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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Protease IV, a quorum sensing-dependent protease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa modulates insect innate immunity.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing (QS) plays an essential role in pathogenesis and the QS response controls many virulence factors. Using a mealworm, Tenebrio molitor as a host model, we found that Protease IV, a QS-regulated exoprotease of P. aeruginosa functions as a key virulence effector causing the melanization and death of T. molitor larvae. Protease IV was able to degrade zymogens of spätzle processing enzyme (SPE) and SPE-activating enzyme (SAE) without the activation of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production. Since SPE and SAE function to activate spätzle, a ligand of Toll receptor in the innate immune system of T. molitor, we suggest that Protease IV may interfere with the activation of the Toll signaling. Independently of the Toll pathway, the melanization response, another innate immunity was still generated, since Protease IV directly converted Tenebrio prophenoloxidase into active phenoloxidase. Protease IV also worked as an important factor in the virulence to brine shrimp and nematode. These results suggest that Protease IV provides P. aeruginosa with a sophisticated way to escape the immune attack of host by interfering with the production of AMPs.
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Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction among HIV-positive patients with early syphilis: azithromycin versus benzathine penicillin G therapy.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction, a febrile inflammatory reaction that often occurs after the first dose of chemotherapy in spirochetal diseases, may result in deleterious effects to patients with neurosyphilis and to pregnant women. A single 2-g oral dose of azithromycin is an alternative treatment to benzathine penicillin G for early syphilis in areas with low macrolide resistance. With its potential anti-inflammatory activity, the impact of azithromycin on the incidence of the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in HIV-positive patients with early syphilis has rarely been investigated.
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Benzyl butyl phthalate induces migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells through nongenomic AhR/G-protein signaling.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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The widespread use of phthalates as plasticizers has raised public health concerns regarding their adverse effects, including an association with cancer. Although animal investigations have suggested an association between phthalate exposure and hepatocellular carcinoma, the mechanisms are unknown.
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The types and characteristics of clients' perceptions of the Bonny method of Guided Imagery and Music.
J Music Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Developed by Helen Bonny, Guided Imagery and Music (BMGIM) has mainly been used to assist people with mental health issues. In order to provide clients with the most effective therapy, we need to examine the BMGIM process from the clients' perspective, rather than the therapists.' Understanding the types and characteristics of clients' experiences within the BMGIM process would be helpful to therapists. In order to assess clients' experiences more objectively, a different research methodology is needed to measure and compare the perspectives of clients in the BMGIM process.
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The effects of different epidural analgesia formulas on labor and mode of delivery in nulliparous women.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) and continuous epidural infusion (CEI) are popular and effective methods for pain relief during labor; however, there are concerns about increasing rates of cesarean section (C/S) and instrumental delivery. This prospective study investigated the effect of PCEA and CEI with different formulas on labor and the mode of delivery in nulliparous women.
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Monomicrobial Aeromonas and Vibrio bacteremia in cirrhotic adults in southern Taiwan: Similarities and differences.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Aeromonas and Vibrio are important water-borne pathogens causing substantial morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients in Taiwan, but the differences in clinical manifestations of Aeromonas and Vibrio bacteremia have not been reported in detail.
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Bacteremic pneumonia caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: Appropriateness of empirical treatment matters.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Clinical information about bacteremic pneumonia caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organism is limited.
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Pneumomediastinum in patients with AIDS: a case report and literature review.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients. However, the relationship between the causative pathogens and the prognosis is unclear. We report the case of a patient with AIDS presenting with community-acquired pneumonia complicated by pneumomediastinum. The cases of a further 10 HIV-infected patients with pneumomediastinum reported in the English language literature are reviewed.
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Inhibition of miR-146a prevents enterovirus-induced death by restoring the production of type I interferon.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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There are no antivirals or vaccines available to treat Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections. Although the type I interferon response, elicited upon virus infection, is critical to establishing host antiviral innate immunity, EV71 fails to induce this response efficiently. Here we provide new insights into potential anti-EV71 therapy by showing that neutralization of EV71-induced miR-146a prevents death in mice by restarting the production of type I interferon. EV71 infection upregulates miR-146a, which targets IRAK1 and TRAF6 involved in TLR signalling and type I interferon production. We further identify AP1 as being responsible for the EV71-induced expression of miR-146a. Surprisingly, knocking out miR-146a or neutralizing virus-induced miR-146a by specific antagomiR restores expressions of IRAK1 and TRAF6, augments IFN? production, inhibits viral propagation and improves survival in the mouse model. Our results suggest that enterovirus-induced miR-146a facilitates viral pathogenesis by suppressing IFN production and provide a clue to developing preventive and therapeutic strategies for enterovirus infections.
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Mediating effects of social support on depression and quality of life among patients with HIV infection in Taiwan.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Few empirical studies have evaluated the mediating effects of quality of life (QoL) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The purposes of this study were to identify the predictors of QoL and to test the mediating effects of social support on depression and QoL among patients enrolled in an HIV case-management program in Taiwan. A cross-sectional, descriptive correlation design collected data from 108 HIV-infected individuals. Individuals were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory II, the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support between September 2007 and April 2010. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics (including age, gender, and mode of transmission) and clinical information (including CD4 count and time since diagnosis with HIV), the study findings showed that QoL was significantly and positively correlated with both social support and the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and was negatively correlated with depression and time since diagnosis with HIV. The strongest predictors for QoL were depression followed by the initiation of HAART and social support, with an R(2) of 0.40. Social support partially mediated the relationship between depression and QoL. Health professionals should enhance HIV-infected individuals' social support to alleviate the level of depression and further increase the QoL among PLWHA.
