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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The prevalence of smoking and its associated factors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A national study.
J Family Community Med
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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The aim was to measure the prevalence of smoking and identify its potential predictors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).
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Systemic review of the epidemiology of autism in Arab Gulf countries.
Neurosciences (Riyadh)
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To assess the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology of autism in Arab Gulf countries, and identify gaps for future research.
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Comparative Study for Evaluating the Cosmetic Outcome of Small-Incision Access Retroperitoneoscopic Technique (SMART) with Standard Retroperitoneoscopy Using the Observer Scar Assessment Scale: Are Small Incisions a Big Deal?
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Abstract Aim: To compare the scars and cosmetic results of trocars of 3, 5, and 10?mm in cases by small-incision access retroperitoneoscopic technique pyeloplasty (SMARTp) and standard laparoscopy pyeloplasty (SLp). Methods: Between January 2012 and October 2013, 20 pyeloplasties were performed: 12 with SMARTp and 8 with SLp techniques. A 5-mm homemade balloon trocar was used to create the retroperitoneal space. In SMARTp, 3- and 5-mm trocars were used and in SLp, 5- and 10-mm trocars were used. All patients underwent a ureteral (Double-J) stent placement preoperatively. The study included a total of 72 trocar-site scars: 3?mm (24 scars), 5?mm (24 scars), and 10?mm (24 scars). Cosmetic outcome was assessed at the 3rd, 12th, and 24th month of surgeries by the Observer Scar Assessment Scale (OSAS). Results: Mean age was 34.7±10.5 (19-52) years, and mean follow up was 18.7±9.2 months. Fifteen patients (75%) underwent Y-V plasty, and 5 (25%) underwent Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty. Mean operative time was 125.4±28.7 minutes. There was only minimal blood loss, no need for conversion to standard laparoscopic or open pyeloplasty, no intraoperative complications, and only two postoperative complications were recorded: retroperitoneal hemorrhage and wound infection and both were treated conservatively. There were significant differences between objective questions of "vascularization" in a 3-mm trocar and "thickness" in a 10-mm trocar. Twenty-four months after surgery, the cosmetic data assessed by OSAS showed statistically significant differenecs in favor of the 3-mm trocar sites versus the 10-mm trocar sites (OSAS: 13.8±3.9 vs 24.6±1.7; p=0.006) with no statistically significant difference between 3- and 5-mm port sites. Conclusions: The SMARTp is proved to be an efficacious and tolerable procedure with better cosmetic results and can be used for the treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) in suitable patients. We believe that this technique is likely to become an established procedure.
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Open Achilles tendon lacerations.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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In contrast to closed Achilles tendon ruptures, open injuries are rarely reported in the literature. This paper provides information about open Achilles tendon wounds that are eventually seen in the Middle East. The reporting unit, Hamad Medical Corporation, is one of the biggest trauma centers in the Gulf area and the major health provider in Qatar. This is a retrospective study including patients admitted and operated for open Achilles tendon injuries between January 2011 and December 2013. Two hundred and five cases of open Achilles tendon lacerations were operated in Hamad General Hospital in this period. Forty-eight cases showed partial injuries, and the remaining are complete tendons cut. In the same period, fifty-one closed ruptured Achilles tendons were operated in the same trauma unit. In the majority of cases, the open injury resulted from a slip in the floor-leveled traditional toilette seats. Local damage to the toilette seats resulted in sharp edges causing the laceration of the heel if the patient was slipping over the wet floor. This occurrence is the cause in the vast majority of the cases. Wounds were located 1-5 cm proximal to tendon insertion. Standard treatment principles were applied. This included thorough irrigation in the emergency room, intravenous antibiotics, surgical debridement and primary repair within 24 h. Patients were kept in the hospital 1-7 days for intravenous antibiotics and possible dressing changes. Postoperatively below knee slabs were applied in the majority of patients and were kept for about 4 weeks followed by gradual weight bearing and range of motion exercises. Outpatients follow up in 1-2 weeks. Further follow-up visits at around 2-, 4-, 8- and 12-week intervals until complete wound healing and satisfactory rehabilitation outcome. Sixteen cases needed a second procedure. A high incidence of Achilles tendon open injuries is reported. This seems to be related to partially damaged floor-level toilettes in the typical Middle-East lavatory. The surgical treatment resulted in excellent outcome in the vast majority of the cases. Low incidence of complications resulted despite dramatic injury pattern.
