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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of Goniosynechialysis During Phacoemulsification on IOP in Patients With Medically Well-controlled Chronic Angle-Closure Glaucoma.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of combined phacoemulsification and goniosynechialysis (PEGS) to phacoemulsification alone (PE) in patients with medically well-controlled chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG) with cataracts.
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Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the endometrium: A clinicopathologic study of six cases.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Primary small cell carcinoma of the endometrium is a rare disease that can only be diagnosed at an advanced stage, and thus has a poor prognosis. In this study, the clinicopathologic characteristics of endometrial small cell carcinoma are described and the survival outcomes are discussed.
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Hydrogel-based ultra-moisturizing cream formulation for skin hydration and enhanced dermal drug delivery.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To develop an external vehicle for skin hydration and enhanced dermal drug delivery, a hydrogel-based ultra-moisturizing cream (HUMC) was successfully formulated with carbopol 934P, urea, Tinocare GL, grape seed oil, and other excipients. The HUMC showed plastic flow behavior due to a gel structure with a cream base. Different types of drug-free vehicles such as a hydrogel, conventional cream (CC), and three HUMCs were prepared and subjected to an in vivo skin hydration test on a hairless mouse using a corneometer. Hydration effect (?AU) was in the order of HUMC2>HUMC1 ? CC>HUMC3>hydrogel. Using nile red (NR) and 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-CF) as lipophilic and hydrophilic fluorescent probes, respectively, in vitro skin permeation and accumulation studies were conducted using Franz diffusion cells. The values of steady-state flux (Jss, ng/h/cm(2)) were obtained: 74.8 (CC), 145.6 (HUMC1), and 161.9 (HUMC2) for NR delivery; 6.8 (CC), 8.3 (HUMC1), and 10.9 (HUMC2) for 5-CF delivery. The amounts retained in the skin at 12 h (Qr, ng/cm(2)) were determined: 86.4 (CC) and 102.0 (HUMC2) for NR; and 70.1 (CC) and 195.6 (HUMC2) for 5-CF. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the distribution of the fluorescent probes. NR tended to be localized into the deeper part of the skin with adipose tissue whereas 5-CF localized in the upper layer of the skin. Thus we propose that HUMC2 is an efficacious vehicle for skin hydration and enhances dermal delivery of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs.
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MicroRNA expression profiling and Notch1 and Notch2 expression in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of uterine cervix.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is known to be deregulated in cervical carcinomas. However, no data is available about the miRNA expression pattern for the minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of uterine cervix. We sought to detect deregulated miRNAs in MDA in an attempt to find the most dependable miRNA or their combinations to understand their tumorigenesis pathway and to identify diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. We also investigated the association between those miRNAs and their target genes, especially Notch1 and Notch2.
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Leucocyte-rich and platelet-rich fibrin for the treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: a prospective feasibility study.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Our aim was to assess the feasibility of using leucocyte-rich and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) for the treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in a single group study. After treatment with L-PRF, the response of each patient was recorded 1 month and 4 months postoperatively. Further assessments were made of the site, stage, concentration of c-terminal crosslinked telopepide of type 1 collagen, and actinomycosis. Among the total of 34 patients, 26 (77%) showed complete resolution, 6 (18%) had delayed resolution, and 2 (6%) showed no resolution. There was a significant association between the response to treatment and the stage of BRONJ (p=0.002) but no other significant associations were detected. This study has shown that it is feasible to use L-PRF for the treatment of BRONJ, but the effectiveness cannot be judged with this study design. Randomised prospective trials are needed to confirm this.
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PROPIT: A PROspective comparative clinical study evaluating the efficacy and safety of PITavastatin in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Dyslipidaemia and central obesity are the major factors underlying the dramatic increase in metabolic syndrome (MS). We compared the effects of early combined therapy with pitavastatin and intensive lifestyle modification (LSM) on the amelioration of each component of MS with those of LSM only.
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Improvement of diagnostic performance regarding retinal nerve fiber layer defect using shifting of the normative database according to vessel position.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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To evaluate the clinical efficacy of early detection of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect in a Korean population using shifting of the normative RNFL thickness database according to vessel position.
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Relationship between visual acuity and retinal structures measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients with open-angle glaucoma.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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We assessed the relationship between retinal structures measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and visual acuity in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients.
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Functional characterization of P-glycoprotein in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus and its potential role in remediating metal pollution.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus has been widely used in aquatic toxicity testing for diverse environmental pollutants including metals. Despite relatively well-characterized in vivo physiological modulations in response to aquatic pollutants, the molecular mechanisms due to toxicity and detoxification are still unclear. To better understand the mechanisms of metal transport and further detoxification, T. japonicus P-glycoprotein (TJ-P-gp) with conserved motifs/domains was cloned and measured for protein activity against the transcript and protein expression profiles in response to metal exposure. Specifically, we characterized the preliminary efflux activity and membrane topology of TJ-P-gp protein that supports a transport function for chemicals. To uncover whether the efflux activity of TJ-P-gp protein would be modulated by metal treatment, copepods were exposed to three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and were observed for both dose- and time-dependency on the efflux activity of TJ-P-gp protein with or without 10?M of P-gp-specific inhibitors verapamil and zosuquidar (LY335979) for 24h over a wide range of metal concentrations. In particular, treatment with zosuquidar induced metal accumulation in the inner body of T. japonicus. In addition, three metals significantly induced the transporting activity of TJ-P-gp in a concentration-dependent manner in both transcript and protein levels within 24h. Together these data indicate that T. japonicus has a conserved P-gp-mediated metal defense system through the induction of transcriptional up-regulation of TJ-P-gp gene and TJ-P-gp protein activity. This finding provides further understanding of the molecular defense mechanisms involved in P-glycoprotein-mediated metal detoxification in copepods.