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Quorum sensing-dependent metalloprotease VvpE is important in the virulence of Vibrio vulnificus to invertebrates.
Microb. Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Vibrio vulnificus, a Gram-negative bacterium, is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for fatal septicemia caused by contaminated sea foods in eastern Asia. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-density dependent gene regulation mechanism that controls the expression of many virulence genes in various bacteria and V. vulnificus has been also suggested to express their virulence genes through the QS system. In this study, we investigated the role of QS system and QS-regulated exoproteases in the virulence of V. vulnificus using several invertebrate host models, Tenebrio molitor, an insect, Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode, and brine shrimp (Artemia), an aquatic crustacean. When the culture supernatant of smcR (major QS regulator of V. vulnificus) mutant was injected to T. molitor larvae, it failed to induce the melanization of T. molitor larvae, while the culture supernatant of luxO (upstream negative regulator of smcR) mutant more strongly induced the melanization than wild type. These results demonstrated that QS system of V. vulnificus is crucial for virulence to T. molitor larvae. Among several QS-dependently expressed exoproteases of V. vulnificus, vvpE encoding a metalloprotease was mainly responsible for the melanization of T. molitor larvae, in that the culture supernatant of vvpE mutant failed to induce the melanization. This result was confirmed using the C. elegans and Artemia salina model systems, in which the vvpE mutant strains were attenuated in killing C. elegans and A. salina, compared with wild type, indicating that VvpE is important in the infection of V. vulnificus. In conclusion, we suggest that QS system and a QS-dependent exoprotease, VvpE are crucial for the V. vulnificus virulence to invertebrates.
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Virulence Diversity among Bacteremic Aeromonas Isolates: Ex Vivo, Animal, and Clinical Evidences.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The objective of this study was to compare virulence among different Aeromonas species causing bloodstream infections.
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Comparison of Serological Response to Doxycycline versus Benzathine Penicillin G in the Treatment of Early Syphilis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Multi-Center Observational Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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While doxycycline is recommended as an alternative treatment of syphilis in patients with penicillin allergy or intolerance, clinical studies to compare serological response to doxycycline versus benzathine penicillin in treatment of early syphilis among HIV-infected patients remain sparse.
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One Dose versus Three Weekly Doses of Benzathine Penicillin G for Patients Co-Infected with HIV and Early Syphilis: A Multicenter, Prospective Observational Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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One dose of benzathine penicillin G (BPG) has been recommended for HIV-infected patients with early syphilis (primary, secondary, and early latent syphilis) in the sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, but clinical data to support such a recommendation are limited.
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Discovering hidden connections among diseases, genes and drugs based on microarray expression profiles with negative-term filtering.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Microarrays based on gene expression profiles (GEPs) can be tailored specifically for a variety of topics to provide a precise and efficient means with which to discover hidden information. This study proposes a novel means of employing existing GEPs to reveal hidden relationships among diseases, genes, and drugs within a rich biomedical database, PubMed. Unlike the co-occurrence method, which considers only the appearance of keywords, the proposed method also takes into account negative relationships and non-relationships among keywords, the importance of which has been demonstrated in previous studies. Three scenarios were conducted to verify the efficacy of the proposed method. In Scenario 1, disease and drug GEPs (disease: lymphoma cancer, lymph node cancer, and drug: cyclophosphamide) were used to obtain lists of disease- and drug-related genes. Fifteen hidden connections were identified between the diseases and the drug. In Scenario 2, we adopted different diseases and drug GEPs (disease: AML-ALL dataset and drug: Gefitinib) to obtain lists of important diseases and drug-related genes. In this case, ten hidden connections were identified. In Scenario 3, we obtained a list of disease-related genes from the disease-related GEP (liver cancer) and the drug (Capecitabine) on the PharmGKB website, resulting in twenty-two hidden connections. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method in uncovering hidden connections among diseases, genes, and drugs. Following implementation of the weight function in the proposed method, a large number of the documents obtained in each of the scenarios were judged to be related: 834 of 4028 documents, 789 of 1216 documents, and 1928 of 3791 documents in Scenarios 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The negative-term filtering scheme also uncovered a large number of negative relationships as well as non-relationships among these connections: 97 of 834, 38 of 789, and 202 of 1928 in Scenarios 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
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Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus among adults at high risk for HIV transmission two decades after implementation of nationwide hepatitis B virus vaccination program in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) after implementation of universal neonatal HBV vaccination and catch-up vaccination programs remains rarely investigated among the adults who were born in the vaccination era (in or after 1986) and engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors.
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Nighttime sleep, daytime napping, and labor outcomes in healthy pregnant women in Taiwan.
Res Nurs Health
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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We prospectively examined the associations of nighttime and daytime sleep during the third trimester of pregnancy with labor duration and risk of cesarean deliveries in a convenience sample of 120 nulliparous women who completed sleep-related questionnaires and wore wrist actigraphs for up to 7 days. Nap duration and 24-hour sleep duration were inversely associated with labor duration in women with vaginal delivery. Neither actigraphy-derived nor self-reported sleep variables were associated with type of delivery (e.g., vaginal, cesarean). Results showed a beneficial effect of sleep on labor duration and suggest that studies of sleep duration effects on labor and pregnancy outcomes require a consideration of the amount of both daytime and nighttime sleep.
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Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of fluoride adhesive tape (F-PVA) in reducing dentin hypersensitivity.
Am J Dent
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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To evaluate the in vivo effectiveness of an experimental 2.26% fluoride polyvinyl alcohol (F-PVA) tape in reducing dentin hypersensitivity.
