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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Spatial distribution of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in soil in a rural area: Influence of cats and land use.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Toxoplasma gondii is the protozoan parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis, one of the most prevalent zoonoses worldwide. T. gondii infects humans through the ingestion of meat containing bradyzoites or through soil, food or water contaminated with oocysts. Soil contamination with oocysts is increasingly recognized as a major source of infection for humans, but has rarely been quantified directly. In this study, we investigated the spatial pattern of soil contamination with T. gondii over an area of 2.25km(2) in a rural area of eastern France. The frequency and spatial distribution of T. gondii in soil was analyzed in relation with the factors that could influence the pattern of contamination: cats' frequency and spatial distribution and land use. According to a stratified random sampling Scheme 243 soil samples were collected. The detection of T. gondii oocysts was performed using a recent sensitive method based on concentration and quantitative PCR. Sensitivity was improved by analyzing four replicates at each sampling point. T. gondii was detected in 29.2% of samples. Soil contamination decreased with increasing distance from the core areas of cat home ranges (households and farms). However, it remained high at the periphery of the study site, beyond the boundaries of the largest cat home ranges, and was not related to land use. This pattern of contamination strongly supports the role of inhabited areas which concentrate cat populations as sources of risk for oocyst-induced infection for both humans and animals. Moreover, soil contamination was not restricted to areas of high cat density suggesting a large spatial scale of environmental contamination, which could result from T. gondii oocysts dissemination through rain washing or other mechanisms.
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Mortality and profiles of community-dwelling fallers. Results from the EPIDOS cohort.
Maturitas
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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To assess long-term survival of community-dwelling elderly women after a fall according to various characteristics of whom four falling profiles.
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Characterization of prostate lesions as benign or malignant at multiparametric MR imaging: comparison of three scoring systems in patients treated with radical prostatectomy.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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To compare the subjective Likert score to the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) and morphology-location-signal intensity (MLS) scores for categorization of prostate lesions as benign or malignant at multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.
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Estimating the optimal threshold for a diagnostic biomarker in case of complex biomarker distributions.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Estimating the optimal threshold (and especially the confidence interval) of a quantitative biomarker to be used as a diagnostic test is essential for medical decision-making. This is often done with simple methods that are not always reliable. More advanced methods work well but only for biomarkers with very simple distributions. In fact, biomarker distributions are often complex because of a natural heterogeneity in marker expression and other heterogeneities due to various disease stages, laboratory equipments, etc. Methods are required to estimate a biomarker optimal threshold in case of heterogeneity and complex distributions.
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A pyriform sinus cancer organ preservation strategy comprising induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil, followed by potentiated radiotherapy: a multicenter, retrospective study.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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No specific study has evaluated the role of neoadjuvant DCF (docetaxel, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil) followed by radiotherapy in pyriform sinus cancer, which are often included in studies focusing on laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. We assessed the proportion of patients treated sequentially for a pyriform sinus cancer with a preserved larynx. Overall survival, event-free survival (EFS), survival with 'local control', and treatment tolerance were assessed as well. We retrospectively reviewed 88 patients with advanced pyriform sinus squamous cell carcinoma treated with DCF between 2005 and 2010. After induction, radiation could be potentiated with cetuximab or cisplatin. Most patients (82%) had been treated with organ preservation intent. The response rate to DCF was 85%, including 42% with complete response. Primary tumor was operated in 13 patients (eight with total laryngectomy). Radiotherapy had been delivered to 78 (89%) patients (30 with cisplatin, 39 with cetuximab). Potentiation had been achieved as planned in 52 and 79% of patients treated with cisplatin and cetuximab, respectively. Twenty-three local and three neck recurrences were found. Median overall survival was 16.8 months and 38.3% at 3 years. EFS at 3 years was 29.1% with a hazard ratio for partial responders versus nonresponders of 0.18 (P<0.001), and 0.13 (P<0.001) for complete responders versus nonresponders. Thirty-five percent of patients were alive with their larynx preserved at 3 years. This study confirms the efficacy of induction followed by chemoradiation for pyriform sinus cancer and that response to DCF is predictive of EFS.
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Impact of vitamin D supplementation on health-care use in a 25-hydroxyvitamin D-tested population in France: a population-based descriptive cohort study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Chronic vitamin D deficiency has been associated in some patients with diffuse musculoskeletal pain. These unspecific symptoms may partly explain why vitamin D deficiency is often diagnosed late. Our aim was to analyse health-care claims after vitamin D supplementation in patients likely to have vitamin D deficiency.
