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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Educational Intervention among Barbers to Improve Their Knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS: A Pilot Study from a South Asian Country.
J Health Popul Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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One of the Millennium Development Goals is to combat HIV, the burden of which continues to increase in developing countries, like Pakistan. The prevalence is high among the high-risk population, and the use of unsterilized surgical instruments, traditional straight razors, and blades adds to the spread of this disease. This study assesses the effect of an educational intervention on the knowledge of 70 barbers practising in a suburban community in Pakistan regarding HIV and its symptoms and transmission. At baseline, only 10% of the barbers reported that they had ever heard about HIV compared to 49% after the intervention. Similarly, 4% and 6% of them had good knowledge at baseline about symptoms and transmission of the disease, increasing to 39% and 43% respectively, after the intervention (p<0.001). The results of this educational intervention warrant consideration of activation of mass campaigns to increase public awareness about bloodborne diseases and to educate personnel who might harm the persons in their communities by unsafe practices.
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Ionizing radiation-induced XRCC4 phosphorylation is mediated through ATM in addition to DNA-PK.
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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XRCC4 (X-ray cross-complementation group 4) is a protein associated with DNA ligase IV, which is thought to join two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break repair through non-homologous end-joining. It has been shown that, in response to irradiation or treatment with DNA damaging agents, XRCC4 undergoes phosphorylation, requiring DNA-PK. Here we explored possible role of ATM, which is structurally related to DNA-PK, in the regulation of XRCC4. The radiosensitizing effects of DNA-PK inhibitor and/or ATM inhibitor were dependent on XRCC4. DNA-PK inhibitor and ATM inhibitor did not affect the ionizing radiation-induced chromatin recruitment of XRCC4. Ionizing radiation-induced phosphorylation of XRCC4 in the chromatin-bound fraction was largely inhibited by DNA-PK inhibitor but further diminished by the combination with ATM inhibitor. The present results indicated that XRCC4 phosphorylation is mediated through ATM as well as DNA-PK, although DNA-PK plays the major role. We would propose a possible model that DNA-PK and ATM acts in parallel upstream of XRCC4, regulating through phosphorylation.
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Nature of immobilization surface affects antibody specificity to placental alkaline phosphatase.
J Immunoassay Immunochem
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Abstract Retention of native conformation of immobilized protein is essential for various applications including selection and detection of specific recombinant antibodies (scFvs). Placental alkaline phosphatase (PAP), an onco-fetal antigen expressed on the surface of several tumors, was immobilized on supermagnetic particles for selection of recombinant antibodies from a human phage display antibody library. The isolated antibodies were found to be cross-reactive to either of the isozymes of alkaline phosphatase i.e. bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) or intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and could not be used for tumor targeting. A specific anti-PAP monoclonal antibody H17E2 was tested for retention of specificity under these conditions. Binding of the antibody to magnetic beads conjugated IAP and BAP along with PAP and the ability of the two isozymes to inhibit its binding to PAP depicted the loss of isozyme specificity of the antibody. However, the antibody retained its specificity to PAP immobilized on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surface. Enzyme activity was observed on both surfaces. This demonstrates that nature of immobilization may affect antigen-antibody binding in subtle ways, resulting in alteration of conformation of the epitopes. This may have consequences for determining the specificity of antibody binding for proteins that share a high degree of homology.
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Frequency of class B carbapenemases (MbetaL) in enterobacteriacae.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To determine the frequency of Metallo- -lactamase producing Enteriobacteriaceae species.
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Double primary malignancies: a clinical & pathological analysis report from a regional cancer institute in India.
Iran J Cancer Prev
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Patients which have diagnosed with a cancer, have a life time risk for developing another de novo malignancy depending on various inherited, environmental and iatrogenic risk factors. Cancer victims could survive longer due to settling treatment modalities, and then would likely develop a new metachronous malignancy.This article aims to report our observed trend of increasing, in prevalence of both synchronous and metachronous second primary malignancy, among the cancer victims, and to review the relevant literature.
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Diagnosis of post-radiotherapy local failures in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a prospective institutional study.
Iran J Cancer Prev
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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This prospective study was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacies of nasopharyngoscopy and CT scan in the diagnosis of local failure of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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Platelet Activating Factor (PAF): A Role in Preterm Delivery and an Essential Interaction with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) Signaling in Mice.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Platelet activating factor (PAF), a potent phospholipid activator of inflammation that signals through its cognate receptor (PTAFR), has been shown to induce preterm delivery in mice. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are transmembrane receptors that mediate innate immunity. We have shown previously that E. coli-induced preterm delivery in mice requires TLR signaling via the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) but not an alternative adaptor, TIR-domain-containing adapter protein-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF). In the present work we analyzed the role of endogenously produced PAF in labor using mice lacking (KO) PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH, the key degrading enzyme for PAF). PAF-AH-KO mice are more susceptible to E. coli-induced preterm delivery and inflammation than controls. In peritoneal macrophages the PTAFR agonist cPAF induces production of inflammatory markers previously demonstrated to be up-regulated during bacterially induced labor, including: inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2), the chemokine Ccl5 (RANTES), tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) and level of their end-products (NO, CCL5, TNF) in a process dependent upon both IkappaB kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II. Interestingly, this induced expression was completely eliminated not only in macrophages deficient in PTAFR, but also in those lacking either TLR4, MyD88, or TRIF. The dependence of PAF effects upon TLR pathways appears related to production of PTAFR itself: PAF-induced expression of Ptafr mRNA was eliminated completely in TLR4-KO and partially in MyD88- and TRIF-KO macrophages. We conclude that PAF signaling plays an important role in bacterially induced preterm delivery. Furthermore, in addition to its cognate receptor, PAF signaling in peritoneal macrophages requires TLR4, MyD88 and TRIF.
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Cyclopalladation of telluro ether ligands: synthesis, reactivity and structural characterization.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Treatment of [PdCl2(PhCN)2] with diaryl telluride in 1?:?2 molar ratio gave mononuclear palladium complexes, trans-[PdCl2(TeR2)2] () (R = Mes () (Mes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl), Ph (), o-tol () (o-tol = ortho-tolyl)). Reaction of [PdCl2(TeMes2)2] with one equivalent of [PdCl2(PhCN)2] or Na2PdCl4 with TeRR' afforded chloro-bridged binuclear complexes, [Pd2(?-Cl)2Cl2(TeRR')2] () (R/R' = Mes/Mes (); Mes/Ph (); Ph/Ph ()). A toluene-methanol solution of trans-[PdCl2(TeMes2)2] on refluxing for 30 minutes yielded a binuclear cyclopalladated complex, [Pd2(?-Cl)2{CH2C6H2(4,6-Me2)TeMes)}2] (). When the refluxing was prolonged, a mononuclear complex cis-[PdCl2{MesTeCH2C6H2(4,6-Me2)TeMes}] () was isolated. Treatment of palladium acetate with TeMes2 afforded an acetato-bridged analogue of , [Pd2(?-OAc)2{CH2C6H2(4,6-Me2)TeMes}2] () together with a very minor component, a tetranuclear complex, [Pd(?-OAc)(?-TeMes)]4 (). This reaction with unsymmetrical tellurides, MesTeR, also gave cyclopalladated complexes [Pd2(?-OAc)2{CH2C6H2(4,6-Me2)TeR}2] (R = o-tol () and Ph ()) in which 2-methyl of the mesityl group of the telluride was exclusively metallated. The complex trans-[PdCl2(TeMes2)2] on refluxing in xylene gave palladium telluride, Pd7Te3. These complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR and NMR ((1)H, (13)C and (125)Te) spectroscopy. The molecular structures of trans-[PdCl2(TeMes2)2] (), [Pd2(?-Cl)2Cl2(TeMes2)2]·2acetone (·2acetone), cis-[PdCl2{MesTeCH2C6H2(4,6-Me2)TeMes}] (), [Pd2(?-OAc)2{CH2C6H2(4,6-Me2)TeMes)}2]·toluene (·toluene), [Pd2(?-OAc)2{CH2C6H2(4,6-Me2)Tetol-o}2] () and [Pd(?-OAc)(?-TeMes)]4 () were established by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The mononuclear complex was isolated in two polymorphic forms each with the trans configuration.