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Assessment of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a screen tool for symptoms of depression in community caregivers for adults with intellectual disabilities.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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The study aim was to determine the extent and determinants of reporting depressive symptoms in caregivers for persons with intellectual disabilities based on assessment of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A cross-sectional study was conducted, recruiting 455 caregivers for adults with ID who were providing care in community residences, with complete PHQ-9 data being analyzed. The results indicated that the mean of each item scored on the PHQ-9 varied from 0.3 (Q9) to 1.1 (Q4). For two items (Q3 - "sleeping difficulties" and Q4 - "fatigue"), the respondents reported occurrence during several days in the previous two weeks. However, after scrutinizing the distribution of each item in the PHQ-9, 3.3-14.5% respondents reported that each item happened nearly every day, and 4.0-17.8% expressed that each happened more than half of the days in the previous two weeks. With respect to difficulties examined on the PHQ, 47% of cases expressed that it was somewhat difficult, 8.2% expressed that it was very difficult, and 4.5% felt that it was extremely difficult to work, care for things at home, or get along with others. Finally, a logistic regression model revealed that only one factor of self-perceived health status (fair/poor vs. excellent/very good, OR=7.519, 95% CI=3.03-18.68, p<0.001) exhibited a statistically significant correlation with depressive symptom occurrence (PHQ-9 score?10) among the caregivers. The study highlights the need to strengthen appropriate health initiatives for monitoring mental health status and to provide necessary services for community caregivers for adults with ID.
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High prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and associated risky behaviors in men infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Taiwan.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence, types, and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in outpatient clinics at an AIDS designated hospital in Taiwan. Anal swabs were collect and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) was used to analyze the types of anal HPV infection. HPV DNA was detected in 74.2% of the 198 participants, including high-risk types (40.4%), low-risk types (18.2%) and multiple-types (6%). The most common types were HPV 16 (13.1%), 6 (10.4%), 11 (7.1%) and 18 (6.1%). The significant risk factor for being infected with any type or a high-risk type of HPV was having sexual partners (>3) in the preceding 6 months. Low-risk type of anal HPV infection was associated with a history of anal lesions. Our findings support the need for regular follow-up of all HIV/HPV coinfected patients and their partners to allow early detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
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Factors associated with low back pain changes during the third trimester of pregnancy.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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(1) To investigate the course of pregnancy-related low back pain intensity and interference during the third trimester, and (2) to identify risk factors associated with changes in pain intensity and interference over time.
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Prenatal diagnosis of proximal femoral focal deficiency: a case report and literature review.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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To present a rare case of fetal nonfamilial proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD) diagnosed as early as 21 weeks gestation.
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Lethal fetal stroke in utero.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Fetal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in utero is a rare complication of pregnancy associated with subsequent neurological sequelae or fetal death.
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Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in systemic lupus erythematosus from southern Taiwan.
J Clin Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Opportunistic infection has been documented in systemic lupus erythematosus with special attention paid to Pneumocystis jirovecii because of the significant morbidity and high mortality.
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Identification of fungal pathogens from clinical specimens using multi-locus PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Polymerase chain reaction coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) was successfully used to identify a variety of fungi, including mixed fungal species, from 10 of 12 clinical specimens (10 culture-negative) of biopsy tissues or body fluids from patients with fungal infections. The application of PCR/ESI-MS for identifying fungal pathogens is discussed.
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Clinical impact of Gram-negative nonfermenters on adults with community-onset bacteremia in the emergency department.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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To determine clinical predictors and impact of Gram-negative nonfermenters (GNNFs) infections among adults with community-onset bacteremia in the emergency department (ED).
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Automated patient identity recognition by analysis of chest radiograph features.
Acad Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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The aim of this study was to develop a computerized scheme for automated identity recognition based on chest radiograph features.
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Reduced sleep duration and daytime naps in pregnant women in Taiwan.
Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Napping is highly prevalent in pregnant women, but the relation between nighttime sleep and daytime naps in pregnant women is poorly understood.
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Acrophialophora fusispora brain abscess in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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We reported a fatal case of brain abscess caused by Acrophialophora fusispora in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Identification of the fungus was based on microscopic morphology and sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal RNA gene from the isolate recovered from brain abscess. Four published cases were reviewed as well.
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Investigating contactless high frequency ultrasound microbeam stimulation for determination of invasion potential of breast cancer cells.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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In this article, we investigate the application of contactless high frequency ultrasound microbeam stimulation (HFUMS) for determining the invasion potential of breast cancer cells. In breast cancer patients, the finding of tumor metastasis significantly worsens the clinical prognosis. Thus, early determination of the potential of a tumor for invasion and metastasis would significantly impact decisions about aggressiveness of cancer treatment. Recent work suggests that invasive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), but not weakly invasive breast cancer cells (MCF-7, SKBR3, and BT-474), display a number of neuronal characteristics, including expression of voltage-gated sodium channels. Since sodium channels are often co-expressed with calcium channels, this prompted us to test whether single-cell stimulation by a highly focused ultrasound microbeam would trigger Ca(2+) elevation, especially in highly invasive breast cancer cells. To calibrate the diameter of the microbeam ultrasound produced by a 200-MHz single element LiNbO3 transducer, we focused the beam on a wire target and performed a pulse-echo test. The width of the beam was ?17?µm, appropriate for single cell stimulation. Membrane-permeant fluorescent Ca(2+) indicators were utilized to monitor Ca(2+) changes in the cells due to HFUMS. The cell response index (CRI), which is a composite parameter reflecting both Ca(2+) elevation and the fraction of responding cells elicited by HFUMS, was much greater in highly invasive breast cancer cells than in the weakly invasive breast cancer cells. The CRI of MDA-MB-231 cells depended on peak-to-peak amplitude of the voltage driving the transducer. These results suggest that HFUMS may serve as a novel tool to determine the invasion potential of breast cancer cells, and with further refinement may offer a rapid test for invasiveness of tumor biopsies in situ.
