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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
How can we better identify early HIV infections?
Curr Opin HIV AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Detection of early HIV infections (EHIs), including acute HIV infection (AHI), is important for individual health, prevention of HIV transmission, and measurement of HIV incidence. We describe markers of EHI, diagnostic strategies for detecting these markers, and ways to incorporate these strategies into diagnostic and HIV incidence algorithms.
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Advances in HIV Prevention for Serodiscordant Couples.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Serodiscordant couples play an important role in maintaining the global HIV epidemic. This review summarizes biobehavioral and biomedical HIV prevention options for serodiscordant couples focusing on advances in 2013 and 2014, including World Health Organization guidelines and best evidence for couples counseling, couple-based interventions, and the use of antiviral agents for prevention. In the past few years, marked advances have been made in HIV prevention for serodiscordant couples and numerous ongoing studies are continuously expanding HIV prevention tools, especially in the area of pre-exposure prophylaxis. Uptake and adherence to antiviral therapy remains a key challenge. Additional research is needed to develop evidence-based interventions for couples, and especially for male-male couples. Randomized trials have demonstrated the prevention benefits of antiretroviral-based approaches among serodiscordant couples; however, residual transmission observed in recognized serodiscordant couples represents an important and resolvable challenge in HIV prevention.
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Phylogenetic studies of transmission dynamics in generalized HIV epidemics: an essential tool where the burden is greatest?
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Efficient and effective HIV prevention measures for generalized epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa have not yet been validated at the population level. Design and impact evaluation of such measures requires fine-scale understanding of local HIV transmission dynamics. The novel tools of HIV phylogenetics and molecular epidemiology may elucidate these transmission dynamics. Such methods have been incorporated into studies of concentrated HIV epidemics to identify proximate and determinant traits associated with ongoing transmission. However, applying similar phylogenetic analyses to generalized epidemics, including the design and evaluation of prevention trials, presents additional challenges. Here we review the scope of these methods and present examples of their use in concentrated epidemics in the context of prevention. Next, we describe the current uses for phylogenetics in generalized epidemics and discuss their promise for elucidating transmission patterns and informing prevention trials. Finally, we review logistic and technical challenges inherent to large-scale molecular epidemiological studies of generalized epidemics and suggest potential solutions.
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Biomedical prevention: state of the science.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) involve the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative and -positive individuals to reduce HIV acquisition and transmission, respectively. Clinical science has delivered a consistently high effect size for TasP and a range from 0%-73% reduction in incidence across placebo-controlled PrEP trials. However, the quality of evidence for PrEP compares favorably with evidence for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). It is clear from treatment programs and PrEP trials that daily adherence presents challenges to a large proportion of the population. Although there are factors associated with inconsistent use (ie, younger age), they do not assist clinicians at the point of care. There are additional provider concerns about PrEP (covering cost of drug and delivery, undermining condom promotion, and facilitating resistant strains) that have delayed widespread acceptance. These issues need to be addressed in order to realize the full public health potential of antiretrovirals.
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Structure and immune recognition of trimeric pre-fusion HIV-1 Env.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) spike, comprising three gp120 and three gp41 subunits, is a conformational machine that facilitates HIV-1 entry by rearranging from a mature unliganded state, through receptor-bound intermediates, to a post-fusion state. As the sole viral antigen on the HIV-1 virion surface, Env is both the target of neutralizing antibodies and a focus of vaccine efforts. Here we report the structure at 3.5 Å resolution for an HIV-1 Env trimer captured in a mature closed state by antibodies PGT122 and 35O22. This structure reveals the pre-fusion conformation of gp41, indicates rearrangements needed for fusion activation, and defines parameters of immune evasion and immune recognition. Pre-fusion gp41 encircles amino- and carboxy-terminal strands of gp120 with four helices that form a membrane-proximal collar, fastened by insertion of a fusion peptide-proximal methionine into a gp41-tryptophan clasp. Spike rearrangements required for entry involve opening the clasp and expelling the termini. N-linked glycosylation and sequence-variable regions cover the pre-fusion closed spike; we used chronic cohorts to map the prevalence and location of effective HIV-1-neutralizing responses, which were distinguished by their recognition of N-linked glycan and tolerance for epitope-sequence variation.
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Cooperation of B cell lineages in induction of HIV-1-broadly neutralizing antibodies.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Development of strategies for induction of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) by vaccines is a priority. Determining the steps of bnAb induction in HIV-1-infected individuals who make bnAbs is a key strategy for immunogen design. Here, we study the B cell response in a bnAb-producing individual and report cooperation between two B cell lineages to drive bnAb development. We isolated a virus-neutralizing antibody lineage that targeted an envelope region (loop D) and selected virus escape mutants that resulted in both enhanced bnAb lineage envelope binding and escape mutant neutralization-traits associated with increased B cell antigen drive. Thus, in this individual, two B cell lineages cooperated to induce the development of bnAbs. Design of vaccine immunogens that simultaneously drive both helper and broadly neutralizing B cell lineages may be important for vaccine-induced recapitulation of events that transpire during the maturation of neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1-infected individuals.
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The development and validation of a method using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the qualitative detection of antiretroviral agents in human blood.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Antiretroviral drugs are used for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection. Non-adherence to antiretroviral drug regimens can compromise their clinical efficacy and lead to emergence of drug-resistant HIV. Clinical trials evaluating antiretroviral regimens for HIV treatment and prevention can also be compromised by poor adherence and non-disclosed off-study antiretroviral drug use. This report describes the development and validation of a high throughput, qualitative method for the identification of antiretroviral drugs using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the retrospective assessment of off-study antiretroviral drug use and the determination of potential antiretroviral therapy (ART) non-compliance.
