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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impact of Sampling Density on the Extent of HIV Clustering.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Abstract Identifying and monitoring HIV clusters could be useful in tracking the leading edge of HIV transmission in epidemics. Currently, greater specificity in the definition of HIV clusters is needed to reduce confusion in the interpretation of HIV clustering results. We address sampling density as one of the key aspects of HIV cluster analysis. The proportion of viral sequences in clusters was estimated at sampling densities from 1.0% to 70%. A set of 1,248 HIV-1C env gp120 V1C5 sequences from a single community in Botswana was utilized in simulation studies. Matching numbers of HIV-1C V1C5 sequences from the LANL HIV Database were used as comparators. HIV clusters were identified by phylogenetic inference under bootstrapped maximum likelihood and pairwise distance cut-offs. Sampling density below 10% was associated with stochastic HIV clustering with broad confidence intervals. HIV clustering increased linearly at sampling density >10%, and was accompanied by narrowing confidence intervals. Patterns of HIV clustering were similar at bootstrap thresholds 0.7 to 1.0, but the extent of HIV clustering decreased with higher bootstrap thresholds. The origin of sampling (local concentrated vs. scattered global) had a substantial impact on HIV clustering at sampling densities ?10%. Pairwise distances at 10% were estimated as a threshold for cluster analysis of HIV-1 V1C5 sequences. The node bootstrap support distribution provided additional evidence for 10% sampling density as the threshold for HIV cluster analysis. The detectability of HIV clusters is substantially affected by sampling density. A minimal genotyping density of 10% and sampling density of 50-70% are suggested for HIV-1 V1C5 cluster analysis.
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Effect of micronutrient supplementation on disease progression in asymptomatic, antiretroviral-naive, HIV-infected adults in Botswana: a randomized clinical trial.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
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Micronutrient deficiencies occur early in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and supplementation with micronutrients may be beneficial; however, its effectiveness has not been investigated early in HIV disease among adults who are antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive.
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Prevalence and clinical associations of CXCR4-using HIV-1 among treatment-naive subtype C-infected women in Botswana.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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HIV-1 coreceptor use was determined using a phenotypic assay in plasma samples from treatment-naive women infected with subtype C virus who had CD4 cell counts below 200 cells/mm3. Of 148 women, 14.9% were infected with dual/mixed virus; the remainder had R5 virus. A greater proportion of women in the lowest CD4 cell count stratum had dual/mixed virus (P = 0.026); change in coreceptor use after antiretroviral therapy exposure was uncommon. CXCR4-using HIV-1 was less common in subtype C-infected women than reported in subtype B cohorts but was most prevalent in women with the lowest CD4 cell counts.
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Herpes simplex virus type 2 suppressive therapy with acyclovir or valacyclovir does not select for specific HIV-1 resistance in HIV-1/HSV-2 dually infected persons.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Recent in vitro studies suggest that acyclovir may directly inhibit HIV-1 replication and can select for a specific HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutation (V75I) with concomitant loss of an anti-HIV-1 effect. We tested for HIV-1 genotypic resistance at reverse transcriptase codon 75 in plasma from 168 HIV-1-infected persons from Botswana, Kenya, Peru, and the United States taking daily acyclovir or valacyclovir for between 8 weeks and 24 months. No V75I cases were detected (95% confidence interval, 0%-2.2%). These prospective in vivo studies suggest that standard-dose acyclovir or valacyclovir does not select for HIV-1 resistance.
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The design and validation of a novel phenotypic assay to determine HIV-1 coreceptor usage of clinical isolates.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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A phenotypic assay to determine coreceptor usage of HIV-1 has been developed for rapid testing of clinical samples. The assay is based on the synthesis of viral stock from full-length env amplicons isolated from patients plasma. Pseudoviral stock is generated rapidly by using an overlapping PCR method to assemble a CMV promoter to env, followed by co-transfection into producer cells with a HIV plasmid (pNL4-3.Luc.R(-)E(-)) containing a non-functional env. The coreceptor used by the viral quasispecies is tested by infection into U87.CD4.CCR5 and U87.CD4.CXCR4 cells. Viral entry is indicated by the expression of the luciferase gene in relative light units (RLU). The use of CXCR4 coreceptor by minor variants is confirmed with sufficient suppression of RLU by a CXCR4 inhibitor. Two statistical tests are employed to confirm viral entry. This assay accurately assigned coreceptor usage of isolates of various subtypes and in the majority of samples of various viral loads. The sensitivity to detect minor species of CXCR4-using env is 1% at higher viral loads and 5% at less than 1,000 copies/ml. This assay provides a sensitive, efficient and relatively low-cost approach suitable for use by research laboratories for assessing HIV-1 coreceptor usage of plasma samples.
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Env sequence determinants in CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type-1 subtype C.
Virology
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HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) CXCR4-using virus is isolated infrequently and is poorly characterized. Understanding HIV-1C env characteristics has implications for the clinical use of antiretrovirals that target viral entry. A total of 209 env clones derived from 10 samples with mixed CCR5-(R5), CXCR4-using (X4) or dual-tropic HIV-1C were phenotyped for coreceptor usage. Intra-patient X4 and R5 variants generally formed distinct monophyletic phylogenetic clusters. X4 compared to R5 envs had significantly greater amino acid variability and insertions, higher net positive charge, fewer glycosylation sites and increased basic amino acid substitutions in the GPGQ crown. Basic amino acid substitution and/or insertion prior to the crown are highly sensitive characteristics for predicting X4 viruses. Chimeric env functional studies suggest that the V3 loop is necessary but often not sufficient to impart CXCR4 utilization. Our studies provide insights into the unique genotypic characteristics of X4 variants in HIV-1C.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.