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Metastatic complications of pericarditis and cardiac tamponade as a result of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia developing during antimicrobial therapy.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Acute bacterial pericarditis is a rare but devastating complication of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). We herein describe the case of a previously healthy 81-year-old woman with SAB complicated by pericarditis that evolved into cardiac tamponade despite the administration of optimal antimicrobial therapy for 11 days. Three adhesion factor genes, fnbA, clfA and clfB, were identified in the causative isolate.
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Davallialactone reduces inflammation and repairs dentinogenesis on glucose oxidase-induced stress in dental pulp cells.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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The chronic nature of diabetes mellitus (DM) raises the risk of oral complication diseases. In general, DM causes oxidative stress to organs. This study aimed to evaluate the cellular change of dental pulp cells against glucose oxidative stress by glucose oxidase with a high glucose state. The purpose of this study was to test the antioxidant character of davallialactone and to reduce the pathogenesis of dental pulp cells against glucose oxidative stress.
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Cytomegalovirus disease in nonimmunocompromised, human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults with chronic kidney disease.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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BACKGROUND/PURPOSE(S): To identify the clinical characteristics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. METHODS: Patients from two sources were reviewed: (1) a retrospective study of hospitalized patients admitted between January 1990 and February 2009 was performed at a tertiary hospital in Taiwan; (2) the English literature from 1990 to 2009 was reviewed for additional cases, and adults with CKD and histopathologically documented cytomegalovirus disease were included. RESULTS: Seven CKD patients from our hospital and seven from the literature were included. Nine (64.3%) patients were males, and the mean age was 66 years. Histopathologically proven CMV disease was present in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of 13 (92.9%) and in the skin of one (7.1%) patient. GI symptoms included bleeding (78.6%), abdominal pain (35.7%), and diarrhea (28.6%).The most common comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (7, 50%) and hypertension (8, 57.1%). Thirteen patients had CMV GI disease. The endoscopic gross features of the GI tract lesions included single or multiple ulcers and a large polypoid or uneven surface mass. Of the seven cases with available data, a low body mass index (22.3 ± 1.3 kg/m(2)) and hypoalbuminemia (25 ± 7.0 g/L) were noted. Twelve patients had received ganciclovir or valganciclovir therapy. Five (35.7%) patients died, and the death of two patients was directly related to bowel perforation caused by CMV colitis. CONCLUSION: CMV disease may occur in CKD patients without the presence of overt immunodeficiency. The gastrointestinal tract is the most common site of involvement. Clinicians should be aware of this possibility in CKD patients who have GI symptoms.
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Imaging the response of the retina to electrical stimulation with genetically encoded calcium indicators.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Epiretinal implants for the blind are designed to stimulate surviving retinal neurons, thus bypassing the diseased photoreceptor layer. Single-unit or multielectrode recordings from isolated animal retina are commonly used to inform the design of these implants. However, such electrical recordings provide limited information about the spatial patterns of retinal activation. Calcium imaging overcomes this limitation, as imaging enables high spatial resolution mapping of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) activity as well as simultaneous recording from hundreds of RGCs. Prior experiments in amphibian retina have demonstrated proof of principle, yet experiments in mammalian retina have been hindered by the inability to load calcium indicators into mature mammalian RGCs. Here, we report a method for labeling the majority of ganglion cells in adult rat retina with genetically encoded calcium indicators, specifically GCaMP3 and GCaMP5G. Intravitreal injection of an adeno-associated viral vector targets ?85% of ganglion cells with high specificity. Because of the large fluorescence signals provided by the GCaMP sensors, we can now for the first time visualize the response of the retina to electrical stimulation in real-time. Imaging transduced retinas mounted on multielectrode arrays reveals how stimulus pulse shape can dramatically affect the spatial extent of RGC activation, which has clear implications in prosthetic applications. Our method can be easily adapted to work with other fluorescent indicator proteins in both wild-type and transgenic mammals.
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Aging of in vitro pulp illustrates change of inflammation and dentinogenesis.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Dental pulp functions include pulp cell activity involvement in dentin formation. In this study we investigated the age-related changes in dental pulp cells that may influence pulp cell activity for restoring pulp function.
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The survival role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma induces odontoblast differentiation against oxidative stress in human dental pulp cells.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) has well-known anti-inflammatory action in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the anti-inflammatory action of PPAR? involves in cellular cytoprotection and supports odontoblast differentiation under oxidative stress in HDPCs.
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The antioxidant property of pachymic acid improves bone disturbance against AH plus-induced inflammation in MC-3T3 E1 cells.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The cytotoxicity of resin-based sealer is influential on the inflammatory reaction and cell survival for oral periapical cells. In this study, pachymic acid as an antioxidant was investigated for the improvement of bone disturbance against AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany)-induced inflammation in MC-3T3 E1 cells.
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Pleiotropic effects of acyltransferases on various virulence-related phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Genes Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen causing various infections, expresses various virulence factors under the control of quorum sensing (QS), a cell density-sensing mechanism. Because the major signal molecules of QS are acyl homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs), acyltransferases, the enzymes that act upon acyl group transfer could affect the QS signaling and QS-related virulence phenotypes. In this study, we overexpressed acyltransferases of P. aeruginosa and screened them for the activity influencing the QS and QS-related virulence phenotypes. Among seven acyltransferases tested in this study, two acyltransferases, PA3984 (apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase) and PA2537 (putative acyltransferase), significantly affected both growth of P. aeruginosa and the activity of LasR, a major QS regulator, when overexpressed. These acyltransferases also reduced virulence and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. The other acyltransferase, PA3646 (UDP-3-O-[3-hydroxylauroyl] glucosamine N-acyltransferase), reduced the LasR activity, swarming motility, protease production and virulence without any influence on growth. These effects by PA3646 over-expression were caused by less production of QS signal. PA3644 (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase) enhanced biofilm formation and swarming motility with no effect on the growth and QS activity. These results suggest that acyltransferases may be an important factor regulating the cellular activity about virulence-related phenotypes.
