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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Acquired resistance of non-small cell lung cancer to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Respir Investig
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) triggers anti-apoptotic signaling, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance, which leads to development and progression of human epithelial cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Inhibition of EGFR by tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib has provided a new hope for the cure of NSCLC patients. However, acquired resistance to gefitinib and erlotinib via EGFR-mutant NSCLC has occurred through various molecular mechanisms such as T790M secondary mutation, MET amplification, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) overexpression, PTEN downregulation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and other mechanisms. This review will discuss the biology of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition and focus on the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors of EGFR-mutant NSCLC.
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Pemetrexed for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with interstitial lung disease.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) need to be approached carefully given the high incidence of pulmonary toxicity. Pemetrexed (PEM) is the key drug for the treatment of NSCLC. However, its safety, especially with respect to the exacerbation of ILD, and efficacy in NSCLC patients with ILD have yet to be established.
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Hypoxia increases gefitinib-resistant lung cancer stem cells through the activation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Accumulating evidence indicates that a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is involved in intrinsic resistance to cancer treatment. The hypoxic microenvironment is an important stem cell niche that promotes the persistence of CSCs in tumors. Our aim here was to elucidate the role of hypoxia and CSCs in the resistance to gefitinib in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. NSCLC cell lines, PC9 and HCC827, which express the EGFR exon 19 deletion mutations, were exposed to high concentration of gefitinib under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Seven days after gefitinib exposure, a small fraction of viable cells were detected, and these were referred to as "gefitinib-resistant persisters" (GRPs). CD133, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, CXCR4, and ALDH1A1-all genes involved in stemness-were highly expressed in GRPs in PC9 and HCC827 cells, and PC9 GRPs exhibited a high potential for tumorigenicity in vivo. The expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) was also upregulated and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) was activated on GRPs. Importantly, hypoxic exposure significantly increased sphere formation, reflecting the self-renewal capability, and the population of CD133- and Oct4-positive GRPs. Additionally, hypoxia upregulated IGF1 expression through hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?), and markedly promoted the activation of IGF1R on GRPs. Knockdown of IGF1 expression significantly reduced phosphorylated IGF1R-expressing GRPs under hypoxic conditions. Finally, inhibition of HIF1? or IGF1R by specific inhibitors significantly decreased the population of CD133- and Oct4-positive GRPs, which were increased by hypoxia in PC9 and HCC827 cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that hypoxia increased the population of lung CSCs resistant to gefitinib in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC by activating IGF1R. Targeting the IGF1R pathway may be a promising strategy for overcoming gefitinib resistance in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC induced by lung CSCs and microenvironment factors such as tumor hypoxia.
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Na+/H+ Exchanger 1 Is Regulated via Its Lipid-Interacting Domain, Which Functions as a Molecular Switch: A Pharmacological Approach Using Indolocarbazole Compounds.
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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The plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) is rapidly activated in response to various stimuli. The membrane-proximal cytoplasmic region (?60 residues), termed the lipid-interacting domain (LID), is an important regulatory domain of NHE1. Here, we used a pharmacological approach to further characterize the role of LID in the regulation of NHE1. Pharmacological analysis using staurosporine-like indolocarbazole and bisindolylmaleimide compounds suggested that the phorbol ester- and receptor agonist-induced activation of NHE1 occurs through a protein kinase C-independent mechanism. In particular, only indolocarbazole compounds that inhibited NHE1 activation were able to interact with the LID, suggesting that the inhibition of NHE1 activation is achieved through the direct action of these compounds on the LID. Furthermore, in addition to phorbol esters and a receptor agonist, okadaic acid and hyperosmotic stress, which are known to activate NHE1 through unknown mechanisms, were found to promote membrane association of the LID concomitant with NHE1 activation; these effects were inhibited by staurosporine, as well as by a mutation in the LID. Binding experiments using the fluorescent ATP analog trinitrophenyl ATP revealed that ATP and the NHE1 activator phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate bind competitively to the LID. These findings suggest that modulation of NHE1 activity by various activators and inhibitors occurs through the direct binding of these molecules to the LID, which alters the association of the LID with the plasma membrane.
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Association between tooth loss and orodigestive cancer mortality in an 80-year-old community-dwelling Japanese population: a 12-year prospective study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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A growing body of evidence has indicated a possible association between oral and gastrointestinal (orodigestive) cancers and periodontal disease or tooth loss. However, the evidence remains contradictory. This study investigated whether tooth loss, which is indicative of poor oral health and a potential source of oral infections, is associated with death from orodigestive cancer.
