Hyperlipidemia is a well-recognized risk factor for atherosclerosis and can be regulated by adipokines. Expression of the adipokine resistin-like molecule alpha (Retnla) is regulated by food intake; whether Retnla has a role in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis is unknown. Here we report that Retnla has a cholesterol-lowering effect and protects against atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. On a high-fat diet, Retnla deficiency promotes hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis, whereas Retnla overexpression reverses these effects and improves the serum lipoprotein profile, with decreased cholesterol in the very low-density lipoprotein fraction concomitant with reduced serum apolipoprotein B levels. We show that Retnla upregulates cholesterol-7-?-hydroxylase, a key hepatic enzyme in the cholesterol catabolic pathway, through induction of its transcriptional activator liver receptor homologue-1, leading to increased excretion of cholesterol in the form of bile acids. These findings define Retnla as a novel therapeutic target for treating hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis.
We examined the antiobesity and antioxidant effects of supplementation with doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, in overweight Koreans with the PPAR-?2 C1431T polymorphism. Sixty overweight subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 9.8?g/day of doenjang or placebo for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric and metabolic parameters, along with abdominal fat distribution and PPAR-?2 polymorphisms, were measured. Fifty-one subjects completed the study, doenjang (n=26) and placebo (n=25) groups. Relative frequencies of the PPAR-?2 genotypes CC, TC, and TT were 70% (n=41), 25.9% (15), and 3.4% (2), whereas those of the PPAR-?2 alleles C and T were 81.6% and 18.4%. Visceral fat area (VFA) was significantly decreased by doenjang supplementation in subjects with a mutant T allele of PPAR-?2 compared to those with a C allele after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. Plasma free fatty acid, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were also significantly increased in the doenjang group. Doenjang pills significantly activated radical clearance capacity (ORAC and DNA tail length) in subjects with the C allele. The catalase (CAT) activity was increased twofold in the doenjang-treated group with the C allele, but this phenomenon was reversed in those with the T allele. Doenjang-treated subjects tended to have low dietary carbohydrate and sodium intakes compared with those given placebo. We found that doenjang supplementation decreased visceral fat accumulation and aging most effectively in subjects with PPAR-? polymorphisms. This study suggests that doenjang has antiobesity and antioxidative effects in overweight individuals with mutant alleles of PPAR-?2.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined treatment of mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) was effective for improving obesity and obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. After obesity was induced by HF diet for 9 weeks, the mice were divided into eight groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF diet-induced obese control, (3) 1:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L1:1), (4) 500 (M1:1), and (5) 1000 (H1:1) mg/kg per day, and (6) 2:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L2:1), (7) 500 (M2:1), and (8) 1000 (H2:1) mg/kg per day. All six combined treatments significantly lowered body weight gain, plasma triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation levels after the 12-week treatment period. Additionally, all combined treatments suppressed hepatic fat accumulation and reduced epididymal adipocyte size. These improvements were accompanied by decreases in protein levels of proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and phospho-nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor alpha) and oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase). M2:1 was the most effective ratio and dose for the improvements in obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that a combined MLE and MFE treatment ameliorated obesity and obesity-related metabolic stressors and suggest that it can be used as a means to prevent and/or treat obesity.
In this study, we assessed the potential inhibitory effect of 5 species of brown seaweeds on adipogenesis the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into mature adipocytes by measuring Oil-Red O staining. The Ecklonia cava extract tested herein evidenced profound adipogenesis inhibitory effect, compared to that exhibited by the other four brown seaweed extracts. Thus, E. cava was selected for isolation of active compounds and finally the three polyphenol compounds of phlorotannins were obtained and their inhibitory effect on adipogenesis was observed. Among the phlorotannins, dieckol exhibited greatest potential adipogenesis inhibition and down-regulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP?), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in a dose-dependent manner. The specific mechanism mediating the effects of dieckol was confirmed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. These results demonstrate inhibitory effect of dieckol compound on adipogenesis through the activation of the AMPK signal pathway.
Studies on factors which may predict the risk of diabetes are scarce. This prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the association between adiponectin and type 2 diabetes among Korean men and women.