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Effects of early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes of HIV-1 infection: results from the phase 3 HPTN 052 randomised controlled trial.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Use of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-1 infection has decreased AIDS-related morbidity and mortality and prevents sexual transmission of HIV-1. However, the best time to initiate antiretroviral treatment to reduce progression of HIV-1 infection or non-AIDS clinical events is unknown. We reported previously that early antiretroviral treatment reduced HIV-1 transmission by 96%. We aimed to compare the effects of early and delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes.
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Immunoglobulin gene insertions and deletions in the affinity maturation of HIV-1 broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies.
Cell Host Microbe
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Induction of HIV-1 broad neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development but has remained challenging partially due to unusual traits of bnAbs, including high somatic hypermutation (SHM) frequencies and in-frame insertions and deletions (indels). Here we examined the propensity and functional requirement for indels within HIV-1 bnAbs. High-throughput sequencing of the immunoglobulin (Ig) VHDJH genes in HIV-1 infected and uninfected individuals revealed that the indel frequency was elevated among HIV-1-infected subjects, with no unique properties attributable to bnAb-producing individuals. This increased indel occurrence depended only on the frequency of SHM point mutations. Indel-encoded regions were generally proximal to antigen binding sites. Additionally, reconstruction of a HIV-1 CD4-binding site bnAb clonal lineage revealed that a large compound VHDJH indel was required for bnAb activity. Thus, vaccine development should focus on designing regimens targeted at sustained activation of bnAb lineages to achieve the required SHM and indel events.
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Toward an endgame: finding and engaging people unaware of their HIV-1 infection in treatment and prevention.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Epidemic modeling suggests that a major scale-up in HIV treatment could have a dramatic impact on HIV incidence. This has led both researchers and policymakers to set a goal of an "AIDS-Free Generation." One of the greatest obstacles to achieving this objective is the number of people with undiagnosed HIV infection. Despite recent innovations, new research strategies are needed to identify, engage, and successfully treat people who are unaware of their infection.
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Etiology of genital ulcer disease and association with HIV infection in Malawi.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic management for patients presenting with genital ulcer disease (GUD) in developing countries. However, effective treatment guidelines depend on a current country-specific GUD etiological profile, which may change over time.
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Cost-effectiveness of HIV treatment as prevention in serodiscordant couples.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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The cost-effectiveness of early antiretroviral therapy (ART) in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in serodiscordant couples is not known. Using a computer simulation of the progression of HIV infection and data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 study, we projected the cost-effectiveness of early ART for such persons.
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Antiretroviral treatment of HIV-1 prevents transmission of HIV-1: where do we go from here?
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Antiretroviral drugs that inhibit viral replication were expected to reduce transmission of HIV by lowering the concentration of HIV in the genital tract. In 11 of 13 observational studies, antiretroviral therapy (ART) provided to an HIV-infected index case led to greatly reduced transmission of HIV to a sexual partner. In the HPTN 052 randomised controlled trial, ART used in combination with condoms and counselling reduced HIV transmission by 96·4%. Evidence is growing that wider, earlier initiation of ART could reduce population-level incidence of HIV. However, the full benefits of this strategy will probably need universal access to very early ART and excellent adherence to treatment. Challenges to this approach are substantial. First, not all HIV-infected individuals can be located, especially people with acute and early infection who are most contagious. Second, the ability of ART to prevent HIV transmission in men who have sex with men (MSM) and people who use intravenous drugs has not been shown. Indeed, the stable or increased incidence of HIV in MSM in some communities where widespread use of ART has been established emphasises the concern that not enough is known about treatment as prevention for this crucial population. Third, although US guidelines call for immediate use of ART, such guidelines have not been embraced worldwide. Some experts do not believe that immediate or early ART is justified by present evidence, or that health-care infrastructure for this approach is sufficient. These concerns are very difficult to resolve. Ongoing community-based prospective trials of early ART are likely to help to establish the population-level benefit of ART, and-if successful-to galvanise treatment as prevention.
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Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to improve health among people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) are at increased risk of diarrhoeal disease and enteric infection. This review assesses the effectiveness of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions to prevent disease among PLHIV.
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Hormonal contraception and HIV: the methods have confused the message.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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To examine different scenarios through which confounding by condom use may lead to inaccurate conclusions about the effect of hormonal contraception on HIV acquisition in women.
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Unsafe Sex and STI Prevalence Among HIV-Infected Adults in Guangzhou, China: Opportunities to Deamplify Sexual HIV Transmission.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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This project examined sexual behavior and STI prevalence among HIV-infected individuals in South China. Adult HIV-infected outpatients in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China completed a self-administered survey about behaviors and antiretroviral treatment. Participants were screened for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Univariate and multivariate relationships with any STI were calculated using logistic regression. 810 HIV-infected individuals participated and 3 refused. 52.5 % (n = 415) of individuals reported having sex in the past 3 months, among whom 26.4 % (n = 111) reported inconsistent condom use. 10.4 % (n = 84) of all individuals had at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI). HIV-infected individuals not on antiretroviral treatment had an increased STI risk (aOR 2.5, 95 % CI: 1.4-4.5, P = 0.002). Unsafe sex was markedly reduced among HIV-infected individuals on treatment, possibly a reflection of integrated ART initiation counseling. Improved STI services among HIVinfected individuals are urgently needed to deamplify sexual HIV transmission.
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Differential penetration of raltegravir throughout gastrointestinal tissue: implications for eradication and cure.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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To investigate the concentration of the integrase strand inhibitor raltegravir (RAL) throughout gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, especially gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), as an adjunct to current prevention and cure strategies.
