JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Management of unicameral bone cyst by using freeze dried radiation sterilized bone allograft impregnate with autogenous bone marrow.
Mymensingh Med J
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Unicameral bone cyst is a common benign bone tumor and most frequent cause of the pathological fracture in children. We have started a prospective study for that treatment of unicameral bone cyst by using freeze dried radiation sterilized bone allograft impregnated with autogenous bone marrow in the department of Orthopaedics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) during May 1999 to April 2012. Aim of this study was to see Freeze dried radiation sterilized bone allograft impregnate with autogenous bone marrow a satisfactory graft material in the treatment of unicameral bone cyst as well as factors such as patients age, sex, cyst size and site of lesion influence on cyst healing. A total 35 patients of unicameral bone cyst were operated. In this study out of 35 patients, male were 22(62.86%) and female were 13(37.14). Male Female ratio 22:13(1.70:1) Age of the patients ranging from 2 years 6 month to 20 years, mean age 12.18 years more common 11 years to 20 years 29(82.86%) patients. Common bones sites involvements are proximal end of Humerus 20(57.14%), proximal end of Femur 7(20 %), proximal end of Tibia 3(8.57%), Calcanium 2(5.71%), proximal end of Ulna 1(2.86%), shaft of Radius 1(2.86%) and Phalanx 1(2.86%). Final clinical outcome of unicameral bone cyst treated by thorough curettage of cavity and tightly filled with freeze dried radiation sterilized bone allograft impregnate with autogenous bone marrow in which healed (success rate) 88.57% (31) and recurrence rate is 11.43% (4). P value is <0.001. Follow up period was 6 month to 11 years. From our study it was realized that freeze dried radiation sterilized bone allograft impregnated with autogenous bone marrow is useful graft material for healing of the lesional area as well as restoring structural integrity for the treatment of unicameral bone cyst.
Related JoVE Video
Outcome of early active mobilization in flexor tendon repair in zone II in hand.
Mymensingh Med J
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early controlled motion programs after flexor tendon repair in zone II of hand are designed to minimize adhesion formation by promoting the excursion of repaired tendons. The flexor tendon surgery especially in zone II is complicated. It is simplest in the newly injured and unscarred digit and the results of correctly rehabilitated primary repair are likely to be the best attainable. We conducted a study including 18 patients with 52 digits involving 80 flexor tendons in zone II to observe and record the result of the primary or delayed primary repair with early active mobilization protocol. Thirteen (72.22%) patients were below 30 years of age. Sixteen cases (88.89%) were sustained injury by sharp instrument either accidentally or by assault. Ring and little finger were involved in 50% instances. The repair was done with the modified Kessler core suture technique with locking epitendinous sutures with a knot inside the repair site, using polypropylene 4-0 and 6-0 sutures. The final assessment was done at 6 months post repair using the Louisville system of Lister et al. 61.54% (n=32) digits were shown excellent result whereas good results were seen in 23% (n=12) digits. Fair was shown 7.69% (n=4) digits and 7.69% (n=4) digits were shown poor results. P value was <0.001 by Z test which is significant. Complications included tendon rupture in 3(5.77%) cases (one thumb, one ring and one little finger) and contracture in 4(7.69%) cases whereas superficial infection and flap necrosis was seen in one (1.92%) case each. The primary or delayed primary repair of cut flexor tendons in zone II using the modified Kessler core suture and epitendinous suture with early active mobilization protocol has been given good result, with minimal complications.
Related JoVE Video
Central coherence in adolescents with bulimia nervosa spectrum eating disorders.
Int J Eat Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Weak central coherence-a tendency to process details at the expense of the gestalt-has been observed among adults with bulimia nervosa (BN) and is a potential candidate endophenotype for eating disorders (EDs). However, as BN behaviors typically onset during adolescence it is important to assess central coherence in this younger age group to determine whether the findings in adults are likely a result of BN or present earlier in the evolution of the disorder. This study examines whether the detail-oriented and fragmented cognitive inefficiency observed among adults with BN is observable among adolescents with shorter illness duration, relative to healthy controls.
Related JoVE Video
Lipoprotein-apheresis reduces circulating microparticles in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lipoprotein-apheresis (apheresis) removes LDL-cholesterol in patients with severe dyslipidemia. However, reduction is transient, indicating that the long-term cardiovascular benefits of apheresis may not solely be due to LDL removal. Microparticles (MPs) are submicron vesicles released from the plasma membrane of cells. MPs, particularly platelet-derived MPs, are increasingly being linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases. We aimed to characterize the effect of apheresis on MP size, concentration, cellular origin, and fatty acid concentration in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Plasma and MP samples were collected from 12 individuals with FH undergoing routine apheresis. Tunable resistive pulse sensing (np200) and nanoparticle tracking analysis measured a fall in MP concentration (33 and 15%, respectively; P < 0.05) pre- to post-apheresis. Flow cytometry showed MPs were predominantly annexin V positive and of platelet (CD41) origin both pre- (88.9%) and post-apheresis (88.4%). Fatty acid composition of MPs differed from that of plasma, though apheresis affected a similar profile of fatty acids in both compartments, as measured by GC-flame ionization detection. MP concentration was also shown to positively correlate with thrombin generation potential. In conclusion, we show apheresis nonselectively removes annexin V-positive platelet-derived MPs in individuals with FH. These MPs are potent inducers of coagulation and are elevated in CVD; this reduction in pathological MPs could relate to the long-term benefits of apheresis.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of identification systems for psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from raw bovine milk.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk produce heat-resistant extracellular proteases, resulting in spoilage and shelf-life reduction of ultrahigh temperature treated milk and milk products. Controlling of these spoilage microbes requires rapid and reliable identification systems for screening of raw milk. This study aimed to compare commercial bacterial identification systems with a genetic method (considered as the 'gold standard' method) for the identification of heat-resistant protease producing bacteria in raw milk. Five bacterial identification systems were compared based on typability, discrimination power (i.e. Simpson's Index of Diversity), reproducibility and speed of analysis. The accuracy of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Biolog, MALDI-TOF MS, API, and Microbact for the identification of Gram negative bacilli at the species level was 100.0%, 86.8%, 63.2%, 60.5% and 57.9%, respectively. The Gram positive bacilli were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Biolog, MALDI-TOF MS, and API with accuracies at the species level of 100.0%, 85.0%, 95.0% and 90.0%, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis discriminated Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas syringae, Hafnia alvei, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis to the subspecies level. The Simpson's Index of Diversity scores were 0.966, 0.711, 0.496, 0.472, and 0.140, for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Biolog, MALDI-TOF MS, API and Microbact, respectively. Limited reference profiles in the databases of Biolog, MALDI-TOF MS, API and Microbact systems reduced their accuracy in bacterial identification, compared to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The rapidity of each assay is in the following order; MALDI-TOF MS>16S rRNA gene sequencing>Biolog>Microbact>API. The reproducibility of the assays is in the order of 16S rRNA gene sequencing>API>Microbact>MALDI-TOF MS>Biolog. Thus, 16S rRNA gene sequencing appears to be the most reliable and robust system for the identification of dairy spoilage bacteria. The Biolog system is suitable for the identification of Gram negative spoilage bacteria, while MALDI-TOF MS and API systems are suitable for the identification of Gram positive spoilage bacteria isolated from raw milk. The commercial systems used in this study have been developed and extensively used for the identification of clinical microbes but only a limited number of studies used those systems to identify the environmental microorganisms that often contaminate raw milk. Therefore, comparison of those systems for the identification of spoilage microbes in raw milk would provide better understanding of their suitability for routine dairy microbiology and more extensive dairy research.
