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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Clinical application of the disposable circumcision suture device in male circumcision].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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To investigate the safety and efficiency of the disposable circumcision suture device (DCSD) in the surgical treatment of phimosis and redundant prepuce.
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T cell-based targeted immunotherapies for patients with multiple myeloma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Despite high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologs stem-cell transplantation as well as novel therapeutic agents, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable. Following the general trend towards personalized therapy, targeted immunotherapy as a new approach in the therapy of MM has emerged. Better progression-free survival and overall survival after tandem autologs/allogeneic stem cell transplantation suggest a graft versus myeloma effect strongly supporting the usefulness of immunological therapies for MM patients. How to induce a powerful antimyeloma effect is the key issue in this field. Pivotal is the definition of appropriate tumor antigen targets and effective methods for expansion of T cells with clinical activity. Besides a comprehensive list of tumor antigens for T cell-based approaches, eight promising antigens, CS1, Dickkopf-1, HM1.24, Human telomerase reverse transcriptase, MAGE-A3, New York Esophageal-1, Receptor of hyaluronic acid mediated motility and Wilms' tumor gene 1, are described in detail to provide a background for potential clinical use. Results from both closed and on-going clinical trials are summarized in this review. On the basis of the preclinical and clinical data, we elaborate on three encouraging therapeutic options, vaccine-enhanced donor lymphocyte infusion, chimeric antigen receptors-transfected T cells as well as vaccines with multiple antigen peptides, to pave the way towards clinically significant immune responses against MM.
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5-Fluorouracil and interleukin-2 immunochemotherapy enhances immunogenicity of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells through upregulation of NKG2D ligands.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of immunochemotherapy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells.
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Modulation of lymphocyte subpopulations by extracorporeal photopheresis in patients with acute graft-versus-host disease or graft rejection.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) constitutes a promising treatment for patients with steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and for patients with graft rejection after solid organ transplantation (SOT). There is an increasing body of evidence that modulation of lymphocyte subsets might play a crucial role in the mechanism of action in ECP. We therefore analyzed immunological effects concomitantly with clinical findings in patients under ECP therapy using multicolor flow cytometry. In a patient with steroid-refractory aGvHD and a patient with progressive bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after double-lung transplantation, clinical responses to ECP therapy were paralleled by an increase of CD4 + CD25hiFoxP3 + regulatory T cells and a decrease of T(EMRA) (CD3 + CD8+ CD45RA+ CD62L+ effector memory T) cells as well as of natural killer (NK)T cells. In summary, immunomonitoring of T cell subsets can elucidate the mechanism of action in ECP.
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A cascade amplification strategy based on rolling circle amplification and hydroxylamine amplified gold nanoparticles enables chemiluminescence detection of adenosine triphosphate.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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A highly sensitive and selective chemiluminescent (CL) biosensor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was developed by taking advantage of the ATP-dependent enzymatic reaction (ATP-DER), the powerful signal amplification capability of rolling circle amplification (RCA), and hydroxylamine-amplified gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The strategy relies on the ability of ATP, a cofactor of T4 DNA ligase, to trigger the ligation-RCA reaction. In the presence of ATP, the T4 DNA ligase catalyzes the ligation reaction between the two ends of the padlock probe, producing a closed circular DNA template that initiates the RCA reaction with phi29 DNA polymerase and dNTP. Therein, many complementary copies of the circular template can be generated. The ATP-DER is eventually converted into a detectable CL signal after a series of processes, including gold probe hybridization, hydroxylamine amplification, and oxidative gold metal dissolution coupled with a simple and sensitive luminol CL reaction. The CL signal is directly proportional to the ATP level. The results showed that the detection limit of the assay is 100 pM of ATP, which compares favorably with those of other ATP detection techniques. In addition, by taking advantage of ATP-DER, the proposed CL sensing system exhibits extraordinary specificity towards ATP and could distinguish the target molecule ATP from its analogues. The proposed method provides a new and versatile platform for the design of novel DNA ligation reaction-based CL sensing systems for other cofactors. This novel ATP-DER based CL sensing system may find wide applications in clinical diagnosis as well as in environmental and biomedical fields.
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[Gender-related clinical characteristics in patients with differentiated thyroid cancers].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with different gender who diagnosed as differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC).
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Aerobic oxidative C-H olefination of cyclic N-sulfonyl ketimines catalyzed by a rhodium catalyst.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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A useful method for the synthesis of ortho-olefinated ketimines from readily accessible cyclic N-sulfonyl ketimines and various olefins has been achieved. The reactions proceeded by Rh(III)-catalyzed, N-sulfonyl ketimine-directed C-H cleavage under aerobic conditions. Further synthetic transformations of the olefinic products led to interesting heterocyclic molecules.
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[Etiologies of 1 173 hospitalized cases with adrenal incidentaloma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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To summarize the characteristics of etiological distribution of adrenal incidentaloma during the past 20 years.
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Olmesartan medoxomil reverses glomerulosclerosis in renal tissue induced by myocardial infarction without changes in renal function.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) on renal injury in mice with myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 33 male C57/BL/6 mice were divided into a sham surgery group (SHAM group), MI group (MI group) and OLM treatment group (OLM group). Experimental MI models were established in the mice of the MI and OLM groups by coronary artery ligation, and the mice in the OLM group were fed a daily dose of 10 mg/kg OLM for eight weeks. The results showed that MI induced a reduction in cardiac function and an increase in systolic blood pressure. In addition, increased periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive staining, combined with increased levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) in the plasma and kidneys, and increased expression levels of renin, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensinogen (AGT) in the kidney tissues was observed compared with those in the SHAM group. OLM treatment attenuated the injury by reducing the systolic blood pressure and PAS positive staining, and decreasing the expression levels of Ang II, renin, AT1R and AGT in the kidney compared with those in the MI group. It may be concluded that MI activates the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system and leads to glomerulosclerosis, and that OLM protects the kidney by inhibiting the effects of Ang II.
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Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase regulates Ca2+ signaling and the proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) plays an important role in regulating intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis by extruding excessive Ca2+ to extracellular spaces. PMCA has four isoforms and is widely expressed in different tissues and cells including airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). In the present study, we investigated the role of PMCA in the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis and regulation of ASMCs proliferation. By using Ca2+ fluorescence, we found that inhibition of PMCA with LaCl3 or carboxyeosin (CE) decreased the decay rate of Ca2+ transient induced by bradykinin (BK). No obvious decay was observed when SERCA was inhibited by thapsigargin (TpG). LaCl3 and CE also induced a spontaneous [Ca2+]i increase in the presence of TpG even in Ca2+-free bath solution. Both LaCl3 and CE inhibited UTP-induced Ca2+ oscillations in ASMCs. PCR assay found that PMCA1 and PMCA4 mRNA were expressed in rat ASMCs. The expression of PMCA4 was downregulated in proliferating ASMCs when compared to resting cells. Both the isoform-nonselective PMCA inhibitor caloxin 2a1 and PMCA4-selective inhibitor caloxin 1b1 decreased the decay rate of Ca2+ transient induced by TpG or BK. PMCA inhibitors except caloxin 2a1 promoted ASMCs proliferation. Annexin-V apoptosis assay detected that caloxin 2a1 increased ASMCs apoptosis, suggesting that inhibition of PMCA with different blockers results in different [Ca2+]i and thus different cellular response. Our results provide evidences to support the hypothesis that PMCA is involved in the regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis and ASMCs proliferation. These data suggest that PMCA may be a new target in the treatment of chronic asthma.