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Dolutegravir pharmacokinetics in the genital tract and colorectum of HIV-negative men after single and multiple dosing.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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To describe first-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics (PKs) of dolutegravir (DTG) in blood plasma (BP), seminal fluid (SF), colorectal tissue (RT), and rectal mucosal fluid (RF) of healthy HIV-negative men.
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Undisclosed antiretroviral drug use in a multinational clinical trial (HIV Prevention Trials Network 052).
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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The HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 study enrolled serodiscordant couples. Index participants infected with human immunodeficiency virus reported no prior antiretroviral (ARV) treatment at enrollment. ARV drug testing was performed retrospectively using enrollment samples from a subset of index participants. ARV drugs were detected in 45 of 96 participants (46.9%) with an undetectable viral load, 2 of 48 (4.2%) with a low viral load, and 1 of 65 (1.5%) with a high viral load (P < .0001); they were also detected in follow-up samples from participants who were not receiving study-administered treatment. ARV drug testing may be useful in addition to self-report of ARV drug use in some clinical trial settings.
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Relative resistance of HIV-1 founder viruses to control by interferon-alpha.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Following mucosal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission, type 1 interferons (IFNs) are rapidly induced at sites of initial virus replication in the mucosa and draining lymph nodes. However, the role played by IFN-stimulated antiviral activity in restricting HIV-1 replication during the initial stages of infection is not clear. We hypothesized that if type 1 IFNs exert selective pressure on HIV-1 replication in the earliest stages of infection, the founder viruses that succeed in establishing systemic infection would be more IFN-resistant than viruses replicating during chronic infection, when type 1 IFNs are produced at much lower levels. To address this hypothesis, the relative resistance of virus isolates derived from HIV-1-infected individuals during acute and chronic infection to control by type 1 IFNs was analysed.
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Antiretroviral pharmacology in mucosal tissues.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Strategies to prevent HIV infection using preexposure prophylaxis are required to curtail the HIV pandemic. The mucosal tissues of the genital and rectal tracts play a critical role in HIV acquisition, but antiretroviral (ARV) disposition and correlates of efficacy within these tissues are not well understood. Preclinical and clinical strategies to describe ARV pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships within mucosal tissues are currently being investigated. In this review, we summarize the physicochemical and biologic factors influencing ARV tissue exposure. Furthermore, we discuss the necessary steps to generate relevant pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data and the challenges associated with this process. Finally, we suggest how preclinical and clinical data might be practically translated into optimal preexposure prophylaxis dosing strategies for clinical trials testing using mathematical modeling and simulation.
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The detection and management of early HIV infection: a clinical and public health emergency.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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This review considers the detection and management of early HIV infection (EHI), defined here as the first 6 months of infection. This phase is clinically important because a reservoir of infected cells formed in the individual renders HIV incurable, and the magnitude of viremia at the end of this period predicts the natural history of disease. Epidemiologically, it is critical because the very high viral load that typically accompanies early infection also makes infected individuals maximally contagious to their sexual partners. Future efforts to prevent HIV transmission with expanded testing and treatment may be compromised by elevated transmission risk earlier in the course of HIV infection, although the extent of this impact is yet unknown. Treatment as prevention efforts will nevertheless need to develop strategies to address testing, linkage to care, and treatment of EHI. Cost-effective and efficient identification of more persons with early HIV will depend on advancements in diagnostic technology and strengthened symptom-based screening strategies. Treatment for persons with EHI must balance individual health benefits and reduction of the risk of onward viral transmission. An increasing body of evidence supports the use of immediate antiretroviral therapy to treat EHI to maintain CD4 count and functionality, limit the size of the HIV reservoir, and reduce the risk of onward viral transmission. Although we can anticipate considerable challenges in identifying and linking to care persons in the earliest phases of HIV infection, there are many reasons to pursue this strategy.
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Maximizing the impact of HIV prevention efforts: interventions for couples.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Despite efforts to increase access to HIV testing and counseling services, population coverage remains low. As a result, many people in sub-Saharan Africa do not know their own HIV status or the status of their sex partner(s). Recent evidence, however, indicates that as many as half of HIV-positive individuals in ongoing sexual relationships have an HIV-negative partner and that a significant proportion of new HIV infections in generalized epidemics occur within serodiscordant couples. Integrating couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) into routine clinic- and community-based services can significantly increase the number of couples where the status of both partners is known. Offering couples a set of evidence-based interventions once their HIV status has been determined can significantly reduce HIV incidence within couples and if implemented with sufficient scale and coverage, potentially reduce population-level HIV incidence as well. This article describes these interventions and their potential benefits.
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Comparison of viral Env proteins from acute and chronic infections with subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 identifies differences in glycosylation and CCR5 utilization and suggests a new strategy for immunogen design.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Understanding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is central to developing effective prevention strategies, including a vaccine. We compared phenotypic and genetic variation in HIV-1 env genes from subjects in acute/early infection and subjects with chronic infections in the context of subtype C heterosexual transmission. We found that the transmitted viruses all used CCR5 and required high levels of CD4 to infect target cells, suggesting selection for replication in T cells and not macrophages after transmission. In addition, the transmitted viruses were more likely to use a maraviroc-sensitive conformation of CCR5, perhaps identifying a feature of the target T cell. We confirmed an earlier observation that the transmitted viruses were, on average, modestly underglycosylated relative to the viruses from chronically infected subjects. This difference was most pronounced in comparing the viruses in acutely infected men to those in chronically infected women. These features of the transmitted virus point to selective pressures during the transmission event. We did not observe a consistent difference either in heterologous neutralization sensitivity or in sensitivity to soluble CD4 between the two groups, suggesting similar conformations between viruses from acute and chronic infection. However, the presence or absence of glycosylation sites had differential effects on neutralization sensitivity for different antibodies. We suggest that the occasional absence of glycosylation sites encoded in the conserved regions of env, further reduced in transmitted viruses, could expose specific surface structures on the protein as antibody targets.