Related JoVE Video
Solvation of CO2 in water: effect of RuBP on CO2 concentration in bundle sheath of C4 plants.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An understanding of the temperature-dependence of solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) in water is important for many industrial processes. Voluminous work has been done by both quantum chemical methods and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the interaction between CO2 and water, but a quantitative evaluation of solubility remains elusive. In this work, we have approached the problem by considering quantum chemically calculated total energies and thermal energies, and incorporating the effects of mixing, hydrogen bonding, and phonon modes. An overall equation relating the calculated free energy and entropy of mixing with the gas-solution equilibrium constant has been derived. This equation has been iteratively solved to obtain the solubility as functions of temperature and dielectric constant. The calculated solubility versus temperature plot excellently matches the observed plot. Solubility has been shown to increase with dielectric constant, for example, by addition of electrolytes. We have also found that at the experimentally reported concentration of enzyme RuBP in bundle sheath cells of chloroplast in C4 green plants, the concentration of CO2 can effectively increase by as much as a factor of 7.1-38.5. This stands in agreement with the observed effective rise in concentration by as much as 10 times.
Related JoVE Video
Predictive role of toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The clinical behavior of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) can be unpredictable, and even small tumors may behave aggressively. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition molecules involved in innate immunity, and they are also expressed in many types of cancer. TLRs play an apparently pivotal role in some cancers related to tumor progression and, conversely, cancer inhibition, however their role in oral cancer is unclear. We therefore studied the expression of TLR-2, -4, -5, -7, and -9 in early-stage OTSCC.
Related JoVE Video
Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and costs for alternative methods of processing fluid milk.
J. Dairy Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Computer simulation is a useful tool for benchmarking electrical and fuel energy consumption and water use in a fluid milk plant. In this study, a computer simulation model of the fluid milk process based on high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization was extended to include models for processes for shelf-stable milk and extended shelf-life milk that may help prevent the loss or waste of milk that leads to increases in the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for fluid milk. The models were for UHT processing, crossflow microfiltration (MF) without HTST pasteurization, crossflow MF followed by HTST pasteurization (MF/HTST), crossflow MF/HTST with partial homogenization, and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing, and were incorporated into the existing model for the fluid milk process. Simulation trials were conducted assuming a production rate for the plants of 113.6 million liters of milk per year to produce only whole milk (3.25%) and 40% cream. Results showed that GHG emissions in the form of process-related CO? emissions, defined as CO? equivalents (e)/kg of raw milk processed (RMP), and specific energy consumptions (SEC) for electricity and natural gas use for the HTST process alone were 37.6g of CO?e/kg of RMP, 0.14 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.13 MJ/kg of RMP, respectively. Emissions of CO2 and SEC for electricity and natural gas use were highest for the PEF process, with values of 99.1g of CO?e/kg of RMP, 0.44 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.10 MJ/kg of RMP, respectively, and lowest for the UHT process at 31.4 g of CO?e/kg of RMP, 0.10 MJ/kg of RMP, and 0.17 MJ/kg of RMP. Estimated unit production costs associated with the various processes were lowest for the HTST process and MF/HTST with partial homogenization at $0.507/L and highest for the UHT process at $0.60/L. The increase in shelf life associated with the UHT and MF processes may eliminate some of the supply chain product and consumer losses and waste of milk and compensate for the small increases in GHG emissions or total SEC noted for these processes compared with HTST pasteurization alone. The water use calculated for the HTST and PEF processes were both 0.245 kg of water/kg of RMP. The highest water use was associated with the MF/HTST process, which required 0.333 kg of water/kg of RMP, with the additional water required for membrane cleaning. The simulation model is a benchmarking framework for current plant operations and a tool for evaluating the costs of process upgrades and new technologies that improve energy efficiency and water savings.
Related JoVE Video
When is a child with status epilepticus likely to have Dravet syndrome?
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify clinical risk factors for Dravet syndrome (DS) in a population of children with status epilepticus (SE).
Related JoVE Video
Predicting clinical outcome using brain activation associated with set-shifting and central coherence skills in Anorexia Nervosa.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) have neuropsychological deficits in Set-Shifting (SS) and central coherence (CC) consistent with an inflexible thinking style and overly detailed processing style, respectively. This study investigates brain activation during SS and CC tasks in patients with AN and tests whether this activation is a biomarker that predicts response to treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Default mode network alterations during language task performance in children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS).
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is the most common idiopathic epileptic disorder in children. Besides reported cognitive deficits, functional alterations mostly in the reorganization of language areas have also been described. In several publications, it has been reported that activation of the default mode network (DMN) can be reduced or altered in different neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders in adults. Whether this also holds true for children with epilepsy has so far not been clarified. To determine the functional activation of the DMN in children with BECTS, 20 patients and 16 healthy controls were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while a sentence generation task and a reading task were applied in a block design manner. To study the default mode network and the functional alterations between groups, an independent component analysis (ICA) was computed and further analyzed using SPM5. Compared with controls, children with BECTS showed not only significantly less activation of the DMN during the rest condition but also less deactivation during cognitive effort. This was most apparent in the precuneus, a key region of the DMN, while subjects were generating sentences. From these findings, we hypothesize that children with BECTS show a functional deficit that is reflected by alterations in the DMN.
Related JoVE Video
Structure and genetic basis of Yersinia similis serotype O:9 O-specific polysaccharide.
Innate Immun
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The O-polysaccharide (OPS, O-Ag) cap of LPS is a major virulence factor of Yersinia species and also serves as a receptor for the binding of lytic bacteriophage ?R1-37. Currently, the OPS-based serotyping scheme for the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex includes 21 known O-serotypes that follow three distinct lineages: Y. pseudotuberculosis sensu stricto, Y. similis and the Korean group of strains. Elucidation of the Y. pseudotuberculosis complex OPS structures and characterization of the OPS genetics (altogether 18 O-serotypes studied thus far) allows a better understanding of the relationships among the various O serotypes and will facilitate the analysis of the evolutionary processes giving rise to new serotypes. Here we present the characterization of the OPS structure and gene cluster of Y. similis O:9. Bacteriophage ?R1-37, which uses the Y. similis O:9 OPS as a receptor, also infects a number of Y. enterocolitica serotypes, including O:3, O:5,27, O:9 and O:50. The Y. similis O:9 OPS structure resembled none of the receptor structures of the Y. enterocolitica strains, suggesting that ?R1-37 can recognize several surface receptors, thus promoting broad host specificity.
Related JoVE Video
Metaphenylene-based nitroxide diradicals: a protocol to calculate intermolecular coupling constant in a one-dimensional chain.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intramolecular magnetic exchange coupling constants are determined for seven isolated metaphenylene-based dinitroxide diradicals by unrestricted density functional methodology (UDFT) using a number of hybrid functionals such as B3LYP, B3LYP-D3, M06-2X, HSE, and LC-?PBE. Geometry optimizations for both triplet and broken symmetry solutions are performed with the 6-311G(d,p) basis set for all the molecules. In all cases, B3LYP somewhat overestimates the coupling constant, and M06-2X produces a more realistic value. The range-separated HSE and LC-?PBE functional yield large deviations from experiment. The nature of spin coupling agrees with the spin alternation rule and the calculated spin densities, in conjunction with the McConnell rule. It can also be explained in terms of the nondisjoint Single Occupied Molecular Orbital effect. Furthermore, it correlates with the calculated NICS(1) isotropic and zz and hyperfine coupling constants. We also put forward a method for the determination of the intramolecular (J) and intermolecular (J) coupling constants from quantum chemical calculations on a one-dimensional chain of weakly bound diradicals. Two expressions are derived for the energies of different spin states in terms of J and J. Exemplary UDFT computations are done on the N-mers (N = 2-6) of two diradicals for which the crystal coordinates are available. The intramolecular and intermolecular coupling constants are determined from the calculated UDFT energies. These are indeed in general agreement with the measured coupling constants.
