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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Corrosion-Controlling and Osteo-Compatible Mg Ion-Integrated Phytic Acid (Mg-PA) Coating on Magnesium Substrate for Biodegradable Implants Application.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Biodegradable, a new revolutionary concept, is shaping the future design of biomedical implants that need to serve only as a temporary scaffold. Magnesium appears to be the most promising biodegradable metal, but challenges remain in its corrosion-controlling and uncertain biocompatibility. In this work, we employ chemical conversion and alternating dip-coating methods to anchor and deposit an Mg ion-integrated phytic acid (Mg-PA) coating on Mg, which is supposed to function both corrosion-controlling and osteo-compatible. It was ascertained that PA molecules were covalently immobilized on a chemically converted Mg(OH)2 base layer, and more PA molecules were deposited subsequently via chelating reactions with the help of additive Mg ions. The covalent immobilization and the Mg ion-supported chelating deposition contribute to a dense and homogeneous protective Mg-PA coating, which guarantees an improved corrosion resistance as well as a reduced degradation rate. Moreover, the Mg-PA coating performed osteo-compatible to promote not only bioactivity of bonelike apatite precipitation, but also induced osteoblast cells adhesion and proliferation. This is ascribed to its nature of PA molecule and the biocompatible Mg ion, both of which mimic partly the compositional structure of bone. Our magnesium ion-integrated PA-coated Mg might bode well for the future of biodegradable bone implant application.
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Quantitative Peptidomics Study Reveals That a Wound-Induced Peptide from PR-1 Regulates Immune Signaling in Tomato.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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Many important cell-to-cell communication events in multicellular organisms are mediated by peptides, but only a few peptides have been identified in plants. In an attempt to address the difficulties in identifying plant signaling peptides, we developed a novel peptidomics approach and used this approach to discover defense signaling peptides in plants. In addition to the canonical peptide systemin, several novel peptides were confidently identified in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and quantified to be induced by both wounding and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). A wounding or wounding plus MeJA-induced peptide derived from the pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1) family was found to induce significant antipathogen and minor antiherbivore responses in tomato. This study highlights a role for PR-1 in immune signaling and suggests the potential application of plant endogenous peptides in efforts to defeat biological threats in crop production. As PR-1 is highly conserved across many organisms and the putative peptide from At-PR1 was also found to be bioactive in Arabidopsis thaliana, our results suggest that this peptide may be useful for enhancing resistance to stress in other plant species.
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Fine mapping of the qLOP2 and qPSR2-1 loci associated with chilling stress tolerance of wild rice seedlings.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Using leaf osmotic potential and plant survival rate as chilling-tolerant trait indices, we identified two major quantitative trait loci qLOP2 and qPSR2 - 1 (39.3-kb region) and Os02g0677300 as the cold-inducible gene for these loci. Chilling stress tolerance (CST) at the seedling stage is an important trait affecting rice production in temperate climate and high-altitude areas. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with CST, a mapping population consisting of 151 BC2F1 plants was constructed by using chilling-tolerant Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) as a donor parent and chilling-sensitive indica as a recurrent parent. With leaf osmotic potential (LOP) and plant survival rate (PSR) as chilling-tolerant trait indexes, two major QTLs, qLOP2 (LOD = 3.8) and qPSR2-1 (LOD = 3.3), were detected on the long arm of chromosome 2 by composite interval mapping method in QTL Cartographer software, which explained 10.1 and 12.3 % of the phenotypic variation, respectively. In R/QTL analyzed result, their major effects were also confirmed. Using molecular marker RM318 and RM106, qLOP2 and qPSR2-1 have been introgressed into chilling-sensitive varieties (93-11 and Yuefeng) by marker-assisted selection procedure (MAS), which resulted in 16 BC5F3 BILs that chilling tolerance have significantly enhanced compare with wild-type parents (P < 0.01). Therefore, two large segregating populations of 11,326 BC4F2 and 8,642 BC4F3 were developed to fine mapping of qLOP2 and qPSR2-1. Lastly, they were dissected to a 39.3-kb candidate region between marker RM221 and RS8. Expression and sequence analysis results indicated that Os02g0677300 was a cold-inducible gene for these loci. Our study provides novel alleles for improving rice CST by MAS and contributes to the understanding of its molecular mechanisms.
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"Mixed-charge Self-Assembled Monolayers" as A Facile Method to Design pH-induced Aggregation of Large Gold Nanoparticles for Near-Infrared Photothermal Cancer Therapy.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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The acidic microenvironment of tumor tissues has proven to be one of the major differences from other normal tissues. The near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation of aggregated gold nanoparticles in a tumor acidic pH-induced manner could then provide an effect approach to treat solid tumors with the advantage of minimizing the undesired damage to normal tissues. Although it is well-known the aggregation of larger nanoparticles will result in a better NIR photothermal effect, the preparation of pH-sensitive gold nanoparticles in large sizes remains a big challenge because of their worse dispersive stability. In this paper, we introduce a facile way to endow large gold nanoparticles with tunable pH-aggregation behaviors by modifying the nanoparticle surface with mixed-charge self-assembly monolayers compromising positively and negatively charged thiol ligands. Four different size nanoparticles were used to study the general principle of tailoring the pH-induced aggregation behaviors of mixed-charge gold nanoparticles (MC-GNPs) by adjusting the surface ligand composition. With proper surface ligand composition, the MC-GNPs in four different sizes that all exhibited aggregation at tumor acidic pH were obtained. The biggest MC-GNPs showed the most encouraging aggregation-enhanced photothermal efficacy in vitro when they formed aggregates. The mixed-charge self-assembled monolayers were then proved as a facile method to design pH-induced aggregation of large gold nanoparticles for better NIR photothermal cancer therapy.
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Hydroxychloroquine-Inhibited Dengue Virus Is Associated with Host Defense Machinery.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug also used in treating autoimmune diseases. Its antiviral activity was demonstrated in restricting HIV infection in vitro; however, the clinical implications remain controversial. Infection with dengue virus (DENV) is a global public health problem, and we lack an antiviral drug for DENV. Here, we evaluated the anti-DENV potential of treatment with HCQ. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that HCQ could inhibit DENV serotype 1-4 infection in vitro. RT-qPCR analysis of HCQ-treated cells showed induced expression of interferon (IFN)-related antiviral proteins and certain inflammatory cytokines. Mechanistic study suggested that HCQ activated the innate immune signaling pathways of IFN-?, AP-1, and NF?B. Knocking down mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), inhibiting TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1)/inhibitor-?B kinase ? (IKK?), and blocking type I IFN receptor reduced the efficiency of HCQ against DENV-2 infection. Furthermore, HCQ significantly induced cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was involved in the host defense system. Suppression of ROS production attenuated the innate immune activation and anti-DENV-2 effect of HCQ. In summary, HCQ triggers the host defense machinery by inducing ROS- and MAVS-mediated innate immune activation against DENV infection and may be a candidate drug for DENV infection.
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Insights into the aggregation/deposition and structure of a polydopamine film.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Surface-adherent polydopamine (PDA) films as multifunctional coatings can be easily deposited onto a wide range of materials through dopamine self-polymerization. However, a lack of in-depth understanding of PDA aggregation and deposition processes and definite structure elucidation of PDA make it challenging to tailor the surface characteristic and functionality of the PDA films. Herein, we demonstrate that the surface characteristics of the PDA films can be readily tuned by controlling the competitive interplay between PDA aggregation in solution and deposition on the substrate. Moreover, a structural investigation of the PDA films using analytical tools such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) allows us to propose a new structure model for the PDA building block. The (DHI)2/PCA trimer complex, which consists of two 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) units and one pyrrolecarboxylic acid (PCA) moiety, is definitely identified as a primary building block of PDA, and its formation is steered by covalent interactions in the initial stages of polymerization. In latter stages, the (DHI)2/PCA trimer complexes are further linked primarily through noncovalent interactions to build up the supramolecular structure of PDA. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of PDA buildup.
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Microbial communities evolve faster in extreme environments.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Evolutionary analysis of microbes at the community level represents a new research avenue linking ecological patterns to evolutionary processes, but remains insufficiently studied. Here we report a relative evolutionary rates (rERs) analysis of microbial communities from six diverse natural environments based on 40 metagenomic samples. We show that the rERs of microbial communities are mainly shaped by environmental conditions, and the microbes inhabiting extreme habitats (acid mine drainage, saline lake and hot spring) evolve faster than those populating benign environments (surface ocean, fresh water and soil). These findings were supported by the observation of more relaxed purifying selection and potentially frequent horizontal gene transfers in communities from extreme habitats. The mechanism of high rERs was proposed as high mutation rates imposed by stressful conditions during the evolutionary processes. This study brings us one stage closer to an understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the adaptation of microbes to extreme environments.
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Mussel-inspired one-step adherent coating rich in amine groups for covalent immobilization of heparin: hemocompatibility, growth behaviors of vascular cells, and tissue response.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Heparin, an important polysaccharide, has been widely used for coatings of cardiovascular devices because of its multiple biological functions including anticoagulation and inhibition of intimal hyperplasia. In this study, surface heparinization of a commonly used 316L stainless steel (SS) was explored for preparation of a multifunctional vascular stent. Dip-coating of the stents in an aqueous solution of dopamine and hexamethylendiamine (HD) (PDAM/HD) was presented as a facile method to form an adhesive coating rich in primary amine groups, which was used for covalent heparin immobilization via active ester chemistry. A heparin grafting density of about 900 ng/cm(2) was achieved with this method. The retained bioactivity of the immobilized heparin was confirmed by a remarkable prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) for about 15 s, suppression of platelet adhesion, and prevention of the denaturation of adsorbed fibrinogen. The Hep-PDAM/HD also presented a favorable microenvironment for selectively enhancing endothelial cell (EC) adhesion, proliferation, migration and release of nitric oxide (NO), and at the same time inhibiting smooth muscle cell (SMC) adhesion and proliferation. Upon subcutaneous implantation, the Hep-PDAM/HD exhibited mitigated tissue response, with thinner fibrous capsule and less granulation formation compared to the control 316L SS. This number of unique functions qualifies the heparinized coating as an attractive alternative for the design of a new generation of stents.