Vitamin D is an important factor for calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. A negative relationship has been observed between vitamin D status and diseases such as cancer, arthritis, diabetes, and muscle fiber atrophy. However, the relationship between vitamin D and prevention of skeletal muscle damage has not been clearly elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D on exercise-induced muscle changes. Rats were divided into 3 groups: (1) sedentary control (C: n=10), (2) high-intensity exercise (HE: n=10), and (3) high-intensity exercise with vitamin D supplementation (HED: n=10; i.p. 1000 IU/kg body weight). Rats were trained for 30 min/day on treadmills (5 days/week for 8 weeks) with the running speed gradually increased up to 30 m/min at a 3° incline. At the end of the training period, the running speed was 38 m/min at a 5° incline. The high-intensity exercise significantly increased plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. In addition, IL-6 and TNF-? levels as well as phosphorylation of AMPK, p38, ERK1/2, IKK, and I?B were significantly increased. Vitamin D-treated rats showed a significant decrease in plasma CK level, phosphorylation of AMPK, p38, ERK1/2, IKK, and I?B, and gene expression of IL-6 and TNF-?. Furthermore, the protein expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) was highly increased in the muscles of HED-treated rats, respectively. Therefore, we concluded that vitamin D may play a pivotal role in exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation through the modulation of MAPK and NF-?B involved with VDR.
There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives (KMSRI) in Seoul, Korea. Measures of anthropometry and blood pressure as well as fasting blood samples were used in the analysis. A three-day food records were collected. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the age-adjusted National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. An added metabolic risk score was calculated for each subject by summing the quintile values of the five individual risk factors. Among the 5 risk components of metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference (WC) was the major factor (P < 0.001). A significant increasing trend of the added metabolic syndrome risk score was observed with the increase of WC (P (trend) < 0.001) among both genders. The cutoff point for high WC for pre-pubertal children was 61.3 cm for boys and 59.9 cm for girls. The prevalence of high triglyceride (TG) values was significantly higher in girls than it was in boys (P < 0.01). Girls in the highest quintile of balanced dietary pattern scores had lower TG values (P (trend) = 0.032) than did those in the lowest quintile. Moreover, girls in the highest quintile of western dietary pattern scores showed increasing trend for the added metabolic risk score (P (trend) = 0.026) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Adverse associations exist between western dietary patterns and the accumulation of metabolic risks among girls, not in boys, even during pre-puberty.
Obesity is associated with a variety of adverse health risks. Several genome-wide association studies of obesity have identified candidate genes, including the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene. We carried out a replication study of MC4R and FTO variants in a Korean cohort. A total of 2,281 subjects in the Bundang-gu region were analyzed using selected markers. Another 8,826 subjects in the Ansung/Ansan city were used for a meta-analysis. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FTO and one SNP in the MC4R gene were genotyped. Multivariate linear regression models were employed to test for genotypic effects on obesity traits while adjusting for age and sex using an additive model. The SNP rs17782313 near the MC4R gene was associated with mean body mass index in the Bundang-gu cohort (effect per allele 0.288 kg/m(2), p = 0.0023). The p value for meta-analysis of rs17782313 in all 11,107 individuals in the Bundang-gu and Ansung/Ansan cohorts was 2.82 × 10(-6) (effect per allele 0.22 kg/m(2)). Two SNPs in FTO were significantly associated with weight (effect per allele 0.969 kg, p = 0.011 for rs9939609; 0.943, p = 0.014 for rs8050136) but not with body mass index. This study demonstrates that genetic variants in MC4R influence obesity traits in Korean adults.
Obesity is a complex condition that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and is associated with an increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is well characterized in the control of blood pressure. This study investigated whether the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects obesity in relation to sodium intake in children.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the interaction between lipoprotein lipase (LPL) PvuII and HindIII haplotypes and carbohydrate intakes on the components of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in Koreans.
There are limited data on healthy dietary patterns protective against metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) development. We identified dietary patterns among middle-aged and older adults and investigated the associations with the incidence of MetSyn. A population-based prospective cohort study included 5,251 male and female Koreans aged 40-69 years. At baseline, all individuals were free of MetSyn, other major metabolic diseases, and known cardiovascular disease or cancer. Cases of MetSyn were ascertained over a 6-year of follow-up. Dietary patterns and their factor scores were generated by factor analysis using the data of a food frequency questionnaire. We performed pooled logistic regression analysis to estimate multivariable-adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for associations between factor scores and MetSyn risk. Two dietary patterns were identified; (1) a healthy dietary pattern, which included a variety of foods such as fish, seafood, vegetables, seaweed, protein foods, fruits, dairy products, and grains; and (2) an unhealthy dietary pattern, which included a limited number of food items. After controlling for confounding factors, factor scores for the healthy dietary pattern were inversely associated with MetSyn risk (P-value for trend < 0.05) while those for the unhealthy dietary pattern had no association. Individuals in the top quintile of the healthy diet scores showed a multivariable-adjusted RR [95% CI] of 0.76 [0.60-0.97] for MetSyn risk compared with those in the bottom quintile. The beneficial effects were derived from inverse associations with abdominal obesity, low HDL-cholesterol levels, and high fasting glucose levels. Our findings suggest that a variety of healthy food choices is recommended to prevent MetSyn.
