JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography after one cycle of chemotherapy in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results of a Nordic/US intergroup study.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated the predictive value of interim positon emission tomography (I-PET) after one course of chemoimmunotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). One hundred and twelve patients with DLBCL were enrolled. All patients had PET/computed tomography (CT) scans performed after one course of chemotherapy (PET-1). I-PET scans were categorized according to International Harmonization Project criteria (IHP), Deauville 5-point scale (D 5PS) with scores 1-3 considered negative (D 5PS > 3) and D 5PS with scores 1-4 considered negative (D 5PS = 5). Ratios of tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) to liver SUVmax were also analyzed. We found no difference in progression-free survival (PFS) between PET-negative and PET-positive patients according to IHP and D 5PS > 3. The 2-year PFS using D 5PS = 5 was 50.9% in the PET-positive group and 84.8% in the PET-negative group (p = 0.002). A tumor/liver SUVmax cut-off of 3.1 to distinguish D 5PS scores of 4 and 5 provided the best prognostic value. PET after one course of chemotherapy was not able to safely discriminate PET-positive and PET-negative patients in different prognostic groups.
Related JoVE Video
Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, version 4.2014.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders originating in B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, or natural killer cells. Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) accounts for approximately 6% of all newly diagnosed NHL cases. Radiation therapy with or without systemic therapy is a reasonable approach for the few patients who present with early-stage disease. Rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy followed by high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDT/ASCR) is recommended for patients presenting with advanced-stage disease. Induction therapy followed by rituximab maintenance may provide extended disease control for those who are not candidates for HDT/ASCR. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was recently approved for the treatment of relapsed or refractory disease. This manuscript discusses the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for NHL regarding the diagnosis and management of patients with MCL.
Related JoVE Video
In vivo treatment sensitivity testing with positron emission tomography/computed tomography after one cycle of chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Negative [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) -positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) after two cycles of chemotherapy indicates a favorable prognosis in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We hypothesized that the negative predictive value would be even higher in patients responding rapidly enough to be PET negative after one cycle. This prospective study aimed to assess the prognostic value of PET after one cycle of chemotherapy in HL and to assess the dynamics of FDG uptake after one cycle (PET1) and after two cycles (PET2).
Related JoVE Video
CALGB 150905 (Alliance): rituximab broadens the antilymphoma response by activating unlicensed NK cells.
Cancer Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to clinical responses in patients treated with rituximab, but the rules determining NK-cell responsiveness to mAb therapies are poorly defined. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms responsible for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) could yield useful biomarkers for predicting clinical responses in patients. Unlicensed NK cells, defined as NK cells lacking expression of an inhibitory KIR for self-HLA class I ligands, are hyporesponsive in steady state, but are potent effectors in inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized that antitumor antibodies such as rituximab can overcome NK-cell dependence on licensing, making unlicensed NK cells important for clinical responses. Here, we examined the influences of variations in KIR and HLA class I alleles on in vitro responses to rituximab. We tested the clinical significance in a cohort of patients with follicular lymphoma treated with rituximab-containing mAb combinations, and show that rituximab triggers responses from all NK-cell populations regardless of licensing. Neither IL2 nor accessory cells are required for activating unlicensed NK cells, but both can augment rituximab-mediated ADCC. Moreover, in 101 patients with follicular lymphoma treated with rituximab-containing mAb combinations, a "missing ligand" genotype (predictive of unlicensed NK cells) is associated with a higher rate of progression-free survival. Our data suggest that the clinical efficacy of rituximab may be driven, in part, by its ability to broaden the NK-cell repertoire to include previously hyporesponsive, unlicensed NK cells. A "missing ligand" KIR and HLA class I genotype may be predictive of this benefit and useful for personalizing treatment decisions in lymphomas and other tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, version 2.2014.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders originating in B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, or natural killer cells. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common subtype of indolent NHL, accounting for approximately 22% of all newly diagnosed cases of NHL. The incorporation of rituximab to chemotherapy regimens has become a widely accepted standard of care for first-line therapy for patients with FL. Maintenance and consolidation therapy with rituximab and radioimmunotherapy have also been associated with improved progression-free survival in patients experiencing response to first-line therapy. Despite therapeutic advances that have improved outcomes, FL is generally considered a chronic disease characterized by multiple recurrences with current therapies. This manuscript discusses the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with FL.
Related JoVE Video
Follicular Lymphoma Grade 3: Review and Updates.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Follicular lymphoma (FL), Grade 3, is recognized as a distinct entity in the World Health Organization classification of lymphoma. It is further classified into Grade 3a and Grade 3b depending on the Bernard cell counting system and percentage of centroblasts. Grade 3 has molecular and genetic characteristics that distinguish it from other grades of FL. There is confusion and misunderstanding about the natural history and clinical course of Grade 3a and 3b because some studies indicate them as having indolent behavior and others describe more aggressive biology. The purpose of this article is to understand the concept of Grade 3 FL, especially the fundamental differences between Grade 3a and Grade 3b FL. Grade 3 FL is still an evolving subclass in FL and the practicing physician should understand the aggressive nature of Grade 3b, which typically requires timely attention, compared with Grade 3a. Grade 3a FL has more indolent characteristics but can possibly progress to Grade 3b and/or transform to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at a future time. Nevertheless, large prospective studies are missing for an optimal evidence-based management approach for patients with Grade 3 FL at this time.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of referring and final pathology for patients with T-cell lymphoma in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
T-cell lymphomas (TCLs) are uncommon in the United States. The accurate diagnosis of TCL is challenging and requires morphologic interpretation, immunophenotyping, and molecular techniques. The authors compared pathologic diagnoses at referring centers with diagnoses from expert hematopathology review to determine concordance rates and to characterize the usefulness of second-opinion pathology review for TCL.
Related JoVE Video
Ofatumumab: a novel, fully human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ofatumumab is a fully human, IgG anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody codeveloped by GlaxoSmithKline (Brentford, UK) and Genmab (Copenhagen, Denmark). In preclinical studies, ofatumumab exhibited more potent in vitro activity than rituximab against B-cell malignancies and prolonged survival in in vivo animal models compared with rituximab. Ofatumumab is clinically well tolerated with initial infusion reactions being the predominant associated toxicity. Ofatumumab has demonstrated efficacy in relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and has received regulatory approval in both Europe and the USA for treatment of fludarabine and alemtuzumab refractory disease. Single-agent ofatumumab has resulted in overall response rates of 42-51% in relapsed/refractory CLL and up to 80% when combined with chemotherapy. In de novo CLL, overall response rates of 77-78% have been achieved.
