Pluchea: phytochemistry, traditional uses, and biological activities.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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In this review, literature data on phytochemical and biological investigations on the genus Pluchea are compiled. Pluchea is a genus of flowering plants in the Asteraceae family and comprises ca. 80 species distributed mainly in Northern and Southern America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Sesquiterpenoids and flavonoids are the main constituents of this genus. Compounds isolated from plants of the Pluchea genus display a variety of biological properties, viz., anticancer, antileishmanial, immunosuppressive, antioxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase, antimicrobial, trypanocidal, hepatoprotective, cytotoxic, larvicidal, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive activities.
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Broadband photon time-of-flight spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals and highly scattering plastics in the VIS and close NIR spectral ranges.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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We present extended spectroscopic analysis of pharmaceutical tablets in the close near infrared spectral range performed using broadband photon time-of-flight (PTOF) absorption and scattering spectra measurements. We show that the absorption spectra can be used to perform evaluation of the chemical composition of pharmaceutical tablets without need for chemo-metric calibration. The spectroscopic analysis was performed using an advanced PTOF spectrometer operating in the 650 to 1400 nm spectral range. By employing temporal stabilization of the system we achieve the high precision of 0.5% required to evaluate the concentration of tablet ingredients. In order to further illustrate the performance of the system, we present the first ever reported broadband evaluation of absorption and scattering spectra from pure and doped Spectralon®.
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Influence of the sequence environment and properties of neighboring amino acids on amino-acetylation: relevance for structure-function analysis.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Proteins function is regulated by co-translational modifications and post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, and acetylation, which induce proteins to perform multiple tasks in a specified environment. Acetylation takes place post-translationally on the ?-amino group of Lys in histone proteins, allowing regulation of gene expression. Furthermore, amino group acetylation also occurs co-translationally on Ser, Thr, Gly, Met, and Ala, possibly contributing to the stability of proteins. In this work, the influence of amino acids next to acetylated sites has been investigated by using MAPRes (Mining Association Patterns among preferred amino acid residues in the vicinity of amino acids targeted for PTMs). MAPRes was utilized to examine the sequence patterns vicinal to modified and non-modified residues, taking into account their charge and polarity. The PTMs data were further sub-divided according to their sub-cellular location (nuclear, mitochondrial, and cytoplasmic), and their association patterns were mined. The association patterns mined by MAPRes for acetylated and non-acetylated residues are consistent with the existing literature but also revealed novel patterns. These rules have been utilized to describe the acetylation and its effects on the protein structure-function relationship.
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Absolute Configuration of Oplopanone Derivatives From Serphidium stenocephalum: ECD Spectra of Acyclic Ketones With Front-Octant Contributions.
Chirality
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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The electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra of two sesquiterpenoids ( and ) related to oplopanone, obtained from a methanolic extract of the plant Serphidium stenocephalum (Artemisia stenocephala), were measured and reproduced by means of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations, establishing their absolute configuration. The application of ketone octant rule for carbonyl n-?* ECD band to compounds and , which include an acyclic carbonyl group, was critically assessed. The peculiar oplopanone skeleton makes a straightforward application of the octant rule impossible, because of the uncertainty related to the shape of the so-called third nodal surface separating front and back octants. The various group contributions to the carbonyl n-?* ECD band were estimated with TDDFT calculations on selected molecular models obtained by consecutive dissections from . Chirality 00:000-000, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in garbage scavengers of Karachi.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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To determine the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C, and to study the associated risk factors in garbage scavengers of Karachi.
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Personalized-detailed clinical model for data interoperability among clinical standards.
Telemed J E Health
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Data interoperability among health information exchange (HIE) systems is a major concern for healthcare practitioners to enable provisioning of telemedicine-related services. Heterogeneity exists in these systems not only at the data level but also among different heterogeneous healthcare standards with which these are compliant. The relationship between healthcare organization data and different heterogeneous standards is necessary to achieve the goal of data level interoperability. We propose a personalized-detailed clinical model (P-DCM) approach for the generation of customized mappings that creates the necessary linkage between organization-conformed healthcare standards concepts and clinical model concepts to ensure data interoperability among HIE systems.