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Prostate focal peripheral zone lesions: characterization at multiparametric MR imaging--influence of a computer-aided diagnosis system.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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To assess the impact of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system in the characterization of focal prostate lesions at multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.
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Improvement of sample size calculations for binary diagnostic test assessment.
J. Investig. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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This study aimed to formulate a new R function to improve sample size calculation for more accurate estimations of sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp).
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Individual patient data systematic review and meta-analysis of optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasonography for detecting raised intracranial pressure: protocol of the ONSD research group.
Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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The purpose of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) research group project is to establish an individual patient-level database from high quality studies of ONSD ultrasonography for the detection of raised intracranial pressure (ICP), and to perform a systematic review and an individual patient data meta-analysis (IPDMA), which will provide a cutoff value to help physicians making decisions and encourage further research. Previous meta-analyses were able to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ONSD ultrasonography in detecting raised ICP but failed to determine a precise cutoff value. Thus, the ONSD research group was founded to synthesize data from several recent studies on the subject and to provide evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of ONSD ultrasonography in detecting raised ICP.
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Evaluation of an interactive program for preventing adverse drug events in primary care: study protocol of the InPAct cluster randomised stepped wedge trial.
Implement Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Adverse drug events could often be prevented. One of their main causes is that patients rarely know how to detect them. Another cause is inadequate communication between patients and physicians. If patients were to be effectively trained in detecting and reporting adverse drug events, this should help to prevent their occurrence and subsequent complications. Our purpose is to present the protocol of the InPAct trial, which aims to evaluate an interactive program that encourages patients to report adverse drug events in primary care.
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In vivo evaluation of immediately loaded stainless steel and titanium orthodontic screws in a growing bone.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The present work intends to evaluate the use of immediate loaded orthodontic screws in a growing model, and to study the specific bone response. Thirty-two screws (half of stainless steel and half of titanium) were inserted in the alveolar bone of 8 growing pigs. The devices were immediately loaded with a 100 g orthodontic force. Two loading periods were assessed: 4 and 12 weeks. Both systems of screws were clinically assessed. Histological observations and histomorphometric analysis evaluated the percent of "bone-to-implant contact" and static and dynamic bone parameters in the vicinity of the devices (test zone) and in a bone area located 1.5 cm posterior to the devices (control zone). Both systems exhibit similar responses for the survival rate; 87.5% and 81.3% for stainless steel and titanium respectively (p?=?0.64; 4-week period), and 62.5% and 50.0% for stainless steel and titanium respectively (p?=?0.09; 12-week period). No significant differences between the devices were found regarding the percent of "bone-to-implant contact" (p?=?0.1) or the static and dynamic bone parameters. However, the 5% threshold of "bone-to-implant contact" was obtained after 4 weeks with the stainless steel devices, leading to increased survival rate values. Bone in the vicinity of the miniscrew implants showed evidence of a significant increase in bone trabecular thickness when compared to bone in the control zone (p?=?0.05). In our study, it is likely that increased trabecular thickness is a way for low density bone to respond to the stress induced by loading.
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DNA double-strand breaks induced by mammographic screening procedures in human mammary epithelial cells.
Int. J. Radiat. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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To assess in vitro mammographic radiation-induced DNA damage in mammary epithelial cells from 30 patients with low (LR) or high (HR) family risk of breast cancer.
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Location of residual cancer after transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for clinically localized prostate cancer.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Whats known on the subject ? and What does the study add? Transrectal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) ablation has been used as a minimally invasive treatment for localized prostate cancer for 15 years. Five-year disease-free survival rates of 66-78% have been reported, challenging the results of external-beam radiation therapy. Usually, a 6-mm safety margin is used in the apex to preserve the urinary sphincter and potency. The influence of this 6-mm margin on the results of the treatment has never been assessed. This retrospective study of a cohort of 99 patients who underwent systematic biopsy 3-6 months after HIFU ablation for prostate cancer (with a 6-mm safety margin in the apex) shows that post-HIFU residual cancer is found more frequently in the apex. Therefore, new strategies improving the prostate destruction at the apex while preserving the urinary continence need to be found.
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Prostate cancer ablation with transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound: assessment of tissue destruction with contrast-enhanced US.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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To assess contrast material-enhanced ultrasonographic (US) findings seen after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of prostate cancer and correlate the US findings with post-HIFU biopsy findings.