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Decreasing excess mortality of HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy: comparison with mortality in general population in China, 2003-2009.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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To evaluate excess mortality across calendar time comparing HIV-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with the general Chinese population.
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Community viral load as a measure for assessment of HIV treatment as prevention.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Community viral load, defined as an aggregation of individual viral loads of people infected with HIV in a specific community, has been proposed as a useful measure to monitor HIV treatment uptake and quantify its effect on transmission. The first reports of community viral load were published in 2009, and the measure was subsequently incorporated into the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy. Although intuitively an appealing strategy, measurement of community viral load has several theoretical limitations and biases that need further assessment, which can be grouped into four categories: issues of selection and measurement, the importance of HIV prevalence in determining the potential for ongoing HIV transmission, interpretation of community viral load and its effect on ongoing HIV transmission in a community, and the ecological fallacy (ie, ecological bias). These issues need careful assessment as community viral load is being considered as a public health measurement to assess the effect of HIV care on prevention.
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Co-evolution of a broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody and founder virus.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Current human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) vaccines elicit strain-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies arise in approximately 20% of HIV-1-infected individuals, and details of their generation could provide a blueprint for effective vaccination. Here we report the isolation, evolution and structure of a broadly neutralizing antibody from an African donor followed from the time of infection. The mature antibody, CH103, neutralized approximately 55% of HIV-1 isolates, and its co-crystal structure with the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 revealed a new loop-based mechanism of CD4-binding-site recognition. Virus and antibody gene sequencing revealed concomitant virus evolution and antibody maturation. Notably, the unmutated common ancestor of the CH103 lineage avidly bound the transmitted/founder HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, and evolution of antibody neutralization breadth was preceded by extensive viral diversification in and near the CH103 epitope. These data determine the viral and antibody evolution leading to induction of a lineage of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies, and provide insights into strategies to elicit similar antibodies by vaccination.
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Antiretroviral therapy for prevention is a combination strategy.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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In the past several years, the debate of "treatment vs prevention" has shifted with the introduction of the concept of "treatment as prevention," (TasP), stemming from a series of compelling observational, ecological, and modeling studies as well as HPTN 052, a randomized clinical trial, demonstrating that use of ART is associated with a decrease in HIV transmission. In addition to TasP being viewed as 1 intervention in a combination strategy for HIV Prevention, TasP is, in and of itself, a combination of multiple interventions that need to be implemented with high coverage in order to achieve its potential impact.
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HIV-1 Transmission during Early Antiretroviral Therapy: Evaluation of Two HIV-1 Transmission Events in the HPTN 052 Prevention Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In the HPTN 052 study, transmission between HIV-discordant couples was reduced by 96% when the HIV-infected partner received suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined two transmission events where the newly infected partner was diagnosed after the HIV-infected partner (index) initiated therapy. We evaluated the sequence complexity of the viral populations and antibody reactivity in the newly infected partner to estimate the dates of transmission to the newly infected partners. In both cases, transmission most likely occurred significantly before HIV-1 diagnosis of the newly infected partner, and either just before the initiation of therapy or before viral replication was adequately suppressed by therapy of the index. This study further strengthens the conclusion about the efficacy of blocking transmission by treating the infected partner of discordant couples. However, this study does not rule out the potential for HIV-1 transmission to occur shortly after initiation of ART, and this should be recognized when antiretroviral therapy is used for HIV-1 prevention.
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Detection of acute HIV infection: a field evaluation of the determine® HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab combo test.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) point-of-care tests detect antibodies (Ab) but not p24 antigen (Ag) or RNA. In the absence of antibodies, p24 antigen and RNA typically indicate acute HIV infection. We conducted a field evaluation of the Determine® HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo rapid test (Combo RT).
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Penetration of tenofovir and emtricitabine in mucosal tissues: implications for prevention of HIV-1 transmission.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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A mainstay of strategies to prevent HIV-1 transmission is to use antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Critical to the design and interpretation of PrEP prevention trials is the ability to make accurate pharmacological measurements of ART drugs in human genital and colorectal mucosal tissues, the principal route of HIV transmission. Here, we evaluated two drugs that are preferentially used for PrEP: tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC). A single oral dose of TDF/FTC (Truvada) was administered to 15 healthy individuals. Over the next 14 days, TFV and FTC were measured in blood plasma and genital secretions using a sensitive assay (lower level of quantification, 0.1 ng/ml). The active intracellular phosphorylated metabolites of these drugs [TFV diphospate (TFV-DP) and FTC triphosphate (FTC-TP)] were measured in homogenates prepared from rectal, vaginal, and cervical tissues. TFV and FTC were detected in blood plasma 14 days after administration of a single dose. The area under the concentration-time curve from 24 hours to 14 days (AUC(1-14d)) for FTC in genital secretions was 27-fold greater than in blood plasma, whereas the AUC(1-14d) for TFV was only 2.5-fold greater in genital secretions than in blood plasma. In rectal tissue, TFV and TFV-DP concentrations were detectable for 14 days and were 100-fold higher than the concentrations in vaginal and cervical tissues. Vaginal and cervical tissue concentrations of FTC were 10- to 15-fold higher than in rectal tissue. Despite high concentrations of FTC in vaginal and cervical tissue, FTC-TP concentrations in all tissue types were detected for only 2 days after dose. The exposure to TFV, TFV-DP, FTC, and FTC-TP was wide ranging depending on the type of mucosal tissue. These results demonstrate the need for detailed pharmacological studies to improve the application of ART for PrEP to prevent transmission of HIV.