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Strong associations between the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane and type 2 diabetes in Saudi adults.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Pesticide exposure has been implicated as an environmental risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the body burden of the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) with the risk of T2DM in a sample of adults from Saudi Arabia. Serum samples were obtained from 280 adult subjects. Hexachlorocyclohexane isomer residues were measured by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data on lifestyle, dietary habits, and health status were gathered. Associations between exposure and T2DM were analyzed by logistic regression. Around 49% of adults enrolled in this study were diagnosed with T2DM. Among various HCH isomers, serum concentrations of the pesticides ? and ?-HCH were most strongly and consistently linked to T2DM in our studied subjects. Associations of HCH varied across five components of the metabolic syndrome. It positively and significantly associated with four out of the five components, especially elevated triglycerides, high fasting glucose, high blood pressure and HOMA-IR but negatively and significantly with HDL-cholesterol. This study in line with earlier ones about diabetes associated with HCH pesticide exposure and proposes possible hormonal pathways worthy of further investigation.
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Comparative Study for Evaluating the Cosmetic Outcome of Small-Incision Access Retroperitoneoscopic Technique (SMART) with Standard Retroperitoneoscopy Using Observer Scar Assessment Scale (OSAS). Are small incisions a big deal?
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Aim: To compare the scars and cosmetic results of trocars of 3-mm, 5-mm, and 10-mm in cases by small-incision access retroperitoneoscopic technique pyeloplasty (SMARTp) and standard laparoscopy pyeloplasty (SLp). Methods: Between January 2012 and October 2013, 20 pyeloplasties were performed 12 with SMARTp and 8 with SLp techniques. A 5-mm homemade balloon trocar was used to create the retroperitoneal space. In SMARTp, 3- and 5-mm trocars were used and in SLp, 5- and 10-mm trocars were used. All patients underwent a ureteral (Double-J) stent placement preoperatively. The study included a total of 72 trocar-site scars; 3-mm (24 scars), 5-mm (24 scars) and 10-mm (24 scars). Cosmetic outcome was assessed at the 3rd, 12th and 24th month of surgeries by the Observer Scar Assessment Scale (OSAS). Results: Mean age was 34.7±10.5 (19-52) years and mean follow-up was 18.7±9.2 months. Fifteen patients (75%) underwent Y-V plasty and 5(25%) Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty. Mean operative time was 125.4±28.7 minutes. There was only minimal blood loss, no need for conversion to standard laparoscopic or open pyeloplasty, no intraoperative complications and only 2 postoperative complications were recorded: retroperitoneal hemorrhage and wound infection and both were treated conservatively. There were significant differences between objective questions of ''vascularization'' in 3-mm trocar, and ''thickness'' in 10-mm trocar. 24 months after surgery, the cosmetic data assessed by OSAS showed statistically significant in favor of the 3-mm trocar sites versus 10-mm (OSAS: 13.8±3.9 vs. 24.6±1.7; P = 0.006) with no statistical significant difference between 3-mm and 5-mm port sites. Conclusions: The SMARTp is proved as an efficacious and tolerable procedure with better cosmetic results and can be used for the treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) in suited patients. We believe that this technique is likely to become an established procedure.
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Correlation of iron overload and glomerular filtration rate estimated by cystatin C in patients with ?-thalassemia major.
Hemoglobin
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Historically, renal involvement has not been a commonly recognized complication in patients with ?-thalassemia major (?-TM). Herein, we studied the impact of iron overload on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by cystatin C based GFR (Cyst C eGFR). We enrolled 149 patients with ?-TM in a cross sectional study in a single center in Oman. We investigated the correlation between measurement of serum ferritin and Cyst C eGFR. We used univariable linear regression to study the impact of serum ferritin on Cyst C eGFR and backwards stepwise regression to adjust for potential confounders. We included 78 males and 71 females with a mean age of 17.3?±?9 years (range 2.5-38.5). Seventeen patients had diabetes mellitus. Patients were taking deferiprone (DFP) and deferoxamine (DFO) (26 patients), DFP (58 patients), deferasirox (DFX) (62 patients) and one patient was taking only DFO. There was a very weak negative linear relationship between serum ferritin and Cyst C eGFR (correlation coefficient -0.25). In the univariable analyses, serum ferritin (p?=?0.004), diabetes status (p?
