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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Effect of curcumin on caspase-12 and apoptosis in pulmonary ischemia/reperfusion injury mice].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To explore the effect of curcumin (CUR) on cycteinyl aspirate specific protease-12 (Caspase-12) and pneumocyte apoptosis in pulmonary ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury mice.
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Cx43 phosphorylation on S279/282 and intercellular communication are regulated by IP 3 /IP 3 receptor signaling.
Cell Commun. Signal
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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BackgroundInositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) plays a pivotal role in the Ca2+ release process in a variety of cell types. Additionally, IP3R is distributed in ventricular intercalated discs, but its function(s) in this particular site remains unknown. Connexin (Cx43), the predominant gap junction (GJ) protein in ventricular myocardium, is linked to several signaling pathways that regulate Cx43 properties by (de)phosphorylation on multiple residues. Here, we investigated the regulatory role of IP3R in cell-cell communication and the mechanism(s) underlying this effect.ResultsIn neonatal rat and adult mouse ventricular myocytes IP3R co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with Cx43 in GJ plaques detected by immunostaining and western blot assays. Blocking IP3R with antagonists or silencing pan-IP3R expression with shRNA hindered the 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-CFDA) diffusion through GJs and desynchronized Ca2+ transients among confluent neonatal myocytes in culture, whereas stimulation of IP3R with IP3 ester or ATP exerted the opposite effect. Likewise, 6-CFDA propagation through GJs was modulated by IP3R activation or inhibition in cell pairs of isolated adult cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, IP3R activation or IP3R suppression promoted or suppressed, respectively, Cx43 phosphorylation on S279/282. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that expression of a mutant Cx43-S282A (alanine) inhibited S279/282 phosphorylation and GJ permeability, while the S279A mutant showed the opposite effect in ventricular myocytes. Expression of these mutants in HEK293 cells revealed that cells with a dual S279/282 mutation failed to express exogenous Cx43, whereas cells with a single S279 or S282 mutation displayed Cx43 overexpression with increased phosphorylation of S279/282 and promotion of intercellular communication.ConclusionsThese results demonstrated, for the first time, that IP3R physically interacts with Cx43 and participates in the regulation of Cx43 phosphorylation on S279/282, thereby affecting GJ intercellular communication in ventricular myocytes.
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[Preparation and in vitro embolic efficiency evaluation of hydroxycamptothecine-loaded liquid embolic agent].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the preparation of hydroxycamptothecine (HCPT)-loaded cubic crystal liquid embolic precursor solution, and evaluate its in vitro embolic efficiency. Phytantriol was used as cubic crystal liquid embolic material, and the optimal formulation was selected according to ternary phase diagram. Polarized light microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were used to characterize the cubic crystal structure. High performance liquid chromatography and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to investigate the lactone ring of HCPT. In vitro dissolution was preliminary evaluated, and the simulation embolic model was constructed to evaluate the embolic efficiency of precursor solution. Meanwhile, the gelation time and adhesion force were investigated. The results showed that HCPT-loaded precursor solution for embolization had been successfully prepared with low viscosity which was injectable. The precursor solution could transform into Pn3m structure liquid crystal phase gel rapidly when contracting with excess water. The formed HPCT gel remained its lactone form as the same in precursor solution, and expressed the good ability to block the saline flow, and HCPT could keep sustained releasing drug over 30 days. The prepared drug-loaded embolic precursor solution showed a promising potential for vascular embolization and application in clinical treatment of tumor.
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Roles of plant hormones in the regulation of host-virus interactions.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Hormones are tuners of plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. They are involved in various complicated networks, through which they modulate responses to different stimuli. Four hormones primarily regulate plant defence to pathogens: salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (Et) and abscisic acid (ABA). In susceptible plants, viral infections result in hormonal disruption, which manifests as the simultaneous induction of several antagonistic hormones. However, these antagonistic hormones may exhibit some sequential accumulation in resistant lines. Virus propagation is usually restricted by the activation of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) antiviral machinery and/or SA signalling pathway. Several studies have investigated these two systems, using different model viruses. However, the roles of hormones other than SA, especially those with antagonistic properties, such as ABA, have been neglected. Increasing evidence indicates that hormones control components of the small RNA system, which regulates many processes (including the siRNA antiviral machinery and the microRNA system) at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Consequently, cross-talk between the antagonistic SA and ABA pathways modulates plant responses at multiple levels. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the different roles of hormones in the regulation of plant-virus interactions, which are helping us to elucidate the fine tuning of viral and plant systems by hormones.
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Effect of ermiao fang with xixin (herba asari mandshurici) on bone marrow stem cell directional homing to a focal zone in an osteoarthritis rat model.
J Tradit Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To investigate the effects of Ermiao Fang (EM) with medical guide Xixin (Herba Asari Mandshurici) (HAM) on bone marrow stem cell migration to a focal zone in osteoarthritis (OA) rats.
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Role of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in the regulation of calcium transients in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes.
J. Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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This study determined the regulatory effect of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) on the basal Ca(2+) transients in cardiomyocytes. In cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) at different densities, we used confocal microscopy to assess the effect of IP3Rs on the endogenous spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations through specific activation of IP3Rs with myo-IP3 hexakis (butyryloxymethyl) ester (IP3BM), a membrane permeable IP3, and interference of IP3R expression with shRNA. We found that NRVMs at the monolayer state displayed coordinated Ca(2+) transients with less rate, shorter duration, and higher amplitude compared to single NRVMs. In addition, monolayer NRVMs exhibited 4 or 10 times more increased Ca(2+) transients in response to phenylephrine, an ?-adrenergic receptor agonist, or IP3BM than single NRVMs did, while the transient pattern remained unaltered, suggesting that the sensitivity of intracellular Ca(2+) response to IP3R activation is different between single and monolayer NRVMs. However, interference of IP3R expression with shRNA reduced the frequency and amplitude of the spontaneous Ca(2+) fluctuates similarly in both densities of NRVMs, resembling the effects of ryanodine receptor inhibition by ryanodine or tetracaine. Our findings suggest that IP3Rs are involved, in part, in the regulation of native Ca(2+) transients, in profiles of their initiation and Ca(2+) release extent, in developing cardiomyocytes. In addition, caution should be paid in evaluating the behavior of Ca(2+) signaling in primary cultured cardiomyocytes at different densities.
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Role of Inositol-1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor in the Regulation of Calcium Transients in Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes.
J. Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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This study determined the regulatory effect of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) on the basal Ca(2+) transients in cardiomyocytes. In cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) at different densities, we used confocal microscopy to assess the effect of IP3Rs on the endogenous spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations through specific activation of IP3Rs with myo-IP3 hexakis (butyryloxymethyl) ester (IP3BM), a membrane permeable IP3, and interference of IP3R expression with shRNA. We found that NRVMs at the monolayer state displayed coordinated Ca(2+) transients with less rate, shorter duration, and higher amplitude compared to single NRVMs. In addition, monolayer NRVMs exhibited 4 or 10 times more increased Ca(2+) transients in response to phenylephrine, an ?-adrenergic receptor agonist, or IP3BM than single NRVMs did, while the transient pattern remained unaltered, suggesting that the sensitivity of intracellular Ca(2+) response to IP3R activation is different between single and monolayer NRVMs. However, interference of IP3R expression with shRNA reduced the frequency and amplitude of the spontaneous Ca(2+) fluctuates similarly in both densities of NRVMs, resembling the effects of ryanodine receptor inhibition by ryanodine or tetracaine. Our findings suggest that IP3Rs are involved, in part, in the regulation of native Ca(2+) transients, in profiles of their initiation and Ca(2+) release extent, in developing cardiomyocytes. In addition, caution should be paid in evaluating the behavior of Ca(2+) signaling in primary cultured cardiomyocytes at different densities.