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Multiply twinned AgNi alloy nanoparticles as highly active catalyst for multiple reduction and degradation reactions.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Size dependent surface characteristics of nanoparticles lead to use of these nanomaterials in many technologically important fields, including the field of catalysis. Here Ag(1-x)Ni(x) bimetallic alloy nanoparticles have been developed having a 5-fold twinned morphology, which could be considered as an important alloy because of their excellent and unique catalytic and magnetic properties. Alloying between Ag and Ni atoms on a nanoscale has been confirmed with detailed X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. Although introduced for the first time as a catalyst due to having high active surface sites, the as-synthesized nanoparticles showed one of the best multiple catalytic activity in the industrially important (electro)-catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) to corresponding amines with noticeable reduced reaction time and increased rate constant without the use of any large area support. Additionally the same catalyst showed enhanced catalytic activity in degradation of environment polluting dye molecules. The highest ever activity parameter we report here for Ag0.6Ni0.4 composition is 156 s(-1)g(-1) with an apparent rate constant of 31.1 × 10(-3) s(-1) in a 4-NP reduction reaction where the amount of catalyst used was 0.2 mg and the time taken for complete conversion of 4-NP to 4-aminophenol was 60 s. Similarly, an incredible reaction rate constant (115 s(-1)) and activity parameter (576.6 s(-1)g(-1)) were observed for the catalytic degradation of methyl orange dye where 15 s is the maximum time for complete degradation of the dye molecules. The high catalytic performance of present AgNi alloy NPs over the other catalysts has been attributed to size, structural (twinned defect) and electronic effects. This study may lead to use of these bimetallic nanostructures with excellent recyclable catalytic efficiency in many more applications.
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Analysis of sociodemographic parameters of patients admitted in a newly established palliative care center in a regional cancer institute of north-west India.
Indian J Palliat Care
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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After 4 months of the establishment of palliative care center (PCC) in our institute, we present an audit of the sociodemographic parameters of admitted patients. Such an audit can help to recognize the lacuna in the management and thus help to identify the specific requirements of cancer patients that might be overlooked in a busy cancer center.
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Pegylated bisacycloxypropylcysteine, a diacylated lipopeptide ligand of TLR6, plays a host-protective role against experimental Leishmania major infection.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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TLRs recognize pathogen-expressed Ags and elicit host-protective immune response. Although TLR2 forms heterodimers with TLR1 or TLR6, recognizing different ligands, differences in the functions of these heterodimers remain unknown. In this study, we report that in Leishmania major-infected macrophages, the expression of TLR1 and TLR2, but not TLR6, increased; TLR2-TLR2 association increased, but TLR2-TLR6 association diminished. Lentivirus-expressed TLR1-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or TLR2-shRNA administration reduced, but TLR6-shRNA increased L. major infection in BALB/c mice. Corroboratively, Pam3CSK4 (TLR1-TLR2 ligand) and peptidoglycan (TLR2 ligand) increased L. major infection but reduced TLR9 expression, whereas pegylated bisacycloxypropylcysteine (BPPcysMPEG; TLR2-TLR6 ligand) reduced L. major number in L. major-infected macrophages, accompanied by increased TLR9 expression, higher IL-12 production, and inducible NO synthase expression. Whereas MyD88, Toll/IL-1R adaptor protein, and TNFR-?-associated factor 6 recruitments to TLR2 were not different in Pam3CSK4-, peptidoglycan-, or BPPcysMPEG-treated macrophages, only BPPcysMPEG enhanced p38MAPK and activating transcription factor 2 activation. BPPcysMPEG conferred antileishmanial functions to L. major-infected BALB/c-derived T cells in a macrophage-T cell coculture and in BALB/c mice; the protection was TLR6 dependent and IL-12 dependent, and it was accompanied by reduced regulatory T cell number. BPPcysMPEG administration during the priming with fixed L. major protected BALB/c mice against challenge L. major infection; the protection was accompanied by low IL-4 and IL-10, but high IFN-? productions and reduced regulatory T cells. Thus, BPPcysMPEG, a novel diacylated lipopeptide ligand for TLR2-TLR6 heterodimer, induces IL-12-dependent, inducible NO synthase-dependent, T-reg-sensitive antileishmanial protection. The data reveal a novel dimerization partner-dependent duality in TLR2 function.
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An anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) from Channa striatus: Sequence analysis and delayed and advanced gene expression in response to fungal, bacterial and poly I:C induction.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) is a suppressor of apoptosis and inhibits the caspase dependent apoptosis pathway. In this study, we report molecular characterization of a cDNA sequence encoded of BCL-2 from striped murrel, Channa striatus. A partial cDNA sequence of CsBCL-2 was identified from the striped murrel cDNA library during annotation. Subsequently, the full length CsBCL-2 cDNA sequence was obtained by an internal sequencing method using a forward primer. The sequence contains 699 nucleotide base pairs which encode 232 amino acid residues. The domain and motif analysis revealed that the CsBCL-2 polypeptide consists of BCL-2 homologous domain BH4 at the N-terminal region between 4 and 21 and the BCL-2 homologous domains BH1, BH2 and BH3 between 87 and 187. The CsBCL-2 polypeptide sequence does not have a signal peptide region, but it consists of two novel transmembrane regions at 134-152 and 209-226. The sequence analysis showed that the CsBCL-2 has highest sequence identity (70%) with BCL-2 like protein 1 (BCL-2 L1) from pufferfish Takifugu rubripes. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CsBCL-2 was situated in the BCL-2 L1 fish clade. The secondary analysis showed that the CsBCL-2 protein consists of 132 amino acid residues in the ?-helical region and 100 amino acid residues in the random coil region. The validated 3D structure of CsBCL-2 showed the active residues Gly(135) and Arg(136) in the 7th ?-helical position, whereas Trp(178) is in the 9th ?-helical region. CsBCL-2 mRNA transcription is predominately present in spleen and is upregulated upon being induced with fungus Aphanomyces invadans, bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli LPS, Laminaria digitata beta-1,3-glucan and poly I:C. Overall, the CsBCL-2 mRNA transcription results indicate the potential involvement of CsBCL-2 in immune system of C. striatus. However, further research at proteomic level is necessary to examine these predictions.
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Repeatability and agreement of three Scheimpflug-based imaging systems for measuring anterior segment parameters in keratoconus.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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To assess the repeatability and agreement of three rotating Scheimpflug cameras, Pentacam, Galilei, and Sirius, in measuring the mean keratometry (Km), thinnest corneal thickness (TCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and mean posterior keratometry (pKm) in keratoconus patients in a prospective study.
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A case of CD68 negative histiocytic sarcoma of axilla masquerading as metastatic breast cancer.
J Surg Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Histiocytic sarcoma is a malignant proliferation of cells showing morphological and immunophenotypic features of mature tissue histiocytes. Most of the cases in the literature have reported CD68 positivity. We report a case of histiocytic sarcoma whose presentation mimicked a metastatic breast cancer. A 40-year-female patient presented with a 13 × 11 cm left axillary mass in close proximity to the left breast. Tru-cut biopsy from the lesion suggested the diagnosis of a lymphoid neoplasm. Complete excision of the axillary mass was done. On simple microscopy, numerous mature small lymphocytes were seen dispersed in the follicles. Immunohistochemistry revealed CD31- and CD163-positive cells, which stained negative for CD68, CD1a, cytokeratin and S100; thus, confirming the diagnosis of histiocytic sarcoma.
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Regioselective synthesis of fused imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines via intramolecular C-N bond formation/6-endo-dig cycloisomerization.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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An efficient regioselective cascade synthesis of N-fused imidazo heterocycles has been developed. This cascade transformation proceeds via a transition-metal (copper/silver) catalyzed coupling reaction between 2-aminobenzimidazole, aldehydes, and alkynes leading to the formation of propargylamine intermediate, which regioselectively undergoes 6-endo-dig cyclization through intramolecular N-H bond activation interceded C-N bond formation leading to highly functionalized imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines in good to excellent yields.
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Controlled atom transfer radical polymerization of MMA onto the surface of high-density functionalized graphene oxide.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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We report on the grafting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of high-density functionalized graphene oxides (GO) through controlled radical polymerization (CRP). To increase the density of surface grafting, GO was first diazotized (DGO), followed by esterification with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide, which resulted in an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator-functionalized DGO-Br. The functionalized DGO-Br was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and XRD patterns. PMMA chains were then grafted onto the DGO-Br surface through a 'grafting from' technique using ATRP. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results revealed that polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) follows CRP. Thermal studies show that the resulting graphene-PMMA nanocomposites have higher thermal stability and glass transition temperatures (T g) than those of pristine PMMA.