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The effect of full/partial UV-irradiation of TiO2 films on altering the behavior of fibrinogen and platelets.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Titanium oxide (TiO2) thin film is a potential candidate for the surface modification of blood-contacting devices. It has previously been reported that ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation could alter the biocompatibility of TiO2 films. However, the effect of UV-irradiated TiO2 films on blood compatibility has rarely been reported. This study attempts to determine: (1) whether UV-irradiation of TiO2 films enhances their blood compatibility, (2) the interaction between UV-irradiated TiO2 films, fibrinogen (Fgn), and platelets, especially how Fgn and platelets respond to the geometry of the partially UV-irradiated TiO2 film surface. Anatase TiO2 films were subjected to full and partial UV-irradiation. Full UV-irradiation improved the blood compatibility of TiO2 films by almost completely inhibiting the adhesion and activation of platelets, strongly suppressing the adsorption and conformational change of Fgn, and preventing the formation of fibrin fibers. Additionally, hemolysis was not observed. After partial UV-irradiation, the regions where Fgn adsorption was reduced (Fgn-dark regions) were formed at regions where UV-irradiation had occurred, but were extended in comparison with the UV-irradiated regions, which could be related to the generation and diffusion of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the UV-irradiated TiO2 surface. It is worthwhile to study how ROS altered the nature of TiO2 films, thereby enhancing their blood compatibility. Furthermore, platelets were found adhering to the Fgn-adsorbed regions (Fgn-bright regions) selectively, suggesting that the inhibition of platelet adhesion could be related to the suppression of Fgn adsorption on the UV-irradiated TiO2 surface. It was also noted that platelet surface coverage (Sp) was not linearly correlated with Fgn-bright region surface coverage (Sf), which indicated that the adhesion and spreading of platelets were regulated by both Sf and the geometry of Fgn.
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A Dual-task Design of Corrosion-controlling and Osteo-compatible Hexamethylenediaminetetrakis- (methylene phosphonic acid) (HDTMPA) Coating on Magnesium for Biodegradable Bone Implants Application.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Magnesium as well as its alloys appears increasingly as a revolutionary bio-metal for biodegradable implants application but the biggest challenges exist in its too fast bio-corrosion/degradation. Both corrosion-controllable and bio-compatible Mg-based bio-metal is highly desirable in clinic. In present work, hexamethylenediaminetetrakis (methylenephosphonic acid) (HDTMPA, (H2 O3 P-CH2 )2 -N-(CH2 )6 -N-(CH2 -PO3 H2 )2 ), as a natural and bioactive organic substance, was covalently immobilized and chelating-deposited onto Mg surface by means of chemical conversion process and dip-coating method, to fullfill dual-task performance of corrosion-protective and osteo-compatible functionalities. The chemical grafting of HDTMPA molecules, by participation of functional groups on pretreated Mg surface, ensured a firmly anchored base layer, and then sub-sequential chelating reactions of HDTMPA molecules guaranteed a homogenous and dense HDTMPA coating deposition on Mg substrate. Electrochemical corrosion and immersion degradation results reveal that the HDTMPA coated Mg provides a significantly better controlled bio-corrosion/degradation behavior in phosphate buffer saline solution as compared with untreated Mg from perspective of clinic requirement. Moreover, the HDTMPA coated Mg exhibits osteo-compatible in that it induces not only bioactivity of bone-like apatite precipitation but also promotes osteoblast cells adhesion and proliferation. Our well-controlled biodegradable and biocompatible HDTMPA modified Mg might bode well for next generation bone implant application.
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Wavelength conversion in highly nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide is theoretically investigated in the telecommunication bands. Compared with vertical slot waveguides, the horizontal slot waveguide structure exhibits much flatter dispersion. The maximum nonlinearity coefficient ? of 1.5×10? W?¹ km?¹ and the minimum effective mode area A(eff) of 0.065???m² are obtained in a horizontal slot waveguide with a 20-nm-thick optically nonlinear layer by controlling the geometric parameters. The wavelength conversion efficiency of 7.45 dB with a pump power of 100 mW in a 4-mm-long horizontal slot waveguide is obtained. This low power on-chip wavelength convertor will have potential applications in highly integrated optical circuits.
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Health risk assessment of dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Taiyuan, China.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 24 duplicate-diet samples from people in Taiyuan during summer and winter in 2009. Dietary intake of PAHs for 2862 participants was subsequently estimated by a survey in Taiyuan. Results from these 24 samples were compared with a raw food study in Taiyuan in 2008. Three main sources of dietary PAHs are vegetables, wheat flour and fruits, the sum of which contributes 75.95% of PAHs in dietary food. Compared to the estimated value in raw food, much more B[a]P(eq) (benzo[a]pyrene equivalents) were detected in food samples collected in the duplicate-diet study in Taiyuan (60.75 ng/day). The cooking process may introduce more B[a]P(eq) into food, and the relative contribution of 16 PAHs in the diet would be changed during the cooking procedure.
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Directing vascular cell selectivity and hemocompatibility on patterned platforms featuring variable topographic geometry and size.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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It is great challenge to generate multifunctionality of vascular grafts and stents to enable vascular cell selectivity and improve hemocompatibility. Micro/nanopatterning of vascular implant surfaces for such multifunctionality is a direction to be explored. We developed a novel patterned platform featuring two typical geometries (groove and pillar) and six pattern sizes (0.5-50 ?m) in a single substrate to evaluate the response of vascular cells and platelets. Our results indicate that targeted multifunctionality can be indeed instructed by rationally designed surface topography. The pillars nonselectively inhibited the growth of endothelial and smooth muscle cells. By contrast, the grooves displayed selective effects: in a size-dependent manner, the grooves enhanced endothelialization but inhibited the growth of smooth muscle cells. Moreover, our studies suggest that topographic cues can affect response of vascular cells by regulating focal adhesion and stress fiber development, which define cytoskeleton organization and cell shape. Notably, both the grooves and the pillars at 1 ?m size drastically reduced platelet adhesion and activation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the topographic pattern featuring 1 ?m grooves may be the optimal design of surface multifunctionality that favors vascular cell selectivity and improves hemocompatibility.
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[Hemocompatibility of polyoxymethylene used for bileaflet heart valve].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The possibility of polyoxymethylene (POM) as heart valve leaflet material was investigated by comparing the hemocompatibility with that of 316L stainless steel and low-temperature isotropic pyrolytic carbon (LTIC). Surface hydrophobicity was characterized by water contact angle measurement. Platelet adhesion, APTT/PT/TT and hemolysis rate tests were applied for evaluating hemocompatibility. The results showed that POM was hydrophobic and had a low hemolytic rate, adhesion amount and activation degree of platelets on POM surface were less than 316L stainless steel, and was similar to LTIC. This research pointed out potential application of POM as heart valve leaflets.
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New strategies for developing cardiovascular stent surfaces with novel functions (Review).
Biointerphases
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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In this review, the authors summarize the developments in surface modification of cardiovascular materials especially in author's laboratory. The authors focus on three different strategies to construct multifunctional surfaces including coimmobilization of various biomolecules on stent surfaces, stem cell based therapy systems, and a single-molecule multipurpose modification strategy in vascular interventional therapy. The roles of various molecules like heparin, gallic acid, various aptamers, and nitric oxide are highlighted in the new strategies for developing cardiovascular stent surfaces with novel functions including excellent hemocompatibility, inhibiting smooth muscle cells proliferation, and native endothelium regeneration. The success of these multifunctional surfaces provides the tremendous potential in designing the next generation of vascular stents.
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Tailoring of the dopamine coated surface with VEGF loaded heparin/poly-l-lysine particles for anticoagulation and accelerate in situ endothelialization.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Coronary artery disease is a great threat to human health and is the leading killer worldwide. Percutaneous coronary intervention is the most effective therapy; however, thrombus, and restenosis caused by endothelium injury continue to be problematic after treatment. It is widely accepted that surface biofunctional modification to improve blood compatibility and accelerate endothelialization may be an effective approach to prevent the occurrence of adverse cardiac events. In this study, novel VEGF-loaded heparin/poly-l-lysine (Hep/PLL) particles were developed and immobilized on a dopamine coated titanium surface. The size, distribution, zeta potential, and morphology of the prepared particles were subsequently characterized. The influence of changes in the surface physicochemical properties after particle immobilization was assessed for blood compatibility and cytocompatibility. Surface-modified VEGF-loaded particles significantly inhibited platelet adhesion and activation and were effective in promoting the proliferation and survival of endothelial progenitor cells and endothelial cells. Moreover, Hep/PLL particles were also beneficial for controlling the long-term release of VEGF, which may facilitate endothelium regeneration. In conclusion, VEGF-loaded Hep/PLL particles were successfully immobilized on the Ti surface, and the biocompatibility was significantly improved. This study demonstrates a potential application for the multifunctional modification of stent surfaces for clinical use. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014.
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Tunable terahertz Kerr switching based on nonlinear polarization rotation in silicon waveguide.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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A compact and widely tunable terahertz (THz) all-optical Kerr switching using nonlinear polarization rotation generated by cross-phase modulation in a silicon waveguide is theoretically proposed. A switching efficiency of 83% is obtained when a ?-phase shift difference between the TE and TM polarization components of the continuous-wave THz signal is achieved. Moreover, the tuning range of the THz switching is from 7.69 to 10 THz through changing the pump power. This THz all-optical switching has potential applications in THz communications and other THz switchable devices.