Related JoVE Video
Mutations in GRIN2A cause idiopathic focal epilepsy with rolandic spikes.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Idiopathic focal epilepsy (IFE) with rolandic spikes is the most common childhood epilepsy, comprising a phenotypic spectrum from rolandic epilepsy (also benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, BECTS) to atypical benign partial epilepsy (ABPE), Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) and epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike and waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS). The genetic basis is largely unknown. We detected new heterozygous mutations in GRIN2A in 27 of 359 affected individuals from 2 independent cohorts with IFE (7.5%; P = 4.83 × 10(-18), Fishers exact test). Mutations occurred significantly more frequently in the more severe phenotypes, with mutation detection rates ranging from 12/245 (4.9%) in individuals with BECTS to 9/51 (17.6%) in individuals with CSWS (P = 0.009, Cochran-Armitage test for trend). In addition, exon-disrupting microdeletions were found in 3 of 286 individuals (1.0%; P = 0.004, Fishers exact test). These results establish alterations of the gene encoding the NMDA receptor NR2A subunit as a major genetic risk factor for IFE.
Related JoVE Video
Theoretical investigation of photomagnetic properties of oxoverdazyl-substituted pyrenes.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have investigated the ground state spin of 10 pairs of possible photochromic diradical isomers by quantum chemical methods. Dihydrogen pyrenes and dinitrile pyrenes have been chosen as spacers with radical centers attached at (1,7) and (1,8) locations. Oxoverdazyl has served as a radical center, and both C and N linkages have been investigated. Triplet molecular geometries have been optimized at the UB3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level. Single-point calculations on triplet and broken symmetry states have been performed using the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Careful designs have led to the prediction of strongly coupled dihydropyrene (DHP) isomers, and the cyclophenadiene (CPD) isomers have always been found as weakly coupled. The effect of the functional M06-2X has been investigated. Calculated TDDFT spectra have been sufficient to guarantee photochromism of the designed diradicals. It has been estimated that compounds of diradicals with large coupling constants in the DHP form would show a pronounced change in molar susceptibility on photoconversion. This has led us to identify two molecules that can serve as a photomagnetic switch at room temperature.
Related JoVE Video
A new SETX mutation producing AOA2 in two siblings.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this paper, we document two cases of a new SETX mutation (820:A>G) combined with an established recessive SETX mutation (5927:T>G) causing ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2).
Related JoVE Video
Theoretical investigation of stilbene as photochromic spin coupler.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Density functional theory (DFT) based calculations are used here to investigate the magnetic behavior, spectroscopic transitions, and possible photomagnetic properties of stilbene derivatives using photochromicity of cis- and trans-forms of the parent molecule. Nitronyl nitroxide (NN), iminonitroxide (IN), tetrathiafulvalene cation (TTF), and verdazyl (VER) are used as monoradical centers at the p, p positions. The B3LYP functional with the usual broken symmetry approach and a sufficiently large basis set is chosen to obtain reliable estimates of the intramolecular exchange coupling constants (J). It is found that, with stilbene as a spacer, the coupling of TTF with NN, IN, and VER is always antiferromagnetic with J being generally large and negative. Although J values obtained for cis- and trans-forms are both negative, the difference in J values is quite large. Spectroscopic transition energies and corresponding oscillator strengths of cis- and trans-stilbene diradicals are estimated by time-dependent (TD)-DFT calculations using the same functional. Interestingly, the spectral features of the diradicals are similar to those of cis- and trans-stilbene, which suggests that stilbene diradicals would have good photoswitching properties. Finally, we show that, when these diradicals are placed in a matrix, photochromicity would be accompanied by a significant change in paramagnetic susceptibility.
Related JoVE Video
BECTS evolving to Landau-Kleffner Syndrome and back by subsequent recovery: a longitudinal language reorganization case study using fMRI, source EEG, and neuropsychological testing.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
By means of a longitudinal case study, we demonstrated the course of cerebral reorganization of language representation due to epilepsy in a child with benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS) evolving to Landau-Kleffner Syndrome (LKS) and returning to BECTS. The child underwent the following procedures at the ages of 8.2, 8.6, and 9.3 years: 3D source EEG imaging, language fMRI (sentence generation and reading), and neuropsychological testing. He had a follow-up testing at the age of 10.8 years. Further, 24-h EEGs were regularly performed. At the age of around 8 years, the child was diagnosed initially with left-hemispheric BECTS, which evolved to LKS with continuous bilateral discharges. In addition, 3D source imaging data revealed a left anterior temporal focus with a spreading to the right parietal and left centro-parietal areas. The patient had verbal agnosia with poor verbal yet good performance indices. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed a left-hemispheric reading network but sentence generation was impossible to perform. After initiation of adequate treatment, continuous discharges disappeared, and only very rare left-hemispheric centro-temporal spikes remained. Verbal IQ and performance IQ increased at the age of 8.6 years. Functional magnetic resonance imaging showed, at this time, a right-hemispheric language activation pattern for sentence generation and reading. At the ages of 9.3 and 10.8 years, language tasks remained right-hemispheric and verbal IQ remained stable, but right-hemispheric non-verbal functions decreased due to possible crowding-out mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of an educational intervention on requesting behaviour by a medical admission unit.
Ann. Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have shown that of all the tests requested of hospital laboratories, 25-40% are thought to be unnecessary. Our hospital laboratory observed that a significant number of requests from the medical admissions unit (MAU) were probably inappropriate. In an attempt to improve requesting behaviour this observation was investigated and an educational intervention employed.
Related JoVE Video
Cognitive impairment and cortical reorganization in children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is associated with mild cognitive deficits, especially language impairment. This study aimed to clarify whether children with BECTS with left- or right-hemispheric, or bilateral focus have specific neuropsychological language deficits when compared to healthy controls, whether these deficits correlate functionally with language network organization (typical vs. atypical), and whether cofactors such as duration, handedness, and medication have a relevant impact on language reorganization processes.
Related JoVE Video
Defining the role of lipoprotein apheresis in the management of familial hypercholesterolemia.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal co-dominant disorder characterized by a marked elevation of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration, which in turn is associated with a greatly increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease. International consensus recommends the use of statins as the first line of treatment for patients with this condition. However, homozygote FH patients with persistently elevated LDL-C levels are usually resistant to multiple-drug therapy. Fortunately, LDL apheresis (or simply lipoprotein apheresis) provides a treatment option for patients who are refractory or intolerant to lipid-lowering medications, or if there is progressive cardiovascular disease despite maximal drug therapy. Lipoprotein apheresis is an extracorporeal LDL-C-lowering treatment similar in concept to renal dialysis. There are now five main methods for extracorporeal lipoprotein apheresis in use, namely dextran sulfate adsorption (DSA), heparin extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP), polyacrylate full blood adsorption (PFBA or DALI® system) using hemoperfusion, immunoadsorption, and filtration plasmapheresis. Lipoprotein apheresis has been shown to be successful in reducing LDL-C levels, as well as levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a prothrombotic proatherogenic lipoprotein. In contrast, however, lipoprotein apheresis seems to have a smaller effect in preventing atherosclerosis progression, thus suggesting that a major component of the reduction in cardiovascular events may be mediated by mitigating Lp(a) levels. Side effects are infrequent and mild, and have mainly consisted of lightheadedness, nausea, vomiting, and hypotension. As these are often bradykinin-mediated and associated with concomitant ACE inhibitor use, angiotensin type 2 receptor antagonists should be used instead of ACE inhibitors with DALI and PFBA. Nevertheless, there is scope for wider application of lipoprotein apheresis. The high cost and invasive nature of lipoprotein apheresis limits uptake; however, it is an important treatment modality that should be considered in carefully selected patients. National and international registries compiling outcome data for lipoprotein apheresis need to be established to help expand the evidence base regarding its effectiveness.