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HIV partner notification is effective and feasible in sub-Saharan Africa: opportunities for HIV treatment and prevention.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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Sexual partners of persons with newly diagnosed HIV infection require HIV counseling, testing and, if necessary, evaluation for therapy. However, many African countries do not have a standardized protocol for partner notification, and the effectiveness of partner notification has not been evaluated in developing countries .
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Analysis of genetic linkage of HIV from couples enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial demonstrated that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from HIV-infected adults (index participants) to their HIV-uninfected sexual partners. We analyzed HIV from 38 index-partner pairs and 80 unrelated index participants (controls) to assess the linkage of seroconversion events.
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Pre-exposure prophylaxis and antiretroviral resistance: HIV prevention at a cost?
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the use of antiretrovirals (ARVs) by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected individuals to prevent acquisition of the virus during high-risk sexual encounters, enjoyed its first 2 major successes with the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) 004 and the Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiative (iPrEx). These successes were buoyed by additional positive results from the TDF2 and Partners PrEP trials. Although no seroconverters in either arm of CAPRISA developed resistance to tenofovir, 2 participants in iPrEx with undetected, seronegative acute HIV infection were randomized to receive daily oral tenofovir-emtricitabine and resistance to emtricitabine was later discovered in both men. A similar case in the TDF2 study resulted in resistance to both ARVs. These cases prompted us to examine existing literature on the nature of resistance mutations elicited by ARVs used for PrEP. Here, we discuss the impact of signature mutations selected by PrEP, how rapidly these emerge with daily ARV exposure, and the individual-level and public health consequences of ARV resistance.
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Continued high risk sexual behavior following diagnosis with acute HIV infection in South Africa and Malawi: implications for prevention.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2011
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Understanding sexual behavior following diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI) is key to developing prevention programs targeting individuals diagnosed with AHI. We conducted separate qualitative and quantitative interviews with individuals newly diagnosed (n = 19) with AHI at 1-, 4- and 12-weeks post-diagnosis and one qualitative interview with individuals who had previously been diagnosed with AHI (n = 18) in Lilongwe, Malawi and Johannesburg, South Africa between October 2007 and June 2008. The majority of participants reported engaging in sexual activity following diagnosis with AHI with a significant minority reporting unprotected sex during this time. Most participants perceived to have changed their behavior following diagnosis. However, participants reported barriers to condom use and abstinence, in particular, long term relationships and the need for disclosure of sero-status. Understanding of increased infectiousness during AHI was limited. Participants reported a desire for a behavioral intervention at the time of AHI diagnosis, however, there were differences by country in the types of interventions participants found acceptable. Studies are underway to determine the feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness of interventions designed for individuals with AHI.
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Dynamic antibody specificities and virion concentrations in circulating immune complexes in acute to chronic HIV-1 infection.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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Understanding the interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions and antibodies (Ab) produced during acute HIV-1 infection (AHI) is critical for defining antibody antiviral capabilities. Antibodies that bind virions may prevent transmission by neutralization of virus or mechanically prevent HIV-1 migration through mucosal layers. In this study, we quantified circulating HIV-1 virion-immune complexes (ICs), present in approximately 90% of AHI subjects, and compared the levels and antibody specificity to those in chronic infection. Circulating HIV-1 virions coated with IgG (immune complexes) were in significantly lower levels relative to the viral load in acute infection than in chronic HIV-1 infection. The specificities of the antibodies in the immune complexes differed between acute and chronic infection (anti-gp41 Ab in acute infection and anti-gp120 in chronic infection), potentially suggesting different roles in immunopathogenesis for complexes arising at different stages of infection. We also determined the ability of circulating IgG from AHI to bind infectious versus noninfectious virions. Similar to a nonneutralizing anti-gp41 monoclonal antibody (MAb), purified plasma IgG from acute HIV-1 subjects bound both infectious and noninfectious virions. This was in contrast to the neutralizing antibody 2G12 MAb that bound predominantly infectious virions. Moreover, the initial antibody response captured acute HIV-1 virions without selection for different HIV-1 envelope sequences. In total, this study demonstrates that the composition of immune complexes are dynamic over the course of HIV-1 infection and are comprised initially of antibodies that nonselectively opsonize both infectious and noninfectious virions, likely contributing to the lack of efficacy of the antibody response during acute infection.
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Polyclonal B cell responses to conserved neutralization epitopes in a subset of HIV-1-infected individuals.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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A small proportion of HIV-infected individuals generate a neutralizing antibody (NAb) response of exceptional magnitude and breadth. A detailed analysis of the critical epitopes targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies should help to define optimal targets for vaccine design. HIV-1-infected subjects with potent cross-reactive serum neutralizing antibodies were identified by assaying sera from 308 subjects against a multiclade panel of 12 "tier 2" viruses (4 each of subtypes A, B, and C). Various neutralizing epitope specificities were determined for the top 9 neutralizers, including clade A-, clade B-, clade C-, and clade A/C-infected donors, by using a comprehensive set of assays. In some subjects, neutralization breadth was mediated by two or more antibody specificities. Although antibodies to the gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER) were identified in some subjects, the subjects with the greatest neutralization breadth targeted gp120 epitopes, including the CD4 binding site, a glycan-containing quaternary epitope formed by the V2 and V3 loops, or an outer domain epitope containing a glycan at residue N332. The broadly reactive HIV-1 neutralization observed in some subjects is mediated by antibodies targeting several conserved regions on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.