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Fully human VEGFR2 monoclonal antibody BC001 attenuates tumor angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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The critical role of VEGFR2 in tumor neovascularization and progression has allowed the design of clinically beneficial therapies based on it. Here we show that BC001, a new fully human anti-VEGFR2 monoclonal antibody, inhibits VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration, tube formation, and effectively suppressed the transdifferentiation of cancer stem cells into endothelial cells in vitro. Since BC001 exhibited no activity against the mouse VEGFR2 and mouse based study was required to confirm its efficacy in vivo, BC101, the mouse analogue of BC001, was developed. BC101 significantly attenuated angiogenesis according to Matrigel plug assay and resulted in ~80% growth inhibition of mouse B16F10 homograft tumors relative to vehicle control. Similarly, human analogue BC001 suppressed the growth of human xenograft tumors HCT116 and BGC823. Furthermore, immunohistochemical results showed reduced expression of CD31, VEGFR2 and Ki-67, as well as increased expression of Caspase 3 in BC001-treated tumor, which indicated BC001 was able to significantly decrease microvessel density, suppress proliferation and promote apoptosis. These results demonstrate the fully human VEGFR2 monoclonal antibody BC001 can work as an effective inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo.
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Effect of Ermiao Recipe with medicinal guide Angelicae Pubescentis Radix on promoting the homing of bone marrow stem cells to treat cartilage damage in osteoarthritis rats.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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To investigate the effect of Ermiao Recipe (, EMR) with medicinal guide Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (APR) on the homing of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) to focal zone in osteoarthritis (OA) rats.
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Sanmiao formula inhibits chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage matrix degradation in a rat model of osteoarthritis.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Sanmiao formula (SM) is a basic prescription for the treatment of gouty and rheumatoid arthritis that has been used in China over a long period of history. However, there is no evidence associating SM with the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, a characterization of the anti-OA effect of SM was conducted using an in vivo rat model induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and medial meniscus resection (ACLT plus MMx), together with in vitro studies using chondrocytes for further molecular characterization. Rats subjected to ACLT plus MMx were treated with SM at doses of 0.63, 1.25 and 2.5 g/kg per day for three or six weeks. SM treatment significantly inhibited the histopathological changes of articular cartilage damage and synovial inflammation in the rats following ACLT plus MMx. SM (2.5 g/kg) clearly inhibited chondrocyte apoptosis and prevented cartilage matrix degradation, which was indicated by the increased proteoglycan and collagen content, particularly with regard to type II collagen expression in articular cartilage. Furthermore, SM (2.5 g/kg) markedly inhibited the release of interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor-? and nitric oxide in serum, while simultaneously increasing the levels of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and transforming growth factor-? in the circulation. Notably, SM (2.5 g/kg) clearly attenuated the OA-augmented expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and augmented the OA-reduced expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in the knee joints. In addition, SM significantly reduced the proportion of early and late apoptotic and sub-G1 phase cells, and clearly decreased the expression of MMP-13 and increased that of TIMP-1 at the mRNA and protein levels in IL-1?-induced chondrocytes. These findings provide the first evidence that SM effectively treats OA by inhibiting chondrocyte apoptosis, cartilage matrix degradation and the inflammatory response.
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A metabonomic study of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory and autoimmune disease accompanied by the destruction and deformities of joints. Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) is one of the excellent animal models of RA used to understand disease pathogenesis and screen potential drugs. In this paper, a urinary metabonomics method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) has been established to investigate the disease progression of AIA and find potential biomarkers of secondary inflammation in AIA rats. 24 potential biomarkers were identified, including xanthurenic acid, kynurenic acid, 4-pyridoxic acid, and phenylalanine, which revealed that tryptophan metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, gut microbiota metabolism and energy metabolism were disturbed in AIA rats. These potential biomarkers and their corresponding pathways are helpful to further understand the mechanisms of AIA and pathogenesis of RA. This study demonstrates that metabonomics based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS is a powerful methodology to analyze the underlying disease pathogenesis.
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Phosphorylation of Coat Protein by Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Cell-to-Cell Movement of Bamboo mosaic virus Through Modulating RNA Binding.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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In this study, we investigated the fine regulation of cell-to-cell movement of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV). We report that the coat protein (CP) of BaMV is phosphorylated in planta at position serine 241 (S241), in a process involving Nicotiana benthamiana casein kinase 2? (NbCK2?). BaMV CP and NbCK2? colocalize at the plasmodesmata, suggesting that phosphorylation of BaMV may be involved in its movement. S241 was mutated to examine the effects of temporal and spatial dysregulation of phosphorylation on i) the interactions between CP and viral RNA and ii) the regulation of cell-to-cell movement. Replacement of S241 with alanine did not affect RNA binding affinity but moderately impaired cell-to-cell movement. A negative charge at position 241 reduced the ability of CP to bind RNA and severely interfered with cell-to-cell movement. Deletion of residues 240 to 242 increased the affinity of CP to viral RNA and dramatically impaired cell-to-cell movement. A threonine at position 241 changed the binding preference of CP toward genomic RNA and inhibited cell-to-cell movement. Together, these results reveal a fine regulatory mechanism for the cell-to-cell movement of BaMV, which involves the modulation of RNA binding affinity through appropriate phosphorylation of CP by NbCK2?.
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Huogu I formula prevents steroid-induced osteonecrosis in rats by down-regulating PPARgamma expression and activating wnt/LRP5/ beta-catenin signaling.
J Tradit Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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To investigate the effects of Huogu I formula on regulation of lipid metabolism in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (SONFH) rats and verify our hypothesis that Huogu I formula regulates lipid metabolism by down-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) expression and activating Wnt signaling pathways.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Diqing wild boar (Sus verrucosus breed Diqing wild boar).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Abstract In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the diqing wild boar (Sus verrucosus breed diqing wild boar) was reported for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,506?bp. It contained the typical structure, including two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one non-coding control region (D-loop region) as that of most other wild boars. The overall composition of the mitogenome was estimated to be 34.9% for A, 26.1% for T, 26.0% for C and 13.0% for G showing an A-T (61.0%)-rich feature. The mitochondrial genome analyzed here will provide new genetic resource to uncover wild boars' genetic diversity.
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Coadministration of Pinellia ternata Can Significantly Reduce Aconitum carmichaelii to Inhibit CYP3A Activity in Rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Chuanwu (CW), the mother root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating traumatic injuries, rheumatoid arthritis, and tumors. CW coadministered with banxia (BX), the root of Pinellia ternata, is also widely prescribed in clinical practice. However, the mechanism of this combination is yet deciphered. Current study aimed to investigate the effects of CW, including raw chuanwu (RCW) and processed chuanwu (PCW) alone, as well as CW coadministered with BX on CYP3A activity. Buspirone (BP) and testosterone (Tes) were used as specific probe substrates in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. CYP3A activity was determined by the metabolites formation ratios from the substrates. Compared with those in the control group, the metabolites formation ratios significantly decreased in the RCW and PCW alone groups, accompanied by a marked decrease in CYP3A protein and mRNA levels. However, there was a significant increase in those ratios in the RCW-BX and PCW-BX groups compared to the RCW and PCW alone groups. The results indicated that both RCW and PCW can inhibit CYP3A activity in rats because of downregulation of CYP3A protein and mRNA levels. Decreases in CYP3A activity can be reversed by coadministration with BX.