Related JoVE Video
Managing pressures ulcers in a resource constrained situation: a holistic approach.
Indian J Palliat Care
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Managing pressure ulcers remain a challenge and call for a multidisciplinary team approach to care. Even more daunting is the management of such patients in remote locations and in resource constrained situations. The management of pressure sores in a patient with progressive muscular atrophy has been discussed using resources that were locally available, accessible, and affordable. Community participation was encouraged. A holistic approach to care was adopted.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of the lipopolysaccharide core of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as the receptor for bacteriophage ?A1122.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?A1122 is a T7-related bacteriophage infecting most isolates of Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, and used by the CDC in the identification of Y. pestis. ?A1122 infects Y. pestis grown both at 20 °C and at 37 °C. Wild-type Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains are also infected but only when grown at 37 °C. Since Y. pestis expresses rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) missing the O-polysaccharide (O-PS) and expression of Y. pseudotuberculosis O-PS is largely suppressed at temperatures above 30 °C, it has been assumed that the phage receptor is rough LPS. We present here several lines of evidence to support this. First, a rough derivative of Y. pseudotuberculosis was also ?A1122 sensitive when grown at 22 °C. Second, periodate treatment of bacteria, but not proteinase K treatment, inhibited the phage binding. Third, spontaneous ?A1122 receptor mutants of Y. pestis and rough Y. pseudotuberculosis could not be isolated, indicating that the receptor was essential for bacterial growth under the applied experimental conditions. Fourth, heterologous expression of the Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 LPS outer core hexasaccharide in both Y. pestis and rough Y. pseudotuberculosis effectively blocked the phage adsorption. Fifth, a gradual truncation of the core oligosaccharide into the Hep/Glc (L-glycero-D-manno-heptose/D-glucopyranose)-Kdo/Ko (3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid/D-glycero-D-talo-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid) region in a series of LPS mutants was accompanied by a decrease in phage adsorption, and finally, a waaA mutant expressing only lipid A, i.e., also missing the Kdo/Ko region, was fully ?A1122 resistant. Our data thus conclusively demonstrated that the ?A1122 receptor is the Hep/Glc-Kdo/Ko region of the LPS core, a common structure in Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of low birth weight on height, weight and behavioral outcomes in the medium-run.
Econ Hum Biol
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight. Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long run. While previous studies focusing mainly on LBW effects on physical growth and cognitive outcomes have found effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthood, others have found a diminishing negative effect over time. The purpose of this paper was to bring new evidence to this issue by analyzing the medium run effects of low birth weight on child behavioral outcomes as well as physical growth at ages 6 months, 3, 7 and 11 years using data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time enabled us to chart the evolution of anthropometric and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helped understanding the nature and timing of interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of lower-extremity venous thrombolysis in the setting of congenital absence or atresia of the inferior vena cava.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A rare but described risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT), predominantly in the young, is congenital agenesis or atresia of the inferior vena cava (IVC). The optimal management for DVT in this subset of patients is unknown. We evaluated the efficacy of pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis (PCDT) followed by systemic anticoagulation in the treatment of acute lower-extremity DVT in the setting of congenital IVC agenesis or atresia.
Related JoVE Video
Pilot-scale crossflow-microfiltration and pasteurization to remove spores of Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) from milk.
J. Dairy Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-temperature, short-time pasteurization of milk is ineffective against spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis (BA), but is lethal to its vegetative cells. Crossflow microfiltration (MF) using ceramic membranes with a pore size of 1.4 ?m has been shown to reject most microorganisms from skim milk; and, in combination with pasteurization, has been shown to extend its shelf life. The objectives of this study were to evaluate MF for its efficiency in removing spores of the attenuated Sterne strain of BA from milk; to evaluate the combined efficiency of MF using a 0.8-?m ceramic membrane, followed by pasteurization (72°C, 18.6s); and to monitor any residual BA in the permeates when stored at temperatures of 4, 10, and 25°C for up to 28 d. In each trial, 95 L of raw skim milk was inoculated with about 6.5 log(10) BA spores/mL of milk. It was then microfiltered in total recycle mode at 50°C using ceramic membranes with pore sizes of either 0.8 ?m or 1.4 ?m, at crossflow velocity of 6.2 m/s and transmembrane pressure of 127.6 kPa, conditions selected to exploit the selectivity of the membrane. Microfiltration using the 0.8-?m membrane removed 5.91±0.05 log(10) BA spores/mL of milk and the 1.4-?m membrane removed 4.50±0.35 log(10) BA spores/mL of milk. The 0.8-?m membrane showed efficient removal of the native microflora and both membranes showed near complete transmission of the casein proteins. Spore germination was evident in the permeates obtained at 10, 30, and 120 min of MF time (0.8-?m membrane) but when stored at 4 or 10°C, spore levels were decreased to below detection levels (?0.3 log(10) spores/mL) by d 7 or 3 of storage, respectively. Permeates stored at 25°C showed coagulation and were not evaluated further. Pasteurization of the permeate samples immediately after MF resulted in additional spore germination that was related to the length of MF time. Pasteurized permeates obtained at 10 min of MF and stored at 4 or 10°C showed no growth of BA by d 7 and 3, respectively. Pasteurization of permeates obtained at 30 and 120 min of MF resulted in spore germination of up to 2.42 log(10) BA spores/mL. Spore levels decreased over the length of the storage period at 4 or 10°C for the samples obtained at 30 min of MF but not for the samples obtained at 120 min of MF. This study confirms that MF using a 0.8-?m membrane before high-temperature, short-time pasteurization may improve the safety and quality of the fluid milk supply; however, the duration of MF should be limited to prevent spore germination following pasteurization.
Related JoVE Video
Entanglement cost in practical scenarios.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We quantify the one-shot entanglement cost of an arbitrary bipartite state, that is, the minimum number of singlets needed by two distant parties to create a single copy of the state up to a finite accuracy, by using local operations and classical communication only. This analysis, in contrast to the traditional one, pertains to scenarios of practical relevance, in which resources are finite and transformations can be achieved only approximately. Moreover, it unveils a fundamental relation between two well-known entanglement measures, namely, the Schmidt number and the entanglement of formation. Using this relation, we are able to recover the usual expression of the entanglement cost as a special case.