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Whole Serum 3D LC-nESI-FTMS Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Sexual Dimorphism in the Milieu Intérieur of Overweight and Obese Adults.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Linking gender-specific differences to the molecular etiology of obesity has been largely based on genomic and transcriptomic evidence lacking endophenotypic insight and is not applicable to the extracellular fluid compartments, or the milieu intérieur, of the human body. To address this need, this study profiled the whole serum proteomes of age-matched nondiabetic overweight and obese females (n = 28) and males (n = 31) using a multiplex design with pooled biological and technical replicates. To bypass basic limitations of immunodepletion-based strategies, subproteome enrichment by size-exclusion chromatography (SuPrE-SEC) followed by iTRAQ 2D-LC-nESI-FTMS analysis was used. The study resulted in the reproducible analysis of 2472 proteins (peptide FDR < 5%, q < 0.05). A total of 248 proteins exhibited significant modulation between men and women (p < 0.05) that mapped to pathways associated with ?-estradiol, lipid and prostanoid metabolism, vitamin D function, immunity/inflammation, and the complement and coagulation cascades. This novel endophenotypic signature of gender-specific differences in whole serum confirmed and expanded the results of previous physiologic and pharmacologic studies exploring sexual dimorphism at the genomic and transcriptomic level in tissues and cells. Conclusively, the multifactorial and pleiotropic nature of human obesity exhibits sexual dimorphism in the circulating proteome of importance to clinical study design.
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Flavonoid detection in hydroethanolic extract of Pouteria torta (Sapotaceae) leaves by HPLC-DAD and the determination of its mutagenic activity.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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It is well known that phytotherapy has grown in popularity in recent years. Because a drug cannot be administered without ensuring its effectiveness and safety, the standardization and regulation of phytotherapeutic drugs are required by the global market and governmental authorities. This article describes a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection analysis method for the simultaneous detection of myricetin-3-O-?-D-galactopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-?-L-arabinopyranoside, and myricetin-3-O-?-L-rhaminopyranoside present in the hydroethanolic extract (ethanol/H2O, 7:3, v/v) of Pouteria torta. The mutagenic activity of the extract was evaluated on Salmonella typhimurium and by an in vivo micronucleus test on the peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice. The linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability, accuracy, and precision of the assay were evaluated. The analytical curves were linear and exhibited good repeatability (with a deviation of less than 5%) and demonstrated good recovery (within the 83-107% range). The results demonstrate that the hydroethanolic extract exhibited a mutagenic activity in both assays, suggesting caution in the use of this plant in folk medicine.
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Production of butanol by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 from palm kernel cake in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using an empirical model.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Palm kernel cake (PKC) was used for biobutanol production by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. PKC was subjected to acid hydrolysis pretreatment and hydrolysates released were detoxified by XAD-4 resin. The effect of pH, temperature and inoculum size on butanol production was evaluated using an empirical model. Twenty ABE fermentations were run according to an experimental design. Experimental results revealed that XAD-4 resin removed 50% furfural and 77.42% hydroxymethyl furfural. The analysis of the empirical model showed that linear effect of inoculums size with quadratic effect of pH and inoculum size influenced butanol production at 99% probability level (P<0.01). The optimum conditions for butanol production were pH 6.28, temperature of 28°C and inoculum size of 15.9%. ABE fermentation was carried out under optimum conditions which 0.1g/L butanol was obtained. Butanol production was enhanced by diluting PKC hydrolysate up to 70% in which 3.59g/L butanol was produced.
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Are Web-based Surveys the New Epidemiological Mode For Healthcare Research? - The Saudi Perspective.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Web-based surveys (WBS) are gaining popularity as simple, cost-effective and rapid tools for data collection in healthcare research. The purpose of this exploratory study is to summarize the role of website-based survey (WBS) in gathering data for epidemiological research and review challenges facing WBSs in healthcare research. Electronic search in related literature for advantages, characteristics and performance of WBS was conducted. Special focus was placed on WBSs use in the Saudi context. The results indicated that WBSs are being employed increasingly in Healthcare research because of their accessibility, rapidity, reduced cost, less need for human resources and elimination of human errors. However, Paper-based surveys still possess higher response rates, accuracy and are more applicable for probability-sampling methods. Selection bias favoring young, educated and professional participants is associated with WBSs. Most Saudi studies sampled either healthcare professionals or students as the target population. Challenges specific to WBSs include: accessibility, representativeness of sampled population and multiple responses/unintended participants. Although WBSs do appear to be a contemporary alternative to traditional paper-based survey tools, more research is needed to optimize their applicability in different cultural contexts and for diverse pools of participants.