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Rapid decolorization of methyl orange by a novel Aeromonas sp. strain DH-6.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Azo dyes are extensively used, but are recalcitrant and refractory. In this study, an indigenous strain DH-6 was isolated and identified as Aeromonas sp. based on 16S rDNA analysis for its excellent methyl orange (MO) decolorizing capability. Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology (RSM) were employed to investigate the effect of operational parameters on decolorization and to optimize the decolorization process. Based on the results the concentrations of glucose, Na2HPO4 and MO and temperature were selected as the four significant parameters of RSM. The optimal conditions for MO decolorization by the strain were as follows: 3.0 g/L glucose, 4.9 g/L Na2HPO4, 100 mg/L MO, and at 40 °C. The verification tests showed that 95.5% decolorization was observed after incubation for 2 h, which is within the confidence interval. Under the optimal conditions, the kinetics of the decolorization fitted the first-order model well (R(2) = 0.969). As the strain DH-6 still showed a good decolorizing capability at a relatively high temperature, it is considered a candidate for azo dye bioremediation in some tropical or subtropical regions.
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Rhubarb tannins extract inhibits the expression of aquaporins 2 and 3 in magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea model.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Tannins, a group of major active components of Chinese rhubarb and widely distributed in nature, have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity. Aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 play important roles in regulating water transfer during diarrhoea. The present study aims to determine the effect of the total tannins extract of rhubarb on aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 in diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). Our results showed that rhubarb tannins extract (RTE) significantly decreased the faecal water content in colon and evaluation index of defecation of diarrhoea mice. Interestingly, RTE could markedly reduce the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQPs 2 and 3 in apical and lateral mucosal epithelial cells in the colons of diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by MgSO4 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RTE suppressed the production of cyclic monophosphate- (cAMP-) dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunits ? (PKA C-?) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB, Ser133) in MgSO4-induced HT-29 cells. Our data showed for the first time that RTE inhibit AQPs 2 and 3 expression in vivo and in vitro via downregulating PKA/p-CREB signal pathway, which accounts for the antidiarrhoeal effect of RTE.
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Distribution of pathological finding in the children with nephrotic syndrome from Guangxi.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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To identify the variations in pediatric renal biopsy pathology and clinicopathological features in Guangxi, China, in the past ten years, we studied retrospectively the kidney biopsies performed to evaluate the primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) in 218 children at two main medical centers in Guangxi from January 1999 to January 2009. The major pathological finding was mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (48.2%), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (16.5%), immunoglobulin A nephropathy (13.3%) and minimal change disease (11.0%). Patients with different pathological types yielded different response rates to glucocorticoids (P <0.001). There were statistical significant differences between prognosis for the different pathological types (P <0.05). The pathological characteristics of PNS in children were diverse and significant for guiding the grade of glucocorticoid response and predicting the prognosis of the PNS disease.
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Clinical features and mutations in seven Chinese patients with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) is an inherited metabolic disease caused by deleterious mutations in the ACADVL gene that encodes very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD), and which can present as cardiomyopathy in neonates, as hypoketotic hypoglycemia in infancy, and as myopathy in late-onset patients. Although many ACADVL mutations have been described, no prevalent mutations in the ACADVL gene have been associated with VLCADD. Herein, we report the clinical course of the disease and explore the genetic mutation spectrum in seven Chinese patients with VLCADD.
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Treatment with qibaomeiran, a kidney-invigorating Chinese herbal formula, antagonizes estrogen decline in ovariectomized rats.
Rejuvenation Res
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) contain multi-interactive compounds that have been used for treatment of peri-menopausal syndrome and have become a new phytoestrogens resource. The QiBaoMeiRan formula (QBMR), including Polygoni multiflori radix, Angelicae sinensis radix, Achyranthis bidentatae radix, semen Cuscutae, fructus Lycii, Poria, and fructus Psoraleae, has been used clinically for treating osteoporosis in post-menopausal women by virtue of its kidney-invigorating function. However, no evidence base links QBMR to estrogen replacement therapy. In this study, we undertook a characterization of estrogenic activity of QBMR using ovariectomized (OVX) rats. OVX rats were treated with QBMR at doses of 0.875, 1.75, and 3.5 grams/kg per day for 8 weeks. QBMR treatments demonstrated significant estrogenic activity, as indicated by vaginal cornification, reversal of atrophy of uterus, vagina, and mammary gland, and up-regulation of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and estrogen receptor ? (ER?) expression in the reproductive target tissues, where ER? up-regulation was stronger than that of ER?. Meanwhile, treatment with QBMR significantly increased adrenal weight and serum estradiol levels and tended to decrease serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, QBMR significantly decreased weight gain and rectal temperature increase caused by ovariectomy, and the largest changes in rectal temperature were found at the lowest dose. The data suggest that QBMR's estrogenic responses show tissue variation that reflects different affinities of ERs for QBMR components. This study demonstrates that QBMR activity is mediated through estrogenic components and provides an evidence base for QBMR treatment of post-menopausal symptoms.
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Decreased V?8.2 T-cells in neonatal rats exposed prenatally to Staphylococcal enterotoxin B are further deleted by restimulation in an in vitro cultured thymus.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) administration during adulthood can cause the anergy or deletion of variable portion of the ? chain (V?)?expressing T cells. However, the effect of maternal SEB administration during pregnancy on the thymocytes of neonatal rats remains to be elucidated. In the present study, pregnant rats at gestational day 16 were intravenously injected with 15 µg SEB. The present study revealed that prenatal exposure of SEB significantly increased the proportion of cluster of differentiation (CD)4?single positive (SP) T cells and decreased the proportions of CD8?SP, CD4+ V?8.2+ and CD8+ V?8.2+ T cells in the thymus of neonatal rats between day 0 and 5 after delivery. In an in vitro cultured thymus, SEB restimulation significantly increased the proportion of double positive cells and decreased the proportions of CD4?SP, CD8?SP, CD4+ V?8.2+ and CD8+ V?8.2+ T cells. Furthermore, the decreased V?8.2+ T?cells in neonatal rats exposed prenatally to SEB were further deleted by SEB restimulation in an in vitro cultured thymus. These data suggested the special response pattern of the remaining SEB?specific T cells to SEB restimulation in neonatal rats exposed prenatally to SEB.
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Detection of human bocavirus in children with acute respiratory tract infections in lanzhou and nanjing, china.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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The aim of this study was to explore the prevalent characteristics of HBoV1 and its co-infection.
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Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein 29 Protects Axotomized Neurons from Apoptosis and Promotes Neuronal Regeneration Associated with Erk Signal.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a series of severe dysfunction of sensory and motor functions, while the molecular mechanisms that cause these dysfunctions remain elusive. Using proteomics technology, Western blot (WB), and immunohistochemistry (IHC), we found endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29) was substantially downregulated in the motor cortex 3 days postoperation (dpo) after spinal cord transection (SCT, T10) followed by a gradual recovery 28 dpo. IHC showed that ERp29 is expressed in cortical neurons. In order to investigate the role of ERp29 in axotomized cortical neurons, we developed an in vitro axotomy injury model. ERp29 overexpression in cortical neurons after axotomy protected them from apoptosis; prevented the reduction of the number of neurons, and prevented reduction of neurite length. Moreover, we found that ERp29 overexpression increased neuronal regeneration assessed by neurite number and length. Furthermore, overexpression of ERp29 in cortical neurons after axotomy increased expression of Erk-1 and PI3K while decreasing the expression of caspase-3 expression. The present data therefore provides evidence to address the role of ERp29 in axotomized cortical neurons and identifies new therapeutic targets for the treatment of SCI.