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Facile synthesis and photoluminescence spectroscopy of 3D-triangular GaN nano prism islands.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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We report a strategy for fabrication of 3D triangular GaN nano prism islands (TGNPI) grown on Ga/Si(553) substrate at low temperature by N2(+) ions implantation using a sputtering gun technique. The annealing of Ga/Si(553) (600 °C) followed by nitridation (2 keV) shows the formation of high quality GaN TGNPI cross-section. TGNPI morphology has been confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, these nano prism islands exhibit prominent ultra-violet luminescence peaking at 366 nm upon 325 nm excitation wavelength along with a low intensity yellow luminescence broad peak at 545 nm which characterizes low defects density TGNPI. Furthermore, the time-resolved spectroscopy of luminescent TGNPI in nanoseconds holds promise for its futuristic application in next generation UV-based sensors as well as many portable optoelectronic devices.
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Periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaque.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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There has been increasing attention paid in recent years to the possibility that oral bacterial infection, particularly periodontal disease may influence the initiation and or progression of systemic diseases. These studies confirm the observation that heart disease is the most commonly found systemic condition in patients with periodontal disease. Moreover, the literature has also highlighted substantial evidence indicating the presence of Gram-negative periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques.
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Hantaviruses induce antiviral and pro-inflammatory innate immune responses in astrocytic cells and the brain.
Viral Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Although hantaviruses are not generally considered neurotropic, neurological complications have been reported occasionally in patients with hemorrhagic fever renal syndrome (HFRS). In this study, we analyzed innate immune responses to hantavirus infection in vitro in human astrocytic cells (A172) and in vivo in suckling ICR mice. Infection of A172 cells with pathogenic Hantaan virus (HTNV) or a novel shrew-borne hantavirus, known as Imjin virus (MJNV), induced activation of antiviral genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. MicroRNA expression profiles of HTNV- and MJNV-infected A172 cells showed distinct changes in a set of miRNAs. Following intraperitoneal inoculation with HTNV or MJNV, suckling ICR mice developed rapidly progressive, fatal central nervous system-associated disease. Immunohistochemical staining of virus-infected mouse brains confirmed the detection of viral antigens within astrocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the neurological findings in HFRS patients may be associated with hantavirus-directed modulation of innate immune responses in the brain.
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Draft Genome Sequence of the Field Isolate Brucella melitensis Strain Bm IND1 from India.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens causing the zoonotic disease brucellosis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Brucella melitensis strain from India designated Bm IND1, isolated from stomach contents of an aborted goat fetus.
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A cytosolic glutathione s-transferase, GST-theta from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: molecular and biochemical properties.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Glutathione S-transferases play an important role in cellular detoxification and may have evolved to protect cells against reactive oxygen metabolites. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of glutathione s-transferase-theta (GST-?) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A full length cDNA of GSTT (1417 base pairs) was isolated and characterized bioinformatically. Exposure to virus (white spot syndrome baculovirus or M. rosenbergii nodovirus), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila or Vibrio harveyi) or heavy metals (cadmium or lead) significantly increased the expression of GSTT (P<0.05) in hepatopancreas. Recombinant GST-? with monochlorobimane substrate had an optimum activity at pH7.5 and 35 °C. Furthermore recombinant GST-? activity was abolished by the denaturants triton X-100, Gua-HCl, Gua-thiocyanate, SDS and urea in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the results suggest a potential role for M. rosenbergii GST-? in detoxification and possibly conferring immune protection.
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Restoration of large cranial defect for cranioplasty with alloplastic cranial implant material: a case report.
J Indian Prosthodont Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Cranial defects result either from trauma or after intentional osteocraniotomies or external decompression craniectomies. These defects occur most frequently during wartime, but their incidence during peacetime, as a result of accident or disease, makes knowledge of cranioplasty useful to the interested practitioner. Most cranial defects will have some variable proportion of cosmetic and mechanical aspects, and the decision regarding cranioplasty must be influenced by the patient's age, prognosis, activity level and the specific conditions of the scalp and calvarium. This case report is oriented towards post-traumatic restoration of large cranial defect with alloplastic heat-cure poly methyl methacrylate resin material.
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Modern trends in modeling of extra-oral defects.
Indian J Dent Res
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Maxillofacial prostheses are usually fabricated on the basis of conventional impressions and techniques. The extent to which the prosthesis reproduces normal facial morphology depends on the clinical judgment and skill of the individual fabricating the prosthesis. Recently, as a result of advances in technology, various computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques have been successfully introduced for the automated fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. These systems are able to provide more consistently accurate reproduction of facial morphology.
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Microbeads mediated oral plasmid DNA delivery using polymethacrylate vectors: an effectual groundwork for colorectal cancer.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Abstract This study was aimed to develop and evaluate p53 polyplex-loaded enteric-coated calcium pectinate microbeads for oral gene delivery as an effective novel alternative for colorectal cancer therapy. Mutation in p53 is the key event in colorectal cancer (CRC) and an important target for the treatment of CRC through gene therapy. Polymethacrylates-based non-viral vectors were evaluated for their ability to complex, protect and transfect p53 (wt) into colon cancer cell line. Polyplexes were formulated by complexation of cationic polymer with anionic pDNA at different N/P ratios. p53 polyplex-loaded calcium pectinate (CP) microbeads were prepared by ionotropic gelation of pectin with calcium chloride and coated with Eudragit® S100. In vitro release studies showed that enteric-coated CP microbeads protected the release of p53 polyplex in upper GIT with less than 10% release. In-vitro cell line studies and in vivo studies in rat showed that polymethacrylate carrier could transfect the pDNA effectively. Results of in vivo gene expression study further confirmed the ability of enteric-coated calcium pectinate microbeads to deliver pDNA specifically to rat colon. Conclusively, enteric-coated calcium pectinate microbeads released p53 polyplex specifically in colon and could serve as an effective alternative for CRC therapy.
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Infection with non-lethal West Nile virus Eg101 strain induces immunity that protects mice against the lethal West Nile virus NY99 strain.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Herein we demonstrate that infection of mice with West Nile virus (WNV) Eg101 provides protective immunity against lethal challenge with WNV NY99. Our data demonstrated that WNV Eg101 is largely non-virulent in adult mice when compared to WNV NY99. By day 6 after infection, WNV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies, and neutralizing antibodies were detected in the serum of all WNV Eg101 infected mice. Plaque reduction neutralization test data demonstrated that serum from WNV Eg101 infected mice neutralized WNV Eg101 and WNV NY99 strains with similar efficiency. Three weeks after infection, WNV Eg101 immunized mice were challenged subcutaneously or intracranially with lethal dose of WNV NY99 and observed for additional three weeks. All the challenged mice were protected against disease and no morbidity and mortality was observed in any mice. In conclusion, our data for the first time demonstrate that infection of mice with WNV Eg101 induced high titers of WNV specific IgM and IgG antibodies, and cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies, and the resulting immunity protected all immunized animals from both subcutaneous and intracranial challenge with WNV NY99. These observations suggest that WNV Eg101 may be a suitable strain for the development of a vaccine in humans against virulent strains of WNV.
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Allele frequency of ABO blood group antigen and the risk of esophageal cancer.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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ABO blood group and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus have been reported by many studies, but there is no discipline that had provided association with the genotype and gene frequency by population statics.
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A prawn core histone 4: Derivation of N- and C-terminal peptides and their antimicrobial properties, molecular characterization and mRNA transcription.