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Biogeochemical processes governing natural pyrite oxidation and release of acid metalliferous drainage.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals (principally pyrite) is responsible for the majority of acid metalliferous drainage from mine sites, which represents a significant environmental problem worldwide. Understanding the complex biogeochemical processes governing natural pyrite oxidation is critical not only for solving this problem but also for understanding the industrial bioleaching of sulfide minerals. To this end, we conducted a simulated experiment of natural pyrite oxidative dissolution. Pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial community revealed a distinct succession across three stages. At the early stage, a newly proposed genus, Tumebacillus (which can use sodium thiosulfate and sulfite as the sole electron donors), dominated the microbial community. At the midstage, Alicyclobacillus (the fifth most abundant genus at the early stage) became the most dominant genus, whereas Tumebacillus was still ranked as the second most abundant. At the final stage, the microbial community was dominated by Ferroplasma (the tenth most abundant genus at the early stage). Our geochemical and mineralogical analyses indicated that exchangeable heavy metals increased as the oxidation progressed and that some secondary sulfate minerals (including jarosite and magnesiocopiapite) were formed at the final stage of the oxidation sequence. Additionally, we propose a comprehensive model of biogeochemical processes governing the oxidation of sulfide minerals.
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Surface modification with dopamine and heparin/poly-L-lysine nanoparticles provides a favorable release behavior for the healing of vascular stent lesions.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Surface biofunctional modification of coronary artery stents to prevent thrombosis and restenosis formation, as well as accelerate endothelialization, has become a new hot spot. However, bioactive coatings on implants are not yet sufficiently developed for long-term activity, as they quickly lose efficiency in vivo and finally fail. On the basis of a novel time-ordered concept of biofunctionality for vascular stents, heparin/poly l-lysine nanoparticle (NP) was developed and immobilized on a polydopamine-coated titanium surface, with the aim of regulating and maintaining the intravascular biological response within the normal range after biomaterial implantation. An in vitro dynamic release model was established to mimic the blood flow condition in vivo with three phases: (1) An early phase (1-7 days) with release of predominantly anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory substances and to a minor degree antiproliferative effects against smooth muscle cells (SMCs); (2) this is followed by a phase (7-14 days) of supported endothelial cell (ECs) proliferation and suppressed SMC proliferation with persisting high antithrombogenicity and anti-inflammatory properties of the surface. (3) Finally, a stable stage (14-28 days) with adequate biomolecules on the surface that maintain hemocompatibility and anti inflammation as well as inhibit SMCs proliferation and promote ECs growth. In vivo animal tests further confirmed that the NP-modified surface provides a favorable release behavior to apply a stage-adjusted remedy. We suggested that these observations provide important guidance and potential means for reasonable and suitable platform construction on a stent surface.
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Correlating microbial diversity patterns with geochemistry in an extreme and heterogeneous environment of mine tailings.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Recent molecular surveys have advanced our understanding of the forces shaping the large-scale ecological distribution of microbes in Earth's extreme habitats, such as hot springs and acid mine drainage. However, few investigations have attempted dense spatial analyses of specific sites to resolve the local diversity of these extraordinary organisms and how communities are shaped by the harsh environmental conditions found there. We have applied a 16S rRNA gene-targeted 454 pyrosequencing approach to explore the phylogenetic differentiation among 90 microbial communities from a massive copper tailing impoundment generating acidic drainage and coupled these variations in community composition with geochemical parameters to reveal ecological interactions in this extreme environment. Our data showed that the overall microbial diversity estimates and relative abundances of most of the dominant lineages were significantly correlated with pH, with the simplest assemblages occurring under extremely acidic conditions and more diverse assemblages associated with neutral pHs. The consistent shifts in community composition along the pH gradient indicated that different taxa were involved in the different acidification stages of the mine tailings. Moreover, the effect of pH in shaping phylogenetic structure within specific lineages was also clearly evident, although the phylogenetic differentiations within the Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes were attributed to variations in ferric and ferrous iron concentrations. Application of the microbial assemblage prediction model further supported pH as the major factor driving community structure and demonstrated that several of the major lineages are readily predictable. Together, these results suggest that pH is primarily responsible for structuring whole communities in the extreme and heterogeneous mine tailings, although the diverse microbial taxa may respond differently to various environmental conditions.
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Multidentate polyethylene glycol modified gold nanorods for in vivo near-infrared photothermal cancer therapy.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Gold nanorods (AuNRs), because of their strong absorption of near-infrared (NIR) light, are very suitable for in vivo photothermal therapy of cancer. However, appropriate surface modification must be performed on AuNRs before their in vivo application because of the high toxicity of their original stabilizer cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Multidentate ligands have attracted a lot of attention for modification of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) because of their high ligand affinity and multifunctionality, while the therapeutic effect of multidentate ligands modified NPs in vivo remains unexplored. Here, we modified AuNRs with a polythiol PEG-based copolymer. The multidentate PEG coated AuNRs (AuNR-PTPEGm950) showed good stabilities in high saline condition and wide pH range. And they had much stronger resistance to ligand competition of dithiothreitol (DTT) than AuNRs coated by monothiol-anchored PEG. The AuNR-PTPEGm950 had very low cytotoxicity and showed high efficacy for the ablation of cancer cells in vitro. Moreover, the AuNR-PTPEGm950 showed good stability in serum, and they had a long circulation time in blood that led to a high accumulation in tumors after intravenous injection. In vivo photothermal therapy showed that tumors were completely cured without reoccurrence by one-time irradiation of NIR laser after a single injection of these multidentate PEG modified AuNRs.
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Hiding patients confidential datainthe ECG signal viaa transform-domain quantization scheme.
J Med Syst
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Watermarking is the most widely used technology in the field of copyright and biological information protection. In this paper, we use quantization based digital watermark encryption technology on the Electrocardiogram (ECG) to protect patient rights and information. Three transform domains, DWT, DCT, and DFT are adopted to implement the quantization based watermarking technique. Although the watermark embedding process is not invertible, the change of the PQRST complexes and amplitude of the ECG signal is very small and so the watermarked data can meet the requirements of physiological diagnostics. In addition, the hidden information can be extracted without knowledge of the original ECG data. In other words, the proposed watermarking scheme is blind. Experimental results verify the efficiency of the proposed scheme.
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Reconstructing signals via stochastic resonance generated by photorefractive two-wave mixing bistability.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Stochastic resonance is theoretically investigated in an optical bistable system, which consists of a unidirectional ring cavity and a photorefractive two-wave mixer. It is found that the output properties of stochastic resonance are mainly determined by the applied noise, the crystal length and the applied electric field. The influences of these parameters on the stochastic resonance are also numerically analyzed via cross-correlation, which offers general guidelines for the optimization of recovering noise-hidden signals. A cross-correlation gain of 4 is obtained by optimizing these parameters. This provides a general method for reconstructing signals in nonlinear communications systems.
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Improving nitrogen removal in an ANAMMOX reactor using a permeable reactive biobarrier.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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A novel ANAMMOX biofilm reactor that combines the advantages of conventional biofilm reactors and membrane bioreactors (MBRs) was developed in an attempt to decrease the levels of nitrogen in the reactor filtrate. In this reactor, nonwoven fabric modules served as both biofilm carriers and membrane-like separators, and the biofilm acted as a permeable reactive barrier for the removal of nitrogen species from the bulk liquid. Long-term monitoring suggests that the nitrogen removal rates (NRR) of the reactor reached ca. 1.6 kg-N/(m(3) d). Interestingly, large fractions of the ammonium (ca. 27%) and nitrite (ca. 48%) remaining in the bulk liquid were removed during their transport through the biofilm; thus, the reactive barrier process of the biofilm contributed ca. 11% to the total NRR. With an increase in the imposed flux, the contribution of the reactive barrier process to the removal of nitrogen from the reactor bulk liquid increased significantly, e.g., it contributed 26% to the NRR at 17.4 L/(m(2) h). Additionally, the nonwoven modules could retain free bacteria effectively; they maintained a non-fouling state during the entire operation period of approximately 400 days. Sequence analysis shows that Candidatus Kuenenia-like species dominated the ANAMMOX bacteria in the reactor. These results clearly demonstrate that this innovative reactor holds great promise for improving the ANAMMOX process, thus decreasing nitrogen levels in the effluent.
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Daidzein enhances efferocytosis via transglutaminase 2 and augmentation of Rac1 activity.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Clearance of apoptotic cells, termed "efferocytosis", is the mechanism required to prevent secondary necrosis and release of proinflammatory cytokines. Defective efferocytosis is cumulatively regarded as one of mechanisms in the development of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Our previous finding showed that ethanolic extract from Glycine tomentella Hayata (GTH) can enhance mouse macrophage RAW264.7 efferocytosis (clearance of apoptotic cells). We have demonstrated that the major components of GTH are daidzein, catechin, epicatechin and naringin. Here, we explore the potential of each component in modulating efferocytic capability. For this, RAW264.7 cells were cultured with CFDA-stained apoptotic cells and assayed by flow cytometry. We found that daidzein is the main component of GTH, and it can enhance RAW264.7 efferocytosis dose-dependently. Moreover, the enhancive effect of daidzein on macrophage efferocytic capability is accompanied by increased transglutaminase 2 (TG2) at both mRNA and protein levels. TG2 knockdown attenuated daidzein increased macrophage efferocytic capability. After treatment with daidzein, increased phosphorylation was observed in Erk, but not in p38 and JNK. Finally, we report that after daidzein treatment, Rac1 activity was markedly increased and the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased, which may contribute to efferocytosis. Taken together, these data suggest that enhancement of macrophage efferocytic capability by daidzein treatment was mainly through up-regulation of TG2 expression and Rac1 activity. Daidzein may have the therapeutical potential in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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Assessment of wrist joint inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis by quantitative two- and three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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We aimed to compare the use of computer-aided quantification methods with 3 different power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) modes to assess wrist inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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Drug-induced conformational population shifts in topoisomerase-DNA ternary complexes.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Type II topoisomerases (TOP2) are enzymes that resolve the topological problems during DNA replication and transcription by transiently cleaving both strands and forming a cleavage complex with the DNA. Several prominent anti-cancer agents inhibit TOP2 by stabilizing the cleavage complex and engendering permanent DNA breakage. To discriminate drug binding modes in TOP2-? and TOP2-?, we applied our newly developed scoring function, dubbed AutoDock4RAP, to evaluate the binding modes of VP-16, m-AMSA, and mitoxantrone to the cleavage complexes. Docking reproduced crystallographic binding mode of VP-16 in a ternary complex of TOP2-? with root-mean-square deviation of 0.65 Å. Molecular dynamics simulation of the complex confirmed the crystallographic binding mode of VP-16 and the conformation of the residue R503. Drug-related conformational changes in R503 have been observed in ternary complexes with m-AMSA and mitoxantrone. However, the R503 rotamers in these two simulations deviate from their crystallographic conformations, indicating a relaxation dynamics from the conformations determined with the drug replacement procedure. The binding mode of VP-16 in the cleavage complex of TOP2-? was determined by the conjoint use of docking and molecular dynamics simulations, which fell within a similar binding pocket of TOP2-? cleavage complex. Our findings may facilitate more efficient design efforts targeting TOP2-? specific drugs.