Related JoVE Video
An enhanced International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated in the rituximab era.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The International Prognostic Index (IPI) has been the basis for determining prognosis in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) for the past 20 years. Using raw clinical data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) database collected during the rituximab era, we built an enhanced IPI with the goal of improving risk stratification. Adults (n=1,650) with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) diagnosed over a 10-year period at 7 NCCN cancer centers were included. Clinical features were assessed for their prognostic significance, with statistical efforts to further refine the categorization of age and normalized LDH. This new NCCN-IPI identified 5 predictors (age, LDH, sites of involvement, Ann Arbor stage, ECOG performance status) and assigned a maximum of 8 points. Four risk groups were formed: low (0-1), low-intermediate (2-3), high-intermediate (4-5) and high (6-8). Compared to the IPI, the NCCN-IPI better discriminated low and high risk subgroups (5-year overall survival [OS]: 96% vs 33%) than the IPI (5 year OS: 90% vs 54%), respectively. When validated using an independent cohort from the British Columbia Cancer Agency (n=1,138), it also demonstrated enhanced discrimination for both low and high risk patients. The NCCN-IPI is easy to apply and more powerful than the IPI for predicting survival in the rituximab era.
Related JoVE Video
A Comparative Analysis of Prognostic Factor Models for Follicular Lymphoma Based on a Phase III Trial of CHOP-Rituximab versus CHOP + 131Iodine--Tositumomab.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is currently no consensus on optimal frontline therapy for patients with follicular lymphoma. We analyzed a phase III randomized intergroup trial comparing six cycles of CHOP-R (cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (Oncovin)-rituximab) with six cycles of CHOP followed by iodine-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT) to assess whether any subsets benefited more from one treatment or the other, and to compare three prognostic models.
Related JoVE Video
MLN2238, a proteasome inhibitor, induces caspase-dependent cell death, cell cycle arrest, and potentiates the cytotoxic activity of chemotherapy agents in rituximab-chemotherapy-sensitive or rituximab-chemotherapy-resistant B-cell lymphoma preclinical mod
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To further develop therapeutic strategies targeting the proteasome system, we studied the antitumor activity and mechanisms of action of MLN2238, a reversible proteasome inhibitor, in preclinical lymphoma models. Experiments were conducted in rituximab-chemotherapy-sensitive cell lines, rituximab-chemotherapy-resistant cell lines (RRCL), and primary B-cell lymphoma cells. Cells were exposed to MLN2238 or caspase-dependent inhibitors, and differences in cell viability, alterations in apoptotic protein levels, effects on cell cycle, and the possibility of synergy when combined with chemotherapeutic agents were evaluated. MLN2238 showed more potent dose-dependent and time-dependent cytotoxicity and inhibition of cell proliferation in lymphoma cells than bortezomib. Our data suggest that MLN2238 can induce caspase-independent cell death in RRCL. MLN2238 (and to a much lesser degree bortezomib) reduced RRCL S phase and induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Exposure of rituximab-chemotherapy-sensitive cell lines and RRCL to MLN2238 potentiated the cytotoxic effects of gemcitabine, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel and overcame resistance to chemotherapy in RRCL. MLN2238 is a potent proteasome inhibitor active in rituximab-chemotherapy-sensitive and rituximab-chemotherapy-resistant cell models and potentiates the antitumor activity of chemotherapy agents and has the potential of becoming an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of therapy-resistant B-cell lymphoma.
Related JoVE Video
Transformed non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the rituximab era: analysis of the NCCN outcomes database.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Histological transformation (HT) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The multicentre National Cancer Comprehensive Network database for NHL provides a unique opportunity to investigate the natural history of HT in the rituximab era. 118 patients with biopsy-confirmed indolent lymphoma and subsequent biopsy-confirmed HT were identified. Treatments for HT included autologous stem-cell transplant (auto-SCT) (n = 50), allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT) (n = 18), and treatment without transplant (n = 50). The 2-year overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 68%. For auto-SCT patients aged ? 60 years (n = 24), the 2-year OS was 74%. For non-transplanted patients aged ? 60 years (n = 19), the 2-year OS was 59%. The 2-year OS of patients naïve to chemotherapy prior to HT was superior to patients who were exposed to chemotherapy prior to HT (100% vs. 35%, P = 0.03). In this largest prospective cohort of patients of strictly defined HT in the rituximab era, the natural history of HT appears more favourable than historical studies. Younger patients who were not exposed to chemotherapy prior to HT experienced a prolonged survival even without transplantation. This study serves as a benchmark for future trials of novel approaches for HT in the Rituximab era.
Related JoVE Video
Ofatumumab in combination with ICE or DHAP chemotherapy in relapsed or refractory intermediate grade B-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Standard treatment of transplant-eligible patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) consists of rituximab and platinum-based chemotherapy, either ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) or dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (DHAP), with autologous transplant consolidation for those with chemosensitive disease. Nonetheless, outcomes are suboptimal for patients failing rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). We performed a multi-center phase II trial investigating the safety and efficacy of ofatumumab, a monoclonal antibody against CD20, combined with ICE or DHAP second-line therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL, grade 3b follicular lymphoma, or transformed follicular lymphoma. Sixty-one patients were treated with either ofatumumab-ICE (35) or ofatumumab-DHAP (26). The overall response rate (ORR) was 61%, and the complete response (CR) rate was 37%. In patients with 2 or 3 adverse risk factors according to the second-line, age-adjusted, international prognostic index, the ORR was 59% and CR 31%, and in patients with early-relapsing or primary refractory disease, the ORR was 55% and CR 30%. Toxicity was largely hematologic, and stem cell mobilization was successful in 43 of 45 patients. Substitution of ofatumumab for rituximab in standard second-line regimens following failure of R-CHOP is a promising approach. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00823719.