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Anemia normalization in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease: results of the NEPHRODIAB2 randomized trial.
J. Diabetes Complicat.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Correction of anemia in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients with chronic kidney disease stages 3-4 may slow the decline of kidney function but may increase cardiovascular risk through higher hematocrit. The NEPHRODIAB2 study was designed to assess efficacy and safety of complete hemoglobin (Hb) normalization in these patients.
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The short-term effects of intermittent positive pressure breathing treatments on ventilation in patients with neuromuscular disease.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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The effects of intermittent positive-pressure breathing (IPPB) and abdominal belt on regional lung ventilation in neuromuscular patients are unknown. We conducted a prospective physiologic short-term study in stable neuromuscular patients to determine the effects of IPBB, with and without abdominal belt, on regional lung ventilation.
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A Bayesian method to estimate the optimal threshold of a longitudinal biomarker.
Biom J
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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The objective of this study was to develop methods to estimate the optimal threshold of a longitudinal biomarker and its credible interval when the diagnostic test is based on a criterion that reflects a dynamic progression of that biomarker. Two methods are proposed: one parametric and one non-parametric. In both the cases, the Bayesian inference was used to derive the posterior distribution of the optimal threshold from which an estimate and a credible interval could be obtained. A numerical study shows that the bias of the parametric method is low and the coverage probability of the credible interval close to the nominal value, with a small coverage asymmetry in some cases. This is also true for the non-parametric method in case of large sample sizes. Both the methods were applied to estimate the optimal prostate-specific antigen nadir value to diagnose prostate cancer recurrence after a high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment. The parametric method can also be applied to non-longitudinal biomarkers.
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Long-term outcome after annular mechanical mitral valve replacement in children aged less than five years.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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When mitral valve repair in children is not possible, mitral valve replacement (MVR) is an alternative, which could result in better outcomes. We report the long-term outcome after replacement of systemic atrioventricular valve with bileaflet mechanical valves in annular position in patients less than 5 years of age.
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A beat-by-beat cardiovascular index, CARDEAN: a prospective randomized assessment of its utility for the reduction of movement during colonoscopy.
Anesth. Analg.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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We sought to determine whether online use of a beat-by-beat cardiovascular index, CARDEAN (Alpha-2, Lyon, France), modifies the incidence of patient movement during colonoscopy under anesthesia.
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Diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis by using a whole-blood gamma interferon release assay.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
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Congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns is generally subclinical, but infected infants are at risk of developing ocular lesions. Diagnosis at birth relies mainly on serological tests. Cell-mediated immunity plays the major role in resistance to infection but is not routinely investigated for diagnostic purposes. Here, we describe a simple test based on the gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) response after stimulation of whole blood by crude parasitic antigens. One milliliter of heparinized blood was centrifuged; plasma was kept for routine serological tests, and pellets were resuspended in culture medium. After 24 h of culture in the presence of crude Toxoplasma gondii antigen, the cells were centrifuged and the supernatant was assayed for IFN-gamma. For 62 infants under 1 year of age born to mothers who were infected during pregnancy, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 94% (with positive results for 16 of 17 infected infants) and 98% (with negative results for 44 of 45 uninfected infants), respectively. The false-negative result was for a treated baby who gave positive results after the withdrawal of treatment. The false positive was obtained for a 3-month-old baby. For a cohort of 124 congenitally infected patients between 1 and 30 years of age, the sensitivity of the assay was 100%. We present a simple test based on IFN-gamma secretion to assess cell-mediated immunity in toxoplasmosis. As only 1 ml of blood is required to investigate humoral and cellular immunity, our assay is well adapted for the study of congenital toxoplasmosis in infants. Using purified antigens or recombinant peptides may improve the test performance.
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Increased levels of endothelial microparticles CD144 (VE-Cadherin) positives in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary noncalcified plaques evaluated by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT).
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
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The combination of both morphological and cellular markers of subclinical atherosclerosis, in addition to conventional risk factors, may help to improve cardiovascular prevention in type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of our cross-sectional study was to evidence a putative increase in endothelial (EMP) or platelet (PMP) microparticles, in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary noncalcified plaques detected by multidetector CT (MDCT).