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Flow-induced corrosion behavior of absorbable magnesium-based stents.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The aim of this work was to study corrosion behavior of magnesium (Mg) alloys (MgZnCa plates and AZ31 stents) under varied fluid flow conditions representative of the vascular environment. Experiments revealed that fluid hydrodynamics, fluid flow velocity and shear stress play essential roles in the corrosion behavior of absorbable magnesium-based stent devices. Flow-induced shear stress (FISS) accelerates the overall corrosion (including localized, uniform, pitting and erosion corrosions) due to the increased mass transfer and mechanical force. FISS increased the average uniform corrosion rate, the localized corrosion coverage ratios and depths and the removal rate of corrosion products inside the corrosion pits. For MgZnCa plates, an increase of FISS results in an increased pitting factor but saturates at an FISS of ?0.15Pa. For AZ31 stents, the volume loss ratio (31%) at 0.056Pa was nearly twice that (17%) at 0Pa before and after corrosion. Flow direction has a significant impact on corrosion behavior as more severe pitting and erosion corrosion was observed on the back ends of the MgZnCa plates, and the corrosion product layer facing the flow direction peeled off from the AZ31 stent struts. This study demonstrates that flow-induced corrosion needs be understood so that Mg-based stents in vascular environments can be effectively designed.
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2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone promoted glucose uptake and imposed a paradoxical effect on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (DMC), one of the flavonoids isolated and purified from the dried flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus, was explored for its function in glucose uptake/glycogen synthesis in insulin-sensitive tissue cells and its effect and mechanism on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. DMC (10 ?M) treatment remarkably promoted glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes (P < 0.05 vs control group), whereas the glucose uptake in L6 myoblasts and glycogen synthesis in HepG2 hepatocytes were not affected by the treatment. DMC had paradoxical effects on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells compared with differentiation control. High concentrations of DMC (10 and 20 ?M) markedly diminished lipid accumulation; however, a low concentration of DMC (2.5 ?M) enhanced lipid storage in 3T3-L1 cells (P < 0.01 vs differentiation control group), and 5 ?M DMC did not impose a significant effect. It was demonstrated that the effect of DMC in lipid accumulation was controlled by the expression of PPAR-?.
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Ecological roles of dominant and rare prokaryotes in acid mine drainage revealed by metagenomics and metatranscriptomics.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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High-throughput sequencing is expanding our knowledge of microbial diversity in the environment. Still, understanding the metabolic potentials and ecological roles of rare and uncultured microbes in natural communities remains a major challenge. To this end, we applied a 'divide and conquer' strategy that partitioned a massive metagenomic data set (>100?Gbp) into subsets based on K-mer frequency in sequence assembly to a low-diversity acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial community and, by integrating with an additional metatranscriptomic assembly, successfully obtained 11 draft genomes most of which represent yet uncultured and/or rare taxa (relative abundance <1%). We report the first genome of a naturally occurring Ferrovum population (relative abundance >90%) and its metabolic potentials and gene expression profile, providing initial molecular insights into the ecological role of these lesser known, but potentially important, microorganisms in the AMD environment. Gene transcriptional analysis of the active taxa revealed major metabolic capabilities executed in situ, including carbon- and nitrogen-related metabolisms associated with syntrophic interactions, iron and sulfur oxidation, which are key in energy conservation and AMD generation, and the mechanisms of adaptation and response to the environmental stresses (heavy metals, low pH and oxidative stress). Remarkably, nitrogen fixation and sulfur oxidation were performed by the rare taxa, indicating their critical roles in the overall functioning and assembly of the AMD community. Our study demonstrates the potential of the 'divide and conquer' strategy in high-throughput sequencing data assembly for genome reconstruction and functional partitioning analysis of both dominant and rare species in natural microbial assemblages.
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Stabilization of multiple rib fractures in a canine model.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Operative stabilization is frequently used in the clinical treatment of multiple rib fractures (MRF); however, no ideal material exists for use in this fixation. This study investigates a newly developed biodegradable plate system for the stabilization of MRF.
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Wavelet-based watermarking and compression for ECG signals with verification evaluation.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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In the current open society and with the growth of human rights, people are more and more concerned about the privacy of their information and other important data. This study makes use of electrocardiography (ECG) data in order to protect individual information. An ECG signal can not only be used to analyze disease, but also to provide crucial biometric information for identification and authentication. In this study, we propose a new idea of integrating electrocardiogram watermarking and compression approach, which has never been researched before. ECG watermarking can ensure the confidentiality and reliability of a user's data while reducing the amount of data. In the evaluation, we apply the embedding capacity, bit error rate (BER), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), compression ratio (CR), and compressed-signal to noise ratio (CNR) methods to assess the proposed algorithm. After comprehensive evaluation the final results show that our algorithm is robust and feasible.
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Gallic acid tailoring surface functionalities of plasma-polymerized allylamine-coated 316L SS to selectively direct vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell fate for enhanced endothelialization.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The creation of a platform for enhanced vascular endothelia cell (VEC) growth while suppressing vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation offers possibility for advanced coatings of vascular stents. Gallic acid (GA), a chemically unique phenolic acid with important biological functions, presents benefits to the cardiovascular disease therapy because of its superior antioxidant effect and a selectivity to support the growth of ECs more than SMCs. In this study, GA was explored to tailor such a multifunctional stent surface combined with plasma polymerization technique. On the basis of the chemical coupling reaction, GA was bound to an amine-group-rich plasma-polymerized allylamine (PPAam) coating. The GA-functionalized PPAam (GA-PPAam) surface created a favorable microenvironment to obtain high ECs and SMCs selectivity. The GA-PPAam coating showed remarkable enhancement in the adhesion, viability, proliferation, migration, and release of nitric oxide (NO) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The GA-PPAam coating also resulted in remarkable inhibition effect on human umbilical artery smooth muscle cell (HUASMC) adhesion and proliferation. These striking findings may provide a guide for designing the new generation of multifunctional vascular devices.
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2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone protects the impaired insulin secretion induced by glucotoxicity in pancreatic ?-cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (DMC), which is isolated and purified from the dried flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr. et Perry (Myrtaceae), was investigated for its insulinotropic benefits against glucotoxicity using in vitro methods. When exposed to high glucose at the cytotoxicity level for 48 h, RIN-5F ?-cells experienced a significant viability loss and impaired insulin secretion function, whereas cotreating with DMC could protect ?-cells against glucotoxicity-induced decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner without affecting basal insulin secretion. It was demonstrated that DMC increased insulin secretion against glucotoxicity by simulating the effect of GLP-1 and enhancing the expression of GLP-1R, followed by activating the signal pathway of PDX-1, PRE-INS, and GLUT2-GCK. Another mechanism was that DMC avoided the pancreatic islet dysfunction resulting from cellular damage by suppressing the production of nitric oxide (NO) by iNOS, and the expression of MCP-1. The results indicated the potential application of DMC in the intervention against glucotoxicity-induced hyperglycemia.
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Protective effect of cytosolic phospholipase A2 inhibition against inflammation and degeneration by promoting regulatory T cells in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is the rate-limiting enzyme that initiates the production of various inflammatory mediators. Previous studies have shown that inhibiting cPLA2 exerts a neuroprotective effect on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by ameliorating the severity of the disease and influencing Th1 and Th17 responses. However, it remains unclear whether treatment with a cPLA2 inhibitor will influence the regulatory T cells (Tregs) that play a critical role in maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmune diseases. In this study, the cPLA2 inhibitor AX059 reduced the onset and progression of EAE in Lewis rats. In addition, this effect was accompanied by activation of Tregs and alterations in the expression of their various cytokines. The study therefore demonstrated that Tregs are involved in the immunomodulatory effect mediated by cPLA2 inhibition. These findings may have clinical application in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
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Effects of polydopamine functionalized titanium dioxide nanotubes on endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Previous investigations have demonstrated that TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with particular structure cues could control the behavior of different types of cells, including endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Besides, polydopamine (PDA) modified surfaces were reported to be beneficial to increase the proliferation and viability of ECs and meanwhile could inhibit the proliferation of SMCs. The TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) were functionalized with polydopamine (PDA) (PDA/NTs) to study the synergetic effect of both nanotopography (NTs) and chemical cues (PDA) of TiO2 nanotubes on the regulation of cellular behavior of ECs and SMCs. The PDA-modified TiO2 nanotubes were subjected to field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and water contact angle (WCA) analysis. In vitro cell culture tests confirmed that, comparing with flat titanium (Ti) and TiO2 nanotubes, PDA/NTs surface synergistically promoted ECs attachment, proliferation, migration and release of nitric oxide (NO). Meanwhile, the PDA/NTs performed well in reducing SMCs adhesion and proliferation. This novel approach might provide a new platform to investigate the synergistic effect of local chemistry and topography, as well as the applications for the development of titanium-based implants for enhanced endothelialization.