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Gambogic acid suppresses hypoxia-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1?/vascular endothelial growth factor expression via inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target protein of rapamycin pathway in multiple myeloma cells.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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In multiple myeloma (MM), the hypoxic environment is an important factor causing tumor angiogenesis, which is strongly correlated to disease progression and unfavorable outcome by activating the key transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). Gambogic acid (GA) is the major active ingredient of gamboge, which has been shown to possess antitumor effect by in vitro and in vivo study. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of whether GA inhibits tumor angiogenesis remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of GA on expression of HIF-1?, and its downstream target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human MM U266 cells. We found that hypoxia induced increase in the level of HIF-1? subunit protein and activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target protein of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Moreover, the treatment with GA markedly decreased HIF-1? and VEGF expression under hypoxic conditions. Mechanistic studies exhibited that GA inhibited the production of HIF-1? by reducing phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR in U266 cells. Furthermore, in vivo study revealed that intravenous injection of GA once every other day for 2 weeks could suppress tumor volumes by antiangiogenesis activity. Taken together, our results identify that GA suppresses hypoxia-activated pathways that are linked to MM progression, at least partly, by the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, GA may be a new potent therapeutic agent against human MM cells.
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[Association of leptin receptor gene polymorphisms with hypertension in Chinese population: a meta-analysis].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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To evaluate the association between leptin receptor gene polymorphisms and hypertension in Chinese population.
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Cellular immunotherapy for patients with reactivation of JC and BK polyomaviruses after transplantation.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Immunosuppression of patients after hematopoietic stem cell or kidney transplantation potentially leads to reactivation of JC and BK polyomaviruses. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the reactivation rate of BKV can be up to 60%, resulting in severe complications of the urogenital tract, particularly hemorrhagic cystitis and renal dysfunction. After kidney transplantation, BKV reactivation can cause a loss of the graft. JCV can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a lethal disease. Adoptive transfer of donor-derived polyomavirus-specific T cells is an attractive and promising treatment that restores virus-specific cellular immunity. Pioneering work in the early 1990s on the reconstitution of cellular immunity against cytomegalovirus and recent development in the field of monitoring and isolation of antigen-specific T cells paved the way toward a personalized T-cell therapy. Multimer technology and magnetic beads are available to produce untouched T cells in a single-step, good manufacturing practice-compliant procedure. Another exciting aspect of T-cell therapy against polyomaviruses is the fact that both JCV and BKV can be targeted simultaneously because of their high sequence homology. Finally, "designer T cells" can be redirected to recognize polyomavirus antigens with high-affinity T-cell receptors. This review summarizes the state-of-the art technologies and gives an outlook of future developments in the field.
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Detailed assessment of gene activation levels by multiple hypoxia-responsive elements under various hypoxic conditions.
Ann Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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HIF-1/HRE pathway is a promising target for the imaging and the treatment of intractable malignancy (HIF-1; hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HRE; hypoxia-responsive element). The purposes of our study are: (1) to assess the gene activation levels resulting from various numbers of HREs under various hypoxic conditions, (2) to evaluate the bidirectional activity of multiple HREs, and (3) to confirm whether multiple HREs can induce gene expression in vivo.
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Immunohistochemical screening and fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmation of ALK translocation in lung adenocarcinoma and its clinicopathological significance: a single-center large-scale investigation of Chinese patients.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation-positive adenocarcinoma of the lung is a newly recognized molecular subgroup. Limited data on the clinicopathological features of this entity in the Chinese population are available. We performed immunohistochemical staining for the ALK protein and fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of the ALK translocation. We enrolled 793 Chinese patients with lung adenocarcinoma and identified 54 ALK translocation-positive patients (6.8%) in the group. Compared with the entire group of patients, ALK translocation-positive patients were younger (P < .01) and more likely to be nonsmokers (P = .017), but presented with a higher percentage of advanced-stage disease (P = .022) and lymph node metastases (P = .006). ALK translocation-positive patients more commonly exhibited poorly differentiated tumor histology and a predominantly solid tumor growth pattern relative to the ALK translocation-negative patients. Morphologically, ALK translocation was associated with extracellular mucus secretion, a mucinous cribriform structure, and signet ring cell (SRC) components. ALK translocation was present in 42.5% and 34.0% of adenocarcinomas with SRC components or wild-type EGFR, respectively. ALK translocation, occurring at a frequency of 6.8% in Chinese patients, defines a unique molecular subgroup of lung tumors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization should be performed in each case of lung adenocarcinoma with SRC components or wild-type EGFR to identify ALK translocation-positive patients.
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The impact of eyelid and eye contour factors on a toric soft contact lens fitting in Chinese subjects.
Eye Contact Lens
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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To evaluate eyelid and eye contour factors that can influence the fitting of toric soft contact lenses (TSCLs).
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Emodin accentuates atrial natriuretic peptide secretion in cardiac atria.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Emodin, an active anthraquinone constituent isolated from the rhubarb, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine which is widely used in clinical treatment, has cardiovascular protective properties. However, it remains unclear whether the cardiovascular protective actions of emodin are related to an activation of cardiac natriuretic hormone secretion. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of emodin on the secretion of ANP, a member of the family of cardiac natriuretic hormones, and its mechanisms involved. Experiments were performed in isolated perfused beating rabbit atria allowing measurement of ANP secretion, atrial pulse pressure, and stroke volume. Emodin increased ANP secretion concomitantly with a decrease in atrial pulse pressure and stroke volume in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were reversible. Inhibition of K(+) channels with tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide attenuated the emodin-induced changes in ANP secretion and atrial dynamics. Furthermore, the emodin-induced changes in ANP secretion and atrial dynamics were attenuated by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels with nifedipine. Atropine, methoctramine, tertiapin-Q, and pertussis toxin had no significant effect on the emodin-induced changes in ANP secretion and mechanical dynamics. The present study demonstrates that emodin increases ANP secretion via inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels through an activation of K(+)ATP channel in isolated beating rabbit atria. The results also provide a rationale for the use of emodin in the treatment of impairment of the regulation of the cardiovascular homeostasis.
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Smad6 suppresses the growth and self-renewal of hepatic progenitor cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Activation of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) is commonly observed in chronic liver disease and Wnt/?-catenin signaling plays a crucial role in the expansion of HPCs. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the liver, especially in HPCs, remain largely elusive. Here, we reported that ectopic expression of Smad6 suppressed the proliferation and self-renewal of WB-F344 cells, a HPC cell line. Mechanistically, we found that Smad6 inhibited Wnt/?-catenin signaling through promoting the interaction of C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) with ?-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex to inhibit ?-catenin mediated transcriptional activation in WB-F344 cells. We used siRNA targeting ?-catenin to demonstrate that Wnt/?-catenin signaling was required for the proliferation and self-renewal of HPCs. Taken together, these results suggest that Smad6 is a regulatory molecule which regulates the proliferation, self-renewal and Wnt/?-catenin signaling in HPCs.