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Enhancement of microalgae growth and fatty acid content under the influence of phytohormones.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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The growth of Scenedesmus obliquus improved with increase in phytohormones concentrations (10(-8)-10(-)(5)M). Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) supported the maximum growth at 10(-5)M with 17.7×10(6)cells/mL and total fatty acid of 97.9mg/g-DCW, enhancing the growth by 1.9-fold compared to control (9.5×10(6)cells/mL). While 10(-5)M of a newly discovered phytohormone Diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DAH) demonstrated a 2.5-fold higher growth with 23.5×10(6)cells/mL and a total fatty acid content of 100mg/g-DCW. Poly-unsaturated fatty acid content increased up to 56% and 59% at 10(-)(5)M of IAA and DAH, respectively. The highest carbohydrate content (33% and 34%) achieved at 10(-8)M and 10(-5)M of IAA and DAH, respectively. While, the highest protein content (34% and 35%) obtained at 10(-8)M of IAA and DAH, respectively. The current investigation demonstrates that phytohormones accelerate microalgal growth and induce the quality and quantity of fatty acid content for biodiesel production.
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Doxycycline enhances survival and self-renewal of human pluripotent stem cells.
Stem Cell Reports
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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We here report that doxycycline, an antibacterial agent, exerts dramatic effects on human embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESC/iPSCs) survival and self-renewal. The survival-promoting effect was also manifest in cultures of neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from hESC/iPSCs. These doxycycline effects are not associated with its antibacterial action, but mediated by direct activation of a PI3K-AKT intracellular signal. These findings indicate doxycycline as a useful supplement for stem cell cultures, facilitating their growth and maintenance.
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Electrochemical signal amplification for immunosensor based on 3D interdigitated array electrodes.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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We devised an electrochemical redox cycling based on three-dimensional interdigitated array (3D IDA) electrodes for signal amplification to enhance the sensitivity of chip-based immunosensors. The 3D IDA consists of two closely spaced parallel indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes that are positioned not only on the bottom but also the ceiling, facing each other along a microfluidic channel. We investigated the signal intensities from various geometric configurations: Open-2D IDA, Closed-2D IDA, and 3D IDA through electrochemical experiments and finite-element simulations. The 3D IDA among the four different systems exhibited the greatest signal amplification resulting from efficient redox cycling of electroactive species confined in the microchannel so that the faradaic current was augmented by a factor of ?100. We exploited the enhanced sensitivity of the 3D IDA to build up a chronocoulometric immunosensing platform based on the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol. The mouse IgGs on the 3D IDA showed much lower detection limits than on the Closed-2D IDA. The detection limit for mouse IgG measured using the 3D IDA was ?10 fg/mL, while it was ?100 fg/mL for the Closed-2D IDA. Moreover, the proposed immunosensor system with the 3D IDA successfully worked for clinical analysis as shown by the sensitive detection of cardiac troponin I in human serum down to 100 fg/mL.
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Differential expression patterns of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) -1, -4, -5, and -14 in human placenta and gestational trophoblastic diseases.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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The ability of intermediate trophoblasts to invade maternal tissue during placentation depends on how well they can degrade the extracellular matrix. Invasion into the extracellular matrix requires many complex proteases. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) is a novel family of secreted metalloproteinases. The ADAMTS-1, -4, -5, and -14 subtypes are known to be expressed in human placenta, but little is understood about their expression patterns.
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Discovery of substituted 6-pheny-3H-pyridazin-3-one derivatives as novel c-Met kinase inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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We report a series of phenyl substituted pyridazin-3-ones substituted with morpholino-pyrimidines. The SAR of the phenyl was explored and their c-Met kinase and cell-based inhibitory activity toward c-Met driven cell lines were evaluated. Described herein is a potent c-Met inhibitor by structural modification of the parent morpholino-pyridazinone scaffold, with particular focus on the phenyl and pyrimidine substituents.
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The effects of salinity on the growth and biochemical properties of Chlamydomonas mexicana GU732420 cultivated in municipal wastewater.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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A freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas mexicana was grown on municipal wastewater with different levels of salinity up to 400 mmol/L NaCl, and the biochemical properties were characterized after 10 days of cultivation. C. mexicana showed the higher specific growth rates for 100 and 200mmol/L NaCl. Nitrogen was completely removed within 10 days as a result of algal growth promoted by the addition of 200-400 mmol/L NaCl. Phosphorus removal increased from 77-84% as the concentration of NaCI increased from 100 to 400 mmol/L. The highest removal of total inorganic carbon (66%) was obtained with the addition of 200 mmol/L NaCl. The lipid content increased from 17% to 38% as the concentration of NaCl increased from 0 to 400mmol/L. The total fatty acid content and glycerol yield of C. mexicana increased 1.8- and 4-fold in wastewater amended with NaCl, respectively. Fatty acids accumulated in the algal biomass were mainly composed of palmitic (27-29%), y-linolenic (27-30%), and linolelaidic acids (16-18%). The optimal condition for fatty acids production in C. mexicana was observed when the municipal wastewater was amended with 100-200 mmol/L NaCl with a simultaneous removal of nutrients.
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Prognostic significance of single isolated cells with decreased E-cadherin expression in pseudomyxoma peritonei.
Pathol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) cases can be classified into the prognosis-related subtypes of disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis (DPAM) and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis (PMCA). To investigate the mechanisms of mucinous invasion and the differing prognoses of these two subtypes, we examined the expression levels of proteins involved in cellular adhesion and invasion, including E-cadherin, vimentin, ?-catenin, and S100A4, in single isolated tumor cells (SICs) and cohesive cellular strips within mucin pools isolated from DPAM (n = 31) and PMCA (n = 21) patients. In both PMCA and DPAM cases, SICs showed a complete loss of E-cadherin expression, whereas cells in cohesive cellular clusters retained E-cadherin expression. The frequency of high numbers of SICs (>8) in PMCA cases was significantly greater than that in DPAM cases (86% and 26%, respectively) and was correlated with poor progression-free survival (P = 0.019) in a univariate analysis. In both PMP subtypes, strong vimentin expression was identified in most of the SICs but not the cohesive cellular strips. The relatively slow progression of DPAM may be attributable to the smaller number of SICs that lack E-cadherin expression and have increased vimentin expression, whereas the rapid progression of PMCA may be due to larger numbers of these SICs.
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RIPL peptide (IPLVVPLRRRRRRRRC)-conjugated liposomes for enhanced intracellular drug delivery to hepsin-expressing cancer cells.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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To facilitate selective drug delivery to hepsin (Hpn)-expressing cancer cells, the RIPL peptide (IPLVVPLRRRRRRRRC; 16mer; 2.1 kDa) was synthesized as a novel cell penetrating/homing peptide (CPHP) and conjugated to a liposomal carrier.