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Assessing the current state of dental informatics in saudi arabia: the new frontier.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Dental informatics is an emerging field that has the potential to transform the dental profession. This study aims to summarize the current applications of dental informatics in Saudi Arabia and to identify the challenges facing expansion of dental informatics in the Saudi context. Search for published articles and specialized forum entries was conducted, as well as interviews with dental professionals familiar with the topic. Results indicated that digital radiography/analysis and administrative management of dental practice are the commonest applications used. Applications in Saudi dental education included: web-based learning systems, computer-based assessments and virtual technology for clinical skills' teaching. Patients' education software, electronic dental/oral health records and the potential of dental research output from electronic databases are yet to be achieved in Saudi Arabia. Challenges facing Saudi dental informatics include: lack of IT infrastructure/support, social acceptability and financial cost. Several initiatives are taken towards the research in dental informatics. Still, more investments are needed to fully achieve the potential of various application of informatics in dental education, practice and research.
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Short-term effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the gingival crevicular fluid cytokine profiles in sites with induced periodontal defects: a study on dogs with and without streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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The aim of this study is to assess the short-term effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) on the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) cytokine profile in sites with standardized periodontal bony defects in beagle dogs with and without diabetes.
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DDT and its metabolites are linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes among Saudi adults: a cross-sectional study.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have recently been associated with type 2 diabetes in several non-Asian general populations. As there is currently an epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asia. The prevalence and incidence of diabetes is increasing rapidly worldwide including many Arab Gulf countries. According to a community-based national epidemiological health survey, the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Saudi adults (age group of 30-50 years) is 23.7 %. A recent study by Al-Daghri et al. (BMC Med 9:76, 2011) reported that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is 31.6 %. We investigated the associations between OC pesticides and type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia using a simple, sensitive, rapid, and selective gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method that has been recently developed. A total of 280 Saudi adults (136 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and 144 non-DM controls) were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. The diagnosis of diabetes was based on established diagnosis and medications taken. Blood dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its derivatives were quantified using GC-MS. Residues of DDT and its derivatives were analyzed in serum by means of gas chromatography with a mass spectrometry detector. Associations between DDT exposure and T2DM were analyzed by logistic regression. DDT and its derivatives and serum concentrations of DDT and its derivative DDE showed the strongest and most significant association to type 2 diabetes in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. Associations of DDT and its derivatives varied across different diabetes-related components of the metabolic syndrome. It positively and significantly associated with four of the five of these components especially elevated triacylglycerol, high fasting glucose, high blood pressure, and HOMA-IR but negatively and significantly with HDL. Possible biological mechanisms are discussed. This study confirms previous reports relating organochlorine pesticide (OCP) exposure to diabetes and suggests possible hormonal pathways deserving further exploration. The study will be one of the first to shed light on the associations of serum levels of total DDTs and DDT derivatives among the Saudi Arab ethnicity, and diabetes type 2 chronic noncommunicable diseases are highly prevalent.
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Increased TNF ?, IL-6 and ErbB2 mRNA expression in peripheral blood leukocytes from breast cancer patients.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Obesity has been associated with increased incidence and mortality of breast cancer. The precise relation between obesity and breast cancer is yet to be determined, with few studies linking them with altered serum levels adipokines and inflammatory cytokines. The relevance of the expression of genes encoding for adipokines and inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral blood and their contribution to obesity and breast cancer has not been fully investigated. We aim to identify potential transcriptional biomarkers in blood samples that may assist to underpin the link between obesity and breast cancer. Therefore, have investigated whether or not the expression levels, of selected genes [tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), tumor protein 53 (TP53) and erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene 2 (ErbB2)] were altered in blood samples of lean, overweight/obese and breast cancer subjects. Blood samples were obtained from 37 lean, 19 overweight/obese and 12 breast cancer patients. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to detect TNF?, IL-6, adiponectin, leptin, CRP, PTH, TP53 and ErbB2 gene transcripts. Transcript levels of TNF? were significantly higher by 1.4-fold and 2.1-fold in blood cells of overweight/obese and breast cancer patients, respectively, compared with lean control subjects. Transcript levels of IL-6 were significantly higher by 2.3-fold in blood cells from breast cancer patients compared with lean control subjects with normal body mass index, and no significant difference was found in the expression level of IL-6 transcripts between overweight/obese and lean control subjects. The ErbB2 transcript levels were significantly higher by 4.72-fold compared to lean control subjects and were also significantly higher compared to overweight/obese subjects. Breast cancer and obesity are associated with altered mRNA levels of cytokines and tumor marker in peripheral blood.