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Reduced expression of transcriptional intermediary factor 1 gamma promotes metastasis and indicates poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Transcriptional intermediary factor 1 gamma (TIF1?) may play either a potential tumor-suppressor or -promoter role in cancer. Here we report on a critical role of TIF1? in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Reduced expression of TIF1? was detected in HCC, especially in advanced HCC tissues, compared to adjacent noncancerous tissues. HCC patients with low TIF1? expression had shorter overall survival times and higher recurrence rates than those with high TIF1? expression. Reduced TIF1? expression was an independent and significant risk factor for recurrence and survival after curative resection. In HCC cells, TIF1? played a dual role: It promoted tumor growth in early-stage HCC, but not in advanced-stage HCC, whereas it inhibited invasion and metastasis in both early- and advanced-stage HCC. Mechanistically, we confirmed that TIF1? inhibited transforming growth factor-?/ Drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic protein (TGF-?/Smad) signaling through monoubiquitination of Smad4 and suppressed the formation of Smad2/3/4 complex in HCC cells. TGF-?-inducing cytostasis and metastasis were both inhibited by TIF1? in HCC. We further proved that TIF1? suppressed cyotstasis-related TGF-?/Smad downstream c-myc down-regulation, as well as p21/cip1 and p15/ink4b up-regulation in early-stage HCC. Meanwhile, TGF-? inducible epithelial-mesenchymal transition and TGF-?/Smad downstream metastatic cascades, including phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten down-regulation, chemokine (CXC motif) receptor 4 and matrix metalloproteinase 1 induction, and epidermal growth factor receptor- and protein kinase B-signaling transactivation, were inhibited by TIF1?. In addition, we found that the down-regulation of TIF1? in HCC was caused by hypermethylation of CpG islands in the TIF1? promoter, and demonstrated that the combination of TIF1? and phosphorylated Smad2 was a more powerful predictor of poor prognosis.
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Carcinoid tumor of the middle ear: a case report and review of literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Carcinoid tumors of the middle ear are very rare. Here we describe a 37-year-old man with multiple recurrent carcinoid tumor of the right middle ear. The CT demonstrated the recurrent mass that filled the tympanum and mastoid with osteolytic invasion, and the tumor was removed by surgery. The pathological findings showed the tumor cells, without necrosis and mitotic activity, had round, oval, or slightly irregular nuclei and finely-dispersed chromatin, arranged in cords, nests, and glandular structures. They were strongly positive for synaptophysin and CD56, but were negative for S-100 and chromogranin A. Ki-67 proliferation activity was low (<2%). With a review of the literature, the clinical, pathological characteristics and treatment modalities of this rare tumor are discussed.
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HIV-related Burkitt lymphoma with florid granulomatous reaction: an unusual case with good outcome.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Lymphoma related granulomatous reaction rarely occurs in sporadic BL. Herein, we describe the first case of HIV related Burkitt lymphoma with florid granulomatous reaction. A 41-year-old HIV-positive Chinese male presented lymphadenopathy in the right cervical region for 3 months. The enlarged lymph node biopsies revealed the presence of prominent granulomas of varying size with Langhans giant cells, leading to the misdiagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis in other hospital. Subsequently, the case was sent to us for consultation. The morphology, immunophenotype, special staining, interphase FISH analysis and blood tests confirmed a diagnosis of HIV related Burkitt lymphoma with granulomatous reaction. Without radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the patient was alive and well with no evidence of lymphoma during the observation period of 24 months. The case suggested that lymphoma with florid granulomatous reaction can easily be misdiagnosed as benign lesions since the large number of epithelioid granulomas could obscure the primary lesion. Moreover, the granulomatous reaction may be an indicator for favorable prognosis in HIV related Burkitt lymphoma.
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Abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells.
Front Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dysfunction of central serotonin (5-HT) system has been proposed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for anxiety and depression, and the association of diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders has been noticed by the high prevalence of anxiety/depression in patients with diabetes mellitus. This promoted us to examine these behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice and those also suffering with diabetes mellitus. Mice lacking either 5-HT or central serotonergic neurons were generated by conditional deletion of Tph2 or Lmx1b respectively. Simultaneous depletion of both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) in Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DT receptor (DTR) mice. The central 5-HT-deficient mice showed reduced anxiety-like behaviors as they spent more time in and entered more often into the light box in the light/dark box test compared with controls; similar results were observed in the elevated plus maze test. However, they displayed no differences in the immobility time of the forced swimming and tail suspension tests suggesting normal depression-like behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice. As expected, DT-treated Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DTR mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet endocrine cells exhibited several classic diabetic symptoms. Interestingly, they displayed increased anxiety-like behaviors but reduced immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Furthermore, the hippocampal neurogenesis was dramatically enhanced in these mice. These results suggest that the deficiency of central 5-HT may not be sufficient to induce anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice, and the enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to the altered depression-like behaviors in the 5-HT-deficient mice with diabetes. Our current investigation provides understanding the relationship between diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders.
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Novel antibody against a glutamic acid-rich human fibrinogen-like protein 2-derived peptide near Ser91 Inhibits hfgl2 prothrombinase activity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (fgl2) is highly expressed in microvascular endothelial cells in diseases associated with microcirculatory disturbances and plays a crucial role in microthrombosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that the Ser89 residue is a critical site for mouse fgl2 prothrombinase activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prothrombinase inhibitory ability of antibodies against an hfgl2-derived peptide. The peptide was termed NPG-12 because it is located at the N-terminus of membrane-bound hfgl2, contains 12 amino acid residues (corresponding to residues 76 to 87), and is rich in Glu. This peptide was selected as an antigenic determinant to produce antibodies in immunized rabbits using the DNAStar and HomoloGene software program. Abundant hfgl2 expression was induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells through treatment with TNF-?. The generated anti-NPG-12 antibodies specifically recognize fgl2, as determined by ELISA, Western Blot and immunostaining. Moreover, one-stage clotting and thrombin generation tests provide evidence that the antibodies can reduce the hfgl2 prothrombinase activity without affecting the platelet-poor plasma prothrombin time (PT) or the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). In addition, the antibodies exerted undetectable influence on the proliferation or activation of bulk T cell populations. In conclusion, the selected peptide sequence NPG-12 may be a critical domain for hfgl2 prothrombinase activity, and the development of inhibitors against this sequence may be promising for research or management of hfgl2-associated microcirculatory disturbances.
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[Incidence and risk factors of prehypertension among adults in mainland China: a meta-analysis].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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To investigate the incidence and risk factors of prehypertension among adults in mainland China and identify the high-risk population.
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[Assessment of haze-related human health risks for four Chinese cities during extreme haze in January 2013].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To evaluate the human health risks (premature death risk as an indicator) in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Xian during extreme haze in January 2013.
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PKC?-dependent Activation of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System is Responsible for High Glucose-induced Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Proliferation, Migration and Invasion.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has contributed to advanced breast cancer development over the past decades. However, the mechanism underlying this contribution is poorly understood. In this study, we determined that high glucose enhanced proteasome activity was accompanied by enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as suppressed apoptosis, in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZM) pretreatment mitigated high glucose-induced MCF-7 cell growth and invasion. Furthermore, high glucose increased protein kinase C delta (PKC?)-phosphorylation. Administration of the specific PKC? inhibitor rottlerin attenuated high glucose-stimulated cancer cell growth and invasion. In addition, PKC? inhibition by both rottlerin and PKC? shRNA significantly suppressed high glucose-induced proteasome activity. Our results suggest that PKC?-dependent ubiquitin proteasome system activation plays an important role in high glucose- induced breast cancer cell growth and metastasis.
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Female sex hormones are associated with the reduction of serum sodium and hypertension complications in patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma.
Endocr. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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This study was conducted to evaluate gender-related differences in clinical characteristics and vascular complications in patients with aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA). Clinical characteristics, biochemical markers and incidence of vascular complications were compared by gender in 187 consecutive patients with APA confirmed by pathological diagnosis. Patients were separated into two groups based on ages either older or younger than 49 years, the average age of menopause among Chinese women (<49 y and ?49 y). Males had significantly higher BMI than females in the age group of <49 years (p = 0.017). In the <49 years group, males had significantly higher serum sodium levels (p = 0.003). However, no such gender differences in clinical characteristics were observed in patients ?49 years. A higher proportion of vascular complications was observed in males as compared to females aged <49 years but the difference was not statistically significant (51.4% vs. 34.8%, p = 0.105). The only gender difference observed in vascular complications between patients aged ?49 years was that a significantly greater proportion of males had cerebrovascular complication compared to females (p = 0.006). Our data suggest that female sex hormones are implicated in reducing serum sodium concentration and vascular complications in female APA patients.