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Phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of an abamectin-degrading bacterial strain isolated from a citrus orchard.
J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Bacterial strain GB-01 was isolated from abamectin-contaminated soils by continuous enrichment culture. The preliminary identification of strain GB-01 as a Burkholderia species was based mainly on simple biochemical and substrate utilization tests; however, these tests alone cannot accurately differentiate all the species within the genus Burkholderia. The strain GB-01 was subjected to taxonomic analysis through a polyphasic approach, in which phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic information was gathered to conclude the classification of this microbe. Phenotypic information comes from basic bacteriological tests and substrate utilization patterns using the Biolog GN2 MicroPlating system and automated miniature biochemical test kits, i.e. API 20 NE, ID 32 GN and API 50 CH, as well as analyzing the whole cell fatty acid profile. Genotypic information was gathered from whole genome DNA base composition (G+C mol%), and DNA-DNA hybridization with its closest species, while phylogenetic information was collected from the comparative analysis of 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences. The results of polyphasic analysis concluded that strain GB-01 is an atypical strain of the Burkholderia diffusa species.
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A distinct strain of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (genus Mastrevirus, family Geminiviridae) identified in cotton plants affected by leaf curl disease.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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As part of a study to determine the diversity of whitefly-transmitted viruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) associated with cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan, leaf samples from cotton plants showing typical leaf curl disease symptoms were collected in various locations of Punjab province. Sequence analysis of full-length virus clones (~2.7 kb) showed plants to be infected with the begomovirus cotton leaf curl Burewala virus, the only virus identified in cotton in the Punjab since 2001. Surprisingly, a second virus, the leafhopper-transmitted chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV) of the genus Mastrevirus (family Geminiviridae), was identified in a small number of plants. The sequences of four CpCDV isolates from cotton originating from geographically distinct areas in Punjab were obtained. Analysis of the sequences showed them to represent a distinct, newly identified strain of CpCDV with the highest levels of nucleotide sequence identity to isolates of CpCDV strains C and D that have been identified previously in Pakistan. CpCDV has not been identified previously in cotton. The significance of this finding is discussed.
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New lipoxygenase inhibitory sphingolipids from Chrozophora plicata.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Two new sphingolipids plicatin A [(2S,3S,4R)-2-{[(2R)-2-hydroxyoctdecanoyl]amino}hexaeicosane-1,3,4-triol (1)] and plicatin B [(2S,3S,4R,10E)-2-{[(2R)-2-hydroxyoctdecanoyl]amino}tricont-10-ene-1,3,4-triol (2)], together with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, scopoletin, uracil, and dl-threonolactone were isolated from the methanolic extract of the whole plant of Chrozophora plicata. The structures of these compounds were established using 1D ((1)H, (13)C) and 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, and COSY) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (EI-MS and HR-EI-MS) and in comparison with the reported data in the literature. Compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory potential against enzyme lipoxygenase with IC50 values 195.1 and 102.3 ?M, respectively.
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Lateral pharyngeal wall myeloid sarcoma as a relapse of acute biphenotypic leukemia: a case report and review of the literature.
J Med Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Myeloid sarcoma is a rare extramedullary malignant tumor composed of immature myeloid cells. The tumor can affect any part of the body. Involvement of the oral cavity and nasopharynx has been reported in 50 cases. We report a case describing myeloid sarcoma affecting the lateral pharyngeal wall.