Related JoVE Video
Single-agent lenalidomide is active in patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma who received prior stem cell transplantation.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) who relapse after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) have a poor prognosis. Additional therapy is often poorly tolerated, and new treatment modalities are needed. This efficacy and safety study was a retrospective analysis of two phase II trials (NHL-002 and NHL-003) that studied single-agent lenalidomide in patients with relapsed/refractory aggressive NHL with prior (n = 87) compared with no prior ASCT (n = 179). The overall response rate in the ASCT group was 39% [14% complete response (CR)], including 29% in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 63% in mantle cell lymphoma, and 60% in transformed lymphoma. The timing of transplant relative to receiving lenalidomide had no effect on outcomes. Median progression-free survival for the ASCT group was 3·7 months (16·9 months for patients in CR; 7·3 months for partial responders) at a median 12·5-month follow-up. Median response duration was 7·9 months. Regardless of prior ASCT, lenalidomide monotherapy was efficacious in heavily pretreated patients with aggressive, relapsed/refractory NHL, with a safety profile that was consistent with prior studies of single-agent lenalidomide.
Related JoVE Video
Non-Hodgkins lymphomas, version 1.2013.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize several key updates to the NCCN Guidelines for Non-Hodgkins Lymphomas (NHL) and provide a discussion of the clinical evidence that support the updates. The updates discussed in this article feature recommendations for additional treatment options in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and guidance surrounding the management of hepatitis virus reactivation/infections in high-risk patients with NHL undergoing antitumor therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Patterns of use of 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography for initial staging of grade 1-2 follicular lymphoma and its impact on initial treatment strategy in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Outcomes databa
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe the patterns of use of 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for the initial staging of patients with newly diagnosed grade 1-2 follicular lymphoma (FL) and its potential impact on treatment. Data were obtained from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Outcomes database. Patients who presented between 1 January 2001 and 30 September 2009 with newly diagnosed grade 1-2 FL, with at least 6 months of follow-up, were included. We identified 953 eligible patients and 532 (56%) underwent FDG-PET as part of initial staging. Among patients who underwent FDG-PET for initial staging, 438 (82%) received early treatment compared to 259 (61.5%) of those staged without FDG-PET (p < 0.0001). Of all patients with stage I FL (n = 100), 47% were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone, and the choice of initial treatment strategy for stage I FL did not vary significantly by use of FDG-PET (p = 0.22). The use of FDG-PET for staging of FL is widespread and is associated with a greater proportion of patients receiving early therapy. Given the widespread use and high cost of FDG-PET, its clinical utility in stage I FL should be further evaluated.
Related JoVE Video
The novel proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and potentiates the anti-tumour activity of chemotherapy in rituximab-resistant lymphoma.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Targeting the proteasome system with bortezomib (BTZ) results in anti-tumour activity and potentiates the effects of chemotherapy/biological agents in multiple myeloma and B-cell lymphoma. Carfilzomib (CFZ) is a more selective proteasome inhibitor that is structurally distinct from BTZ. In an attempt to characterize its biological activity, we evaluated CFZ in several lymphoma pre-clinical models. Rituximab-sensitive cell lines (RSCL), rituximab-resistant cell lines (RRCL), and primary tumour cells derived from B-cell lymphoma patients were exposed to CFZ or BTZ. Cell viability and changes in cell cycle were determined. Western blots were performed to detect PARP-cleavage and/or changes in Bcl-2 (BCL2) family members. CFZ was 10 times more active than BTZ and exhibited dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. CFZ exposure induced apoptosis by upregulation of Bak (BAK1) and subsequent PARP cleavage in RSCL and RRCL; it was also partially caspase-dependent. CFZ induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in RSCL. CFZ demonstrated the ability to overcome resistance to chemotherapy in RRCL and potentiated the anti-tumour activity of chemotherapy agents. Our data suggest that CFZ is able to overcome resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, upregulate pro-apoptotic proteins to promote apoptosis, and induce G2/M cell cycle arrest in lymphoma cells. Our pre-clinical data supports future clinical evaluation of CFZ in B-cell lymphoma.
Related JoVE Video
Safety and clinical activity of a combination therapy comprising two antibody-based targeting agents for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: results of a phase I/II study evaluating the immunoconjugate inotuzumab ozogamicin with rituximab.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inotuzumab ozogamicin (INO) is an antibody-targeted chemotherapy agent composed of a humanized anti-CD22 antibody conjugated to calicheamicin, a potent cytotoxic agent. We performed a phase I/II study to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of INO plus rituximab (R-INO) for treatment of relapsed/refractory CD20(+)/CD22(+) B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
Related JoVE Video
Ofatumumab demonstrates activity against rituximab-sensitive and -resistant cell lines, lymphoma xenografts and primary tumour cells from patients with B-cell lymphoma.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ofatumumab is a new monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting a novel membrane-proximal epitope on CD20. To better define ofatumumabs activity, we conducted pre-clinical studies in rituximab-sensitive cell lines (RSCL), rituximab-resistant cell lines (RRCL), ofatumumab-exposed cell lines (OECLs), primary lymphoma cells, and a lymphoma xenograft model. RRCL and OECL were generated by repeated exposure of sensitive cells to escalating doses of rituximab or ofatumumab?±?human serum. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) assays were performed to assess cellular sensitivity to rituximab or ofatumumab. Ofatumumab elicited a higher rate of CMC in RSCL, RRCL and primary tumour cells. The chronic exposure of lymphoma cells to ofatumumab resulted in rituximab resistance but less ofatumumab resistance. In an in vivo severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model of human lymphoma, ofatumumab prolonged median survival compared to rituximab. While rituximab CMC diminished with CD20 down-regulation in RRCL passages, ofatumumab activity in vitro diminished to a lesser degree. Our data suggest that ofatumumab is more potent than rituximab in rituximab-sensitive or rituximab-resistant models and has the potential to decrease the development of biological resistance in patients with repeated exposure to anti-CD20 mAbs.
Related JoVE Video
A Cancer and Leukemia Group B multi-center study of DA-EPOCH-rituximab in untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with analysis of outcome by molecular subtype.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A phase II trial of dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) from the National Cancer Institute showed promising activity in untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The Cancer and Leukemia Group B conducted a study to determine if these results could be reproduced in a multi-institutional setting.