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Multiple HIV-1-specific IgG3 responses decline during acute HIV-1: implications for detection of incident HIV infection.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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Different HIV-1 antigen specificities appear in sequence after HIV-1 transmission and the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass responses to HIV antigens are distinct from each other. The initial predominant IgG subclass response to HIV-1 infection consists of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies with a noted decline in some IgG3 antibodies during acute HIV-1 infection. Thus, we postulate that multiple antigen-specific IgG3 responses may serve as surrogates for the relative time since HIV-1 acquisition.
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HIV prevention transformed: the new prevention research agenda.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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We have entered a new era in HIV prevention whereby priorities have expanded from biomedical discovery to include implementation, effectiveness, and the effect of combination prevention at the population level. However, gaps in knowledge and implementation challenges remain. In this Review we analyse trends in the rapidly changing landscape of HIV prevention, and chart a new path for HIV prevention research that focuses on the implementation of effective and efficient combination prevention strategies to turn the tide on the HIV pandemic.
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Recurrent signature patterns in HIV-1 B clade envelope glycoproteins associated with either early or chronic infections.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2011
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Here we have identified HIV-1 B clade Envelope (Env) amino acid signatures from early in infection that may be favored at transmission, as well as patterns of recurrent mutation in chronic infection that may reflect common pathways of immune evasion. To accomplish this, we compared thousands of sequences derived by single genome amplification from several hundred individuals that were sampled either early in infection or were chronically infected. Samples were divided at the outset into hypothesis-forming and validation sets, and we used phylogenetically corrected statistical strategies to identify signatures, systematically scanning all of Env. Signatures included single amino acids, glycosylation motifs, and multi-site patterns based on functional or structural groupings of amino acids. We identified signatures near the CCR5 co-receptor-binding region, near the CD4 binding site, and in the signal peptide and cytoplasmic domain, which may influence Env expression and processing. Two signatures patterns associated with transmission were particularly interesting. The first was the most statistically robust signature, located in position 12 in the signal peptide. The second was the loss of an N-linked glycosylation site at positions 413-415; the presence of this site has been recently found to be associated with escape from potent and broad neutralizing antibodies, consistent with enabling a common pathway for immune escape during chronic infection. Its recurrent loss in early infection suggests it may impact fitness at the time of transmission or during early viral expansion. The signature patterns we identified implicate Env expression levels in selection at viral transmission or in early expansion, and suggest that immune evasion patterns that recur in many individuals during chronic infection when antibodies are present can be selected against when the infection is being established prior to the adaptive immune response.
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The role of acute and early HIV infection in the spread of HIV and implications for transmission prevention strategies in Lilongwe, Malawi: a modelling study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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HIV transmission risk is higher during acute and early HIV infection than it is during chronic infection, but the contribution of early infection to the spread of HIV is controversial. We estimated the contribution of early infection to HIV incidence in Lilongwe, Malawi, and predict the future effect of hypothetical prevention interventions targeted at early infection only, chronic infection only, or both stages.
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HIV-1 treatment as prevention: the good, the bad, and the challenges.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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This work focuses on the use of antiretroviral agents to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV-1.
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Common human genetic variants and HIV-1 susceptibility: a genome-wide survey in a homogeneous African population.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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To date, CCR5 variants remain the only human genetic factors to be confirmed to impact HIV-1 acquisition. However, protective CCR5 variants are largely absent in African populations, in which sporadic resistance to HIV-1 infection is still unexplained. We investigated whether common genetic variants associate with HIV-1 susceptibility in Africans.
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Chinas syphilis epidemic: epidemiology, proximate determinants of spread, and control responses.
Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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China has experienced an increase in the incidence and prevalence of syphilis that is especially remarkable since this infection was virtually eradicated in the country 50 years ago. The purpose of this analysis is to provide an overview of recent literature on syphilis proximate determinants and potential public health responses.
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A twin response to twin epidemics: integrated HIV/syphilis testing at STI clinics in South China.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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HIV testing is still stigmatized among many high-risk groups in China, whereas routine syphilis testing has been widely accepted at sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. This project used the platform of a rapid syphilis screening test to expand HIV test uptake. The objective of this study was to use multilevel modeling to analyze determinants of syphilis and HIV-testing uptake at STI clinics in China.
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Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of maraviroc in saliva, semen, and rectal tissue of healthy HIV-negative men.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Antiretroviral pharmacology in seminal plasma (SP) and rectal tissue (RT) may provide insight into antiretroviral resistance and the prevention of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Saliva may be of utility for noninvasively measuring adherence.
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Cross-sectional detection of acute HIV infection: timing of transmission, inflammation and antiretroviral therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2011
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Acute HIV infection (AHI) is a critical phase of infection when irreparable damage to the immune system occurs and subjects are very infectious. We studied subjects with AHI prospectively to develop better treatment and public health interventions.
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A spatial analysis of county-level variation in syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Sexually transmitted infections (STI) have made a resurgence in many rapidly developing regions of southern China, but there is little understanding of the social changes that contribute to this spatial distribution of STI. This study examines county-level socio-demographic characteristics associated with syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province.
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A tale of two countries: rethinking sexual risk for HIV among young people in South Africa and the United States.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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To compare the sexual behaviors of young people in South Africa (SA) and the United States (US) with the aim to better understand the potential role of sexual behavior in HIV transmission in these two countries that have strikingly different HIV epidemics.
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HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in China: a meta-analysis of published studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Men who have sex with men (MSM) have now become one of the priority populations for prevention and control of HIV pandemic in China. Information of HIV incidence among MSM is important to describe the spreading of the infection and predict its trends in this population. We reviewed the published literature on the incidence of HIV infection among MSM in China.