Microbiol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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This study investigates the complete molecular characterization including bioinformatics characterization, gene expression, synthesis of N and C terminal peptides and their antimicrobial activity of the core histone 4 (H4) from freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). A cDNA encoding MrH4 was identified from the constructed cDNA library of M. rosenbergii during screening and the sequence was obtained using internal sequencing primers. The MrH4 coding region possesses a polypeptide of 103 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 11kDa and an isoelectric point of 11.5. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the MrH4 polypeptide contains a H4 signature at (15)GAKRH(19). Multiple sequence alignment of MrH4 showed that the N-terminal (21-42) and C-terminal (87-101) antimicrobial peptide regions and the pentapeptide or H4 signature (15-19) are highly conserved including in humans. The phylogenetic tree formed two separate clades of vertebrate and invertebrate H4, wherein MrH4 was located within the arthropod monophyletic clade of invertebrate H4 groups. Three-dimensional model of MrH4 was established using I-TASSER program and the model was validated using Ramachandran plot analysis. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel modeling was used to predict the helix propensity of N (21-42) and C (87-101) terminal derived Mr peptides. The highest gene expression was observed in gills and is induced by viral [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV)] and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The N and C terminal peptides were synthesized and their antimicrobial and hemolytic properties were examined. Both peptides showed activity against the tested Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria; however, the highest activity was noticed against Gram negative bacteria. Among the two peptides used in this study, C-terminal peptide yielded better results than the N-terminal peptide. Therefore, C terminal peptide can be recommended for the development of an antimicrobial agent.
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Structural and functional analysis of cathepsin S of Heterodera spp: a promising candidate for its control.
Indian J. Exp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Cysteine proteinases are required for a wide range of physiological processes in all living organisms. In parasitic nematodes, they are particularly crucial for the digestion of host tissues and evasion of host immune responses. Therefore, in general, these are identified as primary targets for the control of parasitic nematodes. Herein, cathepsin S-like cysteine proteinase of Heterodera avenae (Hacp-s) has been cloned and analysed for the first time. The predicted protein is 298 amino acids long and showed significant similarity with cathepsin S of Heterodera glycines (Hgcp-s). The sequence of cathepsin S contains a signal peptide of 30 amino acids which suggests its role in extracellular functions. Multiple sequence alignment revealed the presence of ERFNIN motif and conserved catalytic residues. Three dimensional structure (3D) of Hgcp-s was modelled using homology modelling. In order to illustrate the plausible mode of interaction of cathepsin S (Hgcp-s), docking analysis was performed with E-64 cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Docking studies revealed the hydrogen bonding of E-64 with Gln153, His299 and Gly203 as well as close interaction with catalytic residues Cys159 and Asn320 Expression analysis of Hacp-s using qRT-PCR showed high expression of cathepsin S in pre parasitic J2s and female stages suggesting its significant role in both pre-parasitic and parasitic stages of the nematode life cycle.
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Hollow hybrid plasmonic waveguide for nanoscale optical confinement with long-range propagation.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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A novel (to our knowledge) hybrid plasmonic (HP) hollow waveguide is proposed for nanoscale optical confinement. The light is guided, with improved propagation characteristics, in an air slice sandwiched between metal and silicon. The optical mode in silicon is dragged toward the metal-dielectric (air) interface to make it a HP mode by optimizing the waveguide dimensions. In comparison to the hybrid mode confined in the dielectrics, the air-confined hybrid mode exhibits a smaller effective mode area A(m)=0.0685/?m² and longer propagation distance L(p)=142???m with a low modal propagation loss of 0.03??dB/?m at optimized values of the width and height of the air slice.
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Molecular cloning, characterization and gene expression of murrel CXC chemokine receptor 3a against sodium nitrite acute toxicity and microbial pathogens.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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CXCR3 is a CXC chemokine receptor 3 which binds to CXC ligand 4 (CXCL4), 9, 10 and 11. CXC chemokine receptor 3a (CXCR3a) is one of the splice variants of CXCR3. It plays crucial role in defense and other physiological processes. In this study, we report the molecular cloning, characterization and gene expression of CXCR3a from striped murrel Channa striatus (Cs). The full length CsCXCR3a cDNA sequence was obtained from the constructed cDNA library of striped murrel by cloning and sequencing using an internal sequencing primer. The full length sequence is 1425 nucleotides in length including an open reading frame of 1086 nucleotides which is encoded with a polypeptide of 361 amino acids (mol. wt. 40 kDa). CsCXCR3a domain analysis showed that the protein contains a G protein coupled receptor between 55 and 305 along with its family signature at 129-145. The transmembrane prediction analysis showed that CsCXCR3a protein contains 7 transmembrane helical regions at 34-65, 80-106, 113-146, 154-181, 208-242, 249-278 and 284-308. The 'DRY' motif from CsCXCR3a protein sequence at (140)Asp-(141)Arg-(142)Tyr which is responsible for G-protein binding is also highly conserved with CXCR3 from other species. Phylogenetic tree showed that the CXC chemokine receptors 3, 4, 5 and 6, each formed a separate clade, but 1 and 2 were clustered together, which may be due to the high similarity between these receptors. The predicted 3D structure revealed cysteine residues, which are responsible for 'CXC' motif at 116 and 198. The CsCXR3a transcript was found to be high in kidney, further its expression was up-regulated by sodium nitrite acute toxicity exposure, fungal, bacterial and poly I:C challenges. Overall, these results supported the active involvement of CsCXCR3a in inflammatory process of striped murrel during infection. However, further study is necessary to explore the striped murrel chemokine signaling pathways and their roles in defense system.
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Comparative Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Recycled Brackets using Different Methods: An In vitro Study.
J Int Oral Health
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Debonding of brackets commonly occurs during orthodontic treatment. Due to increase in costs replacement of a damaged bracket is not liked by the dentist. This study is done to assess the shear bond strength of recycled brackets using different methods.
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Scattered radiation to gonads: role of testicular shielding for para-aortic and homolateral illiac nodal radiotherapy.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Scattered radiation to organs at risk deserves great attention during radiotherapy especially when the concern is about fertility. Minimizing the delivery of scattered radiation to the gonads while treating abdominal nodes or pelvic fields in male patients requires adequate shielding of the testes to preserve testicular functions. We constructed a testicular shield with cerrobend for the purpose of treatment of seminoma of testis stage I and IIA disease.
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Hyperkalemia: A rare cause of acute flaccid quadriparesis.
Indian J Crit Care Med
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Acute flaccid quadriparesis secondary to hyperkalemia is a very rare and serious but reversible medical emergency. We present a case of a 73-year-old female who was admitted with rapidly progressive ascending paraparesis progressing to quadriparesis in about 10 h due to hyperkalemia. Patient was treated with antihyperkalemic measures. Her power improved dramatically as potassium levels normalized and she had an uneventful recovery.
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A redox active site containing murrel cytosolic thioredoxin: analysis of immunological properties.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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In this study, we have reported the immunological properties of cDNA encoding thioredoxin which is obtained from the database of Channa striatus (named as CsTRx) cDNA library. The analysis showed that the CsTRx polypeptide contains a thioredoxin domain between Val(2) and Asn(106). The domain possessed a thioredoxin active family at 24–42 along with a redox active site (also known as catalytic center) at (31)WCGPC(35). The analysis showed that the catalytic center is responsible for the control of protein function. Phylogenetic study showed that CsTRx clustered together with vertebrate TRx-1. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and other bioinformatics analysis, it is confirmed that the characterized CsTRx belongs to TRx-1 family. In addition, the sub-cellular localization prediction analysis showed that CsTRx is a cytosol thioredoxin. The highest gene expression was observed in gill (P < 0.05). Further, its transcriptional modulation was evaluated under fungal (Aphanomyces invadans), bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) and H2O2 challenges. The recombinant CsTRx protein was over-expressed and purified using an Escherichia coli expression vector system. We conducted a H2O2 peroxidase assay using recombinant CsTRx protein under various pH and temperature. Further, we studied the influence of recombinant CsTRx protein on C. striatus spleen leukocyte activation. The recombinant CsTRx protein enhanced the cell proliferation in a concentration dependant manner. The results of antioxidant analysis showed that the antioxidant capacity of recombinant CsTRx protein was determined to be 4.2 U/mg protein. We conducted an insulin disulfides assay to study the enzymatic oxidoreductase activity of CsTRx and we observed no activity in the control group. But the recombinant CsTRx protein addition rapidly increased the enzymatic oxidoreductase activity. Over all, the results showed that the CsTRx may contain potential antioxidant properties, which could regulate the oxidative stress created by various biological pathogens as well as chemical stress in the immune system of C. striatus, thus protecting it.