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[Association of SOCS3 gene polymorphisms with insulin resistance in Xinjiang Uygur population].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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To assess the association of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) gene polymorphisms with insulin resistance (IR) in Xinjiang Uygur population.
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The roles of surface structure, oxygen defects, and hydration in the adsorption of CO(2) on low-index ZnGa(2)O(4) surfaces: a first-principles investigation.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The effects of the surface atomic and electronic structures, oxygen defects, and hydration on CO2 adsorption on ZnGa2O4(100), (110), and (111) surfaces were studied using density functional theory (DFT) slab calculations. For the perfect (100) surface, the most stable adsorption state involved the Zn-O-Ga bridge site, with an adsorption energy of 0.16 eV. In the case of the (110) and (111) surfaces, the strongest binding occurred on the Zn-O bridge sites, with much lower adsorption energies of -0.22 eV and -0.35 eV, respectively. In addition, the perfect surfaces showed CO2 activation ability, but dissociation adsorption could not proceed. The oxygen vacancies on these three surfaces (1) made the metal sites beside them carry less positive charge and further reduced the adsorption energies on these metal sites, and (2) created efficient adsorption sites that allowed even dissociative adsorption. The most favorable molecular and dissociative adsorption states both involved the O3c vacancy site of the (100) surface, and these two processes were spontaneous with adsorption energies of 0.74 eV and 0.80 eV, respectively. When H2O molecules are present on the perfect and defective surfaces, the generation of hydrogen bonds between H2O and CO2 would slightly enhance the stability of adsorption (except for that on the surface), making them energetically favorable. However, the co-adsorption of H2O could also increase the energy barriers for the decomposition reactions on the defective surfaces, making them kinetically unfavorable. Furthermore, the oxygen vacancy defects showed good activity for H2O adsorption and decomposition, as well. Thus, when both H2O and CO2 were present in the adsorption system, H2O would compete with CO2 for the oxygen vacancy sites and further decrease the amount of CO2 adsorption and decomposition. These findings have important implications for the decomposition of CO2 on the ZnGa2O4 surfaces and can provide theoretical guidance for chemists to efficiently synthesize ZnGa2O4 catalysts.
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Combined Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Olfactory Ensheathing Cells Transplantation Promote Neural Repair Associated with CNTF Expression in Traumatic Brain Injured Rats.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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This study examined the role of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) co?grafting on neural function and underlying molecular mechanisms in acute stage of traumatic brain injury (TBI) rats. Eighty Sprague Dawly (SD) female rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=16 per category): the sham operated group (Sham), weigh?drop induced traumatic brain injury group (TBI), BMSCs transplantation group (BMSC), OECs transplantation group (OEC), and co?transplantation group (CO). Eight rats were randomly selected from each group for behavioral and morphological assessment. Another category (n=8 rats) was employed in the genetic expression detection. BMSCs were isolated from GFP mouse and identified by CD44 antibody, while OECs were isolated from the SD rats, identified by P75 antibody and labeled by Hoechst33342. They were then transplanted into the surrounding tissue of epicenter of TBI rats. The result of neurological severity scores (NSS) revealed that BMSCs or OECs transplantation alone and BMSCs, OECs co?grafting significantly ameliorated the neurological function of TBI rats. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis showed that graft?recipient animals possessed dramatically more neurons and regeneration axons and smaller amounts of astrocytes than controls 14 days post transplantation (p<0.05). However, the expressional level of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) significantly decreased in co?grafting group by RT?PCR (p<0.05) and the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JaK/STAT) pathway was significantly activated at 7 days of cell transplantation (p<0.05). This study firstly reported the role of co?transplantation of BMSCs and OECs in the therapy of TBI and explored its potential molecular mechanism, therefore providing the important morphologic and molecular biological evidence for the clinical application of BMSCs and/or OECs transplantation in TBI.
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Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells promotes the recovery of neurological functions in rats with traumatic brain injury associated with downregulation of Bad.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The neuroprotective effects of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) after transplantation have largely been known in the injured nervous system. However, the underlying mechanisms still must be further elucidated. We explored the effects of OEC transplantation on the recovery of neurophysiologic function and the related anti-apoptosis mechanism in acute traumatic brain injury.
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Treatment with Panax ginseng antagonizes the estrogen decline in ovariectomized mice.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Ginseng is a popular herb for alleviating menopausal symptoms; however, no conclusive scientific data has shown ginseng as being efficient in such therapies. The present study was designed to evaluate the estrogenic efficacy of ginseng on reproductive target tissues of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The OVX mice were treated with ginseng at doses of 12.0, 18.0 and 24.0 g/kg per day for four weeks. Ginseng treatments restored the estrus cycle and demonstrated significant estrogenic activity, as indicated by the reversal of the atrophy of the uterus and vagina, upregulation of estrogen receptor (ER) ? and ER ? expression at the protein and mRNA level in the reproductive tissues, where ER ? upregulation was stronger than that of ER ?. Meanwhile, treatment with ginseng significantly increased adrenal gland weight and serum estradiol and clearly decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in circulation. Notably, the largest changes in these parameters were found at the highest dose of 24.0 g/kg. Moreover, ginseng at 18.0 g/kg resulted in the greatest decrease in weight gain caused by ovariectomy. The data suggest that ginseng estrogenic responses show tissue variation that reflects different affinities of ERs for ginseng components. This study demonstrates that ginseng activity is mediated through estrogenic components and provides further evidence for ginseng treatment of postmenopausal symptoms.
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The laxative effect of emodin is attributable to increased aquaporin 3 expression in the colon of mice and HT-29 cells.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is a stimulant laxative and used to treat constipation. Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) plays an important role in regulating water transfer in the colon. In the study, we investigated whether the laxative effect of emodin is associated with the regulation of AQP3 in the colon. Our results showed that treatment with emodin increased the fecal water content in the colon of mice and evaluation index of defecation in a dose-dependent manner. More interestingly, emodin significantly increased the AQP3 protein and mRNA expression both in the colon of mice and in human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29). Mechanistically, emodin obviously up-regulated the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunits ? (PKA C-?) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB Ser133) expression in HT-29 cells. These results suggest that the laxative effect of emodin is associated with the increased expression of AQP3 by up-regulating PKA/p-CREB signal pathway.
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Vimentin Regulates Neuroplasticity in Transected Spinal Cord Rats Associated with micRNA138.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in motor disability concomitant with limit neuroplasticity; the underlying mechanism, however, is still unclear. This study established spinal cord transection rats model (T10), then performed cDNA microarray analysis and found that vimentin located in astrocytes was increased significantly in scar tissues after transection. To understand the role of vimentin and it's mechanism of regulation, RNA interference and luciferase assay were used. Vimentin knockdown in the scar tissues showed a significant improvement on locomotor function in hindlimbs, while vimentin overexpression exhibited an opposite effect. In vitro, vimentin downregulation or overexpression can effectively inhibit or increase astrogliosis, respectively. Moreover, by using biological informatics technology, we predicted that vimentin may be as the target of micRNA138 (miR-138), and confirmed that miR-138 could regulate vimentin by luciferase activity assay. The present results not only validated the exact role of vimentin in transected spinal cord, but also exhibited a novel regulation mechanism, in which miR-138 may regulate vimentin to promote neuroplasticity. It, therefore, provides a novel target for gene drug discovery based on miRNA-138 or vimentin for the treatment of SCI in the future clinic trial.