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Suppression of cytomegalovirus-specific CD8(+)T cells by everolimus.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Everolimus (RAD-001) has recently been used as an immunosuppressive drug to treat patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), thereby reducing cyclosporine-related nephrotoxicity. We studied the immunomodulatory effect of everolimus on mitogen-stimulated and particularly cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cytotoxic T cells. Proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells stimulated with staphylococcal endotoxin B and phytohemagglutinin was strongly inhibited at very low doses. Proliferation of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells could be completely suppressed. Similarly, the frequency of CMV-specific, cytokine-secreting and CD137-expressing CD8(+) T cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner. However, interferon-? (IFN-?) secretion by CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells remained unchanged, as could be demonstrated by intracellular cytokine staining. As reactivation of CMV plays a pivotal role in the outcome of patients after HSCT, attention must be paid to early detection and preemptive treatment of CMV reactivity in patients treated with everolimus.
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Accentuation of ursolic acid on muscarinic receptor-induced ANP secretion in beating rabbit atria.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Ursolic acid has recently been reported to increase both atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion and mechanical dynamics in rabbit atria.
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[Environmental damage assessment: international regulations and revelation to China].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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As the whole society gradually realizes the scarcity of nature resources and environmental value, countries all over the world have evolved and improved the system of environmental damage assessment through the practices of pollution prevention and ecological environmental protection. On one hand, in the research prospective, the practices of environmental damage assessment brought new challenges to environmental law, environmental economics, environmental science, environmental engineering, etc. On the other hand, they constantly promoted and developed relevant laws and regulations, techniques, working mechanism, and guidelines on procedure in practice. On the hasis of comparison and analysis of international practices and experiences from US, EU, and Japan, etc., this article identified relevant concepts, content, and scope of environmental damage assessment, and presented its scientific positioning and development direction. At present, both theory and practice of environmental damage assessment in China are in their infancy period. Considering current environmental situation and socioeconomic development features of China, learning international practices and experiences and raising the orientation of environmental damage assessment have great meaning in exploring the suitable environmental damage assessment system.
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Factors associated with decision time for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Increased delay in visiting a hospital for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is often associated with poor outcomes. The factors associated with the decision time were analyzed by comparing the characteristics of patients with delays longer or shorter than the median of 60 min. Pre-hospital delay tended to be longer for patients living in suburban areas compared to those in urban areas (P=0.015). Shorter decision time was more likely among older patients. Being married, medical insurance coverage, and the level of educational qualification did not affect decision time. More efforts should be paid to educate the patients with high risk in suburban areas in order to effectively reduce pre-hospital delays.
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[Simulation of air pollution characteristics and estimates of environmental capacity in Zibo City].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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To develop a new pattern of air pollution control that is based on the integration of "concentration control, total amount control, and quality control", and in the context of developing national (2011-2015 air pollution control plan for key areas) and (Environmental protection plan of Zibo municipality for the "12th Five-Year Plan" period), a simulation of atmospheric dispersion of air pollutants in Zibo City and its peripheral areas is carried out by employing CALPUFF model, and the atmospheric environmental capacity of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 is estimated based on the results of model simulation and using multi-objective linear programming optimization. The results indicates that the air pollution in Zibo City is significantly related to the pollution sources outside of Zibo City, which contributes to the annual average concentration of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in Zibo City by 26.34%, 21.23%, and 14.58% respectively. There is a notable interaction between districts and counties of Zibo municipality, in which the contribution of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 emissions in surrounding counties and districts to the annual average concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in downtown area are 35.96%, 43.17%, and 17.69% respectively. There is a great variation in spatial sensitivity of air pollutant emission, and the environmental impact of unit pollutant emissions from Zhoucun, Huantai, Zhangdian and Zichuan is greater than that released from other districts/counties. To meet the requirement of (Ambient air quality standard) (GB 3095-2012), the environmental capacities of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 of Zibo City are only 8.03 x 10(4) t, 19.16 x 10(4) t and 3.21 x 10(4) t, respectively. Therefore, it is imperative to implement regional air pollution joint control in Shandong peninsula in order to ensure the achievement of air quality standard in Zibo City.
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[The long lasting effect of the murine fibroblast growth factor-21 on blood glucose control of diabetic animals].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Insulin is the most common medicine used for diabetic patients, unfortunately, its effective time is short, even the long-acting insulin cannot obtain a satisfactory effect. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is a recently discovered glucose mediator and expected to be a potential anti-diabetic drug that does not rely on insulin. In this study, db/db mice were used as the type 2 diabetic model to examine whether mFGF-21 has the long-term blood lowering effect on the animal model. The results showed that mFGF-21 could stably maintain the blood glucose at normal level for a long-term in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of mFGF-21 once a day with three doses (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg x kg(-1)) could maintain blood glucose of the model animals at normal level for at least 24 h. Administration of mFGF-21 every two days with the same doses could maintain blood glucose of the model animals at normal level for at least 48 h, although it took longer time for blood glucose to reach to normal level depending on doses used (twenty injections for 0.125 mg x kg(-1) and 0.25 mg x kg(-1) doses, ten injections for 0.5 mg x kg(-1) dose). Surprisingly, the blood glucose of the treated model animals still maintained at normal level for 24 h after the experiment terminated. Glycosylated hemoglobin level of the animals treated with mFGF-21, which represented long-term glucose status, decreased significantly compared to the control group and the insulin group. The results suggest that FGF-21 has potential to become a long-acting and potent anti-diabetic drug.
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Vasorelaxant action of an ethylacetate fraction of Euphorbia humifusa involves NO-cGMP pathway and potassium channels.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Euphorbia humifusa Willd. (EH) is an important traditional Chinese medicine that has commonly been used for treating bacillary dysentery and enteritis in many Asian countries for thousands of years. EH has a wide variety of pharmacological actions such as antioxidant, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic effects. However, the mechanisms involved are to be defined.
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Transforming growth factor ? induces expression of connective tissue growth factor in hepatic progenitor cells through Smad independent signaling.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are activated in the chronic liver injury and are found to participate in the progression of liver fibrosis, while the precise role of HPCs in liver fibrosis remains largely elusive. In this study, by immunostaining of human liver sections, we confirmed that HPCs were activated in the cirrhotic liver and secreted transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), both of which were important inducers of liver fibrosis. Besides, we used HPC cell lines LE/6 and WB-F344 as in vitro models and found that TGF-? induced secretion of CTGF in HPCs. Moreover, TGF-? signaling was intracrine activated and contributed to autonomous secretion of CTGF in HPCs. Furthermore, we found that TGF-? induced expression of CTGF was not mediated by TGF-? activated Smad signaling but mediated by TGF-? activated Erk, JNK and p38 MAPK signaling. Taken together, our results provide evidence for the role of HPCs in liver fibrosis and suggest that the production of CTGF by TGF-? activated MAPK signaling in HPCs may be a therapeutic target of liver fibrosis.
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Protective effects of losartan in mice with chronic viral myocarditis induced by coxsackievirus B3.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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To investigate whether losartan has protective effects in mice with chronic viral myocarditis induced by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3).