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Extraction and structural studies of an unexplored monoamide, N,N'-dioctyl, ?-hydroxy acetamide with lanthanide(III) and actinide(III) ions.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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A monoamide, N,N'-dioctyl, ?-hydroxy acetamide, shows unusual extraction properties towards trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions above 3 M HNO3. The extracted ions could be quantitatively back extracted using 0.5 M HNO3. This amide shows negligible extraction towards Sr(II) and Ru(III) ions, making it advantageous over other reported extractants. The structures of Sm(III) and Eu(III) nitrate compounds show that the metal ion is surrounded by three of the ligands, one nitrate and one water molecule. The ligand acts as a neutral bidentate ligand and bonds through the amido and hydroxyl oxygen atoms.
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Morphological effects of G-quadruplex stabilization using a small molecule in zebrafish.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos are transparent and advantageous for studying early developmental changes due to ex utero development, making them an appropriate model for studying gene expression changes as a result of molecular targeting. Zebrafish embryos were injected with a previously reported G-quadruplex selective ligand, and the phenotypic changes were recorded. We report marked discrepancies in the development of intersegmental vessels. In silico analysis determined that the putative G-quadruplex motif occur in the upstream promoter region of the Cdh5 (N-cadherin) gene. A real-time polymerase chain reaction-based investigation indicated that in zebrafish, CDH-2 (ZN-cad) was significantly downregulated in the ligand-treated embryos. Biophysical characterization of the interaction of the ligand with the G-quadruplex motif found in this promoter yielded strong binding and stabilization of the G-quadruplex with this ligand. Hence, we report for the first time the phenotypic impact of G-quadruplex targeting with a ligand in a vertebrate organism. This study has unveiled not only G-quadruplex targeting in non-human animal species but also the potential that G-quadruplexes can provide a ready tool for understanding the phenotypic effects of targeting certain important genes involved in differentiation and developmental processes in a living eukaryotic organism.
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Quercetin mitigates lead acetate-induced behavioral and histological alterations via suppression of oxidative stress, Hsp-70, Bak and upregulation of Bcl-2.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Lead toxicity is of major health concern due to its persistence in environment that induces cognitive impairment and neuronal degeneration. The present study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of quercetin, a ubiquitous bioflavonoid against lead-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats. Briefly, lead acetate (20mg/kg) was injected i.p., followed by oral administration of quercetin (50 and 100mg/kg) once daily for five consecutive days. On 6th day, rats were assessed for motor co-ordination, grip strength and sensorimotor impairment (by adhesive removal test). Lead treated rats have shown marked behavioral impairment with increased oxidative stress. Quercetin reduced lead-induced oxidative burden in brain, thus maintained the normal behavioral functions of lead-intoxicated rats. The lead administered group showed severely vacuolated and pyknotic nuclei with high expressions of Bak and Hsp-70. The expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was observed to be reduced in lead intoxicated group. Quercetin however, restored the normal morphology of brain and the expressions of Bak, Bcl-2 and Hsp-70. In conclusion, quercetin mitigates the toxic effect of lead effectively and thus, may be an important compound for developing effective therapeutic intervention against metal toxicity.
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Prevalence of drug resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected treatment-naive children in Pune, India.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Abstract We report the presence of drug resistance mutations in 7.4% (2/27) of the treatment-naive, HIV-1-infected children in Pune, India, who had HIV-1 RNA levels >1,000 copies/ml. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations, namely A98G and K103N, were observed in two separate sequences. In addition, three study sequences displayed three separate HIV-1 protease minor resistance mutations-L10I, A71T, and T74S. These preliminary data from Pune, India, reporting the presence of HIVDR in treatment-naive, HIV-1-infected children, reinforces the need to conduct large-scale studies to assess the prevalence of primary HIVDR in the pediatric population, which in turn will aid in planning protocols and policies related to antiretroviral treatment for the pediatric population.
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Sinefungin, a natural nucleoside analogue of S-adenosylmethionine, inhibits Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm growth.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Pneumococcal colonization and disease is often associated with biofilm formation, in which the bacteria exhibit elevated resistance both to antibiotics and to host defense systems, often resulting in infections that are persistent and difficult to treat. We evaluated the effect of sinefungin, a nucleoside analogue of S-adenosylmethionine, on pneumococcal in vitro biofilm formation and in vivo colonization. Sinefungin is bacteriostatic to pneumococci and significantly decreased biofilm growth and inhibited proliferation and structure of actively growing biofilms but did not alter growth or the matrix structure of established biofilms. Sinefungin significantly reduced pneumococcal colonization in rat middle ear. The quorum sensing molecule (autoinducer-2) production was significantly reduced by 92% in sinefungin treated samples. The luxS, pfs, and speE genes were downregulated in biofilms grown in the presence of sinefungin. This study shows that sinefungin inhibits pneumococcal biofilm growth in vitro and colonization in vivo, decreases AI-2 production, and downregulates luxS, pfs, and speE gene expressions. Therefore, the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) inhibitors could be used as lead compounds for the development of novel antibiofilm agents against pneumococci.
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Protective effect of hexane and ethanol extract of piper longum L. On gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cultures.
Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Gentamicin (GM) is a commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotic that generates free oxygen radicals within the inner ear, which can cause vestibulo-cochlear toxicity and permanent damage to the sensory hair cells and neurons. Piper longum L. (PL) is a well-known spice and traditional medicine in Asia and Pacific islands, which has been reported to exhibit a wide spectrum of activity, including antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of hexane:ethanol (2:8) PL extract (subfraction of PL [SPL] extract) on GM-induced hair cell loss in basal, middle and apical regions in a neonatal cochlea cultures.
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Reduced immune cell infiltration and increased pro-inflammatory mediators in the brain of Type 2 diabetic mouse model infected with West Nile virus.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Diabetes is a significant risk factor for developing West Nile virus (WNV)-associated encephalitis (WNVE) in humans, the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in the United States. Using a diabetic mouse model (db/db), we recently demonstrated that diabetes enhanced WNV replication and the susceptibility of mice to WNVE. Herein, we have examined immunological events in the brain of wild type (WT) and db/db mice after WNV infection. We hypothesized that WNV-induced migration of protective leukocytes into the brain is attenuated in the presence of diabetes, leading to a high viral load in the brain and severe disease in diabetic mice.
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Molecular characterization of a novel proto-type antimicrobial protein galectin-1 from striped murrel.
Microbiol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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In this study, we reported a molecular characterization of a novel proto-type galectin-1 from the striped murrel Channa striatus (named as CsGal-1). The full length CsGal-1 was identified from an established striped murrel cDNA library and further we confirmed the sequence by cloning. The complete cDNA sequence of CsGal-1 is 590 base pairs (bp) in length and its coding region encoded a poly peptide of 135 amino acids. The polypeptide contains a galactoside binding lectin domain at 4-135. The domain carries a sugar binding site at 45-74 along with its signatures (H(45)-X-Asn(47)-X-Arg(49) and Trp(69)-X-X-Glu(72)-X-Arg(74)). CsGal-1 shares a highly conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with galectin-1 from other proto-type galectin of teleosts. The mRNA expressions of CsGal-1 in healthy and various immune stimulants including Aphanomyces invadans, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherchia coli lipopolysaccharide and poly I:C injected tissues of C. striatus were examined using qRT-PCR. CsGal-1 mRNA is highly expressed in kidney and is up-regulated with different immune stimulants at various time points. To understand its biological activity, the coding region of CsGal-1 gene was expressed in an E. coli BL21 (DE3) cloning system and its recombinant protein was purified. The recombinant CsGal-1 protein was agglutinated with mouse erythrocytes at a concentration of 4?g/mL in a calcium independent manner. CsGal-1 activity was inhibited by d-galactose at 25mM(-1) and d-glucose and d-fructose at 100mM(-1). The results of microbial binding assay showed that the recombinant CsGal-1 protein agglutinated only with the Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, we observed no agglutination against Gram-positive bacteria. Overall, the study showed that CsGal-1 is an important immune gene involved in the recognition and elimination of pathogens in C. striatus.
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Dental Occlusion among School Going Children of Maharashtra.
J Int Oral Health
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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A dental survey was conducted among the school going children of age group 6-13 yrs, focused to find out incidence of malocclusion so as to predict the probable time at which preventive measures can be taken.
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Henoch-Schönlein purpura: hitting the 'target' on CT.
Arab J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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This image highlights the common findings on CT in Henoch-Schonelin Purpura, namely 'target sign' and comb sign. We discuss the common CT findings in this disease.