Adipokines are associated with obesity. However, the relationships between adipokines, specifically vaspin, obesity, and obesity-related variables remain controversial, and only a few studies have been conducted which examines them in children. We investigated the relationships between obesity in prepubertal Korean children and three types of adipokines: vaspin, leptin, and visfatin. In this cross-sectional study, 168 nine-year-old boys and 176 nine-year-old girls participated in a school-based health examination program. Children were classified as overweight using the Korean Pediatric Society 2007 guidelines. Overweight boys and girls had higher leptin and vaspin levels than both boys and girls of normal weight, whereas only overweight boys had higher visfatin levels than normal weight boys. Leptin, visfatin and vaspin concentrations were correlated with obesity-related variables. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol (TC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, and vaspin were associated with an increased risk of being overweight, whereas high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was associated with a decreased risk of being overweight. Elevated vaspin and leptin levels are associated with obesity in prepubertal Korean children.
The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; grain dishes, fish and meat dishes, vegetable dishes, fruits, milk and oils and sugars. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population.
Hypertension and hypertriglycemia are the most important contributors to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease risk in South Koreans with a relatively lean body mass. These major contributors differ from those identified in Western populations. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the Korean diet associated with increased risk of MetS, whose prevalence has been steadily increasing in South Korea. On the basis of data collected from 5,320 subjects by the 2007-2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 3 dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis and their association with the risk of MetS and its components was examined. The balanced Korean diet, a typical Korean diet of rice and kimchi intake supplemented by a variety of foods had a desirable macronutrient composition and was associated with a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.45-0.84) and hypertriglyceridemia (0.69, 0.49-0.88) in men and a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (0.59, 0.41-0.85) and MetS (0.67, 0.47-0.96) in women. The unbalanced Korean diet, characterized by a high intake of carbohydrates and sodium and little variety, was associated with a higher risk of MetS (1.44, 1.03-2.01) and elevated blood pressure (1.41, 1.00-1.98) in women. The semi-western diet, characterized by a relatively high intake of meat, poultry, and alcohol, was associated with a lower risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.70, 0.54-0.89) in women. Thus, macronutrient composition and sodium intake are associated with the risk of MetS and prehypertension in women. Maintaining a desirable macronutrient composition and avoiding excessive consumption of carbohydrates and sodium should be emphasized for prevention of MetS and hypertension in South Korean women.
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) polymorphism correlated with LPL activity is associated with plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels. We aimed to investigate the frequency of LPL PvuII polymorphism and effects of LPL PvuII polymorphism and niacin intake on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in Koreans. Lifestyle questionnaires, anthropometry, and dietary records were completed, and LPL PvuII polymorphism, LPL mass, and lipid profiles were determined in 548 Koreans (MetSyn: 278, Non-MetSyn: 270). The MetSyn group showed a significantly lower frequency of P1P1 (wild type) and a higher frequency of P1P2 (hetero type) than the non-MetSyn group. The P2P2 (mutant type) group significantly showed lower levels of HDLc and LPL mass and a higher level of TG than the P1P1 group. As niacin intake increased, LPL mass decreased in the P2P2 group (r (2) = 0.07). In particular, the lowest niacin intake group (?14.82 mg/day) increased more than 3 times with regard to a higher risk of MetSyn than the others in the P2P2 mutant groups. However, the MetSyn risk declined 74% at the optimal levels of niacin intake (14.83-17.80 mg/day) in the P2P2 group compared to those of the P1 allele group. The findings indicate that optimal levels of niacin intake effectively decreased Korean MetSyn prevalence in the P2P2 mutant group.