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Poria cocos inhibits high glucose-induced proliferation of rat mesangial cells.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Mesangial cell proliferation is correlated with the progression of renal failure. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a water extract of Poria cocos Wolf (WPC), a well-known medicinal plant, regulates rat mesangial cell proliferation in the presence of high glucose (HG). HG significantly accelerated [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, which was inhibited by WPC (1-50 ?g/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. Cell migration and fibronectin mRNA expression data also supported the anti-proliferative effect of WPC. Western blot analysis revealed that pretreatment with WPC decreased the expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and promoted the expression of p21(waf1/cip1) and p27(kip1). WPC also suppressed HG-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) phosphorylation. Furthermore, WPC inhibited HG-induced production of dichlorofluorescein (DCF)-sensitive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion, HG promoted mesangial cell proliferation, and WPC inhibited this activity, at least in part, via induction of cell cycle arrest and activation of anti-oxidant properties. Taken together, these results suggest that P. cocos may be a potent regulator of HG-induced proliferation.
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Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome in Chinese people: clinical characteristic analysis of 55 cases.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is characterized by the absence of pituitary stalk, pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic posterior pituitary. Due to the rarity of PSIS, clinical data are limited, especially in Chinese people. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with PSIS from our center over 10 years.
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Müller glia cells activation in rat retina after optic nerve injury: spatiotemporal correlation with transcription initiation factor IIb.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Transcription initiation factor IIB (TFIIB) is an ideal factor to localize core promoters and plays a central role in the assembly of the pre-initiation complex. Previous studies showed that the assembly of TFIIB played an important role in rat ischemic brain injury. To elucidate the expression and possible functions of TFIIB in retina lesion and repair, we performed an optic nerve crush (ONC) model in adult rats. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry showed a significant upregulation of TFIIB in retina after ONC. Immunofluorescent labeling indicated that TFIIB was localized mainly in the Müller glia cells (MGCs); colocalization of TFIIB and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the injured retina suggested that TFIIB might participate in MGCs proliferation. In addition, we also examined the expression of the retinal progenitor markers (Nestin and Pax6) whose changes were correlated with the expression of TFIIB. In vitro, we induced MGCs differentiation with brain nerve growth factor (BNGF) and found that TFIIB expression was increased in the differentiated process, which was collected with the expression of PCNA, Nestin, and Pax6. Additionally, knocking TFIIB down with siRNA inhibited the expression of PCNA, Nestin, and Pax6. Collectively, we hypothesized ONC-induced upregulation of TFIIB in the retina was associated with MGCs activation and differentiation.
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Apoptosis and G2/M arrest induced by Allium ursinum (ramson) watery extract in an AGS gastric cancer cell line.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The present study was designed to determine whether Allium ursinum L (ramson) could inhibit the proliferation of human AGS gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, we attempted to determine whether this inhibition could occur by targeting regulatory elements of the cell cycle.
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An effective and safe supplement for stem cells expansion ex vivo: cord blood serum.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2011
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential and optimal stem cells in clinical cell therapy, and fetal bovine serum (FBS) is widely used for expansion of MSCs, despite the risks of infectious disease transmission and immunological reaction of the xenogenic origin. This study was designed to compare human four blood group cord blood serum (CBS) with FBS in culturing human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDMSCs), which were derived from four blood group donors. The expansion medium included: 10% FBS, 10% A-CBS, 10% B-CBS, 10% O-CBS, and 10% AB-CBS. Cumulative population doubling, generation time, fold expansion rates and differentiation capacity, cell cycle, and immunophenotype were also assessed. The results showed that fold expansion rate and cumulative population doubling of hPDMSCs significantly increased during long-term MSC expansion in CBS medium, but the generation time decreased compared with FBS. CBS might be an effective supplement for stem cells expand rapidly ex vivo. Cell cycle and differentiation assays showed that most of the hPDMSCs expanding in the presence of CBS were in stationary phase, which was the characteristic of stem cells, and they retained their ability to differentiate into chondrogenic and endothelial cells. By comparing these four blood groups of CBS, we found that there was no significant difference among different blood groups in culturing hPDMSCs, which were isolated from different blood group donors. So CBS may be an optimal replacement to avoid the risks of FBS application in expansion of stem cell for clinical cell therapy and tissue engineering.
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Ursolic acid enhances mouse liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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Ursolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid which has hepatoprotective and antihepatotoxic activities.
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Prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease by magnetic nanoparticles of Fe?O? combined with cyclosporin A in murine models.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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To investigate the effect of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of Fe(3)O(4) combined with cyclosporin A (CsA) on acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in murine models.
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Preparation and in vitro anticancer activity of oxymatrine mixed micellar nanoparticles.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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The aim of this study was to prepare oxymatrine (OMT) mixed micellar nanoparticles to delay release of the drug and enhance its cytotoxicity against cancer cells. A co-solvent evaporation method using lipoid E80, lipoid S75, MPEG-PLA and Poloxamer 188 was chosen to prepare the OMT formulation, and its release characteristics, cytotoxic activity in vitro and physical characteristics were evaluated. The results showed that OMT mixed micellar nanoparticles have sustained release and cytotoxic activity in vitro to the SMMC-7721 cell line.
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Serotonin regulates voltage-dependent currents in type I(e(A)) and I(i) interneurons of Hermissenda.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Serotonin (5-HT) has both direct and modulatory actions on central neurons contributing to behavioral arousal and cellular-synaptic plasticity in diverse species. In Hermissenda, 5-HT produces changes in intrinsic excitability of different types of identified interneurons in the circumesophageal nervous system. Using whole cell patch-clamp techniques we have examined membrane conductance changes produced by 5-HT that contribute to intrinsic excitability in two identified classes of interneurons, types I(i) and I(eA). Whole cell currents were examined before and after 5-HT application to the isolated nervous system. A 4-aminopyridine-sensitive transient outward K(+) current [I(K(A))], a tetraethylammonium-sensitive delayed rectifier K(+) current [I(K(V))], an inward rectifier K(+) current [I(K(IR))], and a hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) were characterized. 5-HT decreased the amplitude of I(K(A)) and I(K(V)) in both type I(i) and I(eA) interneurons. However, differences in 5-HTs effects on the activation-inactivation kinetics were observed in different types of interneurons. 5-HT produced a depolarizing shift in the activation curve of I(K(V)) and a hyperpolarizing shift in the inactivation curve of I(K(A)) in type I(i) interneurons. In contrast, 5-HT produced a depolarizing shift in the activation curve and a hyperpolarizing shift in the inactivation curve of both I(K(V)) and I(K(A)) in type I(eA) interneurons. In addition, 5-HT decreased the amplitude of I(K(IR)) in type I(i) interneurons and increased the amplitude of I(h) in type I(eA) interneurons. These results indicate that 5-HT-dependent changes in I(K(A)), I(K(V)), I(K(IR)), and I(h) contribute to multiple mechanisms that synergistically support modulation of increased intrinsic excitability associated with different functional classes of identified type I interneurons.
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Cytotoxicity and antihyperglycemic effect of minor constituents from Rhizoma Coptis in HepG2 cells.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Generally, berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine were considered as the main bio-active compounds in Rhizoma Coptis (RC). Little attention was paid to investigate the pharmacological activity of minor constituents in RC. The present study was designed to separate the minor compounds, and the cytotoxicity and antihyperglycemic effect of these compounds in HepG2 cells were also studied. Palmatine (1), berberine (2), coptisine (3), epiberberine (4), columbamine (5), and jatrorrhizine (6) from RC ethanol extract were isolated by high speed counter current chromatography (HSCCC) in one run. The remaining fraction (about 50% of extract in HSCCC) was further isolated by traditional column chromatography methods to yield magnoflorine (7), ferulic acid (8), and choline (9). Another four alkaloids, namely groenlandicine (10), berberrubine (11), oxyberberine (12), 8-oxo-coptisine (13), also were obtained from CHCl(3) extracts. Especially, choline was first isolated from RC. Cell assay indicated that the minor fractions excluding compounds 1-6 showed obvious glucose lowering activity. In addition, the minor monomers also exhibited moderate glucose lowering activity. The combination of berberine and ferulic acid showed synergistic effect on antihyperglycemic. The combination of alkaloids 1-6 was same so. All compounds had different cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells within the test concentration. Of them, berberrubine showed the strongest cytotoxicity. The results suggested that combined action of variety constituents contributed to the antihyperglycemic effects and low cytotoxicity of RC extract in HepG2 cells.
