Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. An expanding body of evidence supports the role of human microbiome in the establishment of CVDs and, this has gained much attention recently. This work was aimed to study the circulating human microbiome in CVD patients and healthy subjects. The levels of circulating cell free DNA (circDNA) was higher in CVD patients (n?=?80) than in healthy controls (n?=?40). More specifically, the relative levels of circulating bacterial DNA and the ratio of 16S rRNA/?-globin gene copy numbers were higher in the circulation of CVD patients than healthy individuals. In addition, we found a higher circulating microbial diversity in CVD patients (n?=?3) in comparison to healthy individuals (n?=?3) by deep shotgun sequencing. At the phylum level, we observed a dominance of Actinobacteria in CVD patients, followed by Proteobacteria, in contrast to that in healthy controls, where Proteobacteria was predominantly enriched, followed by Actinobacteria. The circulating virome in CVD patients was enriched with bacteriophages with a preponderance of Propionibacterium phages, followed by Pseudomonas phages and Rhizobium phages in contrast to that in healthy individuals, where a relatively greater abundance of eukaryotic viruses dominated by Lymphocystis virus (LCV) and Torque Teno viruses (TTV) was observed. Thus, the release of bacterial and viral DNA elements in the circulation could play a major role leading to elevated circDNA levels in CVD patients. The increased circDNA levels could be either the cause or consequence of CVD incidence, which needs to be explored further.
Lactobacillus fermentum is a lactic acid bacterium of probiotic importance, which is found ubiquitously in fermented milk products. Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) has a significant role in affording probiotic properties to lactobacilli. In the present study, two bsh genes encoding BSH1 and BSH2 were identified from the draft genome sequence of L. fermentum MTCC 8711. Nucleotide comparison revealed no significant similarity between bsh1 and bsh2 genes, whereas the deduced amino acid sequences showed 26 % sequence similarity between both BSH1 and BSH2. Pfam analysis revealed the presence of cys-2 active site residues in the catalytic pocket of both BSH1 and BSH2 highly essential for catalysis. Phylogentic analysis of BSH1 and BSH2 revealed the possible independent origin of these proteins in Lactobacillus. We cloned these genes in pSLp111.3, a Lactobacillus expression vector with signal peptide A (slpA) and expressed in the native L. fermentum strain for overexpression and extracellular secretion. The bsh1 gene failed to express and to produce promising BSH activity. However, bsh2 gene was overexpressed and the recombinant strain showed improved BSH activity. Induction of the recombinant strain with an optimal 2 % xylose concentration secreted 0.5 U/ml of the BSH into extracellular medium. Furthermore, the recombinant strain was able to completely assimilate the 100-?g/ml cholesterol within 24 h, whereas the native strain took 72 h for the complete assimilation of cholesterol.
Lactobacillus fermentum strain MTCC 8711 is a lactic acid bacterium isolated from yogurt. Here, we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of this strain. The 2,566,297-bp-long genome consisted of a single chromosome and seven plasmids. The genome contains 2,609 protein-coding and 74 RNA genes.
Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. In recent past, a wide variety of AMPs with diverse structures have been reported from different sources such as plants, animals, mammals, and microorganisms. The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that attribute for their specific mode of action. The ability of these active AMPs to act as multifunctional effector molecules such as signalling molecule, immune modulators, mitogen, antitumor, and contraceptive agent makes it an interesting candidate to study every aspect of their structural and biological properties for prophylactic and therapeutic applications. In addition, easy cloning and recombinant expression of AMPs in heterologous plant host systems provided a pipeline for production of disease resistant transgenic plants. Besides these properties, AMPs were also used as drug delivery vectors to deliver cell impermeable drugs to cell interior. The present review focuses on the diversity and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a potential and promising drug candidate in pharmaceutical industries.
Development of resistant variants to existing antifungal drugs continues to be the serious problem in Candida albicans-induced fungal pathogenesis, which has a considerable impact on animal and human health. Identification and characterization of newer drugs against C. albicans is, therefore, essential. MMGP1 is a direct cell-penetrating peptide recently identified from marine metagenome, which was found to possess potent antifungal activity against C. albicans.
Microbial diversity of 1,000 m deep pelagic sediment from off Coast of Andaman Sea was analyzed by a culture independent technique, bacterial tag encoded FLX titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. The hypervariable region of small subunit ribosomal rRNA gene covering V6-V9, was amplified from the metagenomic DNA and sequenced. We obtained 19,271 reads, of which 18,206 high quality sequences were subjected to diversity analysis. A total of 305 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained corresponding to the members of firmicutes, proteobacteria, plantomycetes, actinobacteria, chloroflexi, bacteroidetes, and verucomicrobium. Firmicutes was the predominant phylum, which was largely represented with the family bacillaceae. More than 44 % of sequence reads could not be classified up to the species level and more than 14 % of the reads could not be assigned to any genus. Thus, the data indicates the possibility for the presence of uncultivable or unidentified novel bacterial species. In addition, the community structure identified in this study significantly differs with other reports from marine sediments.
An antifungal peptide, MMGP1, was recently identified from marine metagenome. The mechanism of cellular internalization of this peptide in Candida albicans was studied using fluorescein 5-isothiocynate (Sigma, California, USA) labeling followed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analyses. The peptide could enter C.?albicans cells even at 4?°C, where all energy-dependent transport mechanisms are blocked. In addition, the peptide internalization was not affected by the endocytic inhibitor, sodium azide. The kinetic study has shown that the peptide was initially localized on cell membrane and subsequently internalized into cytosol. The MMGP1 treatment exhibited time-dependent cytotoxicity in C.?albicans as evidenced by SYTOX Green (Molecular Probes Inc., Eugene, Oreg) uptake.
A novel antifungal peptide with 36 amino acids was identified by functional screening of a marine metagenomic library. The peptide did not show similarity with any existing antimicrobial peptide sequences in the databank. The108 bp ORF designated as mmgp1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using pET expression system. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified recombinant peptide revealed a molecular mass of 5026.9 Da. The purified recombinant peptide inhibited the growth of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The peptide was predicted to adopt ?- helical conformation with an extended coil containing a ligand binding site for N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. The ?- helicity of the peptide was demonstrated by circular dichroism spectroscopy in the presence of chitin or membrane mimicking solvent, trifluoroethanol. The chitin binding property of the peptide was also confirmed by fast performance liquid chromatography.
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