Among the cardinal parkinsonian motor deficits, the severity of bradykinesia correlates with striatal dopamine loss. However, the impact of regional striatal dopamine loss on specific components of bradykinesia remains unknown. Using gyroscopes, we measured the amplitude, speed, and frequency of finger tapping in 24 untreated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 28 healthy controls. Using positron emission tomography (PET) studies and [(18)F]-N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (FP-CIT) in PD patients, we investigated the relationship between the mean values, variability and decrements of various kinematic parameters of finger tapping on one side (e.g. the mean, variability and decrement) and contralateral striatal FP-CIT binding. Compared with controls, PD patients had reduced amplitudes and speeds of tapping and showed greater decrement in those parameters. PD patients also exhibited greater irregularity in amplitude, speed, and frequency. Putaminal FP-CIT uptake levels correlated with the mean speed and amplitude, and caudate uptake levels correlated with mean amplitude. The variability of amplitude and speed correlated only with the caudate uptake levels. Neither caudate nor putaminal uptake correlated with frequency-related parameters or decrement in amplitude or speed. Reduced amplitude and speed of repetitive movement may be related to striatal dopaminergic deficit. Dopaminergic action in the caudate nucleus is required to maintain consistency of amplitude and speed. Although decrement of amplitude and speed is known to be specific for PD, we found that it did not mirror the degree of striatal dopamine depletion.
Attentional and executive dysfunctions are associated with falls in community-dwelling elderly individuals and patients with PD. Frontal cognitive dysfunction and falls are frequent symptoms of PSP. We studied to identify the cognitive domains associated with recurrent falls in patients with PSP.
The differential diagnosis between mild Parkinson's disease (PD) and Scan Without Evidence of Dopaminergic Deficit(SWEDD) is challenging. Progressive reduction in amplitude and speed of finger tapping (sequence effect) has been considered as the most useful sign for discriminating PD from SWEDD. However, a video analysis reported that sequence effect is a major confounding factor for the misdiagnosis of PD. Our objective was to perform a kinematic analysis of finger tapping to explore parameters for distinguishing between patients with PD and SWEDD.
Perry syndrome (PS) caused by DCTN1 gene mutation is clinically characterized by autosomal dominant parkinsonism, depression, severe weight loss, and hypoventilation. Previous pathological studies have reported relative sparing of the cerebral cortex in this syndrome. Here, we characterize novel clinical and neuroimaging features in 3 patients with PS.
An attempt has been made to produce a new balance in facial dynamics between a paralysed and a non-paralysed face with reduction of synkinesis, by concomitant injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on both sides in patients with long-lasting facial sequelae.
To study the influence of discriminative cutaneous sensory dysfunction on impaired finger dexterity in Parkinsons disease (PD), we evaluated 48 right-handed PD patients during a practically defined off-medication period and 24 healthy age-matched controls. With visual deprivation, a finger tapping task (FTT) was performed to assess the speed of simple repetitive finger movements and a coin rotation task (CRT) was used to assess finger dexterity. The tasks were performed with the right hand. We measured the somesthetic temporal discrimination threshold (sTDT) in the right index finger. The mean ± SD FTT score of the patient group was lower than that of the control group (24.0 ± 8.0 vs. 29.8 ± 7.8; P < 0.01). The patient group performed worse on the CRT than the control group (8.5 ± 3.5 vs. 12.6 ± 1.7; P < 0.001). The mean sTDT value of the patient group was longer than that of the control group (124.0 ± 44.8 vs. 78.1 ± 26.2 ms; P < 0.001). The CRT scores correlated with the sTDT values (Pearsons correlation coefficient = -0.43; P < 0.01), but not with the Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) finger bradykinesia scores or FTT scores. Multiple regression analysis showed that the sTDT values (parameter estimate = -0.03, SE = 0.01; P < 0.01), but not patient age, UPDRS finger bradykinesia score, or FTT score, affected the CRT score. Slowness of simple repetitive finger movements did not have a strong impact on the impaired manual dexterity of PD. Discriminative sensory dysfunction and consequent abnormal sensorimotor integration seem to be involved in the impaired finger dexterity of PD.
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