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[Analysis of predictors of axillary node metastases in 787 breast cancer patients].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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To explore the predictors of axillary nodal metastass in patients with breast cancer.
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Fluorescent in situ hybridization diagnosis of extramedullary nodal blast crisis.
Diagn. Cytopathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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The t(9;22)(q34;q11) translocation between bcr and abl genes plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using specific DNA probes provides a useful and accurate way for the detection of bcr/abl fusion gene in single cell. Here, we report an unusual case of a patient with no prior hematologic disease who initially manifested lymphadenopathy. The lymph node findings were suspicious for T-lineage lymphoblastic lymphoma, however, his blood and bone marrow at that time were in chronic phase of CML. This presented difficulty for accurate discrimination between CML blast crisis (BC) and non-Hodgkins lymphomas (NHLs). To discern where the extramedullary nodal malignancy originated from, we cytologically analyzed lymph node biopsies and bone marrow with FISH to detect bcr/abl fusion signals. Together with the morphology, immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics as well as molecular analysis, the patient was diagnosed as extramedullary T-lymphoid BC of Ph+ CML. In conclusion, this case is unusual at three levels: first, extramedullary nodal BC as a presenting manifestation of CML is rare and the blasts are of precursor T lymphoblastic lineage, rather than the more common B-cell lineage; second, this case suggests that extramedullary lymphoid nodal BC of CML can exist independently without the bone marrow developing into BC; and third, FISH analysis on the single neoplastic cell is an accurate way to confirm that the neoplasm is either extramedullary localized blasts of CML or genetically distinct neoplasm.
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Construction and characterization of recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium expressing the babA2/ureI fusion gene of Helicobacter pylori.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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This study aimed to construct a live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain harbouring the Helicobacter pylori babA2 and ureI fusion gene, and to evaluate its immunogenicity.
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The mechanism of vasorelaxation induced by ethanol extract of Sophora flavescens in rat aorta.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Sophora flavescens (SF) is a known medicinal herb for the treatment of cardiovascular symptoms associated with arrhythmia in China. However, the pharmacological action mechanisms involved have not been well studied. The aim of the present study was to define effects of roots of SF on the vascular tension and responsible mechanisms in rat thoracic aorta.
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The changes of T lymphocytes and cytokines in ICR mice fed with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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The aim of this article is to study the changes inhibited T lymphocytes and cytokines related to the cellular immunity in ICR (imprinting control region) mice fed with Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)-MNPs). The Fe(3)O(4)-MNPs were synthesized, and their characteristics such as particle size, zeta potential, and X-ray diffraction patterns were measured and determined. All ICR mice were sacrificed after being exposed to 0, 300, 600, and 1200 mg/kg of Fe(3)O(4)-MNPs by single gastric administration for 14 days. Splenocytes proliferation was indicated with stimulate index by MTT assay; release of cytokines in the serum of ICR mice was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the phenotypic analyses of T-lymphocyte subsets were performed using flow cytometry. Our results indicated that there were no significant differences in splenocyte proliferation and release of cytokines between exposed and control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the proportions of T-lymphocyte subsets in the low-dose Fe(3)O(4)-MNPs group when compared to the control group, but the proportions of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T-lymphocyte subsets both in the medium- and high-dose Fe(3)O(4)-MNPs groups were higher than those in the control group. It is concluded that a high dose of Fe(3)O(4)-MNPs, to some extent, could influence in vivo immune function of normal ICR mice.
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Platycoside O, a new triterpenoid saponin from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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A new unusual minor triterpenoid saponin, platycoside O (1), was isolated from the 75% EtOH extract obtained from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, together with four known saponins: platycoside M-3 (2), platycoside J (3), platycoside F (4) and platycoside B (5). The structure of 1 was determined as 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-2?,3?,16?,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-24-methoxyl, 24-oxo-28-oic acid 28-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-arabinopyranoside on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical evidence.
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In situ follicular lymphoma with progressive transformation of the germinal centers confirmed by laser capture microdissection, IGH gene rearrangement analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization for t(14;18).
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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The authors report an unusual case of in situ follicular lymphoma associated with progressive transformation of the germinal centers. The patient was a 74-year-old Chinese woman with sequential lymphadenopathy in the right and left cervical regions over a period of 2 months. The first biopsy revealed in situ follicular lymphoma with progressive transformation of germinal centers, and the biopsy of the second lymph node led to a diagnosis of in situ follicular lymphoma. The immunophenotype, polymerase chain reaction amplification of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene, and fluorescence in situ hybridization for t(14;18) were analyzed in each biopsy specimen, which showed both specimens to have t(14;18)(q32;q21) and revealed progression from polyclonality to monoclonality. These findings suggest a case of multicentric in situ follicular lymphoma and provide new insights into the pathogenesis of this disease.
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Pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue distribution of magnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles in mice.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2010
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This study explored the pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue distribution of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4) MNPs) in imprinting control region (ICR) mice.
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Salticid predation as one potential driving force of ant mimicry in jumping spiders.
Proc. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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Many spiders possess myrmecomorphy, and species of the jumping spider genus Myrmarachne exhibit nearly perfect ant mimicry. Most salticids are diurnal predators with unusually high visual acuity that prey on various arthropods, including conspecifics. In this study, we tested whether predation pressure from large jumping spiders is one possible driving force of perfect ant mimicry in jumping spiders. The results showed that small non-ant-mimicking jumping spiders were readily treated as prey by large ones (no matter whether heterospecific or conspecific) and suffered high attack and mortality rates. The size difference between small and large jumping spiders significantly affected the outcomes of predatory interactions between them: the smaller the juvenile jumping spiders, the higher the predation risk from large ones. The attack and mortality rates of ant-mimicking jumping spiders were significantly lower than those of non-ant-mimicking jumping spiders, indicating that a resemblance to ants could provide protection against salticid predation. However, results of multivariate behavioural analyses showed that the responses of large jumping spiders to ants and ant-mimicking salticids differed significantly. Results of this study indicate that predation pressure from large jumping spiders might be one selection force driving the evolution of nearly perfect myrmecomorphy in spiders and other arthropods.
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The effect of magnetic nanoparticles of Fe(3)O(4) on immune function in normal ICR mice.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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We investigated the effect of magnetic nanoparticles of Fe(3)O(4) (Fe(3)O(4)-MNPs) on the mice immune system. Imprinting control region (ICR) mice were assigned randomly into four groups and treated with normal saline or low, medium, or high doses of Fe(3)O(4)-MNPs, respectively. After intravenous administration of Fe(3)O(4)-MNPs for 72 hours, the peripheral T cells and the induction of primary immune responses in mice were investigated by flow cytometry and determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The results showed that the ratio of spleen to body weight was not different between the experimental groups and control group (P > 0.05). The lymphocyte transformation rates in the suspension of spleen were higher in low-dose group than those in the control group (P < 0.05), while the proliferation of splenocytes was low in the medium and high groups when compared to the control group (P < 0.05). In peripheral blood, both the proportions of subset CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the low-dose group were higher than those in the control group, whereas there was no difference in the number of CD4(+) T cells between the medium- and low-dose groups. Interestingly, the Fe(3)O(4)-MNPs enhanced the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-?, and IL-10 but did not affect the production of IL-4 in peripheral blood. It is concluded that Fe(3)O(4)-MNPs could influence immune functions of normal ICR mice in a dose-dependent manner.