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Wheat - Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Occurred With a Delayed Onset of 10 to 24 hours After Wheat Ingestion: A Case Report.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) usually occurs 1 to 4 hours after wheat ingestion and the pathophysiology of WDEIA remains unknown. It is recommended that WDEIA patients refrain from exercise for 4 to 6 hours after wheat ingestion. We report a case of a 51-year-old man who experienced 5 anaphylaxis attacks; two of which occurred 10 to 24 hours after wheat ingestion and exercise. He has a history of chronic gastroenteritis that responds well to antihistamine drugs but not proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and prokinetic agents. Abdominal CT results implied the possibility of superior mesenteric artery syndrome. We suggest that WDEIA occurs 6 hours after wheat ingestion in cases compounded by obstructive gastrointestinal diseases.
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Tbr1 haploinsufficiency impairs amygdalar axonal projections and results in cognitive abnormality.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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The neuron-specific transcription factor T-box brain 1 (TBR1) regulates brain development. Disruptive mutations in the TBR1 gene have been repeatedly identified in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here, we show that Tbr1 haploinsufficiency results in defective axonal projections of amygdalar neurons and the impairment of social interaction, ultrasonic vocalization, associative memory and cognitive flexibility in mice. Loss of a copy of the Tbr1 gene altered the expression of Ntng1, Cntn2 and Cdh8 and reduced both inter- and intra-amygdalar connections. These developmental defects likely impair neuronal activation upon behavioral stimulation, which is indicated by fewer c-FOS-positive neurons and lack of GRIN2B induction in Tbr1(+/-) amygdalae. We also show that upregulation of amygdalar neuronal activity by local infusion of a partial NMDA receptor agonist, d-cycloserine, ameliorates the behavioral defects of Tbr1(+/-) mice. Our study suggests that TBR1 is important in the regulation of amygdalar axonal connections and cognition.
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A novel coating of type IV collagen and hyaluronic acid on stent material-titanium for promoting smooth muscle cell contractile phenotype.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The method of stent implantation is currently considered an effective means of treating atherosclerosis. However, implanting of cardiovascular stent often leads to intimal breakage and hyperplasia. The phenomenon that vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) transform from contractile to synthetic phenotype becomes a serious obstacle to intimal recovery. To improve how SMCs transform from a synthetic to contractile phenotype, a technique of coimmobilization was used to form type IV collagen (CoIV) and hyaluronic acid (HA) coating on the widely used stent material, titanium (Ti). In this work, several bio-functional coatings made of CoIV/HA mixtures in different ratios were fabricated on the Ti surface. The quantitative characterization of CoIV showed that introducing HA could enhance the amount of the immobilized CoIV on the alkali activated Ti (TiOH) surface. The immunofluorescence staining results of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and DAPI showed that the coating of CoIV/HA in ratios of 200 ?g/ml (M200) and 500 ?g/ml (M500) also could promote SMCs expressing more contractile phenotype compared with TiOH/CoIV control samples, while the AO/PI staining results indicated that SMCs on the M200 and M500 samples showed less apoptosis ratio. Thus, we hope that this study can provide more helpful exploration and application for promoting the SMC contractile phenotype on the cardiovascular stents.
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Optimisation and performance of NaClO-assisted maintenance cleaning for fouling control in membrane bioreactors.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Based on conventional chemical cleaning and physical backflush methods, a novel in situ chemical backflush method, i.e., chemically assisted maintenance cleaning with NaClO as the principal reagent, was developed for membrane fouling control in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The results demonstrated that, compared with a control MBR with water backflush, the use of low NaClO loads had few adverse effects on nutrient removal; on the contrary, the exposure to NaClO enhanced the denitrification performance of the MBR as a result of the formation of sludge granules. Measurements of transmembrane pressure (TMP) showed that an NaClO backflush at 0.2 ppm could achieve effective membrane fouling control in MBRs. Ex situ backflush tests showed that an NaClO backflush enhanced the detachment of biopolymers from the fouled membranes compared with a water backflush. Comparative 16S rRNA sequencing showed differing bacterial community composition in the fouling layers of the two MBRs. Specifically, the NaClO backflush could suppress filament-caused membrane fouling (i.e., lowered the abundance of Thiothrix eikelboomii in the fouling layers). Both the water and NaClO backflush resulted in significant increases in the pure water permeability of the membranes as a result of the enlargement of membrane pores. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry indicated that the frequent NaClO backflush did not change the functional groups of the active layer of the membranes significantly. This study could provide an alternative for the implementation of membrane cleaning in MBR plants.
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Studies Based on Preparation, Physical Characteristics, and Cellular Pharmacological Activities of Thin PLGA Film Loaded with Geniposide.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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In this primary study, thin polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) film loaded with geniposide was first prepared and demonstrated on both physical and pharmacological aspects for its potential application on drug-eluting vascular stents. Physical parameters of geniposide-loaded thin film, such as crystal structure, molecular spectral characteristics, and release behavior in the whole process were detected. From X-Ray diffraction, the characteristic peak of crystal geniposide disappeared on geniposide-loaded PLGA film (GLPF) after it formed, which meant there was no agglomeration phenomenon, as geniposide was distributed in the form of single molecule. According to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) figure, the GLPF was more flat and uniform with better compactness. It inferred that release behavior of geniposide at the early stage (0~15?d) was in the form of free diffusion. Carrier PLGA began to degrade 15 days later, so the residual geniposide was also dissolved. Cellular pharmacological effects of geniposide on endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were also demonstrated on GLPF. 5% and 10% (w/w) geniposide-loaded PLGA (60?:?40) membrane indicated its significant effect on ECs promotion and SMCs inhibition. All provided feasible evidences for the development of new geniposide-coating vascular stent using PLGA as carrier.
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Cell adhesion on supported lipid bilayers functionalized with RGD peptides monitored by using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Supported lipid bilayer (SLB) is one of the most widely used structures to mimic cell membranes. To study the cell-cell, cell-matrix and cell-material interactions, supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) functionalized with RGD peptides (SLBs-RGD) were prepared by vesicle fusion on a SiO2 quartz crystal, and subsequently bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) adhesion was analyzed. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was utilized to detect the dynamic adsorption behavior of lipid vesicles and BMSCs in real time. Observations obtained by QCM-D signals are confirmed by conducting fluorescence microscopy. QCM-D measurements showed the SLB formation starts at the critical concentration of the vesicles. More BMSCs adhered on SLBs-RGD than on SLBs. With the presence of SLBs, the adhesion cells on SLBs surfaces had a rounded morphology, and cells on SLBs-RGD will take long time to rearrange their cytoskeleton, which led to incomplete spreading compared with SiO2. Differences in adhesion density and adhesion properties of the cells on the different substrates could be traced at the dissipation versus frequency (?D/?f) plots. These results indicate that RGD in/on SLBs could provide anchorage sites for more cells adhesion. QCM-D is demonstrated to be a useful tool for evaluating the interactions between various biological and non-biological systems in situ and in real-time.
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Neuronal excitation upregulates Tbr1, a high-confidence risk gene of autism, mediating Grin2b expression in the adult brain.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The activity-regulated gene expression of transcription factors is required for neural plasticity and function in response to neuronal stimulation. T-brain-1 (TBR1), a critical neuron-specific transcription factor for forebrain development, has been recognized as a high-confidence risk gene for autism spectrum disorders. Here, we show that in addition to its role in brain development, Tbr1 responds to neuronal activation and further modulates the Grin2b expression in adult brains and mature neurons. The expression levels of Tbr1 were investigated using both immunostaining and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. We found that the mRNA and protein expression levels of Tbr1 are induced by excitatory synaptic transmission driven by bicuculline or glutamate treatment in cultured mature neurons. The upregulation of Tbr1 expression requires the activation of both ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Furthermore, behavioral training triggers Tbr1 induction in the adult mouse brain. The elevation of Tbr1 expression is associated with Grin2b upregulation in both mature neurons and adult brains. Using Tbr1-deficient neurons, we further demonstrated that TBR1 is required for the induction of Grin2b upon neuronal activation. Taken together with the previous studies showing that TBR1 binds the Grin2b promoter and controls expression of luciferase reporter driven by Grin2b promoter, the evidence suggests that TBR1 directly controls Grin2b expression in mature neurons. We also found that the addition of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) antagonist KN-93, but not the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin antagonist cyclosporin A, to cultured mature neurons noticeably inhibited Tbr1 induction, indicating that neuronal activation upregulates Tbr1 expression in a CaMKII-dependent manner. In conclusion, our study suggests that Tbr1 plays an important role in adult mouse brains in response to neuronal activation to modulate the activity-regulated gene transcription required for neural plasticity.
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Efficient preparation of enantiopure D-phenylalanine through asymmetric resolution using immobilized phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis JN-1 in a recirculating packed-bed reactor.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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An efficient enzymatic process was developed to produce optically pure D-phenylalanine through asymmetric resolution of the racemic DL-phenylalanine using immobilized phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (RgPAL) from Rhodotorula glutinis JN-1. RgPAL was immobilized on a modified mesoporous silica support (MCM-41-NH-GA). The resulting MCM-41-NH-GA-RgPAL showed high activity and stability. The resolution efficiency using MCM-41-NH-GA-RgPAL in a recirculating packed-bed reactor (RPBR) was higher than that in a stirred-tank reactor. Under optimal operational conditions, the volumetric conversion rate of L-phenylalanine and the productivity of D-phenylalanine reached 96.7 mM h?¹ and 0.32 g L?¹ h?¹, respectively. The optical purity (eeD) of D-phenylalanine exceeded 99%. The RPBR ran continuously for 16 batches, the conversion ratio did not decrease. The reactor was scaled up 25-fold, and the productivity of D-phenylalanine (eeD>99%) in the scaled-up reactor reached 7.2 g L?¹ h?¹. These results suggest that the resolution process is an alternative method to produce highly pure D-phenylalanine.