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A 6-month "self-monitoring" lifestyle modification with increased sunlight exposure modestly improves vitamin D status, lipid profile and glycemic status in overweight and obese Saudi adults with varying glycemic levels.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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The over-all age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) in Saudi Arabia is unprecedented at 31%. Aggressive measures should be done to curb down increasing incidence. In this prospective 6-month study we aim to determine whether a self-monitoring, life-style modification program that includes increased sunlight exposure confer improvement in vitamin D status and health benefits among adult Saudi overweight and obese patients with varying glycemic status.
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A very low incidence of BRAF mutations in Middle Eastern colorectal carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Recent studies emphasize the role of BRAF as a genetic marker for prediction, prognosis and risk stratification in colorectal cancer. Earlier studies have reported the incidence of BRAF mutations in the range of 5-20% in colorectal carcinomas (CRC) and are predominantly seen in the serrated adenoma-carcinoma pathway characterized by microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene in the setting of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Due to the lack of data on the true incidence of BRAF mutations in Saudi Arabia, we sought to analyze the incidence of BRAF mutations in this ethnic group.
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Stress and cardiometabolic manifestations among Saudi students entering universities: a cross-sectional observational study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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In this observational study, we aimed to see whether transition in Saudi students entering university life could be a breeding stage for cardiometabolic risk factor emergence and clustering.
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Gender-dependent associations between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study in the adult Saudi population.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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To determine the gender-dependent association of socio-economic status variables with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adult Saudi population.
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Non-invasive haemoglobin estimation in patients with thalassaemia major.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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This study aimed to validate pulse CO-oximetry-based haemoglobin (Hb) estimation in children and adults with thalassaemia major (TM) and to determine the impact of different baseline variables on the accuracy of the estimation.
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Perceived stress scores among Saudi students entering universities: a prospective study during the first year of university life.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010-2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35) and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35), while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life.
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distribution in serum of Saudi children using HPLC-FLD: marker elevations in children with asthma.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Diesel exhaust consists of a complex mixture of chemicals which contain known genotoxicants, one of which is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which may be associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution patterns of PAHs (anthracene, naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, cyclopentaphenanthrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, benzanthracene, chrysene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzoacephenanthrylene, and benzo(a)pyrene) in serum collected from asthmatic and healthy control children. PAH serum levels were measured in samples collected from children who lived in 11 different locations in/round Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (Al-yarmouk, Usaibi, Sultana Al-kadema, Omrrojam, Kof, Janoob Dawdmi, Guberah, Arabbuah, Al-mozahemyah, Iskan Al-mazzer, and Al-gharabi) during the period 2010-2011. Our results showed that the highest total mean concentrations of PAH were found in serum samples collected from people who lived in Sultana Aljadhida, Almozahemyah, Guberah, and Omrrojam and were 663.9, 486.17, 412.18, and 258.6 ng ml(-1), respectively. The most prevalent PAHs in serum samples were naphthalene, bezanthracene, benzoacephenanthrylene, phenanthrene, chrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene with a frequency that ranged from 54.5 to 90.9 % positive samples. A close monitoring of PAH pollution is strongly recommended, especially in food and plant samples, because of their high bioaccumulation capacity.
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Association of VDR-gene variants with factors related to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and vitamin D deficiency.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is rising alarmingly in the Saudi Arabian population. This study was conducted to assess the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility to components of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and vitamin D deficiency in the Saudi Arabian population. Five-hundred-seventy Saudi individuals (285 MetS and 285 controls) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. TaqI, BsmI, ApaI and FokI single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VDR gene were genotyped. The CT genotype and allele T of BsmI were associated with lower HDL-C levels [OR 0.60 (0.37, 0.96), p=0.03] and obesity [OR 1.4 (1.0, 1.90), p=0.04], respectively. The CT genotype and the dominant model CT+TT of BsmI were associated with increased risk of diabetes [OR 1.7 (1.2, 2.4), p=0.007], and [OR 1.5 (1.1, 2.2), p=0.01], respectively. On the contrary, the CT and CT+CC genotypes of FokI exhibited an association with a reduced risk of diabetes [OR 0.70 (0.49, 0.99), p=0.05] and [OR 0.67 (0.48, 0.94), p=0.02], respectively. The allele C of FokI was associated with lower risk of developing T2DM [OR 0.73 (0.56, 0.95), p=0.02]. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was lower in subjects with the AC genotype of ApaI [OR, 0.34 (0.14, 0.80), p=0.01]. Components of the MetS such as obesity, low HDL and T2DM were associated with the VDR gene. FokI and BsmI have protective and facilitative effects on the risk for T2DM, while the ApaI genotype was associated with reduced vitamin D deficiency.