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A murrel interferon regulatory factor-1: molecular characterization, gene expression and cell protection activity.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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In this study, we have reported a first murrel interferon regulatory factor-1 (designated as Murrel IRF-1) which is identified from a constructed cDNA library of striped murrel Channa striatus. The identified sequence was obtained by internal sequencing method from the library. The Murrel IRF-1 varies in size of the polypeptide from the earlier reported fish IRF-1. It contains a DNA binding domain along with a tryptophan pentad repeats, a nuclear localization signal and a transactivation domain. The homologous analysis showed that the Murrel IRF-1 had a significant sequence similarity with other known fish IRF-1 groups. The phylogenetic analysis exhibited that the Murrel IRF-1 clustered together with IRF-1 members, but the other members including IRF-2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 were clustered individually. The secondary structure of Murrel IRF-1 contains 27% ?-helices (85 aa residues), 5.7% ?-sheets (19 aa residues) and 67.19% random coils (210 aa residues). Furthermore, we predicted a tertiary structure of Murrel IRF-1 using I-Tasser program and analyzed the structure on PyMol surface view. The RNA structure of the Murrel IRF-1 along with its minimum free energy (-284.43 kcal/mol) was also predicted. The highest gene expression was observed in spleen and its expression was inducted with pathogenic microbes which cause epizootic ulcerative syndrome in murrels such as fungus, Aphanomyces invadans and bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila, and poly I:C, a viral RNA analog. The results of cell protection assay suggested that the Murrel IRF-1 regulates the early defense response in C. striatus. Moreover, it showed Murrel IRF-1 as a potential candidate which can be developed as a therapeutic agent to control microbial infections in striped murrel. Overall, these results indicate the immune importance of IRF-1, however, the interferon signaling mechanism in murrels upon infection is yet to be studied at proteomic level.
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1,4-Naphthoquinone, a pro-oxidant, suppresses immune responses via KEAP-1 glutathionylation.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Low levels of oxidative stress have been shown to activate Nrf-2, an important anti-inflammatory transcription factor, by us and also by several other investigators. Earlier we showed that pro-oxidants protect normal lymphocytes against radiation injury by activating Nrf-2. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of oxidative stress on immune responses and delineated the underlying mechanism. Hydrogen peroxide, tert-butylhydroquinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) inhibited mitogen induced proliferation of lymphocytes. NQ also inhibited mitogen (Concanavalin A) induced cytokine secretion by murine T cells and lipopolysaccharide induced release of cytokines, nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by macrophages. NQ modulated cellular redox by decreasing GSH/GSSG ratio and the immunosuppressive effects of NQ were significantly abrogated by thiol containing antioxidants and not by non-thiol antioxidants. This redox perturbation led to activation of Nrf-2 pathway and inhibition of NF-?B. NQ treatment increased total protein S-thiolation, induced glutathionylation of KEAP-1 protein and decreased IKK? levels in lymphocytes. Molecular docking studies revealed that NQ can disrupt KEAP-1/Nrf-2 interaction by directly blocking the binding site of Nrf-2 in the KEAP-1 protein. Further, inhibitors of Nrf-2 and HO-1 abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of NQ. T cells isolated from spleen and gut associated lymphoid tissue of NQ administered mice also showed suppression of NF-?B activation and were hyporesponsive to mitogenic stimulation. These results demonstrate that pro-oxidants modulate inflammatory and immune responses via oxidative stress mediated KEAP-1 glutathionylation and IKK? degradation.
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Integrated analysis of microRNAs and their disease related targets in the brain of mice infected with West Nile virus.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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To determine whether cellular miRNAs play a role in West Nile virus (WNV) neuropathogenesis, we evaluated WNV-infected mice brain for the expression profile of miRNAs, their potential functions and their correlation with genes involved in inflammatory pathways. A total of 528 miRNAs and 168 mRNA genes were examined. One hundred thirty-nine miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in WNV-infected mice brain. Ingenuity pathway analysis demonstrated that these miRNAs and their target genes are involved in pathways related to inflammatory response, immune-cell trafficking and cell death. Moreover, we demonstrate an inverse correlation between WNV-modulated miRNAs and their target neuroinflammatory genes in the same mice brain. We demonstrate that miR-196a, miR-202-3p, miR-449c, and miR-125a-3p target multiple genes involving cytokines, chemokines, and apoptotic genes, which belong to different signaling pathways that play critical role in WNV neuropathogenesis. Functional studies targeting specific miRNA are warranted to develop therapeutics for the management of WNV disease.
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Facile synthesis of 1-alkoxy-1H-benzo- and 7-azabenzotriazoles from peptide coupling agents, mechanistic studies, and synthetic applications.
Beilstein J Org Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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(1H-Benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yloxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (BOP), 1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (Bt-OTs), and 3H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyridine-3-yl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (At-OTs) are classically utilized in peptide synthesis for amide-bond formation. However, a previously undescribed reaction of these compounds with alcohols in the presence of a base, leads to 1-alkoxy-1H-benzo- (Bt-OR) and 7-azabenzotriazoles (At-OR). Although BOP undergoes reactions with alcohols to furnish 1-alkoxy-1H-benzotriazoles, Bt-OTs proved to be superior. Both, primary and secondary alcohols undergo reaction under generally mild reaction conditions. Correspondingly, 1-alkoxy-1H-7-azabenzotriazoles were synthesized from At-OTs. Mechanistically, there are three pathways by which these peptide-coupling agents can react with alcohols. From (31)P{(1)H}, [(18)O]-labeling, and other chemical experiments, phosphonium and tosylate derivatives of alcohols seem to be intermediates. These then react with BtO(-) and AtO(-) produced in situ. In order to demonstrate broader utility, this novel reaction has been used to prepare a series of acyclic nucleoside-like compounds. Because BtO(-) is a nucleofuge, several Bt-OCH2Ar substrates have been evaluated in nucleophilic substitution reactions. Finally, the possible formation of Pd ?-allyl complexes by departure of BtO(-) has been queried. Thus, alpha-allylation of three cyclic ketones was evaluated with 1-(cinnamyloxy)-1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole, via in situ formation of pyrrolidine enamines and Pd catalysis.
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De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp) that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy) revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs) but more glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million) value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb) for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction.
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Effect of monotherapy and combination therapy of pantoprazole and aprepitant in gastric esophageal reflux disease in albino rats.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3 mL/kg, sham control) or toxic control (3 mL/kg) or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg) or aprepitant (10 mg/kg), or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index, and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with pantoprazole and aprepitant significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The treatment also helped to restore the altered levels oxidative stress parameters to normal.
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The Zebrafish GenomeWiki: a crowdsourcing approach to connect the long tail for zebrafish gene annotation.
Database (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A large repertoire of gene-centric data has been generated in the field of zebrafish biology. Although the bulk of these data are available in the public domain, most of them are not readily accessible or available in nonstandard formats. One major challenge is to unify and integrate these widely scattered data sources. We tested the hypothesis that active community participation could be a viable option to address this challenge. We present here our approach to create standards for assimilation and sharing of information and a system of open standards for database intercommunication. We have attempted to address this challenge by creating a community-centric solution for zebrafish gene annotation. The Zebrafish GenomeWiki is a 'wiki'-based resource, which aims to provide an altruistic shared environment for collective annotation of the zebrafish genes. The Zebrafish GenomeWiki has features that enable users to comment, annotate, edit and rate this gene-centric information. The credits for contributions can be tracked through a transparent microattribution system. In contrast to other wikis, the Zebrafish GenomeWiki is a 'structured wiki' or rather a 'semantic wiki'. The Zebrafish GenomeWiki implements a semantically linked data structure, which in the future would be amenable to semantic search. Database URL: http://genome.igib.res.in/twiki.