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Fine mapping of qRC10-2, a quantitative trait locus for cold tolerance of rice roots at seedling and mature stages.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cold stress causes various injuries to rice seedlings in low-temperature and high-altitude areas and is therefore an important factor affecting rice production in such areas. In this study, root conductivity (RC) was used as an indicator to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of cold tolerance in Oryza rufipogon Griff., Dongxiang wild rice (DX), at its two-leaf stage. The correlation coefficients between RC and the plant survival rate (PSR) at the seedling and maturity stages were -0.85 and -0.9 (P?=?0.01), respectively, indicating that RC is a reliable index for evaluating cold tolerance of rice. A preliminary mapping group was constructed from 151 BC2F1 plants using DX as a cold-tolerant donor and the indica variety Nanjing 11 (NJ) as a recurrent parent. A total of 113 codominant simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed, with a parental polymorphism of 17.3%. Two cold-tolerant QTLs, named qRC10-1 and qRC10-2 were detected on chromosome 10 by composite interval mapping. qRC10-1 (LOD?=?3.1, RM171-RM1108) was mapped at 148.3 cM, and qRC10-2 (LOD?=?6.1, RM25570-RM304) was mapped at 163.3 cM, which accounted for 9.4% and 32.1% of phenotypic variances, respectively. To fine map the major locus qRC10-2, NJ was crossed with a BC4F2 plant (L188-3), which only carried the QTL qRC10-2, to construct a large BC5F2 fine-mapping population with 13,324 progenies. Forty-five molecular markers were designed to evenly cover qRC10-2, and 10 markers showed polymorphisms between DX and NJ. As a result, qRC10-2 was delimited to a 48.5-kb region between markers qc45 and qc48. In this region, Os10g0489500 and Os10g0490100 exhibited different expression patterns between DX and NJ. Our results provide a basis for identifying the gene(s) underlying qRC10-2, and the markers developed here may be used to improve low-temperature tolerance of rice seedling and maturity stages via marker-assisted selection (MAS).
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Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2C is highly expressed in breast microcalcification lesions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2C (UBE2C) contributes to ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer. Microcalcification (MC) is the most common mammographic feature of early breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated whether UBE2C could be a tumor marker of early breast cancer with MC found on screening mammography. UBE2C protein and mRNA expression were measured in breast core biopsy pairs of MC and adjacent non-MC breast tissue from each subject. Immunohistochemistry revealed UBE2C positivity in 69.4% of MC samples and 77.6% negativity in non-MC samples (p<0.0001). On RT-qPCR, 56.1% of malignant MC lesion samples showed high mRNA level of UBE2C and 80% of benign MC lesion samples showed a low level of UBE2C (p = 0.1766). We investigated the carcinogenic role of UBE2C in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with UBE2C knockdown; UBE2C knockdown downregulated cell proliferation and activated the cellular apoptosis pathway to inhibit cell colony formation. Furthermore, UBE2C expression was associated with that of carcinogenic genes human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), cellular c-Ki-ras2 proto-oncogene (KRAS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), C-C motif chemokine 5 (CCL5), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) and Ras homolog family member C (RhoC). UBE2C may be a marker for diagnosis of nonpalpable breast lesions but not benign or malignant tumors in mammography core biopsies. Suppression of UBE2C may be a potential therapy target in breast cancer.
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Dynamic behavior of positive solutions for a leslie predator-prey system with mutual interference and feedback controls.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We consider a Leslie predator-prey system with mutual interference and feedback controls. For general nonautonomous case, by using differential inequality theory and constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional, we obtain some sufficient conditions which guarantee the permanence and the global attractivity of the system. For the periodic case, we obtain some sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence, uniqueness, and stability of a positive periodic solution.
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Interorganelle interactions and inheritance patterns of nuclei and vacuoles in budding yeast meiosis.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Many of the mechanisms by which organelles are inherited by spores during meiosis are not well understood. Dramatic chromosome motion and bouquet formation are evolutionarily conserved characteristics of meiotic chromosomes. The budding yeast bouquet genes (NDJ1, MPS3, CSM4) mediate these movements via telomere attachment to the nuclear envelope (NE). Here, we report that during meiosis the NE is in direct contact with vacuoles via nucleus-vacuole junctions (NVJs). We show that in meiosis NVJs are assembled through the interaction of the outer NE-protein Nvj1 and the vacuolar membrane protein Vac8. Notably, NVJs function as diffusion barriers that exclude the nuclear pore complexes, the bouquet protein Mps3 and NE-tethered telomeres from the outer nuclear membrane and nuclear ER, resulting in distorted NEs during early meiosis. An increase in NVJ area resulting from Nvj1-GFP overexpression produced a moderate bouquet mutant-like phenotype in wild-type cells. NVJs, as the vacuolar contact sites of the nucleus, were found to undergo scission alongside the NE during meiotic nuclear division. The zygotic NE and NVJs were partly segregated into 4 spores. Lastly, new NVJs were also revealed to be synthesized de novo to rejoin the zygotic NE with the newly synthesized vacuoles in the mature spores. In conclusion, our results revealed that budding yeast nuclei and vacuoles exhibit dynamic interorganelle interactions and different inheritance patterns in meiosis, and also suggested that nvj1? mutant cells may be useful to resolve the technical challenges pertaining to the isolation of intact nuclei for the biochemical study of meiotic nuclear proteins.
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[Enhancement of meniscal tearing damage repairing in the avascular zone using connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the rabbit model].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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To investigate effect of connective tissue growth factors (CTGF) on secretion of extracellular matrix synthesis of meniscal fibrochondrocytes, expression of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF), and angiogenesis during the repair of meniscal tearing damage.
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Construction of polyfunctional coatings assisted by gallic acid to facilitate co-immobilization of diverse biomolecules.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Designing a multifunctional surface based on the coimmobilization of two or more diverse biomolecules with synergic action is very important in certain cases. In this work, a facile method by two-step aimed to construct a polyfunctional coating containing -COOH, -NH2, and phenol/quinine groups was reported. The first-step was to introduce amine groups onto target modified-surface by coating with plasma polymerized allylamine (PPAam), followed by the second-step conjugation of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) onto the PPAam surface. The density of -COOH, -NH2, and phenol/quinone groups could be regulated easily by adjusting the reaction time of GA conjugation, making it possible to coimmobilize two or three diverse molecules. This has been shown by the successful coimmobilization of anti-CD34 antibody and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The surface coimmobilized with the anti-CD34 antibody and VEGF presented significant enhancement in the capture of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These data suggest the huge potential of such polyfunctional coating for tailoring the desired interfacial properties of materials through selectively conjugating two or more diverse bioactive molecules with synergic action.
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Immobilization of heparin/poly-l-lysine nanoparticles on dopamine-coated surface to create a heparin density gradient for selective direction of platelet and vascular cells behavior.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Restenosis, thrombosis formation and delayed endothelium regeneration continue to be problematic for coronary artery stent therapy. To improve the hemocompatibility of the cardiovascular implants and selectively direct vascular cell behavior, a novel kind of heparin/poly-l-lysine (Hep/PLL) nanoparticle was developed and immobilized on a dopamine-coated surface. The stability and structural characteristics of the nanoparticles changed with the Hep:PLL concentration ratio. A Hep density gradient was created on a surface by immobilizing nanoparticles with various Hep:PLL ratios on a dopamine-coated surface. Antithrombin III binding quantity was significantly enhanced, and in plasma the APTT and TT times as coagulation tests were prolonged, depending on the Hep density. A low Hep density is sufficient to prevent platelet adhesion and activation. The sensitivity of vascular cells to the Hep density is very different: high Hep density inhibits the growth of all vascular cells, while low Hep density could selectively inhibit smooth muscle cell hyperplasia but promote endothelial progenitor cells and endothelial cell proliferation. These observations provide important guidance for modification of surface heparinization. We suggest that this method will provide a potential means to construct a suitable platform on a stent surface for selective direction of vascular cell behavior with low side effects.
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Genome-wide analysis of the bHLH transcription factor family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).
Mol. Genet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms and are thought to be one of the largest families of regulatory proteins. This important family of transcriptional regulators plays crucial roles in plant development. However, a systematic analysis of the bHLH transcription factor family has not been reported in Chinese cabbage. In this study, 230 bHLH transcription factors were identified from the whole Chinese cabbage genome and compared with proteins from other representative plants, fungi and metazoans. The Chinese cabbage bHLH (BrabHLH) gene family could be classified into 24 subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of BrabHLHs along with bHLHs from Arabidopsis and rice indicated 26 subfamilies. The identification, classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns and interaction networks of BrabHLHs were analyzed. Distribution mapping showed that BrabHLHs were non-randomly located on the ten Chinese cabbage chromosomes. One hundred and twenty-four orthologous bHLH genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, and the interaction networks of the orthologous genes were constructed in Chinese cabbage. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that expressions of BrabHLH genes varied widely under different abiotic stress treatments for different times. Thus, this comprehensive analysis of BrabHLHs represents a rich resource, aiding the elucidation of the roles of bHLH family members in plant growth and development. Furthermore, the comparative genomics analysis deepened our understanding of the evolution of this gene family after a polyploidy event.