Related JoVE Video
Photoswitching magnetic crossover in organic molecular systems.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have theoretically designed efficient photomagnetic diradicals using both substituted and unsubstituted cyclophanediene (CPD) and dihydropyrenes (DHP) as spacers. Nitronyl nitroxide (NN), oxoverdazyl (o-VER), and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) are chosen as monoradical centers. Molecular geometries have been optimized by the density functional method UB3LYP using the 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Final single point calculations have been done with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis. Absorption wavelengths have been estimated from time-dependent density functional treatment using restricted spin-polarized density functionals (RB3LYP) and 6-31G basis. Both the substituted and unsubstituted CPD species with mixed monoradical centers are found to be antiferromagnetically coupled. Diradicals with the same centers but with DHP coupler exhibit strong ferromagnetic coupling. Also, photoexcitations of the diradicals are generally red-shifted by only a few nanometers from those of the 15,16-dimethyl pyrenes. This indicates that on photoexcitation a consistent magnetic crossover from an antiferromagnetic to a ferromagnetic regime is possible. The accompanying change in magnetic exchange coupling constant ?J is very large, varying from 445 to 1003 cm(-1). As far as organic molecular magnetism is concerned, this observation is entirely new and likely to be of technological significance.
Related JoVE Video
Intelligence quotient is not affected by epilepsy surgery in childhood.
Pediatr. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epilepsy surgery is known to help children with intractable seizures. The effect of epilepsy surgery itself on cognition in childhood is less well studied. We report our experience at the University of Alberta Hospital on the effects of epilepsy surgery on cognition. All children undergoing epilepsy surgery at the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program from 1990-2005 were examined. Sixty-seven patients received both preoperative and postoperative neuropsychologic evaluations. We compared verbal, performance, and full scale intelligent quotients and the Child Behavioral Checklist preoperatively and postoperatively. Forty-eight patients demonstrated excellent surgical outcomes, with significant reductions in disabling seizures. Overall, no significant change occurred in neuropsychologic parameters examined after surgery. Epilepsy surgery in childhood offers excellent surgical outcomes for seizure control, and does not adversely affect intelligence quotient.
Related JoVE Video
A comparative study on intertidal faunal biodiversity of selected beaches of Mumbai coast.
J Environ Biol
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Comparative study has been done to examine the biodiversity and ecological status of the intertidal region of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Bandstand and National Centre for Performing Arts (NCPA) rocky beaches in Mumbai, West coast of India. A total of 50 species of intertidal organisms were recorded from these shores. Shannon and Simpsons diversity index, Margalefs richness index and Pielous evenness index indicated different level of ecological state of the shore in different months. Dendrograms and 2-D non metric MDS ordination from Bray-Curtis similarity matrix of occurrence of intertidal organisms from these sites showed highest similarity and combination pattern of occurrence between Nerita oryzarum and Planaxis sulcatus in TIFR and Bandstand shore. Nerita oryzarum and Tactarius malaccanus at NCPA shore. Abundance/biomass comparison (ABC) method of determining level of disturbance also pointed towards the polluted status of these shores. Study concludes that though these beaches are highly disturbed due to anthropogenic activities, they still support a rich intertidal biodiversity which need immediate attention for protection and conservation.
Related JoVE Video
Reduced expression by SETBP1 haploinsufficiency causes developmental and expressive language delay indicating a phenotype distinct from Schinzel-Giedion syndrome.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations of the SET binding protein 1 gene (SETBP1) on 18q12.3 have recently been reported to cause Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS). As rare 18q interstitial deletions affecting multiple genes including SETBP1 correlate with a milder phenotype, including minor physical anomalies and developmental and expressive speech delay, mutations in SETBP1 are thought to result in a gain-of-function or a dominant-negative effect. However, the consequence of the SETBP1 loss-of-function has not yet been well described.
Related JoVE Video
Bakers method in the management of equinus deformity in cerebral palsy.
Mymensingh Med J
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This prospective study was conducted in the department of orthopedic surgery in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) Dhaka, Bangladesh, from January 2005 to December 2007. Total number of 20 patients with 37 feet of equinus deformity due to cerebral palsy was managed by Bakers method. Equinus deformity in cerebral palsy is not uncommon in our outpatient department. Before operation patient walks on tip toes and after operation by Bakers method by apponeurotic lengthening of gastrocnemius muscle, with extensive physiotherapy, patients can able to walk normally in plantigrade feet. Among 20 patients only the spastic diplegic or hemiplegic equinus deformity in cerebral palsy was between 3 years to 12 years with a mean age of 5 years 9.6 months (SD+/-2 years 4.97 months). There were 3(15%) unilateral and 17(85%) bilateral cases. Among 20 cases, 13(65%) were male and 7(35%) were female. All cases were followed up for period ranging from 4 month to 28 months. Final clinical outcome was satisfactory (excellent and good) in 34(92%) feet and unsatisfactory (fair plus poor) in 3(8%) feet (p<0.001).
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of the "Kosish Cocktail" in Treating Severe Pain in "Home Care" in Morphine-naïve Communities.
Indian J Palliat Care
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inavailability of morphine continues to plague most parts of India. Good palliative care must, however, focus on resources that are locally available, culturally acceptable, financially affordable, and easily applicable. These factors were all integral to the development of the "Kosish cocktail" for use in severe pain. This cocktail is a mixture of ketamine, midazolam, pentazocine lactate, and other adjuvants for use in the domiciliary set-up as intermittent subcutaneous injections in a morphine-naïve community. Our aims and objectives were: (1) To assess the efficacy of the "Kosish cocktail" in treating severe pain in terminally ill patients; (2) To assess the safety profile and note any adverse effects; (3) To evaluate its use in domiciliary set-ups in terms of safety and efficacy; (4) To empower the patient and the family in the process of patient care.
Related JoVE Video
Atypical presentation of non-ossifying fibroma.
Mymensingh Med J
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-ossifying fibroma is a common benign bone lesion but extensive involvement of almost whole of the shaft of right tibia is a rare presentation. The patient was a young lady of 35 years admitted at the department of Orthopaedics in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) on June 2006 with pain and swelling of right distal tibia and unable to walk without support, was diagnosed clinico-radiologically as a case of fibrous dysplasia. The lady was undergone surgery and biopsy confirmed a case of non-ossifying fibroma. Within the follow up period of 28 months, the patient was well with full functional limb and the lesion was also healed radiologically.
Related JoVE Video
Integrating provision of specialist lipid services with cascade testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia.
Curr. Opin. Lipidol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To highlight the unmet need for identifying individuals with familial hypercholesterolaemia and exploring the implications that this will have for local and national healthcare services.
Related JoVE Video
Unusually large coupling constants in diradicals obtained from excitation of mixed radical centers: a theoretical study on potential photomagnets.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three sets of heterosubstituted, interconvertible, cyclophanediene (CPD), and dihydropyrenes (DDPs) and one such set involving dinitrilepyrenes were examined by UB3LYP broken-symmetry methodology with 6-311++g(d,p) bases. Nitronyl nitroxide and oxoverdazyl (with both N and C terminals) are monoradical centers, whereas CPD and DDP moieties serve as couplers. The photoexcited CPD converts to DDP. The calculated exchange coupling constant (J) for o-VER(N)-DDP-NN is surprisingly high, 6412 cm(-1), and much larger than 28.9 cm(-1) for the CPD species, but the unsubstituted DDP is known to transform readily into pyrene, with the loss of reversibility. Nevertheless, o-VER(N)-(15,16-dinitrile)DDP-NN also has a large J value, 589.4 cm(-1). The corresponding CPD species has J = 53.3 cm(-1). We predict that the latter CPD and DDP diradicals are potential molecules to synthesize photomagnetic materials. The o-VER(N)-DDP-NN can also be an excellent photomagnetic switch at a considerably low temperature.