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Mechanism of the enhancement of electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon due to hydrogen plasma treatment.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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The mechanism of electrical charge transport in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) and the enhancement in electrical conductivity by hydrogen plasma exposure has been studied. Nanoscale electrical conduction measurements (laterally on the surface) suggested that the dominant charge transport in nc-Si:H occurs through the crystalline grain interiors while grain boundaries are highly resistive. Room temperature low-power/short-duration (10 W, 10 s) surface hydrogen plasma treatment enhanced the local surface and bulk electrical conductivity of nc-Si:H films which was attributed to improved passivation of surface and bulk dangling bonds, increase in crystalline fraction and decrease in grain boundary (GB) fraction. However, the improvement in electrical conductivity due to high-power/long-duration (50 W, 10 min) hydrogen plasma exposure was not as pronounced as low-power/short-duration exposure. Temperature-dependent dark conductivity measurements showed dual activation-energy behavior; increase in activation energy in the high-temperature regime (400-585 K) was attributed to the temperature dependence of tunneling probability of carriers and explained using a heteroquantum dots model. A decrease in activation energy with plasma exposure was observed which was explained using the framework of a three-phase model of nc-Si:H where GB width and barrier potential played a critical role in determining the relative contribution of tunneling and thermally activated carrier transport.
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A novel single-domain peptide, anti-LPS factor from prawn: Synthesis of peptide, antimicrobial properties and complete molecular characterization.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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In this study, we reported a complete molecular characterization including bioinformatics features, gene expression, peptide synthesis and its antimicrobial activities of an anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) factor (ALF) cDNA identified from the established cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (named as MrALF). The mature protein has an estimated molecular weight of 11.240kDa with an isoelectric point of 9.46. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the MrALF contains an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) region between T54 and P77 with two conserved cysteine residues (Cys55 and Cys76) which have an anti-parallel ?-sheet confirmation. The ?-sheet is predicted as cationic with hydrophobic nature containing a net charge of +5. The depicted AMP region is determined to be amphipathic with a predicted hydrophobic face FPVFI. A highest MrALF gene expression was observed in hemocytes and is up-regulated with virus [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV)], bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) and Escherichia coli LPS at various time points. The LPS binding region of MrALF peptide was synthesized to study the antimicrobial property, bactericidal efficiency and hemolytic capacity. The peptide showed antimicrobial activity against both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The bactericidal assay showed that the peptide recognized the LPS of bacterial cell walls and binding on its substrate and thereby efficiently distinguishing the pathogens. The hemolytic activity of MrALF peptide is functioning in a concentration dependant manner. In summary, the comprehensive analysis of MrALF showed it to be an effective antimicrobial peptide and thus it plays a crucial role in the defense mechanism of M. rosenbergii.
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Aneurysmal bone cyst of temporal bone.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign neoplasms frequently occurring in the long tubular bones. It is very rare in temporal bone. We report a case of ABC of the left temporal bone in an 8-year-old Asian boy who presented clinically with swelling over the left temporal region for 5 months. CT and MRI features were suggestive of ABC. Surgical resection was performed and on follow-up the patient was doing well. CT and MRI are the imaging modalities for proper evaluation of ABC, aiding to diagnosis and helpful in treatment planning.
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Immunological role of C4 CC chemokine-1 from snakehead murrel Channa striatus.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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In this study, we have reported a cDNA sequence of C4 CC chemokine identified from snakehead murrel (also known as striped murrel) Channa striatus (named as CsCC-Chem-1) normalized cDNA library constructed by Genome Sequencing FLX™ Technology (GS-FLX™). CsCC-Chem-1 is 641 base pairs (bp) long that contain 438bp open reading frame (ORF). The ORF encodes a polypeptide of 146 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15kDa. The polypeptide contains a small cytokine domain at 30-88. The domain carries the CC motif at Cys(33)-Cys(34). In addition, CsCC-Chem-1 consists of another two cysteine residues at C(59) and C(73), which, together with C(33) and C(34), make CsCC-Chem-1 as a C4-CC chemokine. CsCC-Chem-1 also contains a TCCT motif at 32-35 as CC signature motif; this new motif may represent new characteristic features, which may lead to some unknown function that needs to be further focused on. Phylogenitically, CsCC-Chem-1 clustered together with CC-Chem-1 from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus and European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Significantly (P<0.05) highest gene expression was noticed in spleen and is up-regulated upon fungus (Aphanomyces invadans), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) and virus (poly I:C) infection at various time points. The gene expression results indicate the influence of CsCC-Chem-1 in the immune system of murrel. Overall, the gene expression study showed that the CsCC-Chem-1 is a capable gene to increase the cellular response against various microbial infections. Further, we cloned the coding sequence of CsCC-Chem-1 in pMAL vector and purified the recombinant protein to study the functional properties. The cell proliferation activity of recombinant CsCC-Chem-1 protein showed a significant metabolic activity in a concentration dependant manner. Moreover, the chemotaxis assay showed the capability of recombinant CsCC-Chem-1 protein which can induce the migration of spleen leukocytes in C. striatus. However, this remains to be verified further at molecular and proteomic level.
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Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P < 0.05). The expression of huPA protein in eggs increased from 7.82 IU/egg in the G0 generation to 17.02 IU/egg in the G1 generation. However, huPA-expressing embryos had reduced survival and hatchability at d 18 and 21 of incubation, respectively, and the blood clotting time was significantly higher in transgenic chickens than their nontransgenic counterparts (P < 0.05). Furthermore, adult transgenic rooster showed reduced (P < 0.05) fertility, as revealed by reduced volume of semen ejaculate, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Taken together, our data suggest that huPA transgenic chickens could be successfully produced by the retroviral vector system. Transgenic chickens, expressing the huPA under the control of a ubiquitous promoter, may not only be used as a bioreactor for pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.
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C-Terminal region of DNA ligase IV drives XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to chromatin.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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DNA ligase IV (LIG4) and XRCC4 form a complex to ligate two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). It is not fully understood how these proteins are recruited to DSBs. We recently demonstrated radiation-induced chromatin binding of XRCC4 by biochemical fractionation using detergent Nonidet P-40. In the present study, we examined the role of LIG4 in the recruitment of XRCC4/LIG4 complex to chromatin. The chromatin binding of XRCC4 was dependent on the presence of LIG4. The mutations in two BRCT domains (W725R and W893R, respectively) of LIG4 reduced the chromatin binding of LIG4 and XRCC4. The C-terminal fragment of LIG4 (LIG4-CT) without N-terminal catalytic domains could bind to chromatin with XRCC4. LIG4-CT with W725R or W893R mutation could bind to chromatin but could not support the chromatin binding of XRCC4. The ability of C-terminal region of LIG4 to interact with chromatin might provide us with an insight into the mechanisms of DSB repair through NHEJ.
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Modeling in vitro cholesterol reduction in relation to growth of probiotic Lactobacillus casei.
Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Lactobacillus casei LA-1 isolated from a nondairy fermented source was evaluated for its in vitro ability to reduce cholesterol. The bacterium tested positive for bile salt deconjugation in relation to cholesterol removal. Tested growth-associated physiological variables such as pH, temperature and inoculum size were all found to have significant effects on in vitro cholesterol reduction and biomass production (both P?
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Recreating an esthetically and functionally acceptable dentition: a multidisciplinary approach.
Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Patients today demand a youthful, attractive smile with comfortable functional acceptance. The complete oral rehabilitation of patients with a functionally compromised dentition frequently involves a multidisciplinary approach and presents a considerable clinical challenge. To a great extent, proper patient selection and careful interdisciplinary treatment planning, including acknowledgment of the patients perceived needs, reasons for seeking services, financial ability, and socioeconomic profile, can govern the predictability of successful restorations. This clinical report describes a successful interdisciplinary approach for the management of a severely worn dentition with reduced vertical dimension of occlusion. Treatment modalities included periodontal crown lengthening procedures, endodontic treatment followed by post and core restorations, and prosthetic rehabilitation for severe tooth surface loss and reduced vertical dimension of occlusion comprising metal-ceramic restorations in esthetic zones and full-metal restorations in posterior regions.