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Inhibitory effect of the carnosine-gallic acid synthetic peptide on MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells.
J. Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade extracellular matrix components and play important roles in a variety of biological and pathological processes such as malignant tumor metastasis and invasion. In this study, we constructed carnosine-gallic acid peptide (CGP) to identify a better MMP inhibitor than carnosine. The inhibitory effects of CGP on MMP-2 and MMP-9 were investigated in the human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cell line. As a result, CGP significantly decreased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression levels without a cytotoxic effect. Moreover, CGP may inhibit migration and invasion in HT1080 cells through the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-uPA receptor signaling pathways to inhibit MMP-2 and MMP-9. Based on these results, it appears that CGP may play an important role in preventing and treating several MMP-2 and MMP-9-mediated health problems such as metastasis.
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Uncommon and rare human papillomavirus genotypes relating to cervical carcinomas.
Korean J Pathol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an oncogenic virus in cervical cancer and most invasive carcinomas (ICs) are caused by HPV16 and 18. However, the roles and contributions of other uncommon and rare genotypes remain uncertain.
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The effect of various dual task training methods with gait on the balance and gait of patients with chronic stroke.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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[Purpose] This study examined the effects of various dual task gait training methods (motor dual task gait training, cognitive dual task gait training, and motor and cognitive dual task gait training) on the balance and gait abilities of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-three outpatients performed dual task gait training for 30 minutes per day, three times a week, for eight weeks from June to August, 2012. Balance ability was measured pre-and posttest using the stability test index, the weight distribution index, the functional reach test, the timed up and go test, and the four square step test. Gait ability was measured by the 10?m walk test and a 6?min walk test before and after the training. The paired t-test was used to compare measurements before and after training within each group, and ANOVA was used to compare measurements before and after training among the groups. [Results] Comparisons within each group indicated significant differences in all variables between before and after the training in all three groups. Comparison between the groups showed that the greatest improvements were seen in all tests, except for the timed up and go test, following motor and cognitive dual task gait training. [Conclusion] In a real walking environment, the motor and cognitive dual task gait training was more effective at improving the balance and gait abilities of chronic stroke patients than either the motor dual task gait training or the cognitive dual task gait training alone.
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Toxicity of atrazine and its bioaccumulation and biodegradation in a green microalga, Chlamydomonas mexicana.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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This study evaluated the toxicity of herbicide atrazine, along with its bioaccumulation and biodegradation in the green microalga Chlamydomonas mexicana. At low concentration (10 ?g L(-1)), atrazine had no profound effect on the microalga, while higher concentrations (25, 50, and 100 ?g L(-1)) imposed toxicity, leading to inhibition of cell growth and chlorophyll a accumulation by 22 %, 33 %, and 36 %, and 13 %, 24 %, and 27 %, respectively. Atrazine 96-h EC50 for C. mexicana was estimated to be 33 ?g L(-1). Microalga showed a capability to accumulate atrazine in the cell and to biodegrade the cell-accumulated atrazine resulting in 14-36 % atrazine degradation at 10-100 ?g L(-1). Increasing atrazine concentration decreased the total fatty acids (from 102 to 75 mg g(-1)) and increased the unsaturated fatty acid content in the microalga. Carbohydrate content increased gradually with the increase in atrazine concentration up to 15 %. This study shows that C. mexicana has the capability to degrade atrazine and can be employed for the remediation of atrazine-contaminated streams.
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Three dimensional finite element analysis of the stress distribution around the mandibular posterior implant during non-working movement according to the amount of cantilever.
J Adv Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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In case of large horizontal discrepancy of alveolar ridge due to severe resorption, cantilevered crown is usually an unavoidable treatment modality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical criteria for the placement of the aforementioned implant crown.
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Variations of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness according to the torsion direction of optic disc.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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To examine the relationship between the optic disc torsion and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness through a comparison with the macular ganglion cell inner plexiform layer complex (GCIPL) thickness measured by Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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ALK inhibitors of bis-ortho-alkoxy-para-piperazinesubstituted-pyrimidines and -triazines for cancer treatment.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Syntheses of various bis-ortho-alkoxy-para-piperazineanilino-pyrimidines and -triazines of KRCA-0008 analogs are described and their structure-activity-relationship to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is discussed. 5-trifluoromethyl-2,4-pyrimidine analog (2) seems to be most potent in both biochemical and cellular assay in this study, however it shows inferior mice xenograft activity to Crizotinib presumably due to its sub-optimal PK parameters. 4,6-disubstituted pyrimidine and 2,4-disubstituted triazine derivatives of KRCA-0008 are less potent or inactive to ALK wt., and this observation is explained with their molecular modeling compared to KRCA-0008.
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Heritabilities of intraocular pressure in the population of Korea: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009.
JAMA Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the principal modifiable risk factor for the progression of primary open-angle glaucoma. Studies that have measured the IOP directly in large numbers of matched parent-offspring pairs are limited in Asian populations.
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Effect of mine wastewater on nutrient removal and lipid production by a green microalga Micratinium reisseri from concentrated municipal wastewater.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Effect of mine wastewater on the nutrient removal efficiency of a green microalga Micratinium reisseri from concentrated municipal wastewater (CMW) with simultaneous lipid production was investigated. Different dilution ratios (1-10%) of CMW either with mine wastewater (MWF) or mine wastewater without Fe (MWOF) were used. M. reisseri showed the highest growth (0.8gL(-1)) and nutrient uptake (35.9mgTNL(-1) and 5.4mgTPL(-1)) at 3% MWF ([Fe]tot=6.7mgL(-1)), and the highest lipid productivity (10.4mgL(-1)day(-1)) at 5% MWF ([Fe]tot=11.2mgL(-1)) after 15days. CMW supported the algal autoflocculation due to formation of phosphate, calcium and magnesium precipitates at a high suspension pH. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed that the microalgal lipids possessed 79-82% of C16/C18 fatty acids. Application of mine wastewater improved the nutrient removal efficiency, growth and lipid productivity of M. reisseri cultivated in CMW.