Ginsenosides, bioactive compounds of Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer, are divided into protopanaxadiol (PD) and protopanaxtriol (PT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of different PD and PT combination ratios on liver inflammation and apoptosis in hyperlipidemic apo E KO mice. R1 (PD/PT = 1, high Rg(1) and Rb(1)) and R2 (PD/PT = 2, high Re and Rd) extracts were intraperitoneally injected by 100 mg/kg/day at the 8th week. R1 and R2 improved atherogenic indices by increasing HDL and lowering total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglyceride (TG) selectively. R1 decreased lipid peroxides (LPO) level in plasma and liver tissue of hyperlipidemic mice, and R2 lowered plasma malondialdehyde(MDA) level. R1 and R2 not only regulated the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, I?B-?, phopho-ERK 1/2, and phopho-SAPK/JNK levels but also were significantly effective in blocking apoptotic signals, such as caspase-8, -9, as well as the cleavage of PARP in liver. Different combinational treatment of PD and PT extracts might ameliorate the liver inflammation and apoptosis in hyperlipidemic apo E KO mice, which is atherosclerotic animal model.
This study examines the relationship between adherence to different dietary patterns and the presence of metabolic syndrome and its components among Korean adults. The sample consisted of 406 Korean adults aged 22 to 78 years recruited from hospitals. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria issued by the Adult Treatment Panel III, with the exception of central obesity, which was defined according to the Asian-Pacific criteria. Dietary information was obtained by means of a 24-hour recall and a 3-day food record, and factor analysis was used to define dietary patterns. Factor analysis identified 4 major dietary patterns, which explained 28.8% of the total variance, based on the percentage of total daily energy intake from each food group: Korean traditional, alcohol and meats, sweets and fast foods, and fruit and dairy. After controlling for all potential confounders, we found that the Korean traditional dietary pattern was not associated with individual components of the metabolic syndrome but was significantly associated with increased odds of having metabolic syndrome. The fruit and dairy pattern was significantly associated with decreased odds of impaired blood glucose, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome. Our findings suggest that the fruit and dairy pattern is associated with reduced risk of having metabolic syndrome.
Adiponectin is strongly associated with diabetes in the Western population. However, whether adiponectin is independently associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in the non-obese population is unknown.
Probucol, a cholesterol-lowering agent that paradoxically also lowers high-density lipoprotein cholesterol has been shown to prevent progression of atherosclerosis. The antiplatelet agent cilostazol, which has diverse antiatherogenic properties, has also been shown to reduce restenosis in previous clinical trials. Recent experimental studies have suggested potential synergy between probucol and cilostazol in preventing atherosclerosis, possibly by suppressing inflammatory reactions and promoting cholesterol efflux.
Elevated circulating oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) levels are associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis, which may be due to high plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and low intakes of antioxidants. We investigated the contribution of dietary intakes of antioxidants to Hcy-induced LDL oxidation in atherosclerotic patients (AP) and controls.
Our study focused on the antioxidant activities of Mosidae leaf ethanol extract (MLE) and included measurements of reducing power, total phenolic compounds, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In order to determine whether or not MLE evidences any chemopreventive activities, experimental lung metastasis was induced via the i.v. inoculation of colon26-M3.1 carcinoma cells into BALB/c mice. Additionally, we attempted to characterize any possible cytotoxic effects in murine normal splenocytes and tumor cells (B16-BL6 and colon26-M3.1). The total phenolic content and reducing capacity were measured at 39 mg/100 mL and 1.24, respectively, whereas the DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of MLE were measured to be 88.89% and 22.10%, respectively. Prophylactic i.v. treatment with MLE resulted in a dose-dependent and significant inhibition of lung metastasis. Specifically, a MLE dose of 200 ug per mouse resulted in an 88.90% inhibition of lung metastasis. For the cytotoxicity assay, MLE doses up to 100 ug/mL were not shown to affect the growth of normal murine splenocytes. Additionally, the survival of normal cells was not affected at MLE doses below 500 ug/mL. However, MLE doses up to 500 ug/mL reduced the percentage of tumor cell growth for B16BL6 (67% alive) and colon26-M3.1 (62% alive) cells.
Limited information is available on the association of HDL subtypes and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of HDL subspecies with the prevalence of MetSyn in new outpatients.