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Evidence that Na+/H+ exchanger 1 is an ATP-binding protein.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) 1 is a member of the solute carrier superfamily, which regulates intracellular ionic homeostasis. NHE1 is known to require cellular ATP for its activity, despite there being no requirement for energy input from ATP hydrolysis. In this study, we investigated whether NHE1 is an ATP-binding protein. We designed a baculovirus vector carrying both epitope-tagged NHE1 and its cytosolic subunit CHP1, and expressed the functional NHE1-CHP1 complex on the surface of Sf9 insect cells. Using the purified complex protein consisting of NHE1 and CHP1 from Sf9 cells, we examined a photoaffinity labeling reaction with 8-azido-ATP-biotin. UV irradiation promoted the incorporation of 8-azido-ATP into NHE1, but not into CHP1, with an apparent Kd of 29.1 ┬ÁM in the presence of Mg(2+). The nonlabeled nucleotides ATP, GTP, TTP and CTP all inhibited this crosslinking. However, ATP had the strongest inhibitory effect, with an apparent inhibition constant (IC50) for ATP of 2.2 mM, close to the ATP concentration giving the half-maximal activation of NHE1 activity. Importantly, crosslinking was more strongly inhibited by ATP than by ADP, suggesting that ATP is dissociated from NHE1 upon ATP hydrolysis. Limited proteolysis with thrombin and deletion mutant analysis revealed that the 8-azido-ATP-binding site is within the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of NHE1. Equilibrium dialysis with NHE1-derived peptides provided evidence that ATP directly binds to the proximal cytoplasmic region (Gly542-Pro598), which is critical for ATP-dependent regulation of NHE1. These findings suggest that NHE1 is an ATP-binding transporter. Thus, ATP may serve as a direct activator of NHE1.
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MNK1 expression increases during cellular senescence and modulates the subcellular localization of hnRNP A1.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is an RNA-binding protein that modulates splice site usage, polyadenylation, and cleavage efficiency. This protein has also been implicated in mRNA stability and transport from the nucleus. We have previously demonstrated that hnRNP A1 had diminished protein levels and showed cytoplasmic accumulation in senescent human diploid fibroblasts. Furthermore, we have shown that inhibition of p38 MAPK, a key regulator of cellular senescence, elevated hnRNP A1 protein levels and inhibited hnRNP A1 cytoplasmic localization. In this study, we have explored the possible involvement of MNK1, one of the downstream effector of p38 MAPK, in the regulation of hnRNP A1. We have demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of MNK1 by CGP 57380 decreased the phosphorylation levels of hnRNP A1 in young and senescent fibroblast cells and blocked the cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1 in senescent cells. In addition, MNK1 formed a complex with hnRNP A1 in vivo. The expression levels of MNK1, phospho-MNK1, and phospho-eIF4E proteins were found to be elevated in senescent cells. These data suggest that MNK1 regulates the phosphorylation and the subcellular distribution of hnRNP A1 and that MNK1 may play a role in the induction of senescence.
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Prognostic value of metabolic tumor burden on 18F-FDG PET in nonsurgical patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic value of metabolic tumor burden on 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT measured with metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), independent of Union Internationale Contra la Cancrum (UICC)/American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) stage, in comparison with that of standardized uptake value (SUV) in nonsurgical patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Blastocyst culture is associated with an elevated incidence of monozygotic twinning after single embryo transfer.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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In a 7-year (2002-2008) retrospective study of a large IVF program based on minimal ovarian stimulation and single ET (47,841 single ETs), monozygotic twinning occurred in 1.01% of 14,956 clinical pregnancies. Blastocyst culture was associated with a significantly increased monozygotic twinning risk (adjusted odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-4.48), whereas embryo freezing, type of stimulation protocol used, intracytoplasmic sperm injection fertilization, or zona removal did not influence its incidence.
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Relationship between tooth loss and mortality in 80-year-old Japanese community-dwelling subjects.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Findings from several studies suggest associations between tooth loss and health outcomes, including malnutrition, poor quality of life, and mortality, in older individuals. However, limited information is available regarding whether those associations remain true in very elderly subjects after adequately considering confounding factors such as sex and smoking status. Herein, we determined whether the number of teeth in 80-year-old subjects is an independent predictor of mortality.
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p38 MAP kinase-dependent regulation of the expression level and subcellular distribution of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 and its involvement in cellular senescence in normal human fibroblasts.