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The influence of anodic helical design on fluid flow and bioelectrochemical performance.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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In this study three different tubular helical anode designs are compared, for each helical design the pitch and nominal sectional area/liquid flow channel between the helicoids was varied and this produced maximum power densities of 11.63, 9.2 and 6.73Wm(-3) (small, medium and large helical flow channel cross-sections). It is found that the level of mixing and the associated shear rates present in the anodes affects both the power development and biofilm formation. The small helical flow channel carbon anode produced 40% more biofilm and this result was related to modelling data which determined a system shear rate of 237s(-1), compared to 52s(-1) and 47s(-1) for the other reactor configurations. The results from computational fluid dynamic modelling further distinguishes between convective flow conditions and supports the influence of helical structure on system performance, so establishing the importance of anodic design on the overall electrogenic biofilm activity.
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Photoautotrophic hydrogen production by eukaryotic microalgae under aerobic conditions.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria produce hydrogen under anaerobic and limited aerobic conditions. Here we show that novel microalgal strains (Chlorella vulgaris YSL01 and YSL16) upregulate the expression of the hydrogenase gene (HYDA) and simultaneously produce hydrogen through photosynthesis, using CO2 as the sole source of carbon under aerobic conditions with continuous illumination. We employ dissolved oxygen regimes that represent natural aquatic conditions for microalgae. The experimental expression of HYDA and the specific activity of hydrogenase demonstrate that C. vulgaris YSL01 and YSL16 enzymatically produce hydrogen, even under atmospheric conditions, which was previously considered infeasible. Photoautotrophic H2 production has important implications for assessing ecological and algae-based photolysis.
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Glaucoma diagnostic value of the total macular thickness and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness according to optic disc area.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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This study examined the diagnostic value of the perimacular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness in the detection of glaucoma according to the optic disc area.
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Protein NMR Structures Refined without NOE Data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The refinement of low-quality structures is an important challenge in protein structure prediction. Many studies have been conducted on protein structure refinement; the refinement of structures derived from NMR spectroscopy has been especially intensively studied. In this study, we generated flat-bottom distance potential instead of NOE data because NOE data have ambiguity and uncertainty. The potential was derived from distance information from given structures and prevented structural dislocation during the refinement process. A simulated annealing protocol was used to minimize the potential energy of the structure. The protocol was tested on 134 NMR structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) that also have X-ray structures. Among them, 50 structures were used as a training set to find the optimal "width" parameter in the flat-bottom distance potential functions. In the validation set (the other 84 structures), most of the 12 quality assessment scores of the refined structures were significantly improved (total score increased from 1.215 to 2.044). Moreover, the secondary structure similarity of the refined structure was improved over that of the original structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the combination of two energy potentials, statistical torsion angle potential (STAP) and the flat-bottom distance potential, can drive the refinement of NMR structures.
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Analysis and comparison of somatic mutations in paired primary and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer samples.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The TP53 mutations have been proved to be predominated in ovarian cancer in a study from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). However, the molecular characteristics of recurrent ovarian cancers following initial treatment have been poorly estimated. This study was to investigate the pattern of somatic point mutations in matched paired samples of primary and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancers, using the OncoMap mutation detection protocol. We have adapted a high-throughput genotyping platform to determine the mutation status of a large panel of known cancer genes. OncoMap v.4.4 was used to evaluate genomic DNA isolated from a set of 92 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors, consisting of matched paired samples of initially diagnosed and recurrent tumors from 46 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Mutations were observed in 33.7% of the samples, with 29.3% of these samples having a single mutation and the remaining 4.3% having two or more mutations. Among the 41 genes analyzed, 35 mutations were found in four genes, namely, CDKN2A (2.2%), KRAS (6.5%), MLH1 (8.2%) and TP53 (20.7%). TP53 was the most frequently mutated gene, but there was no correlation between the presence of mutation in any gene and clinical prognosis. Furthermore, somatic mutations did not differ between primary and recurrent ovarian carcinomas. Every mutation present in recurrent samples was detected in the corresponding primary sample. In conclusion, these OncoMap data of Korean EOC samples provide that somatic mutations were found in CDKN2A, KRAS, MLH1, and TP53. No differences in mutational status between primary and recurrent samples were detected. To understand the biology of tumor recurrence in epithelial ovarian cancer, more studies are necessary, including epigenetic modifications or additional mutations in other genes.
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Modulation of Quinone PCET Reaction by Ca(2+) Ion Captured by Calix[4]quinone in Water.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Calix[4]arene-triacid-monoquinone (CTAQ), a quinone-containing water-soluble ionophore, was utilized to investigate how proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions of quinones were influenced by redox-inactive metal ions in aqueous environment. This ionophoric quinone derivative captured a Ca(2+) ion that drastically altered the voltammetric behavior of quinone, showing a characteristic response to pH and unique redox wave separation. Spectroelectrochemistry verified significant stabilization of the semiquinone, and electrocatalytic currents were observed in the presence of Ca(2+)-free CTAQ. Using digital simulation of cyclic voltammograms to clarify how the thermodynamic properties of quinones were altered, a simple scheme was proposed that successfully accounted for all the observations. The change induced by Ca(2+) complexation was explained on the basis of the combined effects of the electrostatic influence of the captured metal ion and hydrogen bonding of water molecules with the support of DFT calculation.
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A simple process for the preparation of copper (I) oxide nanoparticles by a thermal decomposition process with borane tert-butylamine complex.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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To control the optical properties of Cu2O for a variety of application, we synthesized Cu2O in nanoscale without other treatments. Cu2O nanoparticles with an average size of 2.7 nm (sigma < or = 3.7%) were successfully synthesized in this study via a modified thermal decomposition process. Copper (II) acetylacetonate was used as a precursor, and oleylamine was used as a solvent, a surfactant and a reducing agent. The oleylamine-mediated synthesis allowed for the preparation of Cu2O nanoparticles with a narrower size distribution, and the nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of a borane tert-butylamine (BTB) complex, where BTB was a strong co-reducing agent together with oleylamine. UV-vis spectroscopy analysis suggest that band gap energy of these Cu2O particles is enlarged from 2.1 eV in the bulk to 3.1 eV in the 2.7-nm nanoparticles, which is larger than most other reported value of Cu2O nanoparticles. Therefore, these nanoparticles could be used as a transparent material because of transformed optical property.