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Danshen protects endothelial progenitor cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced impairment.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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In this study, we examined the protective effects of Danshen both on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in patients with hypercholesterolemia and on in-vitro EPCs of healthy volunteers. In the clinical study, we randomly divided 24 subjects with hypercholesterolemia into two groups (the control group and the Danshen-treated group). At the end of two weeks of treatment, the EPC cellular functions of both groups were tested. The results indicated that, compared to the control group, EPCs in the Danshen-treated group showed significantly better cellular functions, which was manifested in the cloning number, the proliferation capacity, the number of EPC adhesions, and cell migration. In the subsequent in-vitro experiments, EPCs were treated with vehicle, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL, 100 microg/ml), or Ox-LDL (100 microg/ml) plus different concentrations of Danshen (Danshensu 2, 10, or 50 microg/ml, respectively) for 24 h. The results showed that Danshen treatments can prevent the detrimental effects of Ox-LDL on EPC cellular functions measured by proliferation capacity (0.24+/-0.08, 0.37+/-0.11, 0.30+/-0.04 vs. 0.13+/-0.02, P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively), and adhesion ability (63.00+/-11.60, 70.00+/-10.80, 85.50+/-11.41 vs. 40.50+/-6.85, all P<0.01). Compared to the group treated with Ox-LDL alone, Danshen treatment significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) [(4.34+/-0.54), (3.98+/-0.47), (3.46+/-0.31) vs. (5.57+/-0.64) nmol/ml, all P<0.01], increased the production of superoxide dismutase (SOD) [(29.74+/-0.71), (31.09+/-0.83), (30.41+/-0.65) vs. (14.76+/-3.99) U/ml, all P<0.01], and lowered the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) [(24.62+/-7.69), (27.04+/-3.14), (33.38+/-18.86) vs. (230.67+/-33.53) pg/ml, all P<0.01] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) [(41.72+/-6.10), (17.02+/-6.82), (3.73+/-2.26) vs. (228.71+/-41.53) pg/ml, all P<0.01] in Ox-LDL treated EPCs. These results suggest that Danshen may exert a protective effect through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features.
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Somatosensory rub evoked reflex epilepsy of a temporal lobe origin.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
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Somatosensory rub reflex epilepsy, evoked by prolonged or repetitive cutaneous contact of a circumscribed body area, is an unusual form of reflex epilepsy. The peculiar complaints and the negative interictal electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings make it difficult to identify the epileptic origin. Here we report an unusual case whose seizures would be evoked by a touch or rub on a unilateral arm and shoulder, with a contralateral temporal lobe origin, demonstrated in immediate postictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
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[Cloning, expression and glucose regulation activity of human FGF-21].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is a recently discovered glucose regulator and has potential to become therapeutics for treatment of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to clone and express human FGF-21 gene and characterize its bioactivity for glucose regulation. The hFGF-21 cDNA was cloned from human liver by RT-PCR and subcloned into the pSUMO vector after sequencing confirmation. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta strain. The FGF-21 protein expression was induced by IPTG and purified by Ni-NTA agarose. The FGF-21 product was verified by Western blotting analysis with specific antibody. The bioactivity of the purified protein was examined by glucose uptake assay in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The cloned hFGF-21 gene consisted of 546 bp, which was in agreement with the published data in GenBank. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that hFGF-21 expressed in the E. coli system was 19.4 kDa in size. The glucose uptake assay in 3T3-L1 adipocytes indicated that the purified hFGF-21 could stimulate glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner, and glucose transporters (GLUT1) is the functional unit.
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Characterization and alternative splicing of the complex I 19-kD subunit in Dunaliella salina: expression and mutual correlation of splice variants under diverse stresses.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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Complex I is the first enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It extracts energy from NADH, which is produced by the oxidation of sugars and fats, and traps the energy by virtue of a potential difference or voltage across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Herein, the genomic sequence and four splice variants encoding the complex I 19-kD subunit were isolated from Dunaliella salina. There were four transcripts coding for the complex I 19-kD subunit due to alternative splicing in algae, and the four transcripts were translated to two protein isoforms with varying C-terminals. We report the splicing pattern in the 3-region of the D. salina 19-kD subunit, in which three of the exons (5, 6, and 7) could be alternatively spliced. Moreover, we found that four alternatively spliced variants were subject to coordinated transcription in response to different stresses by real-time quantitative PCR.
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Vascular relaxation by ethanol extract of Xanthoceras sorbifolia via Akt- and SOCE-eNOS-cGMP pathways.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2010
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The aim of the present study was to define the effect of Xanthoceras sorbifolia extracts (XS) on vascular tension and responsible mechanisms in rat thoracic aortic rings.
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[Influence of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle on functions of lymphocytes and macrophages in mice].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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This study was purposed to investigate the effects of magnetic nanoparticle of Fe3O4 (Fe3O4-MNPs) on murine immune system. ICR mice were assigned randomly into four groups which were treated with normal saline, low, middle and high dose of MNP-Fe3O4 respectively. The mice were killed after being exposed by intragastric administration for 2 weeks. The ratios of spleen weight to body weight, lymphocyte transformation rate in spleen suspension and phagocytic index of macrophage in abdominal cavity were detected. The results showed that the ratios of spleen weight to body weight in Fe3O4-MNP groups were not significantly different in comparison with the control (p > 0.05). The lymphocyte transformation rate in spleen suspension in Fe3O4-MNP groups were all higher than that in control group (-0.1775 +/- 0.0246), especially in the middle dose group (0.1833 +/- 0.0593) (p < 0.05), and the phagocytic index of macrophages in abdominal cavity of middle dose group (0.2051 +/- 0.0213) was higher than that of control group and other two Fe3O4-MNP group (low dose 0.1538 +/- 0.0100, high dose 0.1511 +/- 0.0184) (p < 0.05). It is concluded that suitable dose of Fe3O4-MNP can enhance the cellular immune activity and phagocytic function of macrophages of mice.
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5-HT and GABA modulate intrinsic excitability of type I interneurons in Hermissenda.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
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The sensory neurons (photoreceptors) in the visual system of Hermissenda are one site of plasticity produced by Pavlovian conditioning. A second site of plasticity produced by conditioning is the type I interneurons in the cerebropleural ganglia. Both photoreceptors and statocyst hair cells of the graviceptive system form monosynaptic connections with identified type I interneurons. Two proposed neurotransmitters in the graviceptive system, serotonin (5-HT) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), have been shown to modify synaptic strength and intrinsic neuronal excitability in identified photoreceptors. However, the potential role of 5-HT and GABA in plasticity of type I interneurons has not been investigated. Here we show that 5-HT increased the peak amplitude of light-evoked complex excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), enhanced intrinsic excitability, and increased spike activity of identified type I(e(A)) interneurons. In contrast, 5-HT decreased spike activity and intrinsic excitability of type I(e(B)) interneurons. The classification of two categories of type I(e) interneurons was also supported by the observation that 5-HT produced opposite effects on whole cell steady-state outward currents in type I(e) interneurons. Serotonin produced a reduction in the amplitude of light-evoked complex inhibitory PSPs (IPSPs), increased spontaneous spike activity, decreased intrinsic excitability, and depolarized the resting membrane potential of identified type I(i) interneurons. In contrast to the effects of 5-HT, GABA produced inhibition in both types of I(e) interneurons and type I(i) interneurons. These results show that 5-HT and GABA can modulate the intrinsic excitability of type I interneurons independent of the presynaptic effects of the same transmitters on excitability and synaptic efficacy of photoreceptors.