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Short-term effects of neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy on anorectal function in rectal cancer patients: a pilot study.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy followed by curative surgery has gained acceptance as the therapy of choice in locally advanced rectal cancer. However, deterioration of anorectal function after long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy combined with surgery for rectal cancer is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and clinical change of anorectal function after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer.
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The impact of Down syndrome screening on Taiwanese Down syndrome births: a nationwide retrospective study and a screening result from a single medical centre.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A retrospective analysis of the Taiwanese National Birth Defect Registration and Notification System was conducted in order to determine the live birth- and stillbirth rates in infants with Down syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 13 and Turner syndrome between 2001 and 2010. The objective was to investigate the impact of Down syndrome screening on the Taiwanese Down syndrome live birth rate. In addition, the results of first-trimester Down syndrome screening between 2006 and 2011, and of second-trimester quadruple testing between 2008 and 2011, were obtained from the National Taiwan University Hospital. All Taiwanese infants born between 2001 and 2010 were included in the first part of the analysis, and women receiving first-trimester Down syndrome screening or second-trimester quadruple testing from the National Taiwan University Hospital were included in the second part. The live birth rate of infants with Down syndrome, per 100 000 live births, decreased from 22.28 in 2001 to 7.79 in 2010. The ratio of liveborn DS to total DS was 48.74% in 2001, and then decreased to 25.88% in 2006, when first-trimester screening was widely introduced in Taiwan. This ratio dropped to 20.64% in 2008, when the second-trimester quadruple test was implemented. The overall positive rate in first-trimester screening in the National Taiwan University Hospital was 3.1%, with a Down syndrome detection rate of 100%; the quadruple test had values of 9.0% and 75%, respectively. The use of first-trimester screening and the second-trimester quadruple test may be responsible for the marked decrease in the Taiwanese Down syndrome live birth rate observed between 2001 and 2010.
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The safety and immunogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination: a study of maternal-cord blood pairs in taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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There are little data about adverse effects and immunogenicity of flu vaccine in Asian pregnant women.
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Risk factors of pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain: a biopsychosocial approach.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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To examine the associations between pain-related psychological and social factors and pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain intensity and interference after controlling biological factors.
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Factors associated with sleep quality in pregnant women: a prospective observational study.
Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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: Sleep disturbance is a significant health issue in pregnant women. Although previous studies contribute to an understanding of the multifactorial nature of pregnancy-related sleep disturbance, objective measures of sleep were not included, and so data may be subject to recall and potential participant self-report bias.
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Phthalates induce proliferation and invasiveness of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer through the AhR/HDAC6/c-Myc signaling pathway.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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The environmentally present group of chemical phthalates, or phthalate esters, has been recognized as a rising threat to public health, including cancer. While most studies have addressed the estrogenic effects of phthalates in malignancies of the breast and the prostate, little is known about their role in the etiology of hormone-independent cancer. Here we show that treatments with the phthalates n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at 1 ?M induced proliferation (BBP, 3.2-fold; DBP, 3.2-fold), migration (BBP, 2.6-fold; DBP, 2.6-fold), invasion (BBP, 2.7-fold; DBP, 3.1-fold), and tumor formation (EC(50): BBP, 0.12 ?M; DBP, 0.22 ?M) in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). We further demonstrate that phthalates stimulated the cell surface aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and triggered the downstream cyclic AMP (cAMP)-PKA-CREB1 signaling cascade. The pathway led to increased expression of HDAC6, which facilitated nuclear assembly of the ?-catenin-LEF1/TCF4 transcriptional complex and transactivation of the c-Myc oncogene. This nongenomic pathway emanated from the phthalate-induced AhR promoted tumorigenesis of ER-negative breast cancer. Collectively, our findings revealed a novel oncogenic mechanism of phthalates in breast cancer independent from their estrogenic activities.
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Bacteremia due to extended-spectrum-?-lactamase-producing Aeromonas spp. at a medical center in Southern Taiwan.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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Although extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing aeromonads have been increasingly reported in recent years, most of them were isolates from case reports or environmental isolates. To investigate the prevalence of ESBL producers among Aeromonas blood isolates and the genes encoding ESBLs, consecutive nonduplicate Aeromonas blood isolates collected at a medical center in southern Taiwan from March 2004 to December 2008 were studied. The ESBL phenotypes were examined by clavulanate combination disk test and the cefepime-clavulanate ESBL Etest. The presence of ESBL-encoding genes, including bla(TEM), bla(PER), bla(CTX-M), and bla(SHV) genes, was evaluated by PCR and sequence analysis. The results showed that 4 (2.6%) of 156 Aeromonas blood isolates, 1 Aeromonas hydrophila isolate and 3 Aeromonas caviae isolates, expressed an ESBL-producing phenotype. The ESBL gene in two A. caviae isolates was bla(PER-3), which was located in both chromosomes and plasmids, as demonstrated by Southern hybridization. Of four patients with ESBL-producing Aeromonas bacteremia, two presented with catheter-related phlebitis and the other two with primary bacteremia. Three patients had been treated with initial noncarbapenem ?-lactams for 5 to 10 days, and all survived. In conclusion, ESBL producers exist among Aeromonas blood isolates, and clinical suspicion of ESBL production should be raised in treating infections due to cefotaxime-resistant Aeromonas isolates.