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Changes in subfoveal choroidal thickness and choroidal extravascular density by spectral domain optical coherence tomography after haemodialysis: a pilot study.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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To examine the changes in the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and choroidal density using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) before and after haemodialysis (HD).
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Synthesis of 3-O-fluorescently mono-modified reversible terminators and their uses in sequencing-by-synthesis.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies recently developed are now used for study of genomes from various organisms. Sequencing-by-synthesis (SBS) is a key strategy in the NGS. The SBS uses nucleotides so-called dual-modified reversible terminators (DRTs) in which bases are labeled with fluorophores and 3-OH is protected with a reversibly cleavable chemical group, respectively. In this study, we examined the possibility of performing SBS with mono-modified reversible terminators (MRTs), in which the reversible blocking group on the 3-OH plays a dual role as a fluorescent signal report as well as a chemical protection. We studied cyclic reversible termination by using two MRTs (dA and dT), wherein the modifications were two different fluorophores and cleavable to regenerate a free 3-OH. We here demonstrated that SBS could be achieved with incorporation of MRTs by a DNA polymerase and correct base-calls based on the two different colors from the fluorophores.
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Design and synthesis of novel 3-(benzo[d]oxazol-2-yl)-5-(1-(piperidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyridin-2-amine derivatives as selective G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 and -5 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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G-protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-2 and -5 are emerging therapeutic targets for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In our efforts to discover novel small molecules to inhibit GRK-2 and -5, a class of compound based on 3-(benzo[d]oxazol-2-yl)-5-(1-(piperidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyridin-2-amine was identified as a novel hit by high throughput screening campaign. Structural modification of parent benzoxazole scaffolds by introducing substituents on phenyl displayed potent inhibitory activities toward GRK-2 and -5.
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Micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma in a multilocular thymic cyst: a case study.
Korean J Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Herein, we report a case of micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma in a previously healthy 73-year-old male. Thymectomy was performed. The solid and macrocystic masses were encapsulated with focal invasion. The solid portion consisted of nodules of bland-looking spindle or round epithelial cells in lymphoid stroma containing prominent germinal centers. The epithelial cells had moderate amount of cytoplasm and occasional mucin production. The cystic portion was lined with cuboidal epithelium. According to World Health Organization (WHO) classification, the mass was diagnosed as a micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma accompanied by a pre-existing multilocular thymic cyst. Micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma, a possible variant of type A thymoma, is an extremely rare tumor. This so-called "unusual" variant may imply the schematic weakness of the current WHO classification that cannot cover all morphologic types. Further study is recommended for clarification of this variant and its incorporation into the current classification.
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What does absence of lymph node in resected specimen mean after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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The effect of insufficient node sampling in patients with rectal cancer managed by neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery has not been clearly determined. We evalulated the impact of insufficient sampling or even abscence of lymph nodes in the specimen on survival in patients at high-risk (T3, T4 or node positive) for rectal cancer.
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Novel 2,4-dianilino-5-fluoropyrimidine derivatives possessing ALK inhibitory activities.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2013
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A new series of 2,4-dianilino-5-fluoropyrimidine derivatives were designed and synthesized and their anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitory activities were evaluated by biochemical and cell-based assays in order to discover a new ALK inhibitor. Most compounds synthesized showed good inhibitory activities against ALK and good cytotoxic activities in H3122 cell line. The best compound 6f showed good activity against wild-type ALK along with crizotinib-resistant mutant ALK, and it showed 6 times better activity in cell-based assay than crizotinib. Some SAR studies were performed by the comparisons of the activities between 6 and the designed-synthesized compounds.
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Novel bis-ortho-alkoxy-para-piperazinesubstituted-2,4-dianilinopyrimidines (KRCA-0008) as potent and selective ALK inhibitors for anticancer treatment.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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The synthesis of bis-ortho-alkoxy-para-piperazinesubstituted-2,4-dianilinopyrimidines is described and their structure-activity-relationship to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is presented. KRCA-0008 is selective and potent to ALK and Ack1, and displays drug-like properties without hERG liability. KRCA-0008 demonstrates in vivo efficacy comparable to Crizotinib in xenograft mice model.
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Comparison of the optic nerve imaging by time-domain optical coherence tomography and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography in distinguishing normal eyes from those with glaucoma.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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To assess agreement in cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) estimation between stereoscopic optic disc photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and Fourier-domain OCT, and to compare the discriminating ability of optic nerve head (ONH) parameters by time-domain OCT and Fourier-domain OCT for glaucoma detection.
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Pulmonary metastatic nodules of uterine low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 10 cases.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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To identify histopathological and immunohistochemical findings that aid diagnosis of metastatic endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) in small biopsy specimens of the lung.
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Comparison of macular ganglion cell complex thickness by Fourier-domain OCT in normal tension glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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To compare perimacular ganglion cell complex (GCC) parameters between patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).
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Immunohistochemical analysis for therapeutic targets and prognostic markers in low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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To investigate potential therapeutic targets and prognostic markers for low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LGESS).
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Stepwise treatment using corticosteroids alone and in combination with cyclosporine in korean patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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We undertook an observational study to investigate the effects of immunosuppressive treatment on proteinuria and renal function in 179 Korean idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients with nephrotic syndrome.
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Thyroid hormone replacement therapy attenuates the decline of renal function in chronic kidney disease patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is not a rare condition in females, the elderly, or patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Even though previous studies have demonstrated that thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) improves cardiac function and dyslipidemia in patients with SCH, it remains unclear as to whether THRT can improve renal function in CKD patients with SCH. This study investigated the impact of THRT on changes in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in this patient population.