Related JoVE Video
Very strongly ferromagnetically coupled diradicals from mixed radical centers. II. Nitronyl nitroxide coupled to tetrathiafulvalene via spacers.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We predict large and positive intramolecular magnetic exchange coupling constants (J) for coupled diradicals constructed from nitronyl nitroxide and tetrathiafulvalene monoradical moieties. These diradicals have the general formula TTF-coupler-NN, where the couplers are mostly aromatic systems. Unrestricted density functional methodology (UB3LYP) has been used to optimize the molecular geometries of the triplet diradicals using the 6-311 g(d,p) basis set. This has been followed by single-point UB3LYP calculations for triplet and broken symmetry (BS) states using 6-311++g(3df,3pd) basis and the optimized triplet geometries. We find that the species comprising of ethylene (geminal coupling) and pyridine as couplers have singlet ground states whereas the other species have triplet ground states. These findings are in support of the spin alternation rule. The largest J value we predict is 648.6 cm(-1) for the molecule with the spacer pyrrole. We also determine the percent weightings of triplet and singlet components in the BS state, estimate the diradical nature, and calculate the relative weights of different singlet and triplet component functions in the BS solution in each case.
Related JoVE Video
Preventive palliation in the elderly - organizing health camps for the rural aged.
Indian J Palliat Care
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most of the needs of elders for support and assistance in the later stages of life are fulfilled by informal helpers. The position of a large number of older persons has become vulnerable due to which it cannot be taken for granted that their children will be able to look after them when they need care in old age, specially in view of the longer life span implying an extended period of dependency and higher costs to meet health and other needs. The condition of the rural elderly is even more pitiable, contrary to our beliefs, as availability, affordability and accessibility to medicare facilities are poor. We undertook the task of organizing a health camp in a rural set-up with the idea of implementing our concept of "preventive palliation" in which excellent palliative care was coupled with a pinch of prevention, like routine checks of blood pressure, routine physical check-ups, etc, so that any aberration can be detected early and necessary rectification measures can be implemented. These periods of routine check-ups can also be used to assess the psycho-social, cultural and emotional problems, if any. Such an approach, say every monthly, gives the elderly something to look forward to and ensures a high degree of customer satisfaction and greatly reduces the burden on the current health system. The challenges faced and the data obtained from this study were shocking. The elderly living in rural areas of the tribal state of Jharkhand suffer from poor physical and mental health, a factor which was rather unexpected in the Indian cultural system in the rural setting. Simple strategies like implementing routine health check ups with provision of "nutritious meal program" can go a long way in mitigating these problems in a cost-effective and simple manner. To make the government-based programs accessible and available to the end-users, participation of local bodies like NGOs is mandatory. Preventive palliation, a concept introduced by Kosish, is the way forward for providing palliative care to the rural-based elderly in most parts of India. This concept takes into account the local cultural, social, financial and long term feasibility and sustainability aspects of the care process.
Related JoVE Video
Application of mixed bone graft (autograft+allograft) in the management of giant cell tumor of bone.
Mymensingh Med J
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Giant cell tumor is a common bone neoplasm. We have initiated a prospective study for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone by mixed (Autograft+Allograft) bone graft in the department of orthopaedics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), during January 2002 to March 2008. A total 28 patients of giant cell tumor of bone were operated. In this study out of 28 cases, male were 11(39.28%) and female were 17(60.72%). Female were predominant. Age of the patients ranging from 11 years to 49 years, mean age 27.03 years. More common in 21 years to 30 years 16(57.14%) of cases. Common sites of lesion were distal & proximal end of femur 11(39.28%), proximal end of tibia 6(21.43%), proximal humerus 3(10.71%) and distal radius 3(10.71%). Final clinical outcome of giant cell tumor of bone treated by thorough curettage of the cavity and filled with mixed bone graft (freeze dried radiation sterilized bone allograft+autogenous bone graft) in which success rate is 75%(21) and recurrence rate is 25%(7). P is <0.001. Follow up period was 4 months to 4 years. From this study it was realized that mixed bone graft is useful graft material for enhancing osteogenic potential as well as maintaining structural integrity for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone.
Related JoVE Video
Management of old Tendo Achilles injury by surgical reconstruction with Lindholm technique.
Mymensingh Med J
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This prospective study was carried out in the department of orthopaedic surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from January 2006 to December 2007. Main aim of this study was to improve the power of planter flexion by reconstructive method with Lindholm technique to prevent walking disability. We had a study on 21 patients whose age range was 7 to 58 years. Mean age 34.19 years. Out of 21 cases male were 18(85.75%) and female were 3(14.25%). Chronocity of Tendo Achilles injury on average 2.64 (SD+/-1.08 month). Final clinical outcome of 21 cases 18 (85.75%) patients were satisfactory and 3(14.25%) were unsatisfactory. Lindholm technique is a good method of treatment for the management of Tendo Achilles injury was evident from this study. In Bangladesh toilet pan injury was more common. All patients were treated by surgical method of reconstruction by Lindholm technique.
Related JoVE Video
Immunohistochemical expression of muscarinic receptors in the urothelium and suburothelium of neurogenic and idiopathic overactive human bladders, and changes with botulinum neurotoxin administration.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the possible associations of urothelial and suburothelial muscarinic receptors with human bladder pathophysiology we examined the immunohistochemical expression of muscarinic receptors types 1, 2 and 3 in the bladder urothelium and suburothelium of patients with neurogenic or idiopathic detrusor overactivity compared with that in controls. We also examined associations with patient quantified symptoms and the effect of intradetrusor botulinum neurotoxin type A treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Suburothelial myofibroblasts in the human overactive bladder and the effect of botulinum neurotoxin type A treatment.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An increasing body of evidence suggests a possible role of suburothelial myofibroblasts (MFs) in bladder mechanosensation and in the pathophysiology of detrusor overactivity (DO).
Related JoVE Video
Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve estimation of low birth weight based on maternal early third trimester weight among Bengalee women of Kolkata, India.
Coll Antropol
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The cross-sectional hospital based study was undertaken to provide an efficient and useful cut off point of maternal early third trimester weight, for low birth weight (LBW), based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve among Bengalee mothers of Kolkata, India. A total of 233 mother-baby pairs were included in the present analysis. The means for maternal age and weight were 23.44 (SD = 3.88) years and 49.45 (7.19) kg, respectively. Means for gestational age and birth weight were 38.97 (1.12) week and 2664 (324) gm, respectively. The ROC curve analysis showed maternal weight < 48.0 kg as the best cutoff point of LBW. Data showed maternal weight < or = 48.0 kg had significantly higher OR (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.56-5.51) for delivering LBW baby. In conclusion, the cut-off point of maternal early third trimester weight < or = 48.0 kg could be used for nutritional intervention programs in order to combat LBW among this population.
Related JoVE Video
Epitrochlear lymph node metastases from invasive ductal breast cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metastasis to an epitrochlear lymph node from a primary invasive breast cancer has not been reported earlier. We report a case of epitrochlear lymph node metastasis that presented 10 years after the primary breast malignancy had been treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy. The patient was successfully treated and continues to remain asymptomatic more than 2 years after she presented with the metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
Janibacter hoylei sp. nov., Bacillus isronensis sp. nov. and Bacillus aryabhattai sp. nov., isolated from cryotubes used for collecting air from the upper atmosphere.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three novel bacterial strains, PVAS-1(T), B3W22(T) and B8W22(T), were isolated from cryotubes used to collect air samples at altitudes of between 27 and 41 km. Based on phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic features, DNA-DNA hybridization with the nearest phylogenetic neighbours and phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (PVAS-1(T), 1196 nt; B3W22(T), 1541 nt; B8W22(T), 1533 nt), the three strains were identified as representing novel species, and the names proposed are Janibacter hoylei sp. nov. (type strain PVAS-1(T) =MTCC 8307(T) =DSM 21601(T) =CCUG 56714(T)), Bacillus isronensis sp. nov. (type strain B3W22(T) =MTCC 7902(T) =JCM 13838(T)) and Bacillus aryabhattai sp. nov. (type strain B8W22(T) =MTCC 7755(T) =JCM 13839(T)).