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MUC1 expression is elevated in severe preeclamptic placentas and suppresses trophoblast cell invasion via ?1-integrin signaling.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder that features insufficient extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion. We have previously shown that MUC1 expression in human placenta increases with gestational age and inhibits choriocarcinoma cell invasion.
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Comparative evaluation of intratracheal colistimethate sodium, imipenem, and meropenem in BALB/c mice with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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The identification of the optimal agent for administration via the respiratory tract when treating pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB).
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One-year follow-up of relapse to risky behaviors and incidence of syphilis among patients enrolled in the HIV case management program.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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A longitudinal prospective study was conducted at an AIDS designated hospital in Taiwan. The study aimed to determine the incidence of syphilis and to identify risk factors predicting new onset syphilis and relapse into risky behaviors among 117 patients enrolled in the HIV case management program for 1 year. Having a new episode of syphilis was defined as patients had a fourfold increase of serum rapid plasma reagin titers from baseline to 12-month follow-up. After enrollment, 17% relapsed in unprotected sexual intercourse. New onset syphilis was noted in ten (10.4%) participants, and all were men having sex with men. The incidence of syphilis was 5.8 per 100 person-years. Predictors of a new episode of syphilis were higher CD4 cell counts [hazard ratio (HR), 1.003; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.006], and recreational drug use (HR, 18.89; 95% CI, 2.78-128.15). Regular screening for syphilis among patients retaining in HIV care remains necessary.
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c-myb mediates inflammatory reaction against oxidative stress in human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7.
Cell Biochem. Funct.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Emerging evidence suggests that oncogenes play an important role in the inflammatory reactions in cancer cells, but the precise molecular and cellular mechanisms linking the oncogenes to inflammation is unclear. This study examined the contribution of proto-oncogene c-myb to inflammation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. An inflammatory response was elicited directly by the cells using an in vitro culture system whereby the cells were exposed to H(2) O(2) . Upon exposure to H(2) O(2) , the cells showed a local inflammatory response, as evidenced by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ICAM-1 expression. Significant up-regulation of the proto-oncogene c-myb also was observed under inflammatory conditions. c-myb, overexpressed in the cells by transducing with Ad/c-myb, showed an increase in MMPs and ICAM-1 expression under H(2) O(2) stimulation. Despite H(2) O(2) stimulation, the c-myb down-regulated cells by c-myb siRNA inhibit the expression of MMPs and ICAM-1. Among the MAPKs, ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK were activated by the H(2) O(2) treatment. Interestingly, the H(2) O(2) -induced activation of ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK was inhibited by siRNA c-myb. These results suggest that breast cancer cells may play a significant role in sustaining and amplifying the inflammation process through the activation of c-myb, which results in the activation of the ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK pathway. This condition highlights the potential link between inflammation and its involvement in promoting breast cancer proliferation.
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Anti-inflammatory mechanism of PPAR? on LPS-induced pulp cells: role of the ROS removal activity.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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PPAR? has an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced pulpal inflammation by decreasing the expression of MMPs, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of PPAR? on the cell adhesion molecules and their upper signal pathways has not been clarified in pulp cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of PPAR? in pulpal inflammation.
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Inhibition of HIV-1 Tat-mediated transcription by a coumarin derivative, BPRHIV001, through the Akt pathway.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-encoded RNA-binding protein Tat is known to play an essential role in viral gene expression. In the search for novel compounds to inhibit Tat transactivity, one coumarin derivative, BPRHIV001, was identified, with a 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) against HIV-1 at 1.3 nM. BPRHIV001 is likely to exert its effects at the stage after initiation of RNAPII elongation since Tat protein expression and the assembly of the Tat/P-TEFb complex remained unchanged. Next, a reduction of the p300 protein level, known to modulate Tat function through acetylation, was observed upon BPRHIV001 treatment, while the p300 mRNA level was unaffected. A concordant reduction of phosphorylated Akt, which was shown to be closely related to p300 stability, was observed in the presence of BPRHIV001 and was accompanied by a decrease of phosphorylated PDPK1, a well-known Akt activator. Furthermore, the docking analysis revealed that the reduced PDPK1 phosphorylation likely resulted from the allosteric effect of interaction between BPRHIV001 and PDPK1. With strong synergistic effects with current reverse transcriptase inhibitors, BPRHIV001 has the potential to become a promising lead compound for the development of a novel therapeutic agent against HIV-1 infection.
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Gender differences in HIV manifestations at presentation to care and continuity of care among HIV-infected persons in Taiwan.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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The study aimed to compare the gender difference in clinical manifestations at time of HIV diagnosis and after one year of antiretroviral therapy, and to determine the influence of gender on HIV care continuity. A retrospective study was conducted using chart review of adults diagnosed with HIV infection from 1993-2008 at a university-affiliated AIDS-designated hospital in Taiwan. Men who acknowledged having sex with men were excluded in order to compare the gender differences among patients with similar routes of HIV transmission and social context. Of the 682 patients with HIV, 86.6% were men. There were no significant gender differences in clinical, immunological or virological parameters at baseline. After one year of antiretroviral therapy, the curves of changes in CD4 cell counts in men and women were parallel over time. Continuity of care, referring to at least one appointment in each six-month window during 2005-2008, was significantly associated with age >50 years (OR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.04-6.16), being enrolled in the case management programme (OR = 4.93, 95% CI: 2.53-9.62), acquisition of HIV via heterosexual contact (OR = 3.63, 95% CI: 1.38-9.55), CD4 lymphocyte count <200 counts/mm(3) at baseline (OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.38-6.96), being on highly active antiretroviral therapy (OR = 4.77, 95% CI: 2.37-9.59), and with sero-discordant partners (OR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.07-5.87). The findings indicate that gender does not appear to be associated with HIV disease manifestations and continuity of care. Further research to develop optimal methods to retain patients in HIV care is needed.