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Prospective biomarker evaluation in patients with osteonecrosis of the jaw who received bisphosphonates.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Bone biomarkers have been suggested for the risk assessment for osteonecrosis of the jaw, a serious complication associated with bisphosphonate (BP) use; however, no consensus has been reached. This study investigated the possible associations between bone biomarkers and the development of bisphosphonates-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). This is a case-control study of 37 patients with BRONJ (age, 73.6±11.2years) who had at least 1 sample available at diagnosis, out of which, 35 were taking BPs for osteoporosis and 2 patients for bone metastasis. Age- and gender-matched 37 patients who had been exposed to BPs for >24months and had no evidence of BRONJ after dentoalveolar surgery served as control group. The association between biomarkers (osteocalcin [OC], deoxypyridinoline [DPD], C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I [CTX], N-terminal telopeptides [NTX], bone-specific alkaline phosphatase [BAP], and parathyroid hormone [PTH]) and BRONJ development, the effects of BP discontinuation on biomarkers, and the performance of biomarkers for risk assessment were investigated. In our study, the PTH levels were found to be significantly higher in BRONJ patients compared to controls (P<0.05). But the OC, DPD, CTX, NTX, and BAP levels were not significantly different between the 2 groups (P>0.05). The CTX level in reference to a 150pg/mL cutoff was also not significant for BRONJ development (P>0.05). Among BRONJ patients who discontinued BP, in a linear mixed model, only CTX showed a significant increase over time (?=0.002, P=0.007). The cutoff PTH level was >41.52pg/mL (AUC=0.719, P=0.009), and that of CTX was ?0.094ng/mL (AUC=0.619, P=0.069). In conclusion, there is insufficient evidence for the risk prediction for BRONJ of current bone biomarkers; additional research is necessary.
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Discovery of a potent small molecule SIRT1/2 inhibitor with anticancer effects.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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SIRT1 and SIRT2 are deacetylase enzymes that belong to the sirtuin family and are involved in tumorigenesis. In our screen for small molecules inhibiting SIRT1/2 toxoflavin was identified. Toxoflavin potently inhibited SIRT1 activity in in vitro deacetylase assay using purified SIRT1 protein. SIRT2 activity was also inhibited by toxoflavin less potently than SIRT1 in deacetylase assay in vitro. Toxoflavin exhibited growth inhibition of various cancer cell lines including A549 lung cancer cells with a GI(50) of 48 nM. Toxoflavin treatment in A549 cells increased the acetylated form of p53, which is a substrate of SIRT1. The acetylation levels of ?-tubulin, a SIRT2 substrate, were also increased by toxoflavin treatment dose-dependently. Several toxoflavin derivatives were synthesized to determine the preliminary structure-activity relationship of toxoflavin. Some of the toxoflavin derivatives showed highly selective inhibition against SIRT1. In conclusion, this study presented toxoflavin as a potent SIRT1/2 inhibitor with anticancer activity.
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Clinical Comparison of 30-Day Mortalities and 6-Month Functional Recoveries after Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Patients with or without End-Stage Renal Disease.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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The aim of this study was to determine 30-day mortality and 6-month functional recovery rates in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (S-ICH) patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and to compare the outcomes of these patients and S-ICH patients without ESRD.
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Crush cytology of a primary intraspinal rhabdoid papillary meningioma: a case report.
Acta Cytol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Both rhabdoid and papillary meningioma are rare variants of meningioma categorized as WHO grade III. Here, we report a rare case of combined rhabdoid papillary meningioma with discussion of its differential intraoperative cytologic diagnoses.
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Fractionated radiation-induced nitric oxide promotes expansion of glioma stem-like cells.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Glioblastoma remains an incurable brain disease due to the prevalence of its recurrence. Considerable evidence suggests that glioma stem-like cells are responsible for glioma relapse after treatment, which commonly involves ionizing radiation. Here, we found that fractionated ionizing radiation (2 Gy/day for 3 days) induced glioma stem-like cell expansion and resistance to anticancer treatment such as cisplatin (50 ?M) or taxol (500 nM), or by ionizing radiation (10 Gy) in both glioma cell lines (U87, U373) and patient-derived glioma cells. Of note, concomitant increase of nitric oxide production occurred with the radiation-induced increase of the glioma stem-like cell population through upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In line with this observation, downregulation of iNOS effectively reduced the glioma stem-like cell population and decreased resistance to anticancer treatment. Collectively, our results suggest that targeting iNOS in combination with ionizing radiation might increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for glioma treatment.
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Serum adiponectin and type 2 diabetes: a 6-year follow-up cohort study.
Diabetes Metab J
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Studies on factors which may predict the risk of diabetes are scarce. This prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the association between adiponectin and type 2 diabetes among Korean men and women.
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Control of power sourced from a microbial fuel cell reduces its start-up time and increases bioelectrochemical activity.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance depends on the selective development of an electrogenic biofilm at an electrode. Controlled biofilm enrichment may reduce start-up time and improve subsequent power performance. The anode potential is known to affect start-up and subsequent performance in electrogenic bio-catalytic consortia. Control strategies varying electrical load through gradient based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and transient poised anode potential followed by MPPT are compared to static ohmic loading. Three replicate H-type MFCs were used to investigate start-up strategies: (1) application of an MPPT algorithm preceded by poised-potential at the anode (+0.645 V vs Ag/AgCl); (2) MFC connected to MPPT-only; (3) static external load of 1 k? and 500 ?. Active control showed a significant reduction in start-up time from 42 to 22 days, along with 3.5-fold increase in biocatalytic activity after start-up. Such active control may improve applicability by accelerating start-up and enhancing MFC power and bio-catalytic performance.
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Microbial fuel cell type biosensor for specific volatile fatty acids using acclimated bacterial communities.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration is one of the most important parameters for monitoring bio-processes such as anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells. In this study the correlation between VFA concentration and current/voltage responses and electrochemical properties by using the MFC technology was evaluated. The discrimination between different species of VFA by using two methods i.e., coulombic efficiency and cyclic voltammetry was investigated. Columbic efficiency gave a slow response of greater than 20h, particularly at concentration levels of 20mgl(-1). By using cyclic voltammetry to measure the oxidation peak at a consistent scan rate showed linear correlation to VFA concentration and peak current produced, up to <40mgl(-1)) in a rapid response time of 1-2min. The results presented showed good correlations between the individual VFA species concentration and charge, and also current generated. A MFC based biosensor array was produced capable of measuring individual acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations with sensitivity down to 5mgl(-1) and up to 40mgl(-1).