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Experimental Gonococcal Infection in Male Volunteers: Cumulative Experience with Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains FA1090 and MS11mkC.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Experimental infection of male volunteers with Neisseria gonorrhoeae is safe and reproduces the clinical features of naturally acquired gonococcal urethritis. Human inoculation studies have helped define the natural history of experimental infection with two well-characterized strains of N. gonorrhoeae, FA1090 and MS11mkC. The human model has proved useful for testing the importance of putative gonococcal virulence factors for urethral infection in men. Studies with isogenic mutants have improved our understanding of the requirements for gonococcal LOS structures, pili, opacity proteins, IgA1 protease, and the ability of infecting organisms to obtain iron from human transferrin and lactoferrin during uncomplicated urethritis. The model also presents opportunities to examine innate host immune responses that may be exploited or improved in development and testing of gonococcal vaccines. Here we review results to date with human experimental gonorrhea.
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Sexual partnership patterns in malawi: implications for HIV/STI transmission.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Concurrent sexual partnerships are believed to play an important role in HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, but the contributions of concurrency to HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) spread depend on the details of infectious periods and relationship patterns. To contribute to the understanding of sexual partnership patterns in this region, we estimated partnership lengths, temporal gaps between partners, and periods of overlap across partners at an STI clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi.
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Differences in HIV-specific T cell responses between HIV-exposed and -unexposed HIV-seronegative individuals.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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HIV-1-specific T lymphocyte responses in individuals exposed to HIV-1 but who remain persistently seronegative (HESNs) have been reported in some but not all previous studies. This study was designed to resolve unequivocally the question of whether HESNs make HIV-1-specific T cell responses. We performed a blind investigation to measure HIV-1-specific T cell responses in both HIV-1-serodiscordant couples and HIV-1-unexposed seronegative controls (HUSNs). We found low-frequency HIV-1-specific T cells in both HESNs and HUSNs but show that the response rates were higher over time in the former (P = 0.01). Furthermore, the magnitudes of the HIV-1-specific T cell responses were significantly higher among responding HESNs than among HUSNs over time (P = 0.002). In both groups, responses were mediated by CD4 T cells. The responses were mapped to single peptides, which often corresponded to epitopes restricted by multiple HLA-DR types that have previously been detected in HIV-1-infected patients. HIV-1-specific T cell responses in HUSNs and some HESNs likely represent cross-reactivity to self or foreign non-HIV-1 antigens. The significantly greater T cell responses in HESNs, including in two who were homozygous for CCR5?32, demonstrates that HIV-1-specific T cell responses can be induced or augmented by exposure to HIV-1 without infection.
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Reappraisal of the relationship between the HIV-1-protective single-nucleotide polymorphism 35 kilobases upstream of the HLA-C gene and surface HLA-C expression.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Previous studies have found an association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism 35 kb upstream of the HLA-C locus (-35 SNP), HLA-C expression, and HIV-1 set point viral loads. We show that the difference in HLA-C expression across -35 SNP genotypes can be attributed primarily to the very low expression of a single allelic product, HLA-Cw7, which is a common HLA type. We suggest that association of the -35 SNP and HIV-1 load manifests as a result of linkage disequilibrium of this polymorphism with both favorable and unfavorable HLA-C and -B alleles.
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Reported willingness and associated factors related to utilization of voluntary counseling and testing services by female sex workers in Shandong Province, China.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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To explore reported willingness and factors associated with utilization of voluntary counseling and testing services by female sex workers (FSWs) in China and to offer recommendations to optimize use of such services.
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The detection of acute HIV infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (AHI) can be defined as the time from HIV acquisition until seroconversion. Incident HIV infection is less well defined but comprises the time from the acquisition of HIV (acute infection) through seroconversion (early or primary HIV infection) and the following months until infection has been well established, as characterized by a stable HIV viral load (viral load set point) and evolution of antibodies with increased concentration and affinity for HIV antigens. During AHI, a viral latent pool reservoir develops, the immune system suffers irreparable damage, and the infected (often unsuspecting) host may be most contagious. It has proved very difficult to find individuals with AHI either in longitudinal cohorts of subjects at high risk for acquiring the virus or through cross-sectional screening, and the opportunity for diagnosis is generally missed during this phase. We review the technical strategies for identifying individuals with acute or incident HIV infection. We conclude that further technical advances are essential to allow more widespread detection of patients with AHI and to affect HIV treatment outcomes and transmission prevention.
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Human papillomavirus and cervical neoplasia among female sex workers in Madagascar.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2010
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type distribution were estimated among 90 female sex workers (FSWs) aged 18 to 58 years in Antananarivo, Madagascar.
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Azithromycin treatment failure among primary and secondary syphilis patients in Shanghai.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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Azithromycin has been used to treat primary and secondary syphilis and as prophylaxis for sexual partners. We evaluated syphilis treatment failure in patients who received azithromycin therapy.
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HIV-1 Populations in Semen Arise through Multiple Mechanisms.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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HIV-1 is present in anatomical compartments and bodily fluids. Most transmissions occur through sexual acts, making virus in semen the proximal source in male donors. We find three distinct relationships in comparing viral RNA populations between blood and semen in men with chronic HIV-1 infection, and we propose that the viral populations in semen arise by multiple mechanisms including: direct import of virus, oligoclonal amplification within the seminal tract, or compartmentalization. In addition, we find significant enrichment of six out of nineteen cytokines and chemokines in semen of both HIV-infected and uninfected men, and another seven further enriched in infected individuals. The enrichment of cytokines involved in innate immunity in the seminal tract, complemented with chemokines in infected men, creates an environment conducive to T cell activation and viral replication. These studies define different relationships between virus in blood and semen that can significantly alter the composition of the viral population at the source that is most proximal to the transmitted virus.