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A54T polymorphism in the fatty acid binding protein 2 studies in a Saudi population with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) is an intracellular protein expressed exclusively in the enterocytes of proximal small intestine. FABP2 has a high affinity for saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids and is believed to be involved in the absorption and transport of dietary fatty acids.
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Trends in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in the Arabian Gulf States: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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We report trends in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in adults residing in the Arabian Gulf States. Among the Saudi population, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 10.6% in 1989 to 32.1% in 2009. Prevalence of the disease increased faster among Saudi men than women, with growth rates of 0.8% and 0.6% per year, respectively.
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Association of dietary fatty acids intake with pro-coagulation and inflammation in Saudi Adults.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The aim of the study was to understand whether dietary fatty acids such as saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids act as inflammatory mediators or influence pro-coagulation in Saudi adults. The study sought to examine inflammatory factors such as C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and activated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. A total number of 232 consenting Saudi adults, aged 18-60 years were randomly selected in this cross-sectional study. Independent Student t-test was done to compare means of normally distributed data. Spearman correlation between the variables was determined. The values of different fatty acids and adipokines were transformed logarithmically/square root to normalize data before correlations were determined and statistical analyses performed. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. The results show a significant positive correlation of dietary intake of poly and monounsaturated fatty acids, but not saturated fatty acids, with activated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (r=0.31, p=0.02, r=0.32 p=0.04). On the other hand, dietary intake of saturated fatty acids showed a negative correlation with serum C-reactive protein levels (p=0.001) in males. Dietary unsaturated fatty acids is possibly associated with the production of a pro-coagulation factor without enhancing the secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules, while saturated fatty acids have no effect on activated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, but their level is negatively associated with the inflammatory factor C-reactive protein. We conclude that dietary intake may exert a gender-specific effect in inflammatory processes among adults. Further studies are warranted to confirm present findings.
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Lean mass, muscle strength and gene expression in community dwelling older men: findings from the Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study (HSS).
Calcif. Tissue Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Sarcopenia is associated with adverse health outcomes. This study investigated whether skeletal muscle gene expression was associated with lean mass and grip strength in community-dwelling older men. Utilising a cross-sectional study design, lean muscle mass and grip strength were measured in 88 men aged 68-76 years. Expression profiles of 44 genes implicated in the cellular regulation of skeletal muscle were determined. Serum was analysed for circulating cytokines TNF (tumour necrosis factor), IL-6 (interleukin 6, IFNG (interferon gamma), IL1R1 (interleukin-1 receptor-1). Relationships between skeletal muscle gene expression, circulating cytokines, lean mass and grip strength were examined. Participant groups with higher and lower values of lean muscle mass (n = 18) and strength (n = 20) were used in the analysis of gene expression fold change. Expression of VDR (vitamin D receptor) [fold change (FC) 0.52, standard error for fold change (SE) ± 0.08, p = 0.01] and IFNG mRNA (FC 0.31; SE ± 0.19, p = 0.01) were lower in those with higher lean mass. Expression of IL-6 (FC 0.43; SE ± 0.13, p = 0.02), TNF (FC 0.52; SE ± 0.10, p = 0.02), IL1R1 (FC 0.63; SE ± 0.09, p = 0.04) and MSTN (myostatin) (FC 0.64; SE ± 0.11, p = 0.04) were lower in those with higher grip strength. No other significant changes were observed. Significant negative correlations between serum IL-6 (R = -0.29, p = 0.005), TNF (R = -0.24, p = 0.017) and grip strength were demonstrated. This novel skeletal muscle gene expression study carried out within a well-characterized epidemiological birth cohort has demonstrated that lower expression of VDR and IFNG is associated with higher lean mass, and lower expression of IL-6, TNF, IL1R1 and myostatin is associated with higher grip strength. These findings are consistent with a role of proinflammatory factors in mediating lower muscle strength in community-dwelling older men.
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Tophaceous pseudogout of the temporomandibular joint: a series of 3 cases.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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We report a series of 3 cases of tophaceous pseudogout of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).
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Knowledge and Attitudes of Oman Medical Specialty Board Residents towards Evidence-Based Medicine.
Oman Med J
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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This study aims to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of Oman Medical Specialty Board (OMSB) residents towards Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM).
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Lower vitamin D status is more common among Saudi adults with diabetes mellitus type 1 than in non-diabetics.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Vitamin D deficiency is an increasingly recognized comorbidity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DMT1), suggesting that vitamin D deficiency might play a role in DMT1. We aimed to determine and compare the vitamin D status of Saudi adults with and without DMT1.