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A possible role for CD8+ and non-CD8+ cell granzyme B in early small airway wall remodelling in centrilobular emphysema.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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CD8(+) cell infiltration and apoptosis of airway epithelial cells are increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CD8(+) T cells induce apoptosis by releasing granzymes, which can also cause extracellular matrix degradation and remodelling. Granzyme B levels and T cells expressing granzyme B are increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of COPD patients, which suggests that granzyme B may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. This study provides quantitation of granzyme B-positive cells in relation to CD8(+) cells in the small airway walls of emphysema.
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VEGF-A regulated by progesterone governs uterine angiogenesis and vascular remodelling during pregnancy.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The features and regulation of uterine angiogenesis and vascular remodelling during pregnancy are poorly defined. Here we show that dynamic and variable decidual angiogenesis (sprouting, intussusception and networking), and active vigorous vascular remodelling such as enlargement and elongation of vascular sinus folding (VSF) and mural cell drop-out occur distinctly in a spatiotemporal manner in the rapidly growing mouse uterus during early pregnancy - just after implantation but before placentation. Decidual angiogenesis is mainly regulated through VEGF-A secreted from the progesterone receptor (PR)-expressing decidual stromal cells which are largely distributed in the anti-mesometrial region (AMR). In comparison, P4 -PR-regulated VEGF-A-VEGFR2 signalling, ligand-independent VEGFR3 signalling and uterine natural killer (uNK) cells positively and coordinately regulate enlargement and elongation of VSF. During the postpartum period, Tie2 signalling could be involved in vascular maturation at the endometrium in a ligand-independent manner, with marked reduction of VEGF-A, VEGFR2 and PR expressions. Overall, we show that two key vascular growth factor receptors - VEGFR2 and Tie2 - strikingly but differentially regulate decidual angiogenesis and vascular remodelling in rapidly growing and regressing uteri in an organotypic manner.
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Alveolar distraction osteogenesis versus autogenous onlay bone graft for vertical augmentation of severely atrophied alveolar ridges after 12 years of long-term follow-up.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate alveolar distraction osteogenesis (ADO) and autogenous onlay bone graft (AOBG) procedures by comparing their long-term results and their ability to correct severe vertical alveolar defects for further rehabilitation.
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Drug delivery by a self-assembled DNA tetrahedron for overcoming drug resistance in breast cancer cells.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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A DNA tetrahedron is employed for efficient delivery of doxorubicin into drug-resistant breast cancer cells. The drug delivered with the DNA nanoconstruct is considerably cytotoxic, whereas free doxorubicin is virtually non-cytotoxic for the drug-resistant cells. Thus, the DNA tetrahedron, made of the inherently natural and biocompatible material, can be a good candidate for the drug carrier to overcome MDR in cancer cells.
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Poor prognosis of uterine serous carcinoma compared with grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma in early stage patients.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Difference in prognosis between grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma (G3EC) of the endometrium and uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is controversial. In this study, we further evaluated the difference in prognosis, if any, between G3EC (n?=?61) and USC (n?=?47) on a total of 565 patients with endometrial cancer. In addition, meta-analysis was performed using data from seven previous publications (n?=?8,637) and from the Asan Medical Center (n?=?108). Regarding the cases from our institution, USC tended to occur in older patients (?65 years) than G3EC (P?=?0.011). Deep myometrial invasion (more than or equal to half) was more frequently identified in G3EC (36/61, 59.0 %) than in USC (17/47, 36.2 %) (P?=?0.021). Between patients with early stage G3EC and USC (stages I and II), there were no significant differences in any clinicopathological parameter, but there was a significant difference in overall survival (P?=?0.017) that was not found in advanced stage (P?=?0.588). USC was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 6.125; P?=?0.030) in early stage patients. In the meta-analysis on 5-year survival in patients with early stage cancers, which also included our study results, a higher relative risk (1.92, 95 % CI 1.62-2.27) was demonstrated in USC than in G3EC (P?
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Arthroscopic excision of a symptomatic os trigonum in a lateral decubitus position.
Foot Ankle Int
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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The purpose of this study was to introduce our technique of arthroscopic excision of the os trigonum in the lateral decubitus position through anterolateral, centrolateral, and posterolateral portals and also to investigate the safety and clinical results of this technique.
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A novel 2-pyrone derivative, BHP, impedes oncogenic KRAS-driven malignant progression in breast cancer.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Elevated KRAS expression has been frequently associated with cancer progression including breast cancer; however, therapeutic approaches targeting KRAS have been widely unsuccessful and KRAS mutant cancers remain unsolved problem in cancer therapy. In this study, we found that a new 2-pyrone derivative, 5-bromo-3-(3-hydroxyprop-1-ynyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (BHP) can block KRAS-driven breast cancer progression. Importantly, treatment with BHP effectively suppressed the migratory and invasive properties along with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells that carry oncogenic KRAS and mesenchymal malignant phenotypes. In parallel, BHP also sensitized the cells to anticancer treatment. Consistently, forced-expression of oncogenic KRAS bestowed the migratory and invasive properties, mesenchymal transition and resistance to anticancer treatment into normal human mammalian breast cells MCF10A and relatively non-malignant MCF7 and SK-BR3 breast cancer cells; however, treatment with BHP blocked those KRAS-induced malignant phenotypes. Notably, BHP interfered the interaction of KRAS with Raf-1 in concentration-dependent manner, thereby blocking the downstream effectors of KRAS signaling that is PI3K/AKT and ERK. Taken together, our findings indicate that the BHP, an ?-pyrone derivative, suppresses malignant breast cancer progression by targeting of oncogenic KRAS signaling pathways.
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Statistical torsion angle potential energy functions for protein structure modeling: a bicubic interpolation approach.
Proteins
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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A set of grid type knowledge-based energy functions is introduced for ?-?? , ?-?? , ?-?, and ?? -?? torsion angle combinations. Boltzmann distribution is assumed for the torsion angle populations from protein X-ray structures, and the functions are named as statistical torsion angle potential energy functions. The grid points around periodic boundaries are duplicated to force periodicity, and the remedy relieves the derivative discontinuity problem. The devised functions rapidly improve the quality of model structures. The potential bias in the functions and the usefulness of additional secondary structure information are also investigated. The proposed guiding functions are expected to facilitate protein structure modeling, such as protein structure prediction, protein design, and structure refinement.