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Pravastatin prevents steroid-induced osteonecrosis in rats by suppressing PPAR? expression and activating Wnt signaling pathway.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (steroid-induced ONFH) is characterized by increase of intraosseous pressure because of lipid metabolism disturbance such as elevation of adipogenesis and fat cell hypertrophy in the bone marrow, subsequently leading to disturbances of coagulation-fibrinolysis system in the femoral head and finally resulting in bone ischemia. Pravastatin has been demonstrated to be useful in preventing steroid-induced ONFH in animal models. However, its exact mechanisms acting on this disease have not been fully elucidated. To address this problem, steroid-induced ONFH rat model was constructed to evaluate the effects of pravastatin treatment on the osteonecrotic changes and repair processes. Then, Micro-CT-based micro-angiography was performed to assess the effects of pravastatin treatment on vascularization. In addition, serum lipid levels were detected by haematological examination. After that, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), Wnt3a, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), ?-catenin and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) at both mRNA and protein levels were further detected by immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative PCR, and Western blot analyses. The results, the ratio of empty lacuna, adipose tissue area, and adipocyte perimeter in the bone marrow were dramatically lower in the pravastatin treatment groups than in the model group (all P?
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Diagnosis of Niemann-Pick disease type C with 7-ketocholesterol screening followed by NPC1/NPC2 gene mutation confirmation in Chinese patients.
Orphanet J Rare Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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It has been reported that oxidation product of cholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, increases in plasma of patients with NP-C. Previously, we established a rapid test to determine the plasma 7-ketocholesterol level and found it elevated significantly in patients with acid sphingomyelinase deficient NPD and NP-C disease.
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A systems biology-based investigation into the therapeutic effects of Gansui Banxia Tang on reversing the imbalanced network of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Several complex molecular events are involved in tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The interactions of these molecules may constitute the HCC imbalanced network. Gansui Banxia Tang (GSBXT), as a classic Chinese herbal formula, is a popular complementary and alternative medicine modality for treating HCC. In order to investigate the therapeutic effects and the pharmacological mechanisms of GSBXT on reversing HCC imbalanced network, we in the current study developed a comprehensive systems approach of integrating disease-specific and drug-specific networks, and successfully revealed the relationships of the ingredients in GSBXT with their putative targets, and with HCC significant molecules and HCC related pathway systems for the first time. Meanwhile, further experimental validation also demonstrated the preventive effects of GSBXT on tumor growth in mice and its regulatory effects on potential targets.
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Metabonomic study of Wu-tou decoction in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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A urinary metabonomics method based on the ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) had been established to investigate the holistic efficacy of Wu-tou decoction (WTD), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rat model. Multivariate statistical approaches, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to distinguish healthy control group, AIA model group and WTD treated group and find potential biomarkers. There was a clear separation among the three groups in PCA model. Sixteen potential biomarkers had been identified using OPLS-DA, and 11 of them was considered to be in response to therapeutic effects of WTD involved in tryptophan metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, bile acid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis and valine metabolism. In this study, WTD also showed good anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities in vivo, and it could suppress histopathological changes of AIA rats. There might be a correlation between these results and the regulation of the disturbed metabolites in urine. This study demonstrates that metabonomics is a powerful methodology to gain insight in the mechanism of TCM formula in therapy.
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Biodegradation of methyl red by Bacillus sp. strain UN2: decolorization capacity, metabolites characterization, and enzyme analysis.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Azo dyes are recalcitrant and refractory pollutants that constitute a significant menace to the environment. The present study is focused on exploring the capability of Bacillus sp. strain UN2 for application in methyl red (MR) degradation. Effects of physicochemical parameters (pH of medium, temperature, initial concentration of dye, and composition of the medium) were studied in detail. The suitable pH and temperature range for MR degradation by strain UN2 were respectively 7.0-9.0 and 30-40 °C, and the optimal pH value and temperature were respectively 8.0 and 35 °C. Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) (1 mM) were found to significantly accelerate the MR removal rate, while the enhancement by either Fe(3+) or Fe(2+) was slight. Under the optimal degradation conditions, strain UN2 exhibited greater than 98 % degradation of the toxic azo dye MR (100 ppm) within 30 min. Analysis of samples from decolorized culture flasks confirmed biodegradation of MR into two prime metabolites: N,N'dimethyl-p-phenyle-nediamine and 2-aminobenzoic acid. A study of the enzymes responsible for the biodegradation of MR, in the control and cells obtained during (10 min) and after (30 min) degradation, showed a significant increase in the activities of azoreductase, laccase, and NADH-DCIP reductase. Furthermore, a phytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that the germination inhibition was almost eliminated for both the plants Triticum aestivum and Sorghum bicolor by MR metabolites at 100 mg/L concentration, yet the germination inhibition of parent dye was significant. Consequently, the high efficiency of MR degradation enables this strain to be a potential candidate for bioremediation of wastewater containing MR.
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Co-grafting of neural stem cells with olfactory en sheathing cells promotes neuronal restoration in traumatic brain injury with an anti-inflammatory mechanism.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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We sought to investigate the effects of co-grafting neural stem cells (NSCs) with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) on neurological behavior in rats subjected to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore underlying molecular mechanisms.
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Genetic association of the P-glycoprotein gene ABCB1 polymorphisms with the risk for steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in Chinese population.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Steroid administration, which is commonly performed for the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory diseases, cancers or organ transplantation, has been a leading cause of nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette B1 (ABCB1) gene have been demonstrated to be related to steroid-induced ONFH in small sample sizes of Japanese kidney failure and Chinese systemic lupus erythematosus patients. However, there are obvious controversial results in the relationship of ABCB1 gene polymorphisms with steroid-induced ONFH. The aim of this study was to validate the genetic association of ABCB1 polymorphisms with the risk for steroid-induced ONFH in a large cohort of Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted, which included 94 and 106 unrelated patients after steroid administration recruited from 14 provinces in China, respectively. Two SNPs (rs1045642 and rs2032582) within ABCB1 were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY system. Multivariate analyses based on clinical information were performed to determine the associations between the SNPs and risk of steroid-induced ONFH. rs1045642 SNP was significantly associated with steroid-induced ONFH group in codominant (P=0.02), recessive (P=0.006) and overdominant (P=0.03) models. However, there were no differences found in genotype frequencies of rs2032582 SNP between controls and patients with steroid-induced ONFH (all P>0.05). These findings suggested that rs1045642 SNP of ABCB1 may be associated with the risk of steroid-induced ONFH. Thus, it is useful to analyze this polymorphism for identifying high-risk individuals before the administration of steroids.
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Rheum palmatum L. and Coptis chinensis Franch., exert antipyretic effect on yeast-induced pyrexia rats involving regulation of TRPV1 and TRPM8 expression.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Rheum palmatum L. and Coptis chinensis Franch., are two representative cold-natured traditional Chinese medicine with heat-clearing effect, and were widely used to treat fever associated diseases in China for a long history. To elucidate the mechanism of the antipyretic effect of Rheum palmatum L. and Coptis chinensis Franch. from the perspective of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and transient receptor potential melastatin 8 expression on yeast-induced pyrexia rat model.
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Mitoflash frequency in early adulthood predicts lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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It has been theorized for decades that mitochondria act as the biological clock of ageing, but the evidence is incomplete. Here we show a strong coupling between mitochondrial function and ageing by in vivo visualization of the mitochondrial flash (mitoflash), a frequency-coded optical readout reflecting free-radical production and energy metabolism at the single-mitochondrion level. Mitoflash activity in Caenorhabditis elegans pharyngeal muscles peaked on adult day 3 during active reproduction and on day 9 when animals started to die off. A plethora of genetic mutations and environmental factors inversely modified the lifespan and the day-3 mitoflash frequency. Even within an isogenic population, the day-3 mitoflash frequency was negatively correlated with the lifespan of individual animals. Furthermore, enhanced activity of the glyoxylate cycle contributed to the decreased day-3 mitoflash frequency and the longevity of daf-2 mutant animals. These results demonstrate that the day-3 mitoflash frequency is a powerful predictor of C.?elegans lifespan across genetic, environmental and stochastic factors. They also support the notion that the rate of ageing, although adjustable in later life, has been set to a considerable degree before reproduction ceases.