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Evaluation of T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in localizing prostate cancer before repeat biopsy.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2009
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We assessed the accuracy of T2-weighted (T2w) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in localizing prostate cancer before transrectal ultrasound-guided repeat biopsy. Ninety-three patients with abnormal PSA level and negative prostate biopsy underwent T2w and DCE prostate MRI using pelvic coil before repeat biopsy. T2w and DCE images were interpreted using visual criteria only. MR results were correlated with repeat biopsy findings in ten prostate sectors. Repeat biopsy found prostate cancer in 23 patients (24.7%) and 44 sectors (6.6%). At per patient analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 47.8%, 44.3%, 20.4% and 79.5% for T2w imaging and 82.6%, 20%, 24.4% and 93.3% for DCE imaging. When all suspicious areas (on T2w or DCE imaging) were taken into account, a sensitivity of 82.6% and a negative predictive value of 100% could be achieved. At per sector analysis, DCE imaging was significantly less specific (83.5% vs. 89.7%, p < 0.002) than T2w imaging; it was more sensitive (52.4% vs. 32.1%), but the difference was hardly significant (p = 0.09). T2w and DCE MRI using pelvic coil and visual diagnostic criteria can guide prostate repeat biopsy, with a good sensitivity and NPV.
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Toxoplasma seroprevalence in a rural population in France: detection of a household effect.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2009
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Toxoplasma gondii, the agent of toxoplasmosis, has a complex life cycle. In humans, the parasite may be acquired either through ingestion of contaminated meat or through oocysts present in the environment. The importance of each source of contamination varies locally according to the environment characteristics and to differences concerning human eating habits and the presence of cats; thus, the risk factors may be determined through fine-scale studies. Here, we searched for factors associated with seropositivity in the population of two adjacent villages in Lorraine region, France.
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A 7-year longitudinal follow-up of intellectual development in children with congenital hemiplegia.
Dev Med Child Neurol
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2009
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Our aim was to examine intellectual development in children with congenital hemiplegia from early childhood to adolescence.
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Prostate cancer transrectal HIFU ablation: detection of local recurrences using T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2009
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The objective was to evaluate T2-weighted (T2w) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in detecting local cancer recurrences after prostate high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Fifty-nine patients with biochemical recurrence after prostate HIFU ablation underwent T2-weighted and DCE MRI before transrectal biopsy. For each patient, biopsies were performed by two operators: operator 1 (blinded to MR results) performed random and colour Doppler-guided biopsies ("routine biopsies"); operator 2 obtained up to three cores per suspicious lesion on MRI ("targeted biopsies"). Seventy-seven suspicious lesions were detected on DCE images (n = 52), T2w images (n = 2) or both (n = 23). Forty patients and 41 MR lesions were positive at biopsy. Of the 36 remaining MR lesions, 20 contained viable benign glands. Targeted biopsy detected more cancers than routine biopsy (36 versus 27 patients, p = 0.0523). The mean percentages of positive cores per patient and of tumour invasion of the cores were significantly higher for targeted biopsies (p < 0.0001). The odds ratios of the probability of finding viable cancer and viable prostate tissue (benign or malignant) at targeted versus routine biopsy were respectively 3.35 (95% CI 3.05-3.64) and 1.38 (95% CI 1.13-1.63). MRI combining T2-weighted and DCE images is a promising method for guiding post-HIFU biopsy towards areas containing recurrent cancer and viable prostate tissue.
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Neonatal outcomes after elective delivery management of preterm premature rupture of the membranes before 34 weeks gestation (DOMINOS study).
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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The objective was to compare the impact of the reason for delivery (elective delivery versus spontaneous onset of labor) on neonatal outcome after preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROMs).
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A positioning pillow to improve lumbar puncture success rate in paediatric haematology-oncology patients: a randomized controlled trial.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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Lumbar punctures (LPs) are common in children with cancer. Although pain management during the lumbar puncture has been well standardized, dealing with stress and anxiety is not well addressed yet. Our objective was to evaluate the potential improvement of the LP success rate using a positioning pillow, to ensure maximum lumbar flexion, and allow paravertebral muscles to relax, in children who are awake, with either conscious sedation or no sedation.
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Predicting visual outcome after treatment of pituitary adenomas with optical coherence tomography.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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To evaluate if optical coherence tomography (OCT), by providing an objective measure of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, offers a reliable prediction of visual outcome.
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Schwartz formula: is one k-coefficient adequate for all children?