Related JoVE Video
Biological effects and clinical significance of lenalidomide-induced tumour flare reaction in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: in vivo evidence of immune activation and antitumour response.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lenalidomide has demonstrated impressive antileukaemic effects in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). The mechanism(s) by which it mediates these effects remain unclear. Clinically, CLL patients treated with lenalidomide demonstrate an acute inflammatory reaction, the tumour flare reaction that is suggestive of an immune activation phenomenon. Samples from CLL patients treated with lenalidomide were used to evaluate its effect on the tumour cell and components of its microenvironment (immune cellular and cytokine). Lenalidomide was unable to directly induce apoptosis in CLL cells in vitro, however it modulated costimulatory (CD80, CD83, CD86) surface molecules on CLL cells in vitro and in vivo. Concurrently, we demonstrated that NK cell proliferation was induced by lenalidomide treatment in patients and correlated with clinical response. Cytokine analysis showed increase in levels of TNF-? post-lenalidomide treatment, consistent with acute inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, the basal cytokine profile (high IL-8, MIG, IP-10 and IL-4 levels and low IL-5, MIP1a, MIP1b, IL12/p70) was predictive of clinical response to lenalidomide. Collectively, our correlative studies provide further evidence that the antileukaemic effect of lenalidomide in CLL is mediated not only through modulation of the leukaemic clone but also through elements of the tumour microenvironment.
Related JoVE Video
Update on novel monoclonal antibodies and immunoconjugates for the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders.
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The year 1997 was pivotal in lymphoma research, as it was the year that the US FDA approved rituximab. Rituximab significantly altered clinical management and outcomes of patients with B-cell malignancies. Despite a high initial response rate, the majority of patients subsequently develop variable degrees of therapeutic resistance to rituximab. Research attempting to understand the mechanisms of rituximab resistance and potential ways to overcome them has given rise to the development of novel targeted immunotherapeutics. This article will update the readers on advances in bioengineering of monoclonal antibodies and immunoconjugates that target CD20, as well as other surface antigens. Some additional novel immunotherapeutics, including small modular immunopharmaceuticals, bispecific monoclonal antibodies, T-cell engaging antibodies and immunoconjugates, will also be discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Lack of benefit of central nervous system prophylaxis for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era: findings from a large national database.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about the utility of central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the rituximab era. The objective of this study was to characterize patterns of CNS prophylaxis for patients who received combined rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy using the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Outcomes Database, a prospective cohort study that collects clinical and outcomes data for patients at 7 participating centers.
Related JoVE Video
The differential effect of lenalidomide monotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory transformed non-Hodgkin lymphoma of distinct histological origin.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transformed lymphoma (TL) represents a heterogeneous group of lymphomas with an aggressive course and poor prognosis. We assessed the clinical benefit of single-agent lenalidomide based on histological origin, including transformed follicular lymphoma (tFL) and transformed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (tCLL/SLL). Our analysis included 33 patients with TL. Patients received lenalidomide at a median dose of 25?mg/d. The overall response rate (ORR) was 46%, with a median response duration of 12·8?months after a median follow-up of 5·6?months. Median progression-free survival was 5·4?months. Among patients with tFL, ORR was 57%, with a median response duration of 12·8?months. None of the patients with tCLL/SLL responded to lenalidomide monotherapy. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were reversible myelosuppression. Our results suggest that the original lymphoma histology (i.e. FL) in TL patients may potentially be associated with response to salvage lenalidomide monotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
A steroid-independent regimen of bortezomib, liposomal doxorubicin and thalidomide demonstrate high response rates in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Novel agents have provided a new foundation for multiple myeloma therapies. When combined with other anti-myeloma agents, these compounds significantly enhance clinical efficacy. High-dose steroids are frequently used in anti-myeloma combination regimens; however, the doses employed are often poorly tolerated, especially in patients with concurrent comorbid conditions. We hypothesized that a steroid-independent combination regimen could be developed without significant compromise of efficacy. The availability of such a regimen will be important for patients whose concurrent ailments make them poor candidates for steroid containing anti-myeloma regimens. A phase II single institute, non-randomized clinical trial was conducted to investigate a novel steroid-free three-drug combination of bortezomib (V), pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (D), and thalidomide (T), the VDT regimen. Forty-three newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients requiring treatment were enrolled on this study. The overall response rate and complete response (CR) + near complete response (nCR) rate was 78% and 35%, respectively. Median time to progression was 29·5 months. Fatigue, rash, neuropathy, constipation and infections were the most common side effects. We concluded that VDT is a tolerable and an effective regimen capable of inducing high response rates and can be employed in patients considered to be poor candidates for steroid-based treatment regimens.
Related JoVE Video
Distinct cellular and therapeutic effects of obatoclax in rituximab-sensitive and -resistant lymphomas.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bcl-2 proteins represent a rheostat that controls cellular viability. Obatoclax, a BH3-mimetic, has been designed to specifically target and counteract anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. We evaluated the biological effects of obatoclax on the anti-tumour activity of rituximab and chemotherapy agents. Obatoclax induced cell death of rituximab/chemotherapy-sensitive (RSCL), -resistant cell lines (RRCL) and primary tumour-cells derived from patients with B-cell lymphomas (N=39). Obatoclax also enhanced the activity of rituximab and had synergistic activity when combined with chemotherapy agents. The ability of Obatoclax to induce PARP cleavage varied between patient samples and was not observed in some RRCL. Inhibition of caspase activity did not affect obatoclax activity, suggesting the existence of caspase-independent death pathways. Autophagy was detected by LC3 conversion and/or electron microscopy in RRCL and in patient-derived tumour cells. Moreover, obatoclax activity was inhibited by Beclin-1 knockdown. In summary, obatoclax is an active Bcl-2 inhibitor that potentiates the activity of chemotherapy agents and, to a lesser degree, rituximab. Defining the molecular events triggered by obatoclax is necessary to further its clinical development and identify potential biomarkers that are predictive of response.
Related JoVE Video
Higher response to lenalidomide in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in nongerminal center B-cell-like than in germinal center B-cell-like phenotype.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is a need to develop novel therapies for relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and to identify biomarkers predictive for therapeutic response. Lenalidomide was previously shown to induce an overall response rate (ORR) of 28% in patients with relapsed/refractory DLBCL. It is currently unknown if response rates differ between patients with different DLBCL subtypes.