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The experience of and coping with lumbopelvic pain among pregnant women in Taiwan.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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1) To replicate and extend previous research on the prevalence and characteristics of pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain, and 2) to examine the associations between pain intensity, pain interference, and pain coping strategies in a sample of women with pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain.
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Low penetrance of retinoblastoma for p.V654L mutation of the RB1 gene.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Retinoblastoma is caused by compound heterozygosity or homozygosity of retinoblastoma gene (RB1) mutations. In germline retinoblastoma, mutations in the RB1 gene predispose individuals to increased cancer risks during development. These mutations segregate as autosomal dominant traits with high penetrance (90%).
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Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the SNRPN gene using real-time PCR with melting curve analysis.
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome are distinct neurodevelopmental disorders that are associated with the deletion of the chromosomal 15q11-13 region or uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. In this article, we applied SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR and melting curve analysis assay for rapid genotyping of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) gene methylation status and for detecting aberrations in copy number in a single tube. A single pair of primers was designed to create a 357 bp fragment containing the cytosine phosphodiester guanine islands in the SNRPN promoter and to amplify both unmethylated and methylated sequences. Genotypes were identified based on the TC value for copy number changes and the characteristic melting temperature of methylated cytosine phosphodiester guanine. Genotyping of SNRPN was performed on blood samples of 20 individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, 3 individuals with Angelman syndrome, and 20 unaffected individuals. The promoter methylation status and the copy number changes were successfully determined and compared with standard methylation-specific PCR, and were validated by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. This single-tube, SYBR Green I, real-time PCR with melting curve assay is rapid, reliable, sensitive, and easy to perform. It is suitable for high-throughput analysis as an alternative technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of target genes.
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Non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia among adults: an adverse prognosis in patients with malignancy.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2011
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Clinical information about non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) bacteremia in patients with malignancy has rarely been described. This study investigated clinical characteristics and prognostic variables of patients with malignancy while complicated with NTS bacteremia.
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Clinical characteristics of urosepsis caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumonia and their emergence in the community.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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The purpose of this study is to delineate clinical characteristics of urosepsis caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-EK) in different clinical settings, with an emphasis on community-acquired infections.
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Doppler measurement of the changes of fetal umbilical and middle cerebral artery velocimetric indices during continuous epidural labor analgesia.
Reg Anesth Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Although complications of the epidural technique are known to affect the fetus adversely, there are no data indicating that regional analgesia directly causes harmful effects to the fetus. Our purpose was to determine the effect of epidural labor analgesia on the Doppler velocimetric indices of the uterine and fetal umbilical and middle cerebral arteries.
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Persistent elevation of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitors in cholangiopathies affects liver fibrosis and differentiation.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Alteration of cell surface proteolysis has been proposed to play a role in liver fibrosis, a grave complication of biliary atresia (BA). In this study we investigated the roles of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1 and -2 in the progression of BA. The expression levels of HAI-1 and -2 were significantly increased in BA livers compared with those in neonatal hepatitis and correlated with disease progression. In BA livers, HAI-1 and -2 were coexpressed in cells involved in ductular reactions. In other selective cholangiopathies, ductular cells positive for HAI-1 or HAI-2 also increased in number. Inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and bile acids differentially up-regulated expression of HAI-1 and -2 transcripts in fetal liver cells and this induction could be antagonized by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. Conditioned media from cell lines stably overexpressing HAI-1 or HAI-2 enhanced the fibrogenic activity of portal fibroblasts and stellate cells, suggesting that both proteins might be involved in liver fibrosis. Because HAI-1 and -2 colocalized in ductular reactions sharing similar features to those observed during normal liver development, we sought to investigate the role of HAI-1 and -2 in cholangiopathies by exploring their functions in fetal liver cells. Knockdown of HAI-1 or HAI-2 promoted bidirectional differentiation of hepatoblast-derived cells. In addition, we showed that the hepatocyte growth factor activator, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways were involved in hepatic differentiation enhanced by HAI-2 knockdown.
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Successful application of the strategy of blastocyst biopsy, vitrification, whole genome amplification, and thawed embryo transfer for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) offers an alternative for women to carry an unaffected fetus risk of hereditary diseases. Trophectoderm biopsy may provide more cells for accurate diagnosis. However, the time allowed for transportation of the specimens to the laboratory and performance of molecular diagnosis is limited. We designed a PGD program of trophectoderm biopsy, vitrification of blastocysts, whole genome amplification (WGA), double confirmatory genotypings, and thawed embryo transfer.
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The impact of overcrowding on the bacterial contamination of blood cultures in the ED.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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This study aims to determine the risk factors associated with the bacterial contamination of blood cultures among adults visiting the emergency department (ED).
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Interleukin-1? induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression and promotes the invasive ability of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from ovarian endometrioma.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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To elucidate the role of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and invasion of endometrioma-derived ectopic endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EN-MSCs) and to develop an organoid method to study the invasive ability of endometrial cells.