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[Discrimination of anticancer agent action loci at G(2) and M phases by flow cytometry and confocal microscopic imaging].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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This study was purposed to evaluate a method to discriminate the action loci of anticancer agents in G(2) and M phases of cell cycle. The meta-amsacrine (m-AMSA) and vinblastine (VBL), already known as G(2) and M phase arrest agent respectively, were used to induce the arrest of MOLT-4 cells at G(2) and M phases, the change of DNA content was detected by flow cytometry, the morphology of arrested cells was observed by confocal microscopy so as to find the arrest efficacy difference of 2 anticancer agents. As a result, the flow cytometric detection showed that the arrested MOLT-4 cells displayed the raise of peaks in G(2) and M phases, but flow cytometric detection alone can not discriminate the difference between them. The observation with confocal microscopy showed that the MOLT-4 cells arrested by m-AMSA displayed the morphologic features in G(2) phase, while the MOLT-4 cells arrested by VBL displayed the morphologic features in M phase. This observation with confocal microscopy is helpful to discriminate the difference between them. In conclusion, the combination of flow cytometry with confocal microscopy is one of the effective methods to discriminate the kind of G(2) or M phase arresting agent of anticancer drugs.
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Caffeine inhibits nonselective cationic currents in interstitial cells of Cajal from the murine jejunum.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) discharge unitary potentials in gastrointestinal muscles that constitute the basis for pacemaker activity. Caffeine has been used to block unitary potentials, but the ionic conductance responsible for unitary potentials is controversial. We investigated currents in cultured ICC from murine jejunum that may underlie unitary potentials and studied the effects of caffeine. Networks of ICC generated slow wave events under current clamp, and these events were blocked by caffeine in a concentration-dependent manner. Single ICC generated spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) under voltage clamp at -60 mV and noisy voltage fluctuations in current clamp. STICs were unaffected when the equilibrium potential for Cl- (ECl) was set to -60 mV (excluding Cl- currents) and reversed at 0 mV, demonstrating that a nonselective cationic conductance, and not a Cl- conductance, is responsible for STICs in ICC. Caffeine inhibited STICs in a concentration-dependent manner. Reduced intracellular Ca2+ and calmidazolium (CMZ; 1 microM) activated persistent inward, nonselective cation currents in ICC. Currents activated by CMZ and by dialysis of cells with 10 mM BAPTA were also inhibited by caffeine. Excised inside-out patches contained channels that exhibited spontaneous openings, and resulting currents reversed at 0 mV. Channel openings were increased by reducing Ca2+ concentration from 10(-6) M to 10(-8) M. CMZ (1 microM) also increased openings of nonselective cation channels. Spontaneous currents and channels activated by CMZ were inhibited by caffeine (5 mM). The findings demonstrate that the Ca2+-inhibited nonselective cation channels that generate STICs in ICC are blocked directly by caffeine. STICs are responsible for unitary potentials in intact muscles, and the block of these events by caffeine is consistent with the idea that a nonselective cation conductance underlies unitary potentials in ICC.
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[Efficient expression of soluble human FGF-21 and its glucose regulation activity].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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The cDNA of human FGF-21 was subcloned into the pSUMO expression vector and the fusion protein was induced to express in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). The recombinant hFGF-21 was expressed in soluble form in the pSUMO expression system. The recombinant fusion protein was purified by Ni-NTA column. The purified recombinant protein was dialyzed against PBS for re-nature. To obtain pure and active recombinant protein, the fusion protein was subjected to cleavage with SUMO protease I. To examine glucose regulation activity of hFGF-21, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes, glucose up-take activity of hFGF-21 was examined by glucose oxidase and peroxidase (GOD-POD) assay. Compared with no stimulation control, the recombinant hFGF-21 treatment led to a significant increase in glucose consumption of adipocytes and a significant decrease in concentration of glucose in the medium (P < 0.05, P < 0.001).
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[Invasion and its effects of xerarch halophytes in reclaimed tidal wetlands].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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With the reclaimed tidal wetland of Chongming Dongtan in Shanghai as a case, and based on the landscape pattern analysis of colored infrared aerial photographs and field survey, this paper studied the invasion of xerarch halophytes and its effects on the original reed community in the wetland after artificial drainage. The results showed that in the test reclaimed tidal wetland area, the xerarch halophyte community with Tripolium vulgare as edificator was spreading from northeast to southwest at a high speed of 143 m per year, with the original reed patch reduced and broken sharply, causing a 22.7 times increase in patch density index and a 1.3 times increase in shape index. After the growth seasons in 2006 and 2007, the biomass of T. vulgare in the plant community reached as high as 2783.8 g x m(-2), occupying 98% of the total, and the importance value reached 88%. At the mean time, the biomass and importance value of original reed decreased 98% and 83%, respectively. The invasion process of xerarch halophytes was meaningfully correlated with the moisture content and salinity in 0-20 cm soil layer. To effectively control the rapid invasion of xerarch halophytes, the mechanisms of their invasion and the strategies of rational and dynamic drainage management should be deeply studied.
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[Cell cycle arrest at M phase induced by vinblastine in MOLT-4 cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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This study was purposed to investigate the biological effect of vinblastine (VLS), usually known as inductor of mitotic arrest, on MOLT-4 of ALL cells and to evaluate its significance. The cell arrest in M phase and/or cell apoptosis were induced by treatment of MOLT-4 cells with 0.05 microg/ml VLS for 0 - 12 hours; the DNA histogram was detected by flow cytometry; the morphological changes of cells were observed by confocal microscopy; the cell cycle distribution, cell apoptosis and morphological changes of cells before and after arrest were analyzed by using arrest increasing rate (AIR), arrest efficiency (AE), apoptosis rate (AR) and morphologic parameters respectively. The results indicated that the cell arrest did not accompanied by significant increase of apoptosis rate; the DNA histogram of cell arrest showed dynamic change of cell cycle in time-dependent manner; the arrest efficiency could be quantified. The cell arrest at M phase was accompanied by cell stack in S phase, the cell proliferation rate dropped after cell arrest occurred. The cells arrested at M phase possessed of characteristic morphologic features in cell mitosis. It is concluded that the vinblastine can solely induce arrest of MOLT-4 cells at M phase. This study provides experimental basis for further investigating the relation of cell cycle arrest to apoptosis, mechanism of checkpoint and development of new anticancer drugs.
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Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes by rhein in rat liver microsomes.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Rhein, an active ingredient extensively found in plants such as Aloe, Cassitora L., rhubarb and so on, has been used for a long time in China. Pharmacological tests revealed that rhein not only had a strong antibacterial action, but also may be useful in cancer chemotherapy as a biochemical modulator. Its therapeutic action and toxicity is still the subject of considerable research. With microsome incubation assays in vitro and HPLC methods, the inhibition of rat liver CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A enzymes by rhein were studied kinetically. The results showed the most inhibition of CYP2E1 by rhein (K(i) = 10 microm, mixed); CYP3A and CYP2C9 were also inhibited by rhein, K(i) = 30 microm (mixed) and K(i) = 38 microm (mixed), respectively; rhein revealed some inhibition of CYP1A2 (K(i) = 62 microm, uncompetitive) and CYP2D6 (K(i) = 74 microm, mixed). Drug-drug interactions, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated interactions, cause an enhancement or attenuation in the efficacy of co-administered drugs. Inhibition of the five major CYP enzymes observed for rhein suggested that changes in pharmacokinetics of co-administered drugs were likely to occur. Therefore, caution should be paid to the possible drug interaction of medicinal plants containing rhein and CYP substrates.
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