To investigate the antioxidative effects of ginsenosides [protopanaxadiol derivatives (PD):protopanaxatriol derivatives (PT) = 1:1] from the roots of Korean ginseng, cell viability, malondialdehyde (MDA) production, antioxidant enzyme activities, and expressions of apoptosis were analyzed after pretreatment of human hepatoma HepG2 cells with H(2)O(2). Cell death was increased through H(2)O(2) treatment dose dependently, and a dose of ginseng extract (PD:PT = 1:1) of 18.6 microg/mL was enough to derive it in reverse. MDA production was reduced through the administration of ginseng extracts even with more intensive H(2)O(2) treatments. Through the use of even low levels of ginseng extract (e.g., 1.86 microg/mL), catalase (CAT) activity was easily reduced from the plateau induced by H(2)O(2). The glutathione peroxidase activity was no better than that of CAT. We assume that ginseng extract acts as an antioxidant even when effective levels of ginseng differ. A ginseng extract dose of 18.6 microg/mL increased the apoptotic expression of oxidative stressed signals, such as c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and stress-activated protein kinase expressions, and mitochondrial cytochrome c released caspase-3 activation; however, these expressions changed with higher doses of ginseng.
Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been suggested to associate with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that EPA and DHA increase oxidative stress and hemorrhage volume in rats with intracerebral hemorrhagic (ICH) stroke. Thirty-five-week-old male rats were fed an American Institute of Nutrition-93M diet containing 0% (n = 27), 0.5% (n = 15), or 1% EPA + DHA of total energy for 5 weeks. Of 5 rats fed 1% EPA + DHA (41%), 5 died because of excessive bleeding within 12 hours after ICH surgery. Behavior test score and hemorrhage volume were significantly (P < .05) greater in the 1% EPA + DHA-fed rats than in other rats. Magnetic resonance imaging consistently showed that edema and bleeding were visible in only the rats fed 1% EPA + DHA. Levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione were significantly (P < .05) lower in rats fed 0.5% and 1% EPA + DHA than those fed 0% EPA + DHA. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content was significantly (P < .05) higher in 1% EPA + DHA-fed rats than in 0% and 0.5% EPA + DHA-fed rats. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was significantly (P < .05) higher in ICH rats with all diets than in sham surgery rats. Brain levels of EPA and DHA were highest in rats fed 1% EPA + DHA than in rats fed 0% and 0.5% EPA + DHA. These results suggested that intake of 1% EPA + DHA of total energy could lead to oxidative damage to the brain and thus increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in this rat model.
The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the antiobesity effect of doenjang, a Korean fermented soy paste is different between the mutant and the wild-type alleles of a polymorphism upstream of the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) gene in overweight subjects. In our randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, a total of 51 subjects with a body mass index of 23 kg/m(2) or greater and a waist-to-hip ratio of 0.90 or greater for men or 0.85 or greater for women were randomly assigned to take 9.9 g/d of either a placebo or doenjang for 12 weeks. The relative frequency of the mutant G allele of the UCP-1 polymorphism was 0.60 in the placebo group and 0.62 in the doenjang group. Supplementation of doenjang had no significant effect on the visceral fat area compared with that of the placebo group, but there was a significantly reduced amount of visceral fat in subjects with the G allele of UCP-1 polymorphism. Doenjang supplementation was found to significantly increase the free fatty acid concentration in subjects with both the A allele and the G allele. There was a significant association between visceral fat and age in study subjects with both the wild-type and mutant alleles of the UCP-1 gene. Doenjang supplementation significantly reduced visceral fat and increased the free fatty acid concentrations in subjects with the G allele of the UCP-1 polymorphism, which suggests that doenjang may be related to increased free fatty acid levels caused by elevated lipolysis in these subjects.
Elevated uric acid levels are associated with a variety of adverse health risks. Genome-wide association studies have identified several candidate genes associated with serum uric acid levels, including SLC2A9. We carried out a replication study of SLC2A9 variants in two Korean cohorts. A total of 961 participants in Seoul City were genotyped using a genome-wide marker panel, and 1,859 participants in the Bundang-Gu area were used for a replication study with a selected marker. Multivariate linear regression models were employed to test for genotypic effects on uric acid levels while adjusting for age, sex, and smoking status using an additive model. The top single nucleotide polymorphism associated with uric acid levels was rs4529048 in the SLC2A9 gene on chromosome 4 (P = 2.12 × 10(-6) in the Seoul City sample; P = 1.55 × 10(-9) in the Bundang-Gu sample). The meta-analysis P value for rs4529048 in the combined 2,820 individuals was 1.17 × 10(-14). This study demonstrates that genetic variants in SLC2A9 influence uric acid levels in Korean adults.
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