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Xanthones from Swertia mussotii as multitarget-directed antidiabetic agents.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a causative role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance and type?2 diabetes. Given the antioxidant potency of previously reported xanthones isolated from Swertia mussotii. These natural products were further evaluated against other targets in diabetes, aldose reductase and ?-glucosidase, in order to identify novel multitarget-directed antidiabetic agents. Among the 14 xanthones screened, 1,3,7,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6), 1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (7), and 2,3,6,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone-7C-(?-D-glucoside) (12) were confirmed as good antioxidants and ?-glucosidase inhibitors. Xanthone 7 was also confirmed as a potent inhibitor of aldose reductase (ALR2). Xanthone 7 was the most active ?-glucosidase and ALR2 inhibitor, with IC50 values of 5.2±0.3??M and 88.6±1.6?nM, respectively, while compound 12 was shown to be the most active antioxidant. Given the overall profile, xanthone 7 is considered to be the most promising multitarget antidiabetic agent, and may have potential for the treatment of both diabetes and diabetic complications.
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Two key arginine residues in the coat protein of Bamboo mosaic virus differentially affect the accumulation of viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The interactions between viral RNAs and coat proteins (CPs) are critical for the efficient completion of infection cycles of RNA viruses. However, the specificity of the interactions between CPs and genomic or subgenomic RNAs remains poorly understood. In this study, Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) was used to analyse such interactions. Using reversible formaldehyde cross-linking and mass spectrometry, two regions in CP, each containing a basic amino acid (R99 and R227, respectively), were identified to bind directly to the 5' untranslated region of BaMV genomic RNA. Analyses of the alanine mutations of R99 and R227 revealed that the secondary structures of CP were not affected significantly, whereas the accumulation of BaMV genomic, but not subgenomic, RNA was severely decreased at 24 h post-inoculation in the inoculated protoplasts. In the absence of CP, the accumulation levels of genomic and subgenomic RNAs were decreased to 1.1%-1.5% and 33%-40% of that of the wild-type (wt), respectively, in inoculated leaves at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi). In contrast, in the presence of mutant CPs, the genomic RNAs remained about 1% of that of wt, whereas the subgenomic RNAs accumulated to at least 87%, suggesting that CP might increase the accumulation of subgenomic RNAs. The mutations also restricted viral movement and virion formation in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves at 5 dpi. These results demonstrate that R99 and R227 of CP play crucial roles in the accumulation, movement and virion formation of BaMV RNAs, and indicate that genomic and subgenomic RNAs interact differently with BaMV CP.
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Effects of polysaccharides from gynostemma pentaphyllum (thunb.), makino on physical fatigue.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino has been reported to have a wide range of health benefits in Chinese herbal medicines. Polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (PGP), has been identified as one of the active ingredients responsible for its biological activities. Although many pharmacological activities of PGP have received a great deal of attention, there is limited evidence for the anti-fatigue effects of PGP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polysaccharides from PGP on physical fatigue.
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Genetic diversity and evolution of satellite RNAs associated with the bamboo mosaic virus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are subviral agents that depend on cognate helper viruses for genome replication and encapsidation. Their negative impacts on helper viruses have been exploited to control plant viral diseases. SatBaMV is a commonly found satRNA associated with Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) that infects diverse bamboo species in the field. To investigate the genetic diversity and evolution of satRNAs, we examined seven satBaMV populations derived from five bamboo species and cultivars from Taiwan, China, and India and one from the greenhouse. We found 3 distinct clades among the seven populations. Clade I is consisted of all satBaMV isolates, except for those from Dendrocalamus latiflorus in Taiwan and Bambusa vulgaris in India, which belong to Clades II and III, respectively. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity was lower for Clade I than II and III. However, the nucleotide diversity did not seem to depend on bamboo species or geographic location. Our population genetic analyses revealed the presence of excessive low-frequency polymorphic sites, which suggests that the satBaMV population was under purifying selection and/or population expansion. Further analysis of P20, the only satBaMV gene that encodes a non-structural protein involved in the long-distance movement of satBaMV, showed evidence of purifying selection. Taken together, our results suggest that purifying selection against defective P20 protein is responsible at least in part for the evolution of the satBaMV genome.
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Characterization of the cryptic AV3 promoter of ageratum yellow vein virus in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A cryptic prokaryotic promoter, designated AV3 promoter, has been previously identified in certain begomovirus genus, including ageratum yellow vein virus isolate NT (AYVV-NT). In this study, we demonstrated that the core nucleotides in the putative -10 and -35 boxes are necessary but not sufficient for promoter activity in Escherichia coli, and showed that AYVV-NT AV3 promoter could specifically interact with single-stranded DNA-binding protein and sigma 70 of E. coli involved in transcription. Several AYVV-NT-encoded proteins were found to increase the activity of AV3 promoter. The transcription start sites downstream to AV3 promoter were mapped to nucleotide positions 803 or 805 in E. coli, and 856 in Nicotiana benthamiana. The eukaryotic activity of AV3 promoter and the translatability of a short downstream open reading frame were further confirmed by using a green fluorescent protein reporter construct in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. These results suggested that AV3 promoter might be a remnant of evolution that retained cryptic activity at present.
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A systems biology-based approach to uncovering the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of dragon's blood tablet in colitis, involving the integration of chemical analysis, ADME prediction, and network pharmacology.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest East Asian medical systems. The present study adopted a systems biology-based approach to provide new insights relating to the active constituents and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of dragon's blood (DB) tablets for the treatment of colitis. This study integrated chemical analysis, prediction of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME), and network pharmacology. Firstly, a rapid, reliable, and accurate ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method was employed to identify 48 components of DB tablets. In silico prediction of the passive absorption of these compounds, based on Caco-2 cell permeability, and their P450 metabolism enabled the identification of 22 potentially absorbed components and 8 metabolites. Finally, networks were constructed to analyze interactions between these DB components/metabolites absorbed and their putative targets, and between the putative DB targets and known therapeutic targets for colitis. This study provided a great opportunity to deepen the understanding of the complex pharmacological mechanisms underlying the effects of DB in colitis treatment.
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[Influencing factors of reproduction status of patients undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To explore the influencing factors of reproduction status in women undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy (LM).
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[Treating early-to-middle stage nontraumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head patients by jianpi huogu recipe: a retrospective study].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To observe the efficacy and features of treating early-to-middle stage nontraumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head (NONFH) patients by Jianpi Huogu Recipe (JHR).
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On the absolute configuration of chiral 1,4-dihydropyridazines synthesized by organocatalysed reactions.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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A computational investigation of the specific optical rotation and of the electronic circular dichroism spectra of two chiral 1,4-dihydropyridazines was performed and compared with existing experimental data to verify a previous assignment of their absolute configuration based on a well-accepted mechanism of catalysis of the organocatalyst used in their synthesis. Both the optical rotation and circular dichroism calculations indicate that the absolute configuration is opposite to the one assigned on the basis of the mechanism originally assumed. An alternative reaction mechanism is therefore suggested.