Related JoVE Video
Navitoclax, a targeted high-affinity inhibitor of BCL-2, in lymphoid malignancies: a phase 1 dose-escalation study of safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumour activity.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Proteins of the BCL-2 family regulate clonal selection and survival of lymphocytes, and are frequently overexpressed in lymphomas. Navitoclax is a targeted high-affinity small molecule that inhibits the anti-apoptotic activity of BCL-2 and BCL-XL. We aimed to assess the safety and antitumour activity of navitoclax in patients with lymphoid tumours, and establish the drugs pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles.
Related JoVE Video
Distinct molecular mechanisms responsible for bortezomib-induced death of therapy-resistant versus -sensitive B-NHL cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Resistance to currently available therapies is a major impediment to the successful treatment of hematological malignancies. Here, we used a model of therapy-resistant B-cell non Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) developed in our laboratory along with primary B-NHL cells to study basic mechanisms of bortezomib activity. In resistant cells and a subset of primary B-NHLs, bortezomib treatment led to stabilization of Bak and subsequent Bak-dependent activation of apoptosis. In contrast to sensitive cells that die strictly by apoptosis, bortezomib was capable of killing resistant cells through activation of apoptosis or caspase-independent mechanism(s) when caspases were pharmacologically inhibited. Our data demonstrate that bortezomib is capable of killing B-NHL cells via multiple mechanisms, regardless of their basal apoptotic potential, and contributes to growing evidence that proteasome inhibitors can act via modulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins. The capacity of bortezomib to act independently of the intrinsic apoptotic threshold of a given B-NHL cell suggests that bortezomib-based therapies could potentially overcome resistance and result in relevant clinical activity in a relapsed/refractory setting.
Related JoVE Video
Management options, survivorship, and emerging treatment strategies for follicular and Hodgkin lymphomas.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our understanding of the biology underlying lymphoma is continually increasing and leading to improved treatment strategies for affected patients. However, clinical approaches differ between disease subtypes based on the likelihood of achieving durable remissions. For example, follicular lymphoma (FL) is a common and indolent form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, in which most patients relapse after treatment and periods of remission become progressively shorter after each course of treatment. Thus, the main focus of research efforts in FL is to develop improved treatment strategies that provide prolonged periods of disease remission. In contrast, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), although rare, is considered to be highly curable with current treatments and the clinical need is for effective-management strategies, potentially avoiding chemotherapy, that reduce long-term toxicity and improve quality of life for patients. This report summarizes the latest advances in our understanding of FL and HL, and demonstrates the different approaches required when developing novel treatment strategies for the two diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Recent advances in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma: a post-ASH 2009 discussion.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by CD5 expression and a t(11;14) cytogenetic translocation that results in overexpression of the cyclin D1 gene. Currently, there is no standard of care for the treatment of MCL, and patient prognosis is poor. Traditional treatments for MCLrely on conventional chemotherapy agents, including cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone(CHOP). The addition of the immunotherapeutic agent rituximab to this regimen (CHOP-R) has helped to improve patient response to treatment. These treatments often provide good initial responses that are difficult to sustain. Therefore, a number of newer agents and combinations have been investigated to produce more durable benefit. Several of these advances were reported at the 51st American Society of Hematology (ASH)Annual Meeting and Exposition, held December 5-8, 2009 in New Orleans, Louisiana. In this clinical roundtable monograph, new strategies in the treatment of MCL are discussed. Some of the drug classes examined here are proteasome inhibitors, inhibitors of the protein mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the unique alkylating agent bendamustine, and immunomodulatory agents.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical roundtable monograph: Recent advances in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma: a post-ASH 2009 discussion.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by CD5 expression and a t(11;14) cytogenetic translocation that results in overexpression of the cyclin D1 gene. Currently, there is no standard of care for the treatment of MCL, and patient prognosis is poor. Traditional treatments for MCL rely on conventional chemotherapy agents, including cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP). The addition of the immunotherapeutic agent rituximab to this regimen (CHOP-R) has helped to improve patient response to treatment. These treatments often provide good initial responses that are difficult to sustain. Therefore, a number of newer agents and combinations have been investigated to produce more durable benefit. Several of these advances were reported at the 51st American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and Exposition, held December 5-8, 2009 in New Orleans, Louisiana. In this clinical roundtable monograph, new strategies in the treatment of MCL are discussed. Some of the drug classes examined here are proteasome inhibitors, inhibitors of the protein mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the unique alkylating agent bendamustine, and immunomodulatory agents.
Related JoVE Video
The role of cytotoxic therapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma: update of the 2001 evidence-based review.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clinical research published since the 2001 evidence-based review on the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in adults is presented and critically evaluated in this update. Treatment recommendations that remain unchanged from the original review include: (1) autologous SCT as salvage therapy is recommended for patients with chemosensitive relapsed DLBCL; and (2) autologous SCT is not recommended for patients who achieve a partial response to an abbreviated induction regimen. New treatment recommendations based on new published data include: (1) autologous SCT as first-line therapy is not recommended for any IPI group; (2) planned tandem or multiple sequential autologous SCT is not recommended; (3) peripheral blood is the standard stem cell source for autologous SCT; (4) age is not a contraindication for autologous SCT, although outcomes in older adults are not as good as in younger adults. There are insufficient data to make recommendations on the routine use of rituximab maintenance after autologous SCT, autologous versus allogeneic SCT, fewer versus more cycles of induction therapy prior to autologous SCT, or the use of reduced intensity versus myeloablative conditioning regimens. Areas of needed research in the treatment of DLBCL with SCT were identified and are presented in the review.
Related JoVE Video
Bendamustine for the treatment of indolent non-Hodgkins lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The pharmacology, efficacy, safety, and dosage and administration of bendamustine and its use in indolent non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are reviewed.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical Roundtable Monograph: recent advances in NHL. Highlights from the 51st ASH Annual Meeting and Exposition, December 5-8, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current clinical trials evaluating new treatment options for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are numerous. Studies are comparing traditional chemotherapy with high-dose regimens; various rituximab-based combinations for upfront therapy, many with newly developed drugs; new agents for rituximab-refractory patients; and other approaches. Several intriguing studies were presented at the 2009 annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology (ASH). The efficacy of bendamustine plus rituximab for the first-line treatment of advanced follicular, indolent, and mantle cell lymphomas was the most important finding presented. Other important results included the lack of superiority of high-dose chemotherapy plus rituximab compared with traditional chemotherapy plus rituximab for high-risk patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas, and promising outcomes with the combination of lenalidomide plus rituximab for both rituximab-refractory and non-rituximab-refractory indolent NHL. The crucial data presented at the 2009 ASH annual meeting are discussed and evaluated by 2 leading experts in the treatment of NHL, Drs. Myron S. Czuczman and Mathias J. Rummel.