PLoS ONE
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Plasma-creatinine-based equations to estimate the glomerular filtration rate are recommended by several clinical guidelines. In 2009, Schwartz et al. adapted the traditional Schwartz equation to children and adolescents but did not find different k-coefficients between children and adolescents (k?=?36.5 for all patients). We reevaluated the coefficient of the 2009-Schwartz formula according to sex and age in a pediatric population.
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Exercise with incorporated expiratory manoeuvres was as effective as breathing techniques for airway clearance in children with cystic fibrosis: a randomised crossover trial.
J Physiother
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: Can a session of exercise with incorporated expiratory manoeuvres substitute for a session of breathing techniques for airway clearance in children with cystic fibrosis? Are children with cystic fibrosis as co-operative and satisfied with the exercise regimen as with the breathing techniques?.
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[Mini Nutritional Assessment: a reproducibility study for the elderly].
Soins Gerontol
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The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), the most used scale for detecting undernutrition in clinical practice, has been validated in the hospital setting. We have evaluated its reproducibility in a French nursing home for dependent elderly people. It is globally acceptable, but some items should be more standardized.
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Comparison of central macular thickness measured by three OCT models and study of interoperator variability.
ScientificWorldJournal
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To compare central macular thickness (CMT) measurement on healthy patient using 3 different OCT devices by two operators.
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Outcome associations of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity vary with different measurement methods.
Am. J. Hypertens.
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The impact of various methods of travel distance estimation on the prognostic value of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and on the adequacy of cut-offs has never been addressed within a single population of hypertensive patients.
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The impact of complete revascularization on long-term survival is strongly dependent on age.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
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Complete revascularization during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been reported to be associated with better short-term and long-term outcomes. We hypothesized that the survival benefit of complete revascularization would be less in old patients than in young patients.
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Is it possible to model the risk of malignancy of focal abnormalities found at prostate multiparametric MRI?
Eur Radiol
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To evaluate whether focal abnormalities (FAs) depicted by prostate MRI could be characterised using simple semiological features.
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Real-time Detection of Gastric Insufflation Related to Facemask Pressure-controlled Ventilation Using Ultrasonography of the Antrum and Epigastric Auscultation in Nonparalyzed Patients: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Study.
Anesthesiology
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The authors sought to determine the level of inspiratory pressure minimizing the risk of gastric insufflation while providing adequate pulmonary ventilation. The primary endpoint was the increase in incidence of gastric insufflation detected by ultrasonography of the antrum while inspiratory pressure for facemask pressure-controlled ventilation increased from 10 to 25 cm H2O.
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Creatinine- versus cystatine C-based equations in assessing the renal function of candidates for liver transplantation with cirrhosis.
Hepatology
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Renal dysfunction is frequent in liver cirrhosis and is a strong prognostic predictor of orthotropic liver transplantation (OLT) outcome. Therefore, an accurate evaluation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is crucial in pre-OLT patients. However, in these patients, plasma creatinine (Pcr) is inaccurate and the place of serum cystatine C (CystC) is still debated. New GFR-predicting equations, based on standardized assays of Pcr and/or CystC, have been recently recommended in the general population but their performance in cirrhotic patients has been rarely studied. We evaluated the performance of the recently published Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations (CKD-EPI-Pcr, CKD-EPI-CystC, and CKD-EPI-Pcr-CystC) and the more classical ones (4- and 6-variable MDRD and Hoek formulas) in cirrhotic patients referred for renal evaluation before OLT. Inulin clearance was performed in 202 consecutive patients together with the determination of Pcr and CystC with assays traceable to primary reference materials. The performance of the GFR-predicting equations was evaluated according to ascites severity (no, moderate, or refractory) and to hepatic and renal dysfunctions (MELD score ? or > 15 and KDOQI stages, respectively). In the whole population, CystC-based equations showed a better performance than Pcr-based ones (lower bias and higher 10% and 30% accuracies). CKD-EPI-CystC equation showed the best performance whatever the ascites severity and in presence of a significant renal dysfunction (GFR< 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ). Conclusions: Pcr-based GFR predicting equations are not reliable in pre-OLT patients even when an IDMS-traceable enzymatic Pcr assay is used. Whenever a CystC-assay traceable to primary reference materials is performed and when true a measurement of GFR is not possible, CystC-based equations, especially CKD-EPI-CystC, may be recommended to evaluate renal function and for KDOQI staging. (Hepatology 2013;).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.