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[Valuation on analgesic, expectorant and antitussive effects of compatible use of Aconiti radix cocta and Fritillaria cirrhosa or Fritillaria thunbergii].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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To study the analgesic, expectorant and antitussive effects of the compatible use of Aconiti Radix Cocta and Fritillaria cirrhosa or F. thunbergii with different matching ratio or dose in mice.
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Determination of 7-ketocholesterol in plasma by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for rapid diagnosis of acid sphingomyelinase deficient Niemann-Pick disease.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) deficient Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) caused by mutations in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase1 (SMPD1) gene, resulting in accumulation of sphingomyelin in the lysosomes and secondary changes in cholesterol metabolism. We hypothesized that the oxidation product of cholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC), may increase in plasma of patients with ASM deficient NPD. In this study, a rapid and non-derivatized method of measurement of plasma 7-KC by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. Plasma samples from healthy subject, patients with ASM deficient NPD, non-affected ASM deficient NPD heterozygote, Niemann-Pick type C (NPC1) disease, glycogen storage disorder type II (GSDII), Gaucher disease (GD), mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPSII), Krabbe disease (KD) and metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) were tested retrospectively. The markedly elevated 7-KC was found in both of patients with ASM deficient NPD and NPC1 disease that showed significant differences from ASM deficient NPD heterozygotes, patients with GSDII, GD, MPSII, KD and MLD, and normal controls. The analysis of plasma 7-KC by LC-MS/MS offers the first simple, quantitative, and highly sensitive method for detection of ASM deficient NPD and could be useful in diagnosis of both ASM deficient NPD and NPC disease.
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[Effects of promoting blood circulation to remove meridian obstruction combined with medicinal guides on related osteogenesis factors in rabbits with femoral head necrosis].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To observe effects of blood circulation promoting compounds combined with medicinal guides on content of bone glaprotein (BGP), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BPM-2) and expression of BMP-2 mRNA in rabbits with femoral head necrosis, and explore its mechanism.
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Association of a polymorphism in PON-1 gene with steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head in Chinese Han population.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Treatment with steroids covers a wide spectrum of diseases in clinic. However, some users are suffering from serious side effects of steroid administration, while we enjoy the benefit it brings about. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a troublesome one among them. Recent studies have demonstrated that lipid metabolism disorder may play a vital role in pathogenesis of ONFH and mutation of the paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) gene may be involved in the occurrence of this disease. However, the relationship between polymorphisms of PON-1 and ONFH has not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this study was to determine whether PON-1 polymorphisms are associated with steroid-induced ONFH through a cohort study among Chinese Han population.
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Genetic polymorphisms in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 predict susceptibility to steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in Chinese population.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Steroid usage has been considered as a leading cause of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), which is involved in hypo-fibrinolysis and blood supply interruption. Genetic polymorphisms in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have been demonstrated to be associated with ONFH risk in several populations. However, this relationship has not been established in Chinese population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of PAI-1 gene polymorphisms with steroid-induced ONFH in a large cohort of Chinese population.
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[Study on efficacy of compatibility between aconiti radix cocta and Pinelliae Rhizoma on basis of uniform design method].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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To study the effect of Aconiti Radix Cocta and Pinelliae Rhizoma with different matching proportions and doses on their analgic, anti-inflammatory, phlegm eliminating and cough relieving efficacies in mice.
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Ba13Si6Sn8As22: A Quaternary Zintl Phase Containing Adamantane-Like [Si4As10] Clusters.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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A new quaternary arsenide Zintl phase, Ba13Si6Sn8As22, has been synthesized from the Sn-flux reactions, and the structure was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The compound crystallizes in the tetragonal non-centrosymmetric space group I4?2m (No. 121) with unit cell parameters of a = b = 14.4857(3) Å, c = 13.5506(7) Å, V = 2843.40(17) Å(3). Its polyanion structure can be viewed as composed of [Si4As10] adamantane-like clusters and SiAs4 tetrahedra, which are linked via the [Sn2As4] groups built through two edge-sharing SnAs3 triangular pyramids. Differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry measurements indicate that Ba13Si6Sn8As22 has good thermal stability, and does not melt or decompose below 1045 K under Ar atmosphere. Density functional calculations were performed on Ba13Si6Sn8As22 and the results suggest a band gap of around 1.0 eV for Ba13Si6Sn8As22, confirmed by the diffuse reflectance spectrum measurement. In addition, the extensively existing lone pairs of electrons on the p-orbitals of As and Sn may also hint interesting nonlinear optical properties considering the noncentrosymmetric structure.
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[In Process Citation].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To establish a comprehensive geriatric assessment scale which fit the situations of Chinese old people most, and to provide an evaluation tool for the proposal and intervention of functional health problems for the elderly.
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[Changes in peripheral hemogram among workers with short-term lead exposure].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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To examine the effect of short-term occupational lead exposure on the inflammatory response system in blood among workers.
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Fertility-preserving treatment and pregnancy outcomes in the early stage of endometrial carcinoma.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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This study aimed to review the available literature on fertility-preserving treatment and pregnancy outcomes in patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma who desired to preserve their fertility.
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Chemical profiling of Wu-tou decoction by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Wu-tou decoction (WTD), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, is composed of Aconiti Radix Cocta, Ephedrae Herba, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Astragali Radix and Glycyrrhiza Radix Preparata, and it has been used for more than a thousand years to treat rheumatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and pain of joints, while the active constitutions of WTD are unclear. In this research, an ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method in both positive and negative ion mode was established to investigate the major constitutions in WTD. A Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column was used to separate the aqueous extract of WTD. Acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acid (v/v) were used as the mobile phase. 74 components including alkaloids, monoterpene glycosides, triterpene saponins, flavones and flavone glycosides were identified or tentatively characterized in WTD based on the accurate mass within 15ppm error and tandem MS behavior. All the constitutions were also detected in the corresponding individual herbs. These results will provide a basis for further study in vivo of WTD and the information of potential new drug structure for treating rheumatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
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Treatment with SiMiaoFang, an anti-arthritis chinese herbal formula, inhibits cartilage matrix degradation in osteoarthritis rat model.
Rejuvenation Res
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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A Chinese herbal preparation, SiMiaoFang (SMF), has been used clinically for treating arthralgia by virtue of its anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving activities. However, no evidence base links SMF to anti-osteoarthritis (OA), particularly its link to inhibiting cartilage matrix degradation. In this study, we undertook a characterization of anti-OA activity of SMF using an in vivo rat model induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and medial meniscus resection (ACLT+MMx) together with in vitro studies with chondrocytes for further molecular characterization. ACLT+MMx rats were treated with SMF at doses of 0.63, 1.25, and 2.5?grams/kg per day for 6 weeks. SMF treatments significantly inhibited cartilage matrix degradation, as indicated by increasing proteoglycan and collagen content, particularly type II collagen expression in articular cartilage, decreasing CTX-II (collagen type II degradation marker), and increasing CPII (collagen type II synthesis marker) in circulation. Moreover, SMF suppressed synovial inflammation and inhibited release of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-? in serum. The levels of serum prostaglandin E? and nitric oxide productions were decreased via suppression of the production of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, respectively. Importantly, SMF interfered with OA-augmented expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -3 and -13 and aggrecanases (ADAMTS) -4 and -5, which are considered to be key enzymes in cartilage matrix degradation, and simultaneously augmented OA-reduced tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) -1 and -3 expression in the joints. The largest changes in these parameters were found at the highest dose. Meanwhile, SMF significantly decreased MMP-3 and -13 and increased TIMP-1 and -3 at mRNA and protein levels in IL-1?-induced chondrocytes. These findings provide the first evidence that SMF effectively treats OA by inhibiting cartilage matrix degradation.