Related JoVE Video
The future of CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy in B-cell malignancies.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Limitations of therapeutic options for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have necessitated the development of novel treatments/strategies. Rituximab (chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody [mAb]) considerably improved therapeutic outcomes for patients with B-cell malignancies, particularly when combined with chemotherapy; outcomes, however, are limited by rituximab resistance or reduced response upon re-treatment. Novel anti-CD20 mAbs are in development that may enhance mAb therapy. Ofatumumab (human anti-CD20 mAb) induces highly potent cell lysis, including in cells with low CD20 expression, and is the most clinically advanced new anti-CD20 mAb. Positive phase III interim data for ofatumumab in fludarabine-refractory CLL that is also refractory to alemtuzumab or less suitable for alemtuzumab due to bulky (>5 cm) lymphadenopathy has led to FDA approval of this agent in this population. Preclinical and early clinical assessment of other novel anti-CD20 mAbs include: ocrelizumab, veltuzumab, GA101, AME-133v, and PRO131921; data suggest potential for improved efficacy over rituximab that will require substantiation in large-scale clinical trials. New treatment strategies and novel anti-CD20 mAbs have the potential to enhance long-term outcomes for CLL and NHL.
Related JoVE Video
Tumor flare reaction associated with lenalidomide treatment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia predicts clinical response.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), treatment with lenalidomide induces a unique, previously uncharacterized, immune response called tumor flare reaction (TFR). The clinical significance of this reaction remains unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary clinical activity of inotuzumab ozogamicin, a novel immunoconjugate for the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma: results of a phase I study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PURPOSE Inotuzumab ozogamicin (CMC-544) is an antibody-targeted chemotherapy agent composed of a humanized anti-CD22 antibody conjugated to calicheamicin, a potent cytotoxic agent. This was a phase I study to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and preliminary efficacy of inotuzumab ozogamicin in an expanded MTD cohort of patients with relapsed or refractory CD22(+) B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL). PATIENTS AND METHODS Inotuzumab ozogamicin was administered intravenously as a single agent once every 3 or 4 weeks at doses ranging from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/m(2). Outcomes included MTD, safety, pharmacokinetics, response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival. Results Seventy-nine patients were enrolled. The MTD was determined to be 1.8 mg/m(2). Common adverse events at the MTD were thrombocytopenia (90%), asthenia (67%), and nausea and neutropenia (51% each). The objective response rate at the end of treatment was 39% for the 79 enrolled patients, 68% for all patients with follicular NHL treated at the MTD, and 15% for all patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated at the MTD. Median PFS was 317 days (approximately 10.4 months) and 49 days for patients with follicular NHL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, respectively. CONCLUSION Inotuzumab ozogamicin has demonstrated efficacy against CD22(+) B-cell NHL, with reversible thrombocytopenia as the main toxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Galiximab: a review.
Expert Opin Biol Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A significant number of patients relapse or do not respond to rituximab due to intrinsic or acquired resistance. Hence, mAbs targeting other cell surface antigens on B-cell lymphomas are being studied. CD80 is a glycoprotein expressed on Hodgkins lymphoma, mature B-cell lymphomas and immunoeffector cells which may have T-regulatory, in addition to direct antitumor activity. CD80 serves as an attractive target in the continued development of mAbs against lymphoma.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of lenalidomide in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with high-risk cytogenetics.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with chronic lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) with high-risk cytogenetics [del(11q)(q22.3) or del(17p)(p13.1)] have limited therapeutic options and their prognosis remains poor. This analysis was conducted to determine the clinical activity of lenalidomide in patients with high-risk disease. Relapsed/refractory patients with CLL enrolled in a phase II clinical trial who had del(11q)(q22.3) or del(17p)(p13.1) were included in this analysis. Patients received single agent lenalidomide for 21 days of the 4 week treatment cycle. The overall response rate among patients with high-risk cytogenetics was 38%, with 19% of patients achieving a complete response. Median progression-free survival was 12.1 months, which is higher than demonstrated with other agents in comparable patient populations. In addition, the estimated 2-year survival probability was 58%, demonstrating that the responses achieved with lenalidomide are durable, even in patients with CLL with high-risk disease with poor risk cytogenetics.
Related JoVE Video
NCCN task force report: molecular markers in leukemias and lymphomas.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The introduction of targeted therapies has revolutionized treatment and improved outcomes in patients with leukemias and lymphomas. However, many patients experience relapse caused by the persistence of residual malignant cells. Cytogenetic and molecular techniques are increasingly being used to assess and quantify minimal residual disease (MRD). The emergence of advanced technologies has led to the discovery of multiple novel molecular markers that can be used to detect MRD and predict outcome in patients with leukemias and lymphomas. Gene expression signatures that predict clinical outcomes in patients with non-Hodgkins lymphoma have been identified. In chronic myelogenous leukemia, molecular monitoring has become more important in assessing response and detecting resistance to therapy. In acute leukemias, several new markers have shown potential in prognostication and monitoring treatment. In leukemias and lymphomas, microRNAs have been identified that may be useful in diagnostics and prognostication. To address these issues, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) organized a task force consisting of a panel of experts in leukemia and lymphoma to discuss recent advances in the field of molecular markers and monitoring MRD.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic options in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Part 2. Novel therapeutic strategies.
Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients who are not eligible for high-dose chemotherapy may benefit from an increasing number of regimens integrating novel agents with promising activity and manageable toxicity. Advances in biotechnology have led to the development and validation of novel biomarkers used for categorization or risk stratification in patients with DLBCL. Simultaneously, novel agents are being developed to target cellular pathways that are important in the initiation, growth, and progression of DLBCL. These agents are undergoing clinical testing, and early data are encouraging. This two-part review, which began in last months issue of ONCOLOGY, summarizes treatment options for patients with relapsed/refractory DLBCL and stresses the emerging therapeutic challenges for patients who were previously exposed to rituximab.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic options in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Part 1. current treatment approaches.
Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The addition of rituximab to systemic chemotherapy has improved the response rates, progression-free survival, and overall survival of patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) compared to chemotherapy alone. In the front-line setting, the use of rituximab is changing the biology and clinical behavior in DLBCL patients who fail to respond or relapse following chemoimmunotherapy. Based on retrospective studies, it is becoming evident that the subset of patients with rituximab/chemotherapy-relapsed/refractory DLBCL represents a different clinical entity with a higher degree of chemotherapy resistance compared to DLBCL patients receiving upfront chemotherapy alone. The backbone of treatment for "sensitive"patients with relapsed/refractory disease continues to be salvage chemotherapy with or without rituximab, followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell support. Patients who are not eligible for high-dose chemotherapy may benefit from a growing number of regimens integrating novel agents with promising activity and manageable toxicity. Advances in biotechnology have led to the development of novel biomarkers used for categorization or risk stratification in DLBCL patients. This two-part review summarizes treatment options for patients with relapsed/refractory DLBCL and stresses the emerging therapeutic challenges for patients who were previously exposed to rituximab.
Related JoVE Video
Dacetuzumab, a humanized mAb against CD40 for the treatment of hematological malignancies.
Curr Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dacetuzumab, a humanized mAb targeting the CD40 antigen, is in development by Seattle Genetics Inc and licensee Genentech Inc for the potential treatment of hematological malignancies. The CD40 antigen is a highly expressed cell surface transmembrane protein that is present in normal B-cells. Experiments using blocking antibodies for the CD40 ligand demonstrated that CD40 signaling may play a role in the development and maintenance of B-cell hematological malignancies and some solid tumors. In vitro, dacetuzumab exhibited antitumor activity against several B-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines, and induced direct apoptosis as well as the engagement of effective antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In vivo, dacetuzumab demonstrated enhanced antitumor efficacy in combination with other mAbs and chemotherapeutic agents; many of these combinations are now being tested clinically. Early clinical trials have evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of dacetuzumab monotherapy in patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell lymphomas or MM. Targeting CD40 with dacetuzumab resulted in modest antitumor activity in B-cell lymphomas and, to a lesser extent, in MM. In particular, patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma responded well to dacetuzumab; the drug is being pursued for this indication in phase II trials.
Related JoVE Video
Bortezomib in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and thalidomide is an effective steroid independent salvage regimen for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: results of a phase II clinical trial.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Novel agents have demonstrated enhanced efficacy when combined with other antimyeloma agents especially dexamethasone. The steroid doses employed in myeloma regimens are often poorly tolerated. Therefore, in a phase II clinical trial we investigated the efficacy of a steroid-free combination including bortezomib, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and thalidomide (VDT regimen). Twenty-three patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma or other plasma cell cancers were treated with the VDT regimen. Patient had a median of five prior therapies and 65.2% were refractory to their last regimen. The overall response rates were 55.5% and 22%, respectively. The median progression free survival was 10.9 months (95% CI: 7.3-15.8) and the median overall survival was 15.7 months (95% CI: 9.1-not reached). Fatigue and sensory neuropathy were the most common side effects noted. We observe that VDT is an effective steroid-free regimen with ability to induce durable remission even in patients with refractory myeloma.
Related JoVE Video
Differential efficacy of bortezomib plus chemotherapy within molecular subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gene expression profiling of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has revealed distinct molecular subtypes that include germinal center B cell-like (GCB) and activated B cell-like (ABC) DLBCL. ABC DLBCL has a worse survival after upfront chemotherapy and is characterized by constitutive activation of the antiapoptotic nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) pathway, which can inhibit chemotherapy. We hypothesized that inhibition of NF-kappaB might sensitize ABC but not GCB DLBCL to chemotherapy and improve outcome. As the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib can inhibit NF-kappaB through blocking IkappaBalpha degradation, we investigated bortezomib alone followed by bortezomib and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in recurrent DLBCL. Tumor tissue was analyzed by gene expression profiling and/or immunohistochemistry to identify molecular DLBCL subtypes. As a control, we showed that relapsed/refractory ABC and GCB DLBCL have equally poor survivals after upfront chemotherapy. Bortezomib alone had no activity in DLBCL, but when combined with chemotherapy, it demonstrated a significantly higher response (83% vs 13%; P < .001) and median overall survival (10.8 vs 3.4 months; P = .003) in ABC compared with GCB DLBCL, respectively. These results suggest bortezomib enhances the activity of chemotherapy in ABC but not GCB DLBCL, and provide a rational therapeutic approach based on genetically distinct DLBCL subtypes. This trial is registered with http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT00057902.
Related JoVE Video
Properties and structure-function relationships of veltuzumab (hA20), a humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Veltuzumab is a humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody with complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) identical to rituximab, except for one residue at the 101st position (Kabat numbering) in CDR3 of the variable heavy chain (V(H)), having aspartic acid (Asp) instead of asparagine (Asn), with framework regions of epratuzumab, a humanized anti-CD22 antibody. When compared with rituximab, veltuzumab has significantly reduced off-rates in 3 human lymphoma cell lines tested, as well as increased complement-dependent cytotoxicity in 1 of 3 cell lines, but no other in vitro differences. Mutation studies confirmed that the differentiation of the off-rate between veltuzumab and rituximab is related to the single amino acid change in CDR3-V(H). Studies of intraperitoneal and subcutaneous doses in mouse models of human lymphoma and in normal cynomolgus monkeys disclosed that low doses of veltuzumab control tumor growth or deplete circulating or sessile B cells. Low- and high-dose veltuzumab were significantly more effective in vivo than rituximab in 3 lymphoma models. These findings are consistent with activity in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma given low intravenous or subcutaneous doses of veltuzumab. Thus, changing Asn(101) to Asp(101) in CDR3-V(H) of rituximab is responsible for veltuzumabs lower off-rate and apparent improved potency in preclinical models that could translate into advantages in patients.