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Isolation of natural compounds from Phlomis stewartii showing ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Stewartiiside (1), a phenylethanoid glycoside and three 28-nortriterpenoids: stewertiisins A-C [(17R)-19(18?17)-abeo-3?,18?,23,24-tetrahydroxy-28-norolean-12-ene, 2; (17R)-19(18?17)-abeo-2?,16?,18?,23,24-pentahydroxy-28-norolean-12-en-3-one, 3; (17R)-19(18?17)-abeo-2?,3?,23,24-tetrahydroxy-28-noroleane-11,13-diene, 4] together with eight known compounds: lunariifolioside (5), notohamosin A (6), phlomispentanol (7), isorhamnetin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl)-?-d-glucopyranoside (8), tiliroside (9), caffeic acid (10), p-hydrxybenzoic acid (11) and oleanolic acid (12) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of whole plant of Phlomis stewartii. The structures of these isolates (1-12) were elucidated by the combination of 1D ((1)H and (13)C NMR), 2D (HMQC, HMBC COSY, NOESY) NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (EIMS, HREIMS, FABMS, HRFABMS) and in comparison with literature data of related compounds. All the isolates (1-12) showed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging between 14.5 and 355.4?M, whereas, compounds 1, 5, 9 and 10 showed promising ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values below 30?M.
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New acylated flavonoid glycosides from flowers of Aerva javanica.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Chromatographic purification of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of the flowers of Aerva javanica yielded three new acylated flavone glycosides: kaempferol-3-O-?-d-[4?-E-p-coumaroyl-?-l-rhamnosyl(1 ? 6)]-galactoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-?-d-[4?-E-p-coumaroyl-?-l-rhamnosyl(1 ? 6)]-(3?-E-p-coumaroyl)galactoside (2), and kaempferol-3-O-?-d-[4?-E-p-coumaroyl-?-l-rhamnosyl(1 ? 6)]-(4?-E-p-coumaroyl)galactoside (3), along with p-coumaric acid (4), caffeic acid (5), gallic acid (6), eicosanyl-trans-p-coumarate (7), hexadecyl ferulate (8), and hexacosyl ferulate (9). The compounds 1-9 were characterized using 1D ((1)H, (13)C) and 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, and COSY) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (EI-MS, HR-EI-MS, FAB-MS, and HR-FAB-MS) and in comparison with the reported data in the literature. Compound 1 showed weak inhibitory activity against enzymes, such as acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and lipoxygenase with IC50 values 205.1, 304.1, and 212.3 ?M, respectively, whereas compounds 2 and 3 were only weakly active against the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
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Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a recombinant LigA fragment comprising repeat domains 4 to 7.5 as an antigen for diagnosis of equine leptospirosis.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Leptospira immunoglobulin (Ig)-like (Lig) proteins are a novel family of surface-associated proteins in which the N-terminal 630 amino acids are conserved. In this study, we truncated the LigA conserved region into 7 fragments comprising the 1st to 3rd (LigACon1-3), 4th to 7.5th (LigACon4-7.5), 4th (LigACon4), 4.5th to 5.5th (LigACon4.5-5.5), 5.5th to 6.5th (LigACon5.5-6.5), 4th to 5th (LigACon4-5), and 6th to 7.5th (LigACon6-7.5) repeat domains. All 7 recombinant Lig proteins were screened using a slot-shaped dot blot assay for the diagnosis of equine leptospirosis. Our results showed that LigACon4-7.5 is the best candidate diagnostic antigen in a slot-shaped dot blot assay. LigACon4-7.5 was further evaluated as an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen for the detection of Leptospira antibodies in equine sera. This assay was evaluated with equine sera (n = 60) that were microscopic agglutination test (MAT) negative and sera (n = 220) that were MAT positive to the 5 serovars that most commonly cause equine leptospirosis. The indirect ELISA results showed that at a single serum dilution of 1:250, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 80.0% and 87.2%, respectively, compared to those of MAT. In conclusion, an indirect ELISA was developed utilizing a recombinant LigA fragment comprising the 4th to 7.5th repeat domain (LigACon4-7.5) as a diagnostic antigen for equine leptospirosis. This ELISA was found to be sensitive and specific, and it yielded results that concurred with those of the standard MAT.