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Newborn genetic screening for hearing impairment: a preliminary study at a tertiary center.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) is of paramount importance for early identification and management of hearing impairment in children. However, infants with slight/mild, progressive, or late-onset hearing impairment might be missed in conventional UNHS. To investigate whether genetic screening for common deafness-associated mutations could assist in identifying these infants, 1017 consecutive newborns in a tertiary hospital were subjected to both newborn hearing screening using a two-step distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) screening and newborn genetic screening (NGS) for deafness. The NGS targeted 4 deafness-associated mutations commonly found in the Taiwanese population, including p.V37I (c.109G>A) and c.235delC of the GJB2 gene, c.919-2A>G of the SLC26A4 gene, and mitochondrial m.1555A>G of the 12S rRNA gene. The results of the NGS were then correlated to the results of the NHS. Of the 1017 newborns, 16 (1.6%) had unilateral DPOAE screening failure, and 22 (2.2%) had bilateral DPOAE screening failure. A total of 199 (19.6%) babies were found to have at least 1 mutated allele on the NGS for deafness, 11 (1.1%) of whom were homozygous for GJB2 p.V37I, 6 (0.6%) compound heterozygous for GJB2 p.V37I and c.235delC, and 1 (0.1%) homoplasmic for m.1555A>G, who may potentially have hearing loss. Among them, 3 babies, 5 babies, and 1 baby, respectively, passed the NHS at birth. Comprehensive audiological assessments in the 9 babies at 3 months identified 1 with slight hearing loss and 2 with mild hearing loss. NGS for common deafness-associated mutations may identify infants with slight/mild or potentially progressive hearing impairment, thus compensating for the inherent limitations of the conventional UNHS.
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Carbapenem therapy for bacteremia due to extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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For 244 patients with bacteremia due to extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae treated by ertapenem (73, 29.9%) or either imipenem or meropenem (171, 70.1%), the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated. Ertapenem therapy was effective for patients with ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae bacteremia in terms of mortality and microbiological responses, as compared with imipenem or meropenem.
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Recombinant activated factor VII as a promising adjuvant therapy for postpartum hemorrhage in the practice of obstetric anesthesia: experience from a university hospital in Taiwan.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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Massive postpartum hemorrhage is one of the major complications in the peripartum period. In some critical cases, hemostasis is hard to achieve even after a hysterectomy has been performed. Recombinant activated factor VII has been reported as a promising adjuvant therapy for obstetric hemorrhage, although it remains unlicensed for this indication. Eight cases receiving recombinant activated factor VII in postpartum hemorrhage refractory to the conventional therapy in a Taiwanese hospital were analyzed retrospectively. A good response, defined as bleeding control in 15 min, was achieved in six patients (75%) with a single dose ranging from 55 to 105 µg/kg. The two patients with a poor response were later discovered to have had unsolved birth canal injuries. No drug-related adverse effects were noted. We recommend that any surgical bleeding should first be controlled, as well as the correction of metabolic and hematological abnormalities; however, in the situation of intractable postpartum hemorrhage, recombinant activated factor VII offers a salvage therapy and should be considered early, even before hysterectomy.
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Poly(n-butyl methacrylate) in ionic liquids with tunable lower critical solution temperatures (LCST).
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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We describe the lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-type phase behavior of poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PnBMA) (M =13,000 and 48,000) dissolved in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{(trifluoromethyl) sulfonyl}amide ionic liquids (ILs). The temperature-composition phase diagrams of these PnBMA/IL systems are strongly asymmetric with the critical composition shifted to low concentrations of PnBMA. As the molecular weight increases from 13,000 to 48,000, the critical temperature decreases by 20 °C, and the critical composition shifts to a lower concentration. On the basis of the LCST of PnBMA, we designed a thermosensitive poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PnBMA-PEO) diblock copolymer that exhibits a free chain/micelle transition in an IL as the temperature increases above the lower critical micellization temperature (LCMT). Furthermore, using IL blends as solvents, both the LCST of PnBMA and the LCMT of PnBMA-PEO can be tuned over a wide range by mixing two different alkyl methylimidazolium ILs without modifying the chemical structure of the polymers.
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Antimicrobial susceptibilities and molecular epidemiology of clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile in taiwan.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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The antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors of Clostridium difficile clinical isolates in Taiwan have not previously been reported. One hundred and thirteen isolates were collected from two major teaching hospitals in Taiwan from 2001 to 2009. Molecular typing was performed by an automated repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) method (DiversiLab; Bacterial Barcodes, Inc., Athens, GA) and PCR ribotyping. Detection of tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, and cdtB genes was performed using a multiplex PCR assay, and gyrA and gyrB genes of moxifloxacin-nonsusceptible isolates were sequenced. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole. Ninety-five (84%) isolates were susceptible to moxifloxacin, and the MIC(90) for nemonoxacin was 4 ?g/ml. Tigecycline showed favorable antibacterial activity (MIC(90) of 0.06 ?g/ml). Thirteen rep-PCR types were identified as a predominant rep-PCR type (type A; non-North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1 [NAP1], -NAP7, or -NAP8) accounting for 52.2% (59 isolates). Nine of 18 moxifloxacin-nonsusceptible isolates belonged to the rep-PCR type A. The rep-PCR type A and C isolates were distinct from NAP1 (ribotype 027) and NAP8 (ribotype 078) as determined by PCR ribotyping. Seventy-four (65%) isolates harbored tcdA and tcdB, and 15 (13%) harbored cdtAB encoding binary toxin. Eleven isolates had a gene deletion in tcdC, including a 39-bp deletion (9 isolates) and an 18-bp deletion (2). In conclusion, dissemination of a predominant C. difficile clone in southern and northern Taiwan was noted. However, no NAP1 (ribotype 027) isolate could be discovered in this study.
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Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteremic isolates from cancer patients with or without neutropenia at a medical center in southern Taiwan.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Few studies focus on comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility for bacteremic isolates in neutropenic and nonneutropenic cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteremic isolates from cancer patients.
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Clinical manifestations and prognostic factors in cancer patients with bacteremia due to extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Clinical information about bacteremia due to extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens in cancer patients was limited. The study was aimed to identify the clinical manifestations and risk factors for mortality in ESBL-producer bacteremia in cancer patients.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.