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Health risks from the exposure of children to As, Se, Pb and other heavy metals near the largest coking plant in China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Coking influences environmental quality and poses high risks to human health as large amounts of heavy metals and metalloids are emitted into the environment from coal during the coking process. Health risks depend heavily on multi-pathway and element-specific exposures, which have, unfortunately, been rarely studied. In this study, childrens health risks and exposure levels to As, Se, and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Mn, V and Sb) in the water, soil, dust, air and locally produced food were studied based on field sampling and questionnaire-based surveys around the largest coking area in China. Human blood samples were collected and analyzed to indicate the exposure levels. The non-carcinogenic risks to children mainly resulted from Cr, Mn, Pb, As and Sb, the levels of which were 3 to 10 times higher than the acceptable levels (1.0×10(-6)). The carcinogenic risks to children were 30 to 200 times higher than the safe level (1.0×10(-6)-1.0×10(-4)), which could be attributed to Cr, As and Ni pollution. The estimated risks mainly came from the pathway involving the ingestion of locally produced food, accounting for more than 85% in total for most elements. For As, the food ingestion and air inhalation exposure pathways both contributed approximately 50%, respectively. The high risks in this study highlight the attention paid to the health of children who live in the vicinity of coking activities and the importance of site-specific multi-pathway health risk assessments and food safety to protect potentially exposed children.
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Triangular ZnO nanosheets: synthesis, crystallography and cathodoluminescence.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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ZnO nanosheets with triangular morphology have been synthesized on an Au-coated silicon substrate through a facile thermal evaporation process. The morphologies and microstructures of the nanosheets were studied by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). These studies show that a nanosheet is commonly composed of two parts: a triangular ZnO sheet and an Au nanoparticle attached on its tip-end. Detailed crystallography analyses conclude that the formation of the highly crystalline nanostructures can be assigned to a combination of a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process that is believed to be responsible for its initial nucleation and subsequent crystallization along the growth direction, and a vapor-solid (VS) process that is responsible for its further radial growth. The spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra exhibit a sharp strong near-band-edge (NBE) emission in the ultraviolet range and a negligible green emission.
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The forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 stimulates the expression of the adipocyte resistin gene.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Resistin is known as an adipocyte-specific hormone that can cause insulin resistance and decrease adipocyte differentiation. It can be regulated by transcriptional factors, but the possible role of forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 in regulating resistin gene expression is still unknown. Using 3T3 fibroblast and C3H10T1/2 and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we found that transient overexpression of a non-phosphorylatable, constitutively active FOXO1, but not the wild type of FOXO1 or a DNA binding-deficient FOXO1, activated resistin promoter-directed luciferase expression. However, transient overexpression of a dominant-negative FOXO1 inactivated resistin promoter activity and reduced resistin mRNA expression. These observations indicate that the action of FOXO1 on resistin gene expression requires the activation of FOXO1 and that the effect of FOXO1 depends on the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of FOXO1. The FOXO1 protein target sites on the resistin promoter were localized to the proximal -3545 to -787bp of 5-flanking region of the resistin promoter. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay also showed that FOXO1 bound the resistin promoter at nucleotide regions of -1539 to -1366bp and -1016 to -835bp, but not at the regions of -795 to -632bp. Results of this study suggest that FOXO1 transcription factor likely activates the expression of adipocyte resistin gene via direct association with the upstream resistin promoter.
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Endothelialization of implanted cardiovascular biomaterial surfaces: The development from in vitro to in vivo.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Restenosis and thrombosis formation after cardiovascular devices implantation continue to be problematic. Although various platforms and parameters of cardiovascular devices have been designed and optimized over the years, postoperative complications are hard to avoid. The native vascular endothelium always provide a nonthrombogenic surface as well as prevent intimal overproliferation, thereby, the presence of a confluent endothelial cell layer on material surfaces have been widely accepted as an ideal approach to improve the biocompatibility of implanted cardiovascular materials. Endothelialization on biomaterial surfaces is initially developed by in vitro cell seeding. However, numerous no-perfect parts of this method are existed for clinical use. The emergency of endothelial progenitor cells may provide a promising way for setting these limitations. Over the last decades, countless researches about EPCs-based in vivo induced self-endothelialization have been reported and mainly focused on cellular therapy, pharmacological therapy, materials designing, or surface biofunctional modification. This review details the development of endothelialization on cardiovascular material surfaces from in vitro to in vivo. Endothelialization progress on the basis of molecular biological level and bioinformatics theory is expected to be the key point in the coming decades. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
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TLR7 negatively regulates dendrite outgrowth through the Myd88-c-Fos-IL-6 pathway.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize both pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns and induce innate immune responses. Some TLRs are expressed in neurons and regulate neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration. However, the downstream signaling pathways and effectors for TLRs in neurons are still controversial. In this report, we provide evidence that TLR7 negatively regulates dendrite growth through the canonical myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88)-c-Fos-interleukin (IL)-6 pathway. Although both TLR7 and TLR8 recognize single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), the results of quantitative reverse transcription-PCR suggested that TLR7 is the major TLR recognizing ssRNA in brains. In both in vitro cultures and in utero electroporation experiments, manipulation of TLR7 expression levels was sufficient to alter neuronal morphology, indicating the presence of intrinsic TLR7 ligands. Besides, the RNase A treatment that removed ssRNA in cultures promoted dendrite growth. We also found that the addition of ssRNA and synthetic TLR7 agonists CL075 and loxoribine, but not R837 (imiquimod), to cultured neurons specifically restricted dendrite growth via TLR7. These results all suggest that TLR7 negatively regulates neuronal differentiation. In cultured neurons, TLR7 activation induced IL-6 and TNF-? expression through Myd88. Using Myd88-, IL-6-, and TNF-?-deficient neurons, we then demonstrated the essential roles of Myd88 and IL-6, but not TNF-?, in the TLR7 pathway to restrict dendrite growth. In addition to neuronal morphology, TLR7 knockout also affects mouse behaviors, because young mutant mice ?2 weeks of age exhibited noticeably lower exploratory activity in an open field. In conclusion, our study suggests that TLR7 negatively regulates dendrite growth and influences cognition in mice.
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Surface and size effects on cell interaction of gold nanoparticles with both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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With the development of nanotechnology and its application in biomedicine, studies on the interaction between nanoparticles and cells have become increasingly important. To understand the surface and size effects on cell interaction of nanoparticles, the cellular uptake behaviors of two series of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with both positively and negatively charged surfaces and sizes range from ~16 to ~58 nm were investigated in both phagocytic RAW 264.7 and nonphagocytic HepG2 cells. The internalization of AuNPs was quantified by ICP-MS, and the intracellular fate of NPs was evaluated by TEM analysis. The results showed that the AuNPs with positive surface charge have much higher cell internalization ability than those with negative surface charge in nonphagocytic HepG2 cells. However, the uptake extent of negatively charged AuNPs was similar with that of the positively charged AuNPs when in phagocytic RAW 264.7 cells. Among the tested size range, negatively charged AuNPs with a diameter of ~40 nm had the highest uptake in both cells, while the positively charged AuNPs did not show a certain tendency. Intracellular TEM analysis demonstrated the different fate of AuNPs in different cells, where both the positively and negatively charged AuNPs were mainly trapped in the lysosomes in HepG2 cells, but many of them were localized in phagosomes when in RAW 264.7 cells. Cytotoxicity of these AuNPs was tested by both MTT and LDH assays, which suggested NPs toxicity is closely related to the tested cell types besides the surface and size of NPs. It demonstrates that cell interaction between nanoparticles and cells is not only affected by surface and size factors but also strongly depends on cell types.
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Enhanced retention and cellular uptake of nanoparticles in tumors by controlling their aggregation behavior.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Effective accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) in tumors is crucial for NP-assisted cancer diagnosis and treatment. With the hypothesis that aggregation of NPs stimulated by tumor microenvironment can be utilized to enhance retention and cellular uptake of NPs in tumors, we designed a smart NP system to evaluate the effect of aggregation on NPs accumulation in tumor tissue. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, ~16 nm) were facilely prepared by surface modification with mixed-charge zwitterionic self-assembled monolayers, which can be stable at the pH of blood and normal tissues but aggregate instantly in response to the acidic extracellular pH of solid tumors. The zwitterionic AuNPs exhibited fast, ultrasensitive, and reversible response to the pH change from pH 7.4 to pH 6.5, which enabled the AuNPs to be well dispersed at pH 7.4 with excellent stealth ability to resist uptake by macrophages, while quickly aggregating at pH 6.5, leading to greatly enhanced uptake by cancer cells. An in vivo study demonstrated that the zwitterionic AuNPs had a considerable blood half-life with much higher tumor accumulation, retention, and cellular internalization than nonsensitive PEGylated AuNPs. A preliminary photothermal tumor ablation evaluation suggested the aggregation of AuNPs can be applied to cancer NIR photothermal therapy. These results suggest that controlled aggregation of NPs sensitive to tumor microenvironment can serve as a universal strategy to enhance the retention and cellular uptake of inorganic NPs in tumors, and modifying NPs with a mixed-charge zwitterionic surface can provide an easy way to obtain stealth properties and pH-sensitivity at the same time.
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[Effects of imidazolium chloride ionic liquids on the acute toxicity and weight of earthworm].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Standard contact filter paper test of OECD and artificial soil test were used to study the acute lethal effect of three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids, 1-butyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim] Cl), 1-hexyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Hmim] Cl), and 1-octyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim] Cl) on earthworm (Eisenia fetida), and the weight of the earthworms was measured after subtle exposure. The 24 h-LC50 values of [Bmim] Cl, [Hmim] Cl and [Omim] Cl using the contact filter paper method were 109.60, 50.38 and 7.94 microg x cm(-2), respectively. The 48 h-LC50 values were 98.52, 39.14 and 3.61 microg x cm(-2), respectively. Using the artificial soil method, the 7 d-LC50 values of [Bmim] Cl, [Hmim] Cl and [Omim] Cl were 447.78, 245.56 and 180.51 mg x kg(-1), respectively, and the 14 d-LC50 values were 288.42, 179.75, 150.35 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There were differences in poisoning symptoms of the three ionic liquids on earthworms. The growth of Eisenia fetida was inhibited and declined with increasing ionic liquid concentration. The toxicity of ionic liquids on Eisenia fetida increased with the length of carbon chain.