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Cerebral aneurysm presenting with aseptic meningitis: a case report.
J Med Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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This case highlights the potential importance of new-onset headache, even in the absence of other worrisome features, in a patient with a cerebral aneurysm.
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Diversity of protists and bacteria determines predation performance and stability.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Predation influences prey diversity and productivity while it effectuates the flux and reallocation of organic nutrients into biomass at higher trophic levels. However, it is unknown how bacterivorous protists are influenced by the diversity of their bacterial prey. Using 456 microcosms, in which different bacterial mixtures with equal initial cell numbers were exposed to single or multiple predators (Tetrahymena sp., Poterioochromonas sp. and Acanthamoeba sp.), we showed that increasing prey richness enhanced production of single predators. The extent of the response depended, however, on predator identity. Bacterial prey richness had a stabilizing effect on predator performance in that it reduced variability in predator production. Further, prey richness tended to enhance predator evenness in the predation experiment including all three protists predators (multiple predation experiment). However, we also observed a negative relationship between prey richness and predator production in multiple predation experiments. Mathematical analysis of potential ecological mechanisms of positive predator diversity-functioning relationships revealed predator complementarity as a factor responsible for both enhanced predator production and prey reduction. We suggest that the diversity at both trophic levels interactively determines protistan performance and might have implications in microbial ecosystem processes and services.
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Revitalizing the HIV response in Pakistan: A systematic review and policy implications.
Int. J. Drug Policy
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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We sought to describe the epidemiology of HIV in Pakistan and prioritize interventions to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the response to HIV.
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The Outcomes of Pars Plana Vitrectomy without Tamponade for Tractional Retinal Detachment Secondary to Diabetic Retinopathy.
Malays J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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The objective of this research was to evaluate the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) without the use of an ocular tamponade in patients with tractional retinal detachment (TRD) secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) presenting to Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
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Outcome of end-to-end urethroplasty in post-traumatic stricture of posterior urethra.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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To determine the outcome of delayed end-to-end anastomotic urethroplasty in blind post-traumatic stricture of posterior urethra at our setup.
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Ecdysteroids from the flowers of Aerva javanica.
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Four new ecdysteroids (1-4), along with three known steroids, ?-ecdysone (5), 5-?-2-deoxyintegristerone A (6) and 24-epi-makisterone A (7) (Fig. 1), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the flowers of Aerva javanica by using normal and reverse phase chromatography. The structures of the new compounds (1-4) were determined due to 1D ((1)H and (13)C), 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) techniques and high resolution mass spectrometry (HREIMS). The known compounds (5-7) were characterized based on the 1D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and by comparison with the literature values. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and lipoxygenase (LOX).
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Diversity of flora used for the cure of equine diseases in selected peri-urban areas of Punjab, Pakistan.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Plants have widely been used and documented for their therapeutic potential in many parts of the world. There are, however, few reports on the use of plants for the treatment of diseases of equines. To this end, participatory epidemiology and rapid rural appraisal techniques were used to document the plants having pharmacotherapeutic significance against different ailments of equines in selected population of Punjab, Pakistan.