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Notifying partners of patients with early syphilis in Madagascar: case-finding effectiveness and public health implications.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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To evaluate the case-finding effectiveness of a clinic-based partner notification effort for early syphilis in Madagascar.
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Scaling up syphilis testing in China: implementation beyond the clinic.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2010
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China is experiencing a syphilis epidemic of enormous proportions. The regions most heavily affected by syphilis correspond to regions where sexually transmitted HIV infection is also a major public health threat. Many high-risk patients in China fail to receive routine syphilis screening. This missed public health opportunity stems from both a failure of many high-risk individuals to seek clinical care and a disconnect between policy and practice. New point-of-care syphilis testing enables screening in non-traditional settings such as community organizations or sex venues. This paper describes the current Chinese syphilis policies, suggests a spatiotemporal framework (based on targeting high-risk times and places) to improve screening and care practices, and emphasizes a syphilis control policy extending beyond the clinical setting.
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Accelerating worldwide syphilis screening through rapid testing: a systematic review.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Syphilis is a persistent public health issue in many low-income countries that have limited capacity for testing, which traditionally relies on a sensitive non-treponemal test and then a specific treponemal test. However, the development of a new rapid treponemal test provides an opportunity to scale up syphilis screening in many settings where traditional tests are unavailable. This systematic review of immunochromatographic strip (ICS) syphilis tests describes the sensitivity and specificity in two important clinical settings: sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and antenatal clinics. Clinical data from more than 22 000 whole blood, plasma, or fingerstick ICS tests obtained at STI or antenatal clinics were retrieved from 15 studies. ICS syphilis tests have a high sensitivity (median 0.86, interquartile range 0.75-0.94) and a higher specificity (0.99, 0.98-0.99), both comparable with non-treponemal screening test characteristics. Further research evaluating ICS syphilis tests among primary syphilis cases and among patients infected with HIV will be essential for the effective roll-out of syphilis screening programmes.
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Impact of aciclovir on ulcer healing, lesional, genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA among patients with genital ulcer disease in Malawi.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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By a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of aciclovir 800 mg twice daily for 5 days added to the syndromic management of genital ulcer disease (GUD) to determine the impact on ulcer healing and HIV outcomes.
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A substantial transmission bottleneck among newly and recently HIV-1-infected injection drug users in St Petersburg, Russia.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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There are limited data on the genetic complexity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) after transmission among a cohort of injection drug users (IDUs). We used single-genome amplification of HIV-1 env to determine the genotypic characteristics of virus among IDUs with acute infection in St Petersburg, Russia. Our results indicate that a single variant was transmitted in a majority of cases (9 of 13 participants), which is analogous to what is observed in sexual transmission. These data are most consistent with a genetic bottleneck during transmission by injection drug use that is due to a small inoculum, which most often results in the transmission of a low-complexity viral population.
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Treatment to prevent transmission of HIV-1.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has the potential to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission by reducing the concentration of HIV in blood and genital secretions. Indeed, mathematical models with favorable assumptions suggest the potential of ART to stop the spread of HIV infection. Empirical results from ecological and population-based studies and from several short-term observational studies involving HIV status-discordant heterosexual couples suggest that ART reduces the rate of HIV transmission. A multinational, randomized, controlled trial (National Institutes of Health HPTN052) examining the reliability and durability of ART as prevention of transmission in HIV status-discordant couples is under way. The latter and other studies also consider sexual risk-taking behavior and transmission of HIV-resistant variants when ART is used as prevention. Early HIV detection and treatment (ie, test and treat) are being considered as an important prevention strategy. In this article, we review the data supporting the use of ART to prevent HIV transmission and critically examine the public health implications of this strategy.
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High Multiplicity Infection by HIV-1 in Men Who Have Sex with Men.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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Elucidating virus-host interactions responsible for HIV-1 transmission is important for advancing HIV-1 prevention strategies. To this end, single genome amplification (SGA) and sequencing of HIV-1 within the context of a model of random virus evolution has made possible for the first time an unambiguous identification of transmitted/founder viruses and a precise estimation of their numbers. Here, we applied this approach to HIV-1 env analyses in a cohort of acutely infected men who have sex with men (MSM) and found that a high proportion (10 of 28; 36%) had been productively infected by more than one virus. In subjects with multivariant transmission, the minimum number of transmitted viruses ranged from 2 to 10 with viral recombination leading to rapid and extensive genetic shuffling among virus lineages. A combined analysis of these results, together with recently published findings based on identical SGA methods in largely heterosexual (HSX) cohorts, revealed a significantly higher frequency of multivariant transmission in MSM than in HSX [19 of 50 subjects (38%) versus 34 of 175 subjects (19%); Fishers exact p = 0.008]. To further evaluate the SGA strategy for identifying transmitted/founder viruses, we analyzed 239 overlapping 5 and 3 half genome or env-only sequences from plasma viral RNA (vRNA) and blood mononuclear cell DNA in an MSM subject who had a particularly well-documented virus exposure history 3-6 days before symptom onset and 14-17 days before peak plasma viremia (47,600,000 vRNA molecules/ml). All 239 sequences coalesced to a single transmitted/founder virus genome in a time frame consistent with the clinical history, and a molecular clone of this genome encoded replication competent virus in accord with model predictions. Higher multiplicity of HIV-1 infection in MSM compared with HSX is consistent with the demonstrably higher epidemiological risk of virus acquisition in MSM and could indicate a greater challenge for HIV-1 vaccines than previously recognized.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.