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Induction of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the lung and liver tissues of rats exposed to incense smoke.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Incense smoke is increasingly being recognized as a potential environmental contaminant and is linked to malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases. The detoxification of environmental contaminants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) involves the induction of cytochrome P-450 family enzymes (CYPs) by PAHs. However, the detoxification of PAHs also results in the generation of reactive and unstable intermediary metabolites which are implicated in the oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammation. It is unclear whether CYPs are similarly induced by incense smoke, which incidentally contains substantial amounts of PAHs. Here, we examined the impact of long-term incense smoke exposure on the induction of CYPs in male Wister Albino rats. Incense smoke exposure significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 mRNAs in both lung and liver tissues. The extent of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 induction was significantly higher in the liver compared to that in the lung, while that of CYP1A2 was greater in the lung than in liver. Incense smoke exposure also increased malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels in lung and liver tissues, and the catalase activity in the liver tissues to significant levels. Furthermore incense smoke exposure led to a marked increase in TNF-? and IL-4 levels. The data demonstrate for the first time the capacity of incense smoke to induce CYP1 family enzymes in the target and non-target tissues. Induction of CYPs increased oxidative stress and inflammation appear to be intimately linked to promote the carcinogenesis and health complications in people chronically exposed to incense smoke.
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Ultrastructural and hormonal changes in rat cauda epididymal spermatozoa induced by Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii.
C. R. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii diffuses smoke polluting air that adversely affects indoor environment that certainly harm human health. Therefore, this study aims at ascertaining the effect of these plants on gonadal hormones and molecular changes in rat spermatozoa. The animals were exposed to 4 g/kg body weight of B. papyrifera and B. carterii daily for 120 days along with suitable controls. Significant decreases in FSH, LH and testosterone levels were evidenced, along with a reduction of protein, sialic acid, and carnitine levels. In sperm physiology, sperm count, motility, speed decrease, whereas sperm anomalies increase. TEM observation indicates morphological changes in plasma and acrosomal membranes, cytoplasmic droplet in the tail region, vacuolated, and disorganization of the mitochondrial sheath. These findings demonstrate that B. papyrifera and B. carterii smoke affects the process of sperm formation and maturation, which indicates the detrimental effects of these plants on the reproductive system.
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Isolation, fractionation and identification of chemical constituents from the leaves crude extracts of Mentha piperita L grown in Sultanate of Oman.
Asian Pac J Trop Biomed
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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To analyze and identify the chemical compositions of different organic plants crude extracts of Mentha piperita (M. piperita) grown in Sultanate of Oman by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
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Activated Lymphocytes Secretome Inhibits Differentiation and Induces Proliferation of C2C12 Myoblasts.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Background/Aims: ageing is associated with a marked decline in immune function which may contribute to the local environment that can influence the regenerative process of skeletal muscle cells. Methods: Herein, we focused on determining the effect of an activated immune system secretome on myoblast differentiation and proliferation as possible means to attenuate adverse effects of muscle aging. C2C12 myoblasts were used as model to assess the impact of lymphocyte conditioned media (CM) following anti-CD3/IL-2 activation. Results: Myoblasts cultured with activated lymphocytes CM exhibited reduced morphological and biochemical differentiation (98±20, p<0.005) and increased entry to the S Phase of the cell cycle (61%±7, p<0.001), when compared with myoblasts cultured with non-activated lymphocytes CM. Associated with increased proliferation and reduced differentiation, muscle specific transcription factors MyoD and myogenin were significantly reduced in C2C12 treated with activated lymphocytes CM vs control CM, respectively (myoD: 0.5±0.12 fold reduction P<0.005); myogenin: 0.38±0.08 fold reduction; p<0.005). Moreover, key protein of proliferation pERK1/2 increased (46±11U/ml, p<0.05) whereas mediator of differentiation pAkt decreased (21±12U/ml, p<0.05) in C2C12 treated with activated vs. non-activated CM. Conclusion: our data demonstrate that, following activation, secretome of the immune system cells elicit marked regulatory effects on skeletal muscle growth and differentiation; enhancing the former with the loss of the latter. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Increased IL-4 mRNA expression and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations from children with asthma.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease. Imbalance of cytokines released from T helper cells and environmental factors, such as exposure to poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. The aim of this study was to compare the mRNA expression patterns of Interleukin (IL)-4, interferon (IFN)-? and Acyl Co A long chain 3 (ACSL3) in peripheral blood leukocytes of children with and without asthma. To correlate the obtained mRNA data with serum IL-4, IFN-? and PAH levels. Further, to determine the effect of in vivo exposure to PAH on mRNA expression of IL-4, IFN-? and ACSL3 genes in a rat model.