RNA Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2009
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Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is a RNA binding protein that plays important role in the biogenesis of mRNA, such as alternative splicing and mRNA stability. We have previously demonstrated that hnRNP A1 has diminished protein levels and shows cytoplasmic accumulation in senescent human diploid fibroblasts. Recent reports showed that p38 MAP kinase (p38 MAPK), a member of the MAP kinase family is necessary and sufficient for the cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1 by stress stimuli such as osmotic shock. p38 MAP kinase has been shown to be involved in cell proliferation and the induction of senescence in response to extracellular stimuli. However, the relationship between hnRNP A1 and p38 MAPK and the roles of hnRNP A1 in cellular senescence have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that hnRNP A1 forms a complex with phospho-p38 MAPK in vivo. Inhibition of p38 MAPK activity with SB203580 elevated hnRNP A1 protein levels and prohibited the cytoplasmic accumulation of the protein, but not hnRNP A2, in senescent cells. The phosphorylation level of hnRNP A1 was elevated in senescent cells. Reduction of hnRNP A1 and A2 levels by siRNA transfection induced a senescence-like morphology and elevated the level of F-actin, a marker of senescence. These results suggest that the expression levels and subcellular distribution of hnRNP A1 are regulated in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner, probably via its phosphorylation. Our results also suggest that hnRNP A2 in addition to hnRNP A1 may play a role in establishing the senescence phenotype.
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Anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of auraptene, a citrus coumarin, following cerebral global ischemia in mice.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
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Cerebral ischemia causes delayed neuronal cell death in the hippocampus resulting in sequential cognitive impairments. Hyper-activated inflammation following ischemia is one of the etiologies for delayed neuronal cell death. In the present study, using a transient global ischemia mouse model, we showed that auraptene (AUR), a citrus coumarin, effectively inhibited microglia activation, cyclooxygenase-2 expression by astrocytes, and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following ischemic insults. These results suggest that AUR acts as a neuroprotective agent in the ischemic brain, which may be mediated by suppression of the inflammatory response.
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Heptamethoxyflavone, a citrus flavonoid, enhances brain-derived neurotrophic factor production and neurogenesis in the hippocampus following cerebral global ischemia in mice.
Neurosci. Lett.
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In the present study using a transient global ischemia mouse model, we showed that (1) a citrus flavonoid 3,5,6,7,8,3,4-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF) induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus after ischemia; (2) HMF increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a representative neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system, in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and most BDNF-positive cells were also stained with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (one of the major intermediate filament proteins of mature astrocytes) and (3) HMF increased doublecortin positive neuronal precursor cells in the dentate gyrus subventricular zone or subgranular zone. These results suggest that HMF has the ability to induce BDNF production in astrocytes and enhance neurogenesis after brain ischemia, which may be mediated by activation of ERK1/2 and CREB.
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[An analysis of mental disorders of international students visiting the Mental Health Service at Tsukuba University Health Center].
Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi
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With the expected increase in the number of international students coming to Japan as part of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technologys "300,000 Foreign Student (Global 30) Plan", the demands on university mental health facilities will also increase. However, the rate of mental disorders of recent international students has not been fully evaluated. As part of an initiative to establish effective treatment measures for the mental health of international students, we investigated the present status and recent trends of these students who visited the Mental Health Service (MHS) in the Tsukuba University Health Center. The demographic characteristics, pathway, stress, and diagnosis of international students who visited the MHS from 2005 to 2010 were investigated retrospectively based on medical records. The subjects were 59 international students (15 male, 44 female; mean age: 28.4). The consultation rate of international students was significantly lower than that of Japanese students each year. Although the rate is almost stable in Japanese students (2.1-2.5%), it has increased significantly in international students, from 0.5% in 2005 to 1.4% in 2010. A larger percentage of the subjects were from Asia (66%), compared to the former Soviet Union (10%) and Europe (7%). A greater proportion of the subjects were graduate students (67%). The diagnoses were as follows: depression (34%), adjustment disorder (32%), insomnia (15%), and schizophrenia (9%). The percentage requiring emergency consultation was 24%, including the most severe cases that had to return to their home country. Sixty-nine percent of the subjects stayed in Japan for more than 1 year. Half of the subjects decided to visit the MHS themselves. The results of the present study show that the consultation rate of international students was lower than that of Japanese students in spite of the "culture shock" experienced by international students. This result is in agreement with previous reports. Among international students, however, there is a trend indicating an increase of visits to the MHS in recent years, approaching the rate for Japanese students. Preparations for emergency consultation are still important.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.