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Development of a hydrophilic interaction chromatography-UPLC assay to determine trigonelline in rat plasma and its application in a pharmacokinetic study.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Trigonelline (Tr) is the second most abundant alkaloid in coffee beans. This study developed an assay combining hydrophilic interaction chromatography with ultra performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UPLC) for the quantification of Tr in rat plasma to determine its pharmacokinetic behavior.
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[Relationship between social-psycological factors and quality of life in old women with coronary heart disease].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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To investigate the influence of depression, social supports and quality of sleep and quality of life on old women who were 60 years or older and postmenopause with coronary heart disease.
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[Association of MK2 and ZFP36 gene polymorphisms with high density lipoprotein cholesterol in Uygur population from Hetian area of Xinjiang].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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To assess the association of genetic polymorphisms of mitogen-activated protein kinase activated protein kinase 2 gene (MK2) and zinc finger protein 36 gene (ZFP36) with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in Xinjiang Urgur population.
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The stable association of virion with the triple-gene-block protein 3-based complex of Bamboo mosaic virus.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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The triple-gene-block protein 3 (TGBp3) of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) is an integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein which is assumed to form a membrane complex to deliver the virus intracellularly. However, the virus entity that is delivered to plasmodesmata (PD) and its association with TGBp3-based complexes are not known. Results from chemical extraction and partial proteolysis of TGBp3 in membrane vesicles revealed that TGBp3 has a right-side-out membrane topology; i.e., TGBp3 has its C-terminal tail exposed to the outer surface of ER. Analyses of the TGBp3-specific immunoprecipitate of Sarkosyl-extracted TGBp3-based complex revealed that TGBp1, TGBp2, TGBp3, capsid protein (CP), replicase and viral RNA are potential constituents of virus movement complex. Substantial co-fractionation of TGBp2, TGBp3 and CP, but not TGBp1, in the early eluted gel filtration fractions in which virions were detected after TGBp3-specific immunoprecipitation suggested that the TGBp2- and TGBp3-based complex is able to stably associate with the virion. This notion was confirmed by immunogold-labeling transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the purified virions. In addition, mutational and confocal microscopy analyses revealed that TGBp3 plays a key role in virus cell-to-cell movement by enhancing the TGBp2- and TGBp3-dependent PD localization of TGBp1. Taken together, our results suggested that the cell-to-cell movement of potexvirus requires stable association of the virion cargo with the TGBp2- and TGBp3-based membrane complex and recruitment of TGBp1 to the PD by this complex.
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A dual gene-silencing vector system for monocot and dicot plants.
Plant Biotechnol. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Plant virus-based gene-silencing vectors have been extensively and successfully used to elucidate functional genomics in plants. However, only limited virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS) vectors can be used in both monocot and dicot plants. Here, we established a dual gene-silencing vector system based on Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) and its satellite RNA (satBaMV). Both BaMV and satBaMV vectors could effectively silence endogenous genes in Nicotiana benthamiana and Brachypodium distachyon. The satBaMV vector could also silence the green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene in GFP transgenic N. benthamiana. GFP transgenic plants co-agro-inoculated with BaMV and satBaMV vectors carrying sulphur and GFP genes, respectively, could simultaneously silence both genes. Moreover, the silenced plants could still survive with the silencing of genes essential for plant development such as heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and Hsp70. In addition, the satBaMV- but not BaMV-based vector could enhance gene-silencing efficiency in newly emerging leaves of N. benthamiana deficient in RNA-dependant RNA polymerase 6. The dual gene-silencing vector system of BaMV and satBaMV provides a novel tool for comparative functional studies in monocot and dicot plants.
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[Role of ?-toxin-induced apoptosis of umbilical vein endothelial cells in vertical infection of Staphylococcus aureus L-form].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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To investigate ?-toxin-induced apoptosis of umbilical vein endothelial cells and explore its role in vertical infection of Staphylococcus aureus L-form. METHOS: HUV-EC-C cells exposed to different concentrations (0, 10, 30, 90, and 270 ng/ml) of ?-toxin for different time lengths (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h) were examined for apoptosis using flow cytometry with Annexin V-PI staining. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and the activities of, caspase-3 and caspase-8 in the cell culture were detected by ELISA and colorimetric method, respectively. ?-Toxin-induced cell apoptosis was also analyzed in HUV-EC-C cells treated with a neutralizing antibody of TNF-? or with the inhibitory peptides of caspase-3 (zDEVD-FMK) and caspase-8 (zIETD-fmk).
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Molecular spectrum of ?-thalassemia in Fujian Province, Southeastern China.
Hemoglobin
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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To provide basic information for ?-thalassemia (?-thal) screening, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis (PND), we characterized ?-thal mutations in Fujian Province, Southeastern China. A total of 16 different ?-thal gene mutations were identified from 1058 patients. Of these, the IVS-II-654 (C>T) and codons 41/42 (-TCTT) were the most prevalent, accounting for 76.3% of the total mutations. Six gene mutations, IVS-I-1 (G>T), Cap +40 to +43 (-AAAC), codon 30 (A>G), +22 (G>A), codons 54-58 (-TTATGGGCAACCC) and the initiation codon (ATG>AGG) were characterized for the first time in the Fujian population. Furthermore, the following mutations, +22 (G?>A), codon 36 (-C) and codon 30 (A>G), were identified for the first time in Chinese individuals. This was the first comprehensive mutation spectrum of ?-thal mutations studied in Fujian Province, Peoples Republic of China (PRC).
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Transgenic resistance to Bamboo mosaic virus by expression of interfering satellite RNA.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Plant genetic engineering has broadened the options for plant virus resistance and is mostly based on pathogen-derived resistance. Previously, we have shown that interfering satellite RNA (satRNA) of Bamboo mosaic virus (satBaMV) greatly reduces Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) accumulation and BaMV-induced symptoms in co-inoculated plants. Here, we generated a nonviral source of virus-resistant transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana by introducing interfering satBaMV. Asymptomatic transgenic N.?benthamiana lines were highly resistant to BaMV virion and viral RNA infection, and the expression of the transgene BSL6 was higher in asymptomatic than mildly symptomatic lines. In addition, BaMV- and satBaMV-specific small RNAs were detectable only after BaMV challenge, and their levels were associated with genomic viral RNA or satRNA levels. By transcriptomic analysis, the salicylic acid (SA) signalling pathway was not induced in satBaMV transgenic A.?thaliana in mock conditions, suggesting that two major antiviral mechanisms, RNA silencing and SA-mediated resistance, are not involved directly in transgenic satBaMV-mediated BaMV interference. In contrast, resistance is associated with the level of the interfering satBaMV transgene. We propose satBaMV-mediated BaMV interference in transgenic plants by competition for replicase with BaMV.
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Copper nanowires as fully transparent conductive electrodes.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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In pondering of new promising transparent conductors to replace the cost rising tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), metal nanowires have been widely concerned. Herein, we demonstrate an approach for successful synthesis of long and fine Cu nanowires (NWs) through a novel catalytic scheme involving nickel ions. Such Cu NWs in high aspect ratio (diameter of 16.2 ± 2?nm and length up to 40??m) provide long distance for electron transport and, meanwhile, large space for light transmission. Transparent electrodes fabricated using the Cu NW ink achieve a low sheet resistance of 1.4?Ohm/sq at 14% transmittance and a high transparency of 93.1% at 51.5?Ohm/sq. The flexibility and stability were tested with 100-timebending by 180°and no resistance change occurred. Ohmic contact was achieved to the p- and n-GaN on blue light emitting diode chip and bright electroluminescence from the front face confirmed the excellent transparency.
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