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Comparison between Double J (DJ) Ureteral Stenting and Percutaneous Nephrostomy (PCN) in Obstructive Uropathy.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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Objective: To compare the complications rate of percutaneous nephrostomy and double J ureteral stenting in the management of obstructive uropathy. Methodology: Total number of 300 patients of age 20-80 years who underwent JJ stenting or percutaneous nephrostomy for obstructive uropathy were included in this study. Patients were divided in two groups i.e. A & B. In group A, 100 patients who underwent double J ureteral stenting while in group B, 200 patients who underwent percutaneous nephrostomy tube insertion were included. The stent was inserted retrograde by using cystoscope, under mild sedation or local anesthesia. While the percutaneous nephrostomy was done under ultrasound guidance by using local anesthetic agent. Complications were noted in immediate post-operative period and on follow up. Results: Majority of the patients were between 36 to 50 years of age with male to female ratio was 2.6:1. The most common cause of obstructive uropathy was stone disease i.e. renal, ureteric or both. Post DJ stent, complications like painful trigon irritation, septicemia, haematuria and stent encrustation were seen in 12.0%, 7.0%, 10.0% and 5.0% patients respectively. On the other hand, post-PCN septicemia, bleeding and tube dislodgment or blockage was seen in 3.5%, 4.5% and 4.5% respectively. In this study, overall success rate for double J stenting was up to 83.0% and for percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) was 92.0% (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Percutaneous nephrostomy is a safe and better method of temporary urinary diversion than double J stenting for management of obstructive uropathy with lower incidence of complications.
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Bioactive phenolics from Seriphidium stenocephalum.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Chromatographic separation of the ethyl acetate soluble part of the methanolic extract from Seriphidium stenocephalum yielded three new compounds: stenocepflavone (1), stenocepflavan (2), and stenocephol (3), together with cirsimaritin (4), 5,7,5-trihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone (5), 5,6,7,5-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxyflavone (6), and axillaroside (7). All isolates were characterized with the help of spectroscopic data including 1D, 2D NMR, and high resolution mass spectrometry and/or in comparison with the related compounds in literature. All compounds were tested for in vitro enzyme inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and lipoxygenase. Compounds 1 and 4-7 exhibited significant activity against all the tested enzymes, whereas compounds 2 and 3 were found inactive.
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Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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Weight misperception is the discordance between an individuals actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient.
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Effect of substrate overetching and heat treatment of titanium oxide waveguide gratings and thin films on their optical properties.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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We investigate subwavelength titanium oxide (TiO2) resonance waveguide gratings (RWGs) and TiO2 thin films of thicknesses ~200??nm fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD), in both amorphous and crystalline phases on fused silica substrates. The TiO2 RWGs are fabricated by electron beam lithography, reactive ion etching, and ALD. The thin films and RWGs are characterized structurally by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The optical characterization of RWGs and optical constants of TiO2 films are studied by an ellipsometer. RWGs are designed for TE and TM modes in such a way that an overetch effect of the fused silica substrate can be investigated. Various RWG samples are prepared by gradually increasing the overetch depth and subsequently measuring the performance of the RWGs. A close agreement between the calculated and experimentally measured resonance wavelength spectral shifts is obtained; however, the magnitudes of the measured shifts are greater than calculated ones. A parallel study related to the measurement of the refractive indices and remeasuring the optical shifts of RWGs is carried out after a heat treatment of all the samples under study. The RWGs do not reveal significant spectral changes after the heat treatment; this is primarily due to a change in the surface chemistry by the redeposition of the reaction byproducts on the grating lines.
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Cryptosporioptide: a bioactive polyketide produced by an endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis sp.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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An antibiotic polyketide, Cryptosporioptide (1) was isolated from the culture extract of the endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis sp. The structure of Cryptosporioptide has been established with the help of 1D ((1)H, (13)C), 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) techniques and mass spectrometry (FABMS, HRFABMS). The absolute configuration was established by means of electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Cryptosporioptide exhibited both lipoxygenase inhibitory and anti-Bacillus megaterium activities.