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Guidance of stem cells to a target destination in vivo by magnetic nanoparticles in a magnetic field.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Stem cells contribute to physiological processes such as postischemic neovascularization and vascular re-endothelialization, which help regenerate myocardial defects or repair vascular injury. However, therapeutic efficacy of stem cell transplantation is often limited by inefficient homing of systemically administered cells, which results in a low number of cells accumulating at sites of pathology. In this study, anti-CD34 antibody-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PEG-CD34) are shown to have high affinity to stem cells. The results of hemolysis rate and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests indicate that such nanoparticle may be used safely in the blood system. In vitro studies showed that a nanoparticle concentration of 100 ?g/mL gives rise to a significant increase in cell retention using an applicable permanent magnet, exerting minimal negative effect on cell viability and migration. Subsequent in vivo studies indicate that nanopartical can specifically bind stem cells with good magnetic response. Anti-CD34 antibody coated magnetic nanoparticle may be used to help deliver stem cells to a lesion site in the body for better treatment.
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The effect of ligand composition on the in vivo fate of multidentate poly(ethylene glycol) modified gold nanoparticles.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Multidentate ligands are expected to improve the performance of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) in biological application. Designing robust multidentate ligands by a facile way and understanding the impact of ligand composition on NPs property are greatly important. We report the effective synthesis of hydrophilic copolymers containing pendent thiol groups along a polyethylene glycol (PEG) methacrylate backbone by classical free radical copolymerization. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated by these multidentate ligands with two different ratios of thiols to PEG segment (? 1:1 and 1:2) showed much higher colloidal stability in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT) than AuNPs coated by monothiol-anchored PEG, and AuNPs coated by ligands with higher fraction of thiol groups showed slightly better resistance to DTT competition than did AuNPs coated by ligands with lower thiol fraction, but both of them exhibited excellent stabilities in biological media without obvious difference. In vitro study of uptake by macrophages did not showed significant difference between the two AuNPs with very low endocytosis. However, AuNPs coated by ligands with higher PEG content were found to accumulate in liver with a significantly lower level but a higher level in spleen than AuNPs coated by ligands with lower PEG contents. Moreover, the AuNPs coated with by ligands with higher PEG content showed higher tumor uptake. Additionally, AuNPs coated with both ligands demonstrated good biocompatibility as evaluated by cytotoxicity assays and histological analysis. Together, the composition of multidentate ligands will not only affect the stability of NPs under extreme conditions but also result in quite different fate of NPs in vivo, which can be tailored case by case.
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[Mechanism and kinetics of phenol degradation by TiO2 photocatalytic combined technologies].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Abstract: The combination H2O2, or electrical catalytic (EC) system with TiO2 photbcatalytic system for phenol degradation was investigated. The catalytic systems of TiO2/UV, H2O2/UV, TiO2/UV/H2O2 and TiO2/UV/EC were compared to investigate the phenol degradation mechanism and kinetic model. The degradation of phenol in TiO2/UV/H2O2 and TiO2/UV/EC system is more effective than that in TiO2/UV system. With the solution pH of 6, TiO, concentration of 0.2 g.L-1, UV illumination of 2 h, the photocatalysis removal efficiency of phenol reaches to 86%, if the current density of 12 mA.cm-2 is added, the removal efficiency of phenol could reach to 100%. The energy utilization in different catalytic systems was also compared. When phenol is degraded in 15 min, in TiO2/UV/EC system the energy utilization is the highest of 0.0306 g.(kW. h)-1 with the energy consumption of 0.0640 kW.h-1. It indicates that much more energy is used in TiO2/UV/EC system for phenol degradation. During the analysis of intermediate products in different catalysis systems, the first-order kinetic model of phenol degradation and intermediate products such as hydroquinone, catechol and benzoquinone formation were established. The kinetic model is validated the phenol degradation pathway in different catalysis systems, and also indicates the TiO2/UV/EC system could enhance phenol and intermediate products degradation.
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Altered volume and lateralization of language-related regions in first-episode schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Neuroanatomical abnormalities are considered to be related to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Reversal or reduction of normal structural cerebral asymmetries in schizophrenia is particularly striking. The current study investigated the alteration of gray matter volume and cerebral asymmetry in early stage of first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ), and their correlations with clinical measures. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from a total of 89 participants. Thirty-three FESZ patients and 41 matched healthy controls were included in the analysis. Compared to healthy controls, the FESZ patients showed decreased gray matter volume (GMV) in the frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal cortex, parahippocampal, fusiform, insula, and lingual; and increased GMV in cerebellum. Both male and female patients displayed an increased rightward lateralization in frontal and temporal cortex, which was significantly correlated with the severity of symptoms and social functioning. These findings may provide the neurological substrate for the etiology and clinical manifestations of the illness.
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A novel coculture model of HUVECs and HUASMCs by hyaluronic acid micropattern on titanium surface.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Orientation smooth muscle cell environment plays a positive role in the development of a functional, adherent endothelium. Therefore, building an orientation coculture model of endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) on biomaterials surface may provide more help for understanding the interaction between the two cells in vitro. In the present study, a "SMCs-ColIV-ECs" coculture model was built on the hyaluronic acid (HA) patterned titanium (Ti) surface, and compared with the previous "SMCs-HAa-ECs" model on endothelial cell number, morphology index, nitric oxide (NO), and prostacyclin2 (PGI2 ) release, anticoagulation property, human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) inhibition property and retention under fluid flow shear stress. The result indicated that "SMCs-ColIV-ECs" model could enhance the number, spreading area, and major/minor index of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which contributed to the retention of HUVECs on the surface. Greater major/minor index may produce more NO and PGI2 release, contributing to the anticoagulation property and HUASMCs inhibition property. In summary, this novel "SMCs-ColIV-ECs" coculture model improved the previous "SMCs-HAa-ECs" model, and may provide more inspiration for the human vascular intima building on the biomaterials in vitro. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
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Polymersomes from dual responsive block copolymers: drug encapsulation by heating and acid-triggered release.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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A series of well-defined thermoresponsive diblock copolymers (PEO45-b-PtNEAn, n=22, 44, 63, 91, 172) were prepared by the atom transfer radical polymerization of trans-N-(2-ethoxy-1,3-dioxan-5-yl) acrylamide (tNEA) using a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO45) macroinitiator. All copolymers are water-soluble at low temperature, but upon quickly heating to 37 °C, laser light scattering (LLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations indicate that these copolymers self-assemble into aggregates with different morphologies depending on the chain length of PtNEA and the polymer concentration; the morphologies gradually evolved from spherical solid nanoparticles to a polymersome as the degree of polymerization ("n") of PtNEA block increased from 22 to 172, with the formation of clusters with rod-like structure at the intermediate PtNEA length. Both the spherical nanoparticle and the polymersome are stable at physiological pH but susceptible to the mildly acidic medium. Acid-triggered hydrolysis behaviors of the aggregates were investigated by LLS, Nile red fluorescence, TEM, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The results revealed that the spherical nanoparticles formed from PEO45-b-PtNEA44 dissociated faster than the polymersomes of PEO45-b-PtNEA172, and both aggregates showed an enhanced hydrolysis under acidic conditions. Both the spherical nanoparticle and polymersome are able to efficiently load the hydrophobic doxorubicin (DOX), and water-soluble fluorescein isothiocyanate-lysozyme (FITC-Lys) can be conveniently encapsulated into the polymersome without using any organic solvent. Moreover, FITC-Lys and DOX could be coloaded in the polymersome. The drugs loaded either in the polymersome or in the spherical nanoparticle could be released by acid triggering. Finally, the DOX-loaded assemblies display concentration-dependent cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells, while the copolymers themselves are nontoxic.
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A simple one-step modification of various materials for introducing effective multi-functional groups.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Covalent immobilization of various biomolecules is a desired strategy for bio-multifunctional surface modification. Multi-functionalization of a material surface is considered to be the premise of immobilizing a variety of biomolecules. However, currently adopted methods, used to introduce proper reactive functional groups on material surfaces, mostly are hard to be carried out and frequently can only introduce insufficient functional groups. In this work, we successfully develop the films (GAHD films) prepared via the simple copolymerization of gallic acid (GA) and hexamethylenediamine (HD), which can be deposited on different kinds of material surfaces including metals, ceramics and polymers by a one-step dip-coating method. Moreover, these copolymerized GAHD films possess high concentration of multi-functional groups like carboxyl (COOH), primary amine (-NH2) and quinone groups on the surfaces. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results prove either the occurrence of Michael addition reaction, Schiff base reaction in the film-forming process, or the existence of COOH, NH2 and quinone groups on the surfaces. The maximum contents of carboxyl and amine on the GAHD film are 24.9nmol/cm(2) and 31.7nmol/cm(2) respectively. After dynamical immersion for 30 days, slight swellings can be observed, which reveals that the GAHD films possess good stability. Moreover, Heparin (Hep), fibronectin (Fn) and laminin (Ln) are successfully immobilized on the GAHD film surfaces. The results of cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and rhodamine fluorescence photograph indicate that the 1:1.62 GAHD film has good cytocompatibility.
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Computer-assisted system with multiple feature fused support vector machine for sperm morphology diagnosis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Sperm morphology is an important technique in identifying the health of sperms. In this paper we present a new system and novel approaches to classify different kinds of sperm images in order to assess their health. Our approach mainly relies on a one-dimensional feature which is extracted from the sperms contour with gray level information. Our approach can handle rotation and scaling of the image. Moreover, it is fused with SVM classification to improve its accuracy. In our evaluation, our method has better performance than the existing approaches to sperm classification.
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Late and very late stent thrombosis in patients with second-generation drug-eluting stents.
Can J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) are purported to have a lower risk of stent thrombosis than first-generation DES. However, few studies have examined the frequency of late stent thrombosis (LST) and very LST (VLST) in patients with second-generation DES, and the safety of discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) remains controversial.
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