Related JoVE Video
Antibody-drug conjugate technology development for hematologic disorders.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) combine cytotoxic chemotherapy and antibody specificity. There are 4 components of ADC technology: the cancer, or target, antigen; the antibody to that target; the linker that connects the drug to the antibody; and the drug itself. The antibody directs the cytotoxic agent to the tumor cell, thereby diminishing the side effect profile of the cytotoxic agent and enabling delivery of a more potent therapeutic because of the ability to control the target and the side effects. ADC technology has vastly improved within the last several years. In early ADCs, the linkers were too labile, which led to the release of free drug in the circulation and consequent off-target toxicity. In the current generation of ADCs, the linkers are more stable, and the cytotoxic agents are significantly more potent. ADCs have been developed against a variety of antigens and receptors, including CD19, CD22, and CD30, and have been linked to multiple different cytotoxic agents, including calicheamicin and maytansinoid derivatives. The ADC brentuximab vedotin was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma after failure of autologous stem cell transplant or at least 2 prior multiagent chemotherapy regimens, and the treatment of patients with systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma after failure of at least 1 prior multiagent chemotherapy regimen. Other ADCs in clinical trials for hematologic disorders include inotuzumab ozogamicin, SAR3419, and gemtuzumab ozogamicin.
Related JoVE Video
Phase III randomized intergroup trial of CHOP plus rituximab compared with CHOP chemotherapy plus (131)iodine-tositumomab for previously untreated follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma: SWOG S0016.
J. Clin. Oncol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Advanced follicular lymphomas (FL) are considered incurable with conventional chemotherapy and there is no consensus on the best treatment approach. Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) and Cancer and Leukemia Group B compared the safety and efficacy of two immunochemotherapy regimens for FL in a phase III randomized intergroup protocol (SWOG S0016) that enrolled 554 patients with previously untreated, advanced-stage FL between March 1, 2001, and September 15, 2008.
Related JoVE Video
Non-Hodgkins Lymphomas, version 3.2012.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize several key updates to the 2012 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Non-Hodgkins Lymphomas (NHL) and describe the clinical evidence supporting the updates. The featured updates include changes to the recommendations for treatment options in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (including in elderly or frail patients and patients with poor-risk cytogenetics), guidance surrounding surveillance imaging for follow-up of patients with NHL, and the addition of first-line consolidation options for patients with mantle cell lymphoma.
Related JoVE Video
Chemoimmunotherapy with ofatumumab in combination with CHOP in previously untreated follicular lymphoma.
Br. J. Haematol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An international, Phase II trial was conducted to assess two doses of ofatumumab, a human CD20 monoclonal antibody, combined with cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m(2) ), doxorubicin (50 mg/m(2) ), prednisone (100 mg days 3-7) and vincristine (1·4 mg/m(2) ) (O-CHOP), as frontline treatment for follicular lymphoma (FL). 59 patients with previously untreated FL were randomized to ofatumumab 500 mg (n = 29) or 1000 mg (n = 30) day 1, with CHOP on day 3 every 3 weeks for six cycles. Median duration of FL was 0·1 years for both dose groups; 34% and 38% of patients had high-risk Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) scores in the 500- and 1000-mg dose groups, respectively. Overall response rate was 90% for the 500-mg group and 100% for the 1000-mg group. 62% of patients achieved complete response (CR)/unconfirmed CR (CRu). 76% of patients with FLIPI score 3-5 attained CR/CRu. Longer follow-up time is needed for analysis of survival end points. The most common Common Terminology Criteria grade 3-4 investigator-reported adverse events were leucopenia (29%) and neutropenia (22%). No deaths have been reported. O-CHOP was safe and efficacious in patients with previously untreated FL, including high-risk FLIPI groups. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00494780).
Related JoVE Video
Ofatumumab monotherapy in rituximab-refractory follicular lymphoma: results from a multicenter study.
Blood
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
New treatments are required for rituximab-refractory follicular lymphoma (FL). In the present study, patients with rituximab-refractory FL received 8 weekly infusions of ofatumumab (CD20 mAb; dose 1, 300 mg and doses 2-8, 500 or 1000 mg; N = 116). The median age of these patients was 61 years, 47% had high-risk Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index scores, 65% were chemotherapy-refractory, and the median number of prior therapies was 4. The overall response rate was 13% and 10% for the 500-mg and 1000-mg arms, respectively. Among 27 patients refractory to rituximab monotherapy, the overall response rate was 22%. The median progression-free survival was 5.8 months. Forty-six percent of patients demonstrated tumor reduction 3 months after therapy initiation, and the median progression-free survival for these patients was 9.1 months. The most common adverse events included infections, rash, urticaria, fatigue, and pruritus. Three patients experienced grade 3 infusion-related reactions, none of which were considered serious events. Grade 3-4 neutropenia, leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in a subset of patients. Ofatumumab was well tolerated and modestly active in this heavily pretreated, rituximab-refractory population and is therefore now being studied in less refractory FL and in combination with other agents in various B-cell neoplasms. The present study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00394836.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative outcome of initial therapy for younger patients with mantle cell lymphoma: an analysis from the NCCN NHL Database.
Blood
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few randomized trials have compared therapies in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and the role of aggressive induction is unclear. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) Database, a prospective cohort study collecting clinical, treatment, and outcome data at 7 NCCN centers, provides a unique opportunity to compare the effectiveness of initial therapies in MCL. Patients younger than 65 diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 were included if they received RHCVAD (rituximab fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin, and dexamethasone), RCHOP+HDT/ASCR (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone + high-dose therapy/autologous stem cell rescue), RHCVAD+HDT/ASCR, or RCHOP. Clinical parameters were similar for patients treated with RHCVAD (n = 83, 50%), RCHOP+HDT/ASCR (n = 34, 20%), RCHOP (n = 29, 17%), or RHCVAD+HDT/ASCR (n = 21, 13%). Overall, 70 (42%) of the 167 patients progressed and 25 (15%) expired with a median follow-up of 33 months. There was no difference in progression-free survival (PFS) between aggressive regimens (P > .57), which all demonstrated superior PFS compared with RCHOP (P < .004). There was no difference in overall survival (OS) between the RHCVAD and RCHOP+HDT/ASCR (P = .98). RCHOP was inferior to RHCVAD and RCHOP+HDT/ASCR, which had similar PFS and OS. Despite aggressive regimens, the median PFS was 3 to 4 years. Future trials should focus on novel agents rather than comparing current approaches.
Related JoVE Video
Regulation of CD20 in rituximab-resistant cell lines and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this research was to further investigate the contribution of CD20 antigen expression to rituximab activity and define the mechanisms responsible for CD20 downregulation in rituximab-resistant cell lines (RRCL).
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.