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Use of a molecular decoy to segregate transport from antigenicity in the FrpB iron transporter from Neisseria meningitidis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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FrpB is an outer membrane transporter from Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis. It is a member of the TonB-dependent transporter (TBDT) family and is responsible for iron uptake into the periplasm. FrpB is subject to a high degree of antigenic variation, principally through a region of hypervariable sequence exposed at the cell surface. From the crystal structures of two FrpB antigenic variants, we identify a bound ferric ion within the structure which induces structural changes on binding which are consistent with it being the transported substrate. Binding experiments, followed by elemental analysis, verified that FrpB binds Fe(3+) with high affinity. EPR spectra of the bound Fe(3+) ion confirmed that its chemical environment was consistent with that observed in the crystal structure. Fe(3+) binding was reduced or abolished on mutation of the Fe(3+)-chelating residues. FrpB orthologs were identified in other Gram-negative bacteria which showed absolute conservation of the coordinating residues, suggesting the existence of a specific TBDT sub-family dedicated to the transport of Fe(3+). The region of antigenic hypervariability lies in a separate, external sub-domain, whose structure is conserved in both the F3-3 and F5-1 variants, despite their sequence divergence. We conclude that the antigenic sub-domain has arisen separately as a result of immune selection pressure to distract the immune response from the primary transport function. This would enable FrpB to function as a transporter independently of antibody binding, by using the antigenic sub-domain as a molecular decoy to distract immune surveillance.
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Fibromatosis arising in association with neuromuscular hamartoma of the mandible.
Head Neck Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Aggressive fibromatosis is a benign but locally-aggressive tumor, which most often affects the muscles of the shoulder, the pelvic girdle, and the thigh. It usually affects adolescents and young adults. Desmoplastic fibroma, considered the bone counterpart of soft tissue fibromatosis, is a rare tumor that usually affects the metaphyseal or diaphyseal portions of long bones or, less commonly, the jaw. Neuromuscular hamartoma, a rare developmental lesion composed of mature elements of both striated muscle and nerve, is usually diagnosed in infants and children and affects large nerve trunks. Rarely, it can affect the head and neck region. Occasional cases showing an association between aggressive fibromatosis and neuromuscular hamartoma have been reported in the literature. Here we present a unique case of an adult patient with desmoplastic fibroma of the mandible in association with neuromuscular hamartoma.
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The outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy without endotamponade for tractional retinal detachment secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To evaluate the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) without the use of an ocular tamponade in patients having tractional retinal detachment (TRD) secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).
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Two new rotenoids from Boerhavia repens.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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Two new rotenoids, boerharotenoids A (1) and B (2), and four known compounds, boeravinone (3), 5,7,3-trihydroxycoumaronochromone (4), boeravinone F (5), and eupalitin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (6), have been isolated from Boerhavia repens and their structures established by spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR) and mass spectrometric comparison with literature values.
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Isolation and characterization of secondary metabolites from Plumeria obtusa.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2011
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Chromatographic purification of the methanolic extract of Plumeria obtusa yielded two new iridoid obtusadoids A (1) and B (2), along with eight known compounds plumieridin A (3), plumieridine (4), 1?-plumieride (5), 15-demethylplumieride (6), rel-(3R,3S,4R,4S)-3,3,4,4-tetrahydro-6,6-dimethoxy[3,3-bi-2H-benzopyran]-4,4-diol (7), glochiflavanoside B (8), oleanolic acid (9), and methyl coumarate (10). The structures of all the isolates (1-10) were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The data of known compounds (3-10) were further compared with the reported data for these compounds.
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Surgical aspects of intestinal tuberculosis in children: our experience.
Afr J Paediatr Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem in resource-constrained countries. Intestinal TB is especially notorious as a number of cases have to be dealt surgically, which too have morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to identify various presentations of intestinal TB necessitating surgical intervention, their management, complications, and outcome in our hospital.
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Anorectal malformations in neonates.
Afr J Paediatr Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Anorectal malformations (ARM) are associated with congenital anomalies and other risk factors, yielding a poor prognosis, especially in neonatal life.
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Depsitinuside: a new depside galactoside from an endophytic fungus isolated from Viburnum tinus.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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Chromatographic purification of the extract of an endophytic fungal culture yielded depsitinuside (1), a new phenolic ester together with ergosterol (2) and (22E,24S)-24-methyl-5-?-cholesta-7,22-diene-3?,5,6?-triol (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated based on 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry, whereas the known compounds (2 and 3) were identified by (1)H NMR, mass spectrometry, and in comparison with the literature values. Compound 1 was evaluated for its enzyme inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase, and was found inactive (10%-40% inhibition at a concentration of 2 mg/ml).