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Transgenic chicken, mice, cattle, and pig embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer into pig oocytes.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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This study explored the possibility of producing transgenic cloned embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) of cattle, mice, and chicken donor cells into enucleated pig oocytes. Enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP)-expressing donor cells were used for the nuclear transfer. Results showed that the occurrence of first cleavage did not differ significantly when pig, cattle, mice, or chicken cells were used as donor nuclei (p>0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher in pig (14.9±2.1%; p<0.05) SCNT embryos than in cattle (6.3±2.5%), mice (4.2±1.4%), or chicken (5.1±2.4%) iSCNT embryos. The iSCNT embryos also contained a significantly less number of cells per blastocyst than those of SCNT pig embryos (p<0.05). All (100%) iSCNT embryos expressed the EGFP gene, as evidenced by the green florescence under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. Microinjection of purified mitochondria from cattle somatic cells into pig oocytes did not have any adverse effect on their postfertilization in vitro development and embryo quality (p>0.05). Moreover, NCSU23 medium, which was designed for in vitro culture of pig embryos, was able to support the in vitro development of cattle, mice, and chicken iSCNT embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Taken together, these data suggest that enucleated pig oocytes may be used as a universal cytoplast for production of transgenic cattle, mice, and chicken embryos by iSCNT. Furthermore, xenogenic transfer of mitochondria to the recipient cytoplast may not be the cause for poor embryonic development of cattle-pig iSCNT embryos.
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Recurrent gingival swelling in pregnant women.
J Cutan Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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The aim of this case report is to present a rare case which has been reported with the history of small nodule like growth on mandibular buccal and lingual area. Thirty year old pregnant women reported a nodule on left mandibular buccal and lingual region. The lesion was surgically excised and sent for biopsy to differentiate from kimuras disease, pyogenic granuloma, epithelioid angiosarcoma (EH). Histologically lesion shows proliferation of endothelial cells along blood vessels suggesting epithelioid hemangioma. The purpose of this report is to discuss and differentiate EH and other vascular rare entities occurring in the oral cavity.
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Hantaviruses induce cell type- and viral species-specific host microRNA expression signatures.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The mechanisms of hantavirus-induced modulation of host cellular immunity remain poorly understood. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of essential regulators of host immune response genes. To ascertain if differential host miRNA expression toward representative hantavirus species correlated with immune response genes, miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in human endothelial cells, macrophages and epithelial cells infected with pathogenic and nonpathogenic rodent- and shrew-borne hantaviruses. Distinct miRNA expression profiles were observed in a cell type- and viral species-specific pattern. A subset of miRNAs, including miR-151-5p and miR-1973, were differentially expressed between Hantaan virus and Prospect Hill virus. Pathway analyses confirmed that the targets of selected miRNAs were associated with inflammatory responses and innate immune receptor-mediated signaling pathways. Our data suggest that differential immune responses following hantavirus infection may be regulated in part by cellular miRNA through dysregulation of genes critical to the inflammatory process.
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Recreating an Esthetically and Functionally Acceptable Dentition: A Multidisciplinary Approach.
Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Patients today demand a youthful, attractive smile with comfortable functional acceptance. The complete oral rehabilitation of patients with a functionally compromised dentition frequently involves a multidisciplinary approach and presents a considerable clinical challenge. To a great extent, proper patient selection and careful interdisciplinary treatment planning, including acknowledgment of the patients perceived needs, reasons for seeking services, financial ability, and socioeconomic profile, can govern the predictability of successful restorations. This clinical report describes a successful interdisciplinary approach for the management of a severely worn dentition with reduced vertical dimension of occlusion. Treatment modalities included periodontal crown lengthening procedures, endodontic treatment followed by post and core restorations, and prosthetic rehabilitation for severe tooth surface loss and reduced vertical dimension of occlusion comprising metal-ceramic restorations in esthetic zones and full-metal restorations in posterior regions.
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Hyaluronic acid derived from other streptococci supports Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro biofilm formation.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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We investigate the role of hyaluronic acid (HA) on S. pneumoniae in vitro biofilm formation and evaluate gene expressions of virulence and/or biofilm related genes. Biofilms were grown in medium supplied with HA derived from capsule of Streptococcus equi. The biomasses of biofilms were detected by crystal-violet (CV) microtiter plate assay, and the morphology was viewed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The gene expressions were assessed by relative quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that the HA support pneumococcal growth in planktonic form and within biofilms. The CV-microtiter plate assay detected significantly increased biofilm growth in medium containing HA. The SEM analysis revealed thick and organized biofilms in positive control and HA supplemented medium. The nanA, nanB, bgaA, strH, luxS, hysA, ugl, and PST-EIIA encoding genes were significantly upregulated in the planktonic cells grown in presence of HA, while the lytA and comA genes were downregulated. Similarly the luxS, hysA, ugl, and PST-EIIA encoding genes were significantly upregulated by more than 2-folds in HA biofilms. The results of this study indicate that the HA derived from capsule of S. equi supports pneumococcal growth in planktonic state and within biofilms and upregulated virulence and biofilm related genes.
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Narrow bandwidth and polarization independent design of hollow waveguide in-plane mirror with ultrawide tuning-range.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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A design of an integrated widely tunable in-plane micro-optical mirror based on a hollow waveguide (HWG) consisting of a high index contrast grating (HCG) and a dielectric multilayer distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) is proposed. The in-plane mirror is formed in a variable air-core HWG by loading a SiO(2) Bragg grating on the multilayer (DBR) mirror. Ultrawide tuning of 161 and 150 nm in Bragg wavelengths of TE and TM mode, respectively are reported in simulation with a simple tuning scheme and a single tuning parameter of variable air core. The presence of HCG in the proposed design causes a reduction from 88 nm (for DBR-DBR) to 48 nm (for HCG-DBR) in the 3 dB reflection-bandwidth of the proposed in-plane mirror. Also, a four-time reduction in the difference in the reflectivity of the Bragg wavelengths of TE and TM modes is reported because of the introduction of HCG into the hollow waveguide. The reflections of orthogonal polarizations and hence the polarization characteristics of the in-plane mirror are controlled by the combined effect of HCG and DBR.
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An ocular prosthesis for a geriatric patient: a case report.
J Clin Diagn Res
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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When geriatric patients with maxillofacial defects are handled, the clinician must be confident of addressing and managing the psychology of these patients. It is also required that the clinician must understand and be sensitive to the medical and financial states of geriatric patients. The loss of an eye has a far-reaching impact on an individuals psychology and an immediate replacement is necessary to promote the physical and psychological healing of the patient and to improve his/her social acceptance. Special approaches and treatment goals are considered while treating geriatric patients with ocular defects and special consideration is given to the appointment length, the number of appointments and their medical and financial statuses. This article presents the prosthetic rehabilitation of a geriatric patient with an ocular defect, with a customized stock ocular prosthesis, by using a minimal intervention geriatric approach.
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Supplementation of insulin-transferrin-selenium to embryo culture medium improves the in vitro development of pig embryos.
Zygote
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Summary Insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS) supplementation to oocyte maturation medium improves the post-fertilization embryonic development in pigs. ITS is also commonly used as a supplement for the in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos and stem cells in several mammalian species. However, its use during IVC of pig embryos has not been explored. This study investigated the effect of ITS supplementation to IVC medium on the in vitro development ability of pig embryos produced by parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We observed that ITS had no significant effect on the rate of first cleavage (P > 0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation in ITS-treated PA (45.3 ± 1.9 versus 27.1 ± 2.3%), IVF (31.6 ± 0.6 versus 23.5 ± 0.6%) and SCNT (17.6 ± 2.3 versus 10.7 ± 1.4%) embryos was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of non-treated controls. Culture of PA embryos in the presence of ITS also enhanced the expansion and hatching ability (29.1 ± 3.0 versus 18.2 ± 3.8%; P < 0.05) of blastocysts and increased the total number of cells per blastocyst (53 ± 2.5 versus 40.9 ± 2.6; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the beneficial effect of ITS on PA embryos was associated with significantly reduced level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (20.0 ± 2.6 versus 46.9 ± 3.0). However, in contrast to PA embryos, ITS had no significant effect on the blastocyst quality of IVF and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that supplementation of ITS to the IVC medium exerts a beneficial but differential effect on pig embryos that varies with the method of embryo production in vitro.
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Esthesioneuroblastoma: one of the causes of proptosis.
Head Face Med
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Esthesioneuroblatoma (Olfactory neuroblastoma) is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the olfactory epithelium with bimodal age distribution between with first peak in second decades and second peak in sixth decade. Proptosis due to esthesioneuroblastoma is one of the rare causes. They have a long natural history characterized by frequent local or regional recurrence. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the imaging modalities for diagnosing these tumors. A multidisciplinary approach with surgery and radiation therapy is an excellent treatment options for these tumors with chemotherapy being used to treat advanced or recurrent disease.
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Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in children <18 years by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
Semin Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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To establish a normative database for retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in children<18 years by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).
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