Related JoVE Video
All-temperature magnon theory of ferromagnetism.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We present an all-temperature magnon formalism for ferromagnetic solids. To our knowledge, this is the first time that all-temperature spin statistics have been calculated. The general impression up to now is that the magnon formalism breaks down at the Curie point as it introduces a series expansion and unphysical states. Our treatment is based on an accurate quantum mechanical representation of the Holstein-Primakoff transformation. To achieve this end, we introduce the Kubo operator. The treatment is valid for all 14 types of Bravais lattices, and not limited to simple cubic unit cells. In the present work, we carry out a zeroth-order treatment involving all possible spin states, and leaving out all unphysical states. In a subsequent paper we will show that the perturbed energy values are very different, but the magnetic properties undergo only small modifications from the zeroth-order results.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of fiber diameter, pore size and seeding method on growth of human dermal fibroblasts in electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) fibrous mats.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nonwoven fiber mats of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL blended with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were generated by electrospinning. Differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and gravimetric measurement confirm the removal of PEO after immersion in water, as well as an increase in the PCL crystallinity. The reorganization of PCL resulted in the macroscopic alteration of the electrospun mat, decreasing the peak pore diameter up to a factor of 3 while only minimally affecting the fiber diameter. This technique was used to create electrospun PCL scaffolds with similar fiber diameters but different pore diameters to examine the effect of pore diameter on cell growth. Human Dermal Fibroblasts (HDF) were seeded into multiple samples using a perfusion seeding technique to guarantee successful cell deposition. Fluorescence analysis at 7, 14, and 21 days found that cells proliferated at a faster rate on scaffolds with peak pore diameters greater than 6 microm, as determined by mercury porosimetry. Cell conformation was also found to change as the peak pore diameter grew from 12 to 23 microm; cells began aligning along single fibers instead of attaching to multiple fibers. Knowledge of the effect of void architecture on cell proliferation and conformation could lead to the development of more effective scaffolds for tissue engineering.
Related JoVE Video
Chordoma with increased prolactin levels (pseudoprolactinoma) mimicking pituitary adenoma: a case report with review of the literature.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The article deals with a rare case of chordoma with increased prolactin levels. It could often result in a diagnostic dilemma and problems in differentiating it from a pituitary adenoma.
Related JoVE Video
Marital status and survival following bladder cancer.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Marital status has been implicated as a prognostic factor in bladder cancer survival. However, few studies have explored potential mechanisms through which this might occur.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of solute-solvent hydrogen bonding on intramolecular magnetic exchange interaction in aminoxyl diradicals: a QM/MM broken-symmetry DFT study.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have investigated the effect of nitroxide radical-water hydrogen bonding (NO(*)...H(2)O) on the intramolecular magnetic exchange interaction (J) for biologically relevant aminoxyl diradicals. We adopt a combination of broken-symmetry density functional theory and the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach. We find that the presence of hydrogen bonding reorients the radical spin density on -NO(*). This phenomenon reduces the effective distance between the two interacting localized spin centers that eventually increases the intramolecular magnetic exchange interaction. We have also investigated the functional variation of the magnetic exchange interaction, using various GGA (BLYP, PBE, HCTH407), meta-GGA (TPSS, VXSC), and hybrid (O3LYP, B3LYP, B3P86, B3PW91, and PBE0) functionals.
Related JoVE Video
Hyperventilation and hypophosphataemia.
Ann. Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe a case where extensive investigations were utilized to identify the aetiology of hypophosphataemia in a patient presenting with non-specific symptoms. The diagnosis of hyperventilation-induced hypophosphataemia was eventually established. Hyperventilation is a relatively common cause of isolated hypophosphataemia, but is easily overlooked as a cause.
Related JoVE Video
Very strongly ferromagnetically coupled diradicals from mixed radical centers: nitronyl nitroxide coupled to oxoverdazyl via polyene spacers.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We predict extremely large and positive intramolecular magnetic exchange coupling constants (J) for coupled diradicals constructed from nitronyl nitroxide (NN) and oxoverdazyl (o-VER). These radicals have the general formula o-VER(N)-nC-NN where nC represents an olefinic spacer with n = 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Species like o-VER(C)-nC-NN have negative coupling constants. The atoms in the parentheses show the point of attachment of the coupler to the verdazyl moiety. Both the N-linked series and C-linked series have comparable stability. The triplet molecular geometries were optimized by the density functional (UB3LYP) method using the 6-311 g(d,p) basis set. This was followed by single-point UB3LYP calculations using 6-311++g(3df,3pd) basis. To calculate J, single-point broken-symmetry computations were performed on the optimized triplet geometries and using the same basis set. The N-linked diradicals coupled through conjugated polyenes are topologically different. These are found to have coupling constants of the order of 1000 cm(-1), whereas the C-linked diradicals show coupling constants of the order of -100 cm(-1). In general, for both cases, the absolute magnitude of the coupling constant decreases with the increase in the length of the spacer.
Related JoVE Video
Are vigabatrin induced T2 hyperintensities in cranial MRI associated with acute encephalopathy and extrapyramidal symptoms?
Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reversible T2-hyperintensities in cranial MRI have been recently observed in infants with infantile spasms, who were treated with vigabatrin. In most cases, this phenomenon is solely been reported in neuroimaging practice without clinical relevance. We report two patients with infantile spasms, who not only developed transient T2-hyperintensities, but also presented acute encephalopathy, and extrapyramidal symptoms under vigabatrin therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Set-shifting among adolescents with bulimic spectrum eating disorders.
Psychosom Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Set-shifting difficulties are observed among adults with bulimia nervosa (BN). This study aimed to assess whether adolescents with BN and BN spectrum eating disorders exhibit set-shifting problems relative to healthy controls.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of the genome, proteome, and structure of yersiniophage ?R1-37.
J. Virol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The bacteriophage vB_YecM-?R1-37 (?R1-37) is a lytic yersiniophage that can propagate naturally in different Yersinia species carrying the correct lipopolysaccharide receptor. This large-tailed phage has deoxyuridine (dU) instead of thymidine in its DNA. In this study, we determined the genomic sequence of phage ?R1-37, mapped parts of the phage transcriptome, characterized the phage particle proteome, and characterized the virion structure by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction. The 262,391-bp genome of ?R1-37 is one of the largest sequenced phage genomes, and it contains 367 putative open reading frames (ORFs) and 5 tRNA genes. Mass-spectrometric analysis identified 69 phage particle structural proteins with the genes scattered throughout the genome. A total of 269 of the ORFs (73%) lack homologues in sequence databases. Based on terminator and promoter sequences identified from the intergenic regions, the phage genome was predicted to consist of 40 to 60 transcriptional units. Image reconstruction revealed that the ?R1-37 capsid consists of hexameric capsomers arranged on a T=27 lattice similar to the bacteriophage ?KZ. The tail of ?R1-37 has a contractile sheath. We conclude that phage ?R1-37 is a representative of a novel phage type that carries the dU-containing genome in a ?KZ-like head.