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Silicon tube frontalis suspension in simple congenital blepharoptosis.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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Ptosis is an abnormally low position of the upper eyelid. Congenital ptosis should be corrected in early years of childhood. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and complications of frontalis suspension using silicon tube for simple congenital blepharoptosis with poor levator function.
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Pulmonary sequestration cyst in a patient of cerebral palsy.
Lung India
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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Pulmonary sequestration cyst is a rare entity in pediatric patients. Most of the time, it is diagnosed as an incidental finding. It is associated with other congenital anomalies, especially congenital diaphragmatic hernia. We report a patient of cerebral palsy presented with vomiting and recurrent chest infections. He was diagnosed to have hiatal hernia on computed tomography scan of chest. At operation, a pulmonary sequestration cyst along with hiatal hernia, malrotation, and meckels diverticulum was encountered. The sequestration cyst was managed through transhiatal approach.
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In vitro evaluation of betamethasone esters for phototoxic potential.
Drug Chem Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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The phototoxicity of Betamethasone valerate and betamethasone dipropionate has been investigated on irradiation in the wavelength range of 300-400 nm, using some basic in vitro phototoxicity tests. Both esters cause photohemolysis of mouse red blood cells and photoperoxidation of linoleic acid. The photoproducts of both esters have also been found to be phototoxic. The toxicity of these photoproducts increases with further irradiation; however, they exhibit toxicity, even in the dark. The efficient inhibition of photohemolysis by the well-known free radical scavengers, such as butylhydroxyanisole and reduced glutathione, and minor inhibition by singlet-oxygen quenchers, such as sodium azide, suggests that cellular damage is mainly mediated by free radicals whereas singlet oxygen plays a minor role.
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Characterization of a thermostable and alkaline xylanase from Bacillus sp. and its bleaching impact on wheat straw pulp.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Delignification efficacy of xylanases to facilitate the consequent chemical bleaching of Kraft pulps has been studied widely. In this work, an alkaline and thermally stable cellulase-less xylanase, derived from a xylanolytic Bacillus subtilis, has been purified by a combination of gel filtration and Q-Sepharose chromatography to its homogeneity. Molecular weight of the purified xylanase was 61 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme revealed an optimum assay temperature and pH of 60°C and 8.0, respectively. Xylanase was active in the pH range of 6.0-9.0 and stable up to 70°C. Divalent ions like Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) enhanced xylanase activity, whereas Hg(2+), Fe(2+), and Cu(2+) were inhibitory to xylanase at 2 mM concentration. It showed K ( m ) and V ( max ) values of 9.5 mg/ml and 53.6 ?mol/ml/min, respectively, using birchwood xylan as a substrate. Xylanase exhibited higher values of turn over number (K (cat)) and catalytic efficiency (K (cat)/K (m)) with birchwood xylan than oat spelt xylan. Bleach-boosting enzyme activity at 30 U/g dry pulp displayed the optimum bio-delignification of Kraft pulp resulting in 26.5% reduction in kappa number and 18.5% ISO induction in brightness at 55°C after 3 h treatment. The same treatment improved the pulp properties including tensile strength and burst index, demonstrating its potential application in pre-bleaching of Kraft pulp.
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Use of the NHS Choices website for primary care consultations: results from online and general practice surveys.
JRSM Short Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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To determine the effect of using the NHS Choices website on primary care consultations in England and Wales. We examined the hypothesis that using NHS Choices may reduce the frequency of primary care consultations among young, healthy users.
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A comparative study of bone shortening and bone loss with use of saw blades versus burr in hallux valgus surgery.
Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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The aim of this study was to assess bone loss and thickness of the cut with the use of a burr in percutaneous hallux valgus surgery.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.