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Circulating ?-klotho levels in CKD and relationship to progression.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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?-Klotho is reported to have protective effects against kidney injury, and its renal expression is decreased in many experimental models of kidney disease. However, circulating ?-klotho levels in human chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the relationship to progression are unknown.
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Traumatic carotid-cavernous sinus fistula accompanying abducens nerve (VI) palsy in blowout fractures: missed diagnosis of white-eyed shunt.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with bilateral blowout fractures. She presented with diplopia showing impaired abduction of the left eye soon after trauma. No other orbito-ocular signs, such as exophthalmos, ptosis, or chemosis, were found. Orbital reconstruction was performed, but no improvement in her ophthalmoplegia was observed after surgery. A carotid angiography showed that she was suffering from a posteriorly draining carotid-cavernous sinus fistula with isolated abducens nerve palsy. Coil embolization was conducted under the consultation of a neurosurgeon, after which her ophthalmoplegia resolved fully. This is a rare case of posteriorly draining carotid-cavernous sinus fistula without classic orbito-ocular signs, the absence of which may cause diagnostic confusion.
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Comparison of intraocular pressures after myopic laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy: tonometry-pachymetry, Goldmann applanation tonometry, dynamic contour tonometry, and noncontact tonometry.
J Cataract Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements using a new tonometer-pachymeter device (Tonopachy), Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT), dynamic contour tonometry (DCT), and noncontact tonometry (NCT) before and after myopic laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK).
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The Effect of Early Intensive Insulin Therapy on Body Fat Distribution and ?-Cell Function in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes.
Endocr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of early intensive insulin therapy on body fat distribution, lean body mass and ?-cell function in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Methods. Thirty-eight subjects with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes participated in a 12-week course of intensive insulin therapy. Patients were administered a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), underwent measurement of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues (VAT and SAT) using computed tomography and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. After intensive insulin therapy, fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c levels decreased. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-B, the insulinogenic index, and the C-peptide-to-glucose area under the curve (AUC) ratio increased. The insulin sensitivity index and the glucose AUC decreased after 12 weeks. The body composition analysis revealed that the VAT and the ratio of VAT to SAT decreased, whereas body weight and total fat mass increased nonsignificantly. The ASM/weight and skeletal muscle mass index increased. The restoration of ?-cell function, as identified by HOMA-B, the insulinogenic index, and the C-peptide-to-glucose AUC ratio, was correlated with the changes in VAT when controlled for age and gender. In multiple regression analyses, the decrease in VAT was shown to independently contribute to improved HbA1c over the study period, after adjusting for confounding factors. Conclusions. These results suggest that a shift in fat distribution from visceral to subcutaneous fat after early intensive insulin therapy is associated with improvements in glycemic control and ?-cell function in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
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Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma of the uterus with intravascular luminal growth: a case study.
Korean J Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Here, we report the case of a 43-year-old female who was diagnosed with a cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma (CDL) of the uterus. CDL is a recently described and extremely rare variant of a benign leiomyoma that can grossly masquerade as a malignancy. The 13-cm sized tumor was located primarily on the extrauterine surface as an intrauterine continuity, which showed dark red, congested, bulbous protuberances. It was multinodular appearance, encasing the bilateral adnexae and the left iliac vein. Microscopically, the nodules were separated by extensive hydropic degeneration. The nodules were composed of cigar-shaped spindle cells with no mitosis, cellular pleomorphism or coagulation necrosis. They also showed an intravascular luminal growth pattern. CDL with intravascular growth was diagnosed after excluding intravascular leiomyomatosis, disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis, and benign metastasizing leiomyoma. The present case is the second reported case of CDL in Korea. Recognition of this rare and bizarre, malignancy-mimicking leiomyoma is crucial to prevent inappropriate treatment.
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Clinical relevance of gain-of-function mutations of p53 in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Inactivation of TP53, which occurs predominantly by missense mutations in exons 4-9, is a major genetic alteration in a subset of human cancer. In spite of growing evidence that gain-of-function (GOF) mutations of p53 also have oncogenic activity, little is known about the clinical relevance of these mutations.
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Ultrasonic disintegration of microalgal biomass and consequent improvement of bioaccessibility/bioavailability in microbial fermentation.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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BACKGROUND: Microalgal biomass contains a high level of carbohydrates which can be biochemically converted to biofuels using state-of-the-art strategies that are almost always needed to employ a robust pretreatment on the biomass for enhanced energy production. In this study, we used an ultrasonic pretreatment to convert microalgal biomass (Scenedesmus obliquus YSW15) into feasible feedstock for microbial fermentation to produce ethanol and hydrogen. The effect of sonication condition was quantitatively evaluated with emphases on the characterization of carbohydrate components in microalgal suspension and on subsequent production of fermentative bioenergy. METHOD: Scenedesmus obliquus YSW15 was isolated from the effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The sonication durations of 0, 10, 15, and 60 min were examined under different temperatures at a fixed frequency and acoustic power resulted in morphologically different states of microalgal biomass lysis. Fermentation was performed to evaluate the bioenergy production from the non-sonicated and sonicated algal biomasses after pretreatment stage under both mesophilic (35[degree sign]C) and thermophilic (55[degree sign]C) conditions. RESULTS: A 15 min sonication treatment significantly increased the concentration of dissolved carbohydrates (0.12 g g-1), which resulted in an increase of hydrogen/ethanol production through microbial fermentation. The bioconvertibility of microalgal biomass sonicated for 15 min or longer was comparable to starch as a control, indicating a high feasibility of using microalgae for fermentative bioenergy production. Increasing the sonication duration resulted in increases in both algal surface hydrophilicity and electrostatic repulsion among algal debris dispersed in aqueous solution. Scanning electron microscope images supported that ruptured algal cell allowed fermentative bacteria to access the inner space of the cell, evidencing an enhanced bioaccessibility. Sonication for 15 min was the best for fermentative bioenergy (hydrogen/ethanol) production from microalga, and the productivity was relatively higher for thermophilic (55[degree sign]C) than mesophilic (35[degree sign]C) condition. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that more bioavailable carbohydrate components are produced through the ultrasonic degradation of microalgal biomass, and thus the process can provide a high quality source for fermentative bioenergy production.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.