Related JoVE Video
A photoactivated nanofiber graft material for augmented Achilles tendon repair.
Lasers Surg Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Suture repair of Achilles tendon rupture can cause infection, inflammation and scarring, while prolonged immobilization promotes adhesions to surrounding tissues and joint stiffness. Early mobilization can reduce complications provided the repair is strong enough to resist re-rupture. We have developed a biocompatible, photoactivated tendon wrap from electrospun silk (ES) to provide additional strength to the repair that could permit early mobilization, and act as a barrier to adhesion formation.
Related JoVE Video
High magnetic exchange coupling constants: a density functional theory based study of substituted Schlenk diradicals.
J Phys Chem A
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Schlenk diradical has been known since 1915. After a detailed experimental work by Rajca, its magnetic nature has remained more or less unexplored. We have investigated by quantum chemical calculations the nature of magnetic coupling in 11 substituted Schlenk diradicals. Substitution has been considered at the fifth carbon atom of the meta-phenylene moiety. The UB3LYP method has been used to study 12 diradicals including the original one. The 6-311G(d,p) basis set has been employed for optimization of molecular geometry in both singlet and triplet states for each species. The singlet optimization has led to the optimization of the broken-symmetry structure for 10 species including the unsubstituted one. This development makes it possible to carry out further broken symmetry calculations in two ways. The triplet calculation has been done using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and the optimized triplet geometry in both procedures. The broken symmetry calculations have used the optimized geometries of either the triplet states or the broken symmetry solutions. The first method leads to the prediction of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) compatible magnetic exchange coupling constant (J) in the range 517-617 cm(-1). A direct optimization of the broken symmetry geometry gives rise to a lower estimate of J, in the range of 411-525 cm(-1) and compatible with macroscopic Curie studies. The calculated J for the unsubstituted Schlenk diradical is 512 cm(-1) that can be compared with 455 cm(-1) estimated by Rajca. In both cases, introduction of groups with +M and +I effects (Ingolds notation) decreases the J value from that for the unsubstituted Schlenk diradical while -I and -M groups at the same position increases J. These trends have been explained in terms of Hammett constants, atomic spin densities, and dihedral angles.
Related JoVE Video
Do workers underreport morbidity? The accuracy of self-reports of chronic conditions.
Soc Sci Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We use matched Danish health survey and register data to investigate discrepancies between register-based diagnoses and self-reported morbidity. We hypothesize that false negatives (medical diagnoses existing in the register but not reported in the survey) arise partly because individuals fear career repercussions of being discovered suffering a chronic or severe illness that potentially lowers productivity. We find evidence of substantial underreporting, which is indeed systematically higher for individuals in the labor market.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiovascular complications of chronic renal failure - an updated review.
Mymensingh Med J
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is frequently associated with CKD, which is important because individuals with CKD are more likely to die from CVD than to develop kidney failure. CVD in CKD is treatable and potentially preventable and CKD appears to be a risk factor for CVD. In order of incidence and frequency systemic hypertension, left ventricular failure, congestive cardiac failure, ischemic heart disease, anaemic heart failure, rhythm disturbances, pericarditis with or without effusion, cardiac tamponade, uraemic cardiomyopathy are various cardiovascular complications encountered in patients with chronic renal failure. A patient may present with one or more complications of cardiovascular system. The survival rate and prognosis to a great extent depends on proper management of these complications. Use of regular dialysis and renal transplant has changed the death pattern in developed countries but it is still a major problem in developing country. The aim of this article is early detection of CKD and proper management of it thereby preventing the major cardiovascular complications.
Related JoVE Video
Increased incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome after surgery.
Eur. J. Neurol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antecedent surgery has been described to trigger Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), but its evidence is poor and based on case reports only.
Related JoVE Video
Vigabatrin-induced forced normalization and psychosis--prolongated termination of behavioral symptoms but persistent antiepileptic effect after withdrawal.
Epilepsy Behav
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the case of an adolescent girl who suffered from symptomatic refractory focal epilepsy after an arteria cerebri media insult 15 years prior to this report. Five weeks after initiation of an add-on therapy with vigabatrin, she was seizure free. However, 2 weeks later, she suffered from psychosis. The phenomenon is well known as forced normalization. However, although the medication was stopped immediately, 3 years later, she shows not only persistent mild increased anxiousness, but also a marked reduction of seizure frequency as well as seizure intensity.
Related JoVE Video
On the photomagnetism of nitronyl nitroxide, imino nitroxide, and verdazyl-substituted azobenzene.
J Phys Chem A
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The cis- and trans-azobenzenes are known as photochromic isomers with the trans- converting into the cis-form and vice versa upon irradiation with specific wavelengths. We have quantum chemically investigated the cis- and trans-forms of substituted azobenzene diradicals, with two nitronyl nitroxides, imino nitoxides, or verdazyls at para positions and serving as monoradical centers, to determine whether they can exhibit a photoassisted magnetic crossover. Geometries of both substituted and unsubstituted molecules have been optimized by density functional (DF) method UB3LYP using the 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Optimization of the geometry of the cis isomers has required special care. Single point singlet, triplet, and broken symmetry calculations have been done using 6-311++G(3df, 3pd) basis set. The magnetic exchange coupling constants have been estimated from the broken symmetry calculations. Absorption wavelengths have been estimated for both substituted and unsubstituted species from time-dependent DF treatment using restricted spin-polarized methodology RB3LYP and 6-311++G(3df, 3pd) basis set. From the similarity in the calculated absorption wavelengths for the unsubstituted and substituted azobenzenes, and the increased oscillator strengths (f) for the substituted species, we predict that the diradical isomers would be strongly photochromic. From our triplet state and broken symmetry calculations, we predict that both the cis- and the trans-diradicals are antiferromagnetically coupled. This prediction is consistent with the spin alternation rule, and the possibility of a magnetic crossover is nonexistent for these species.
Related JoVE Video
High resolution array in the clinical approach to chromosomal phenotypes.
Gene
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Array genomic hybridization (AGH) has recently been implemented as a diagnostic tool for the detection of submicroscopic copy number variants (CNVs) in patients with developmental disorders. However, there is no consensus regarding the choice of the platform, the minimal resolution needed and systematic interpretation of CNVs. We report our experience in the clinical diagnostic use of high resolution AGH up to 100 kb on 131 patients with chromosomal phenotypes but previously normal karyotype. We evaluated the usefulness in our clinics and laboratories by the detection rate of causal CNVs and CNVs of unknown clinical significance and to what extent their interpretation would challenge the systematic use of high-resolution arrays in clinical application. Prioritizing phenotype-genotype correlation in our interpretation strategy to criteria previously described, we identified 33 (25.2%) potentially pathogenic aberrations. 16 aberrations were confirmed pathogenic (16.4% syndromic, 8.5% non-syndromic patients); 9 were new and individual aberrations, 3 of them were pathogenic although inherited and one is as small as approx 200 kb. 13 of 16 further CNVs of unknown significance were classified likely benign, for 3 the significance remained unclear. High resolution array allows the detection of up to 12.2% of pathogenic aberrations in a diagnostic clinical setting. Although the majority of aberrations are larger, the detection of small causal aberrations may be relevant for family counseling. The number of remaining unclear CNVs is limited. Careful phenotype-genotype correlations of the individual CNVs and clinical features are challenging but remain a hallmark for CNV interpretation.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.