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New tools for embryo selection: comprehensive chromosome screening by array comparative genomic hybridization.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The study included 1420 CCS cycles for recurrent miscarriage (n = 203); repetitive implantation failure (n = 188); severe male factor (n = 116); previous trisomic pregnancy (n = 33); and advanced maternal age (n = 880). CCS was performed in cycles with fresh oocytes and embryos (n = 774); mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified oocytes (n = 320); mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified day-2 embryos (n = 235); and mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified day-3 embryos (n = 91). Day-3 embryo biopsy was performed and analyzed by aCGH followed by day-5 embryo transfer. Consistent implantation (range: 40.5-54.2%) and pregnancy rates per transfer (range: 46.0-62.9%) were obtained for all the indications and independently of the origin of the oocytes or embryos. However, a lower delivery rate per cycle was achieved in women aged over 40 years (18.1%) due to the higher percentage of aneuploid embryos (85.3%) and lower number of cycles with at least one euploid embryo available per transfer (40.3%). We concluded that aneuploidy is one of the major factors which affect embryo implantation.
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Maternal inheritance of circulating irisin in humans.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The recently discovered myokine irisin has been implicated in several observational studies as a potential therapeutic target for obesity-related diseases. However, no information is available as to the heritability of this hormone. The present study aims to fill this gap. A total of 120 families (n=254; 121 adults and 133 children) were included in the study taken from the Riyadh Biomarkers Research Program cohort. Information gathered include anthropometrics, and glycaemic, lipid and adipocytokine profiles. Irisin was measured using ELISA. Examining heritability between mother and offspring, the most significant heritable traits in sons included irisin (P=1.6×10(-5)), systolic blood pressure (P=3.6×10(-4)), total cholesterol (P=3.5×10(-7)) and LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol (P=1.2×10(-6)). Heritable traits between mother and daughter again included irisin (P<0.002), as well as anthropometric associations such as waist (P<0.01) and hip (P<0.005) circumference and blood pressure (P<0.002); biochemically, principal associations were observed with HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol (P<0.04) and TNF-? (tumour necrosis factor-?) (P<0.002). HDL-cholesterol was the single most significant predictor for irisin levels in adults, explaining 17% of the variance, whereas in children AngII (angiotensin II) was the most significant predictor of irisin levels, explaining 19% of the variance (P=0.003). Circulating irisin appears to be maternally inherited and is predicted by HDL-cholesterol in adults and AngII in children, both factors influenced by energy expenditure and regulation. Taken together, these findings suggest a significant role of irisin in energy-generating processes.
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The identification of irisin in human cerebrospinal fluid: influence of adiposity, metabolic markers, and gestational diabetes.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Peripheral action of irisin improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure, with no data on a central role of irisin in metabolism. These studies sought to examine 1) presence of irisin in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and banked human hypothalamic tissue, 2) serum irisin in maternal subjects across varying adiposities with or without gestational diabetes (GDM), and 3) their respective neonate offspring. CSF, serum, and neonatal cord serum were collected from 91 pregnant women with and without GDM attending for an elective cesarean section [body mass index (BMI): 37.7 ± 7.6 kg/m(2); age: 32 ± 8.3 yr]. Irisin was assessed by ELISA and correlated with biochemical and anthropometric data. Irisin expression was examined in human hypothalamus by immunohistochemical staining. Serum irisin in pregnant women was significantly lower in nonobese compared with obese and GDM subjects, after adjusting for BMI, lipids, and glucose. Irisin was present in neonatal cord serum (237 ± 8 ng/ml) and maternal CSF (32 ± 1.5 ng/ml). CSF irisin correlated positively with serum irisin levels from nonobese and obese pregnant women (P < 0.01), with CSF irisin significantly raised in GDM subjects (P < 0.05). Irisin was present in human hypothalamic sections in the paraventricular neurons, colocalized with neuropeptide Y. Irisin was detectable in CSF and in paraventricular neurons. Maternal serum irisin was lower in nonobese pregnant women after adjusting for BMI and a number of metabolic parameters. These studies indicate that irisin may have a central role in metabolism in addition to the known peripheral role. Further studies investigating the central action of irisin in human metabolic disease are required.
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Association between type 2 diabetes mellitus-related SNP variants and obesity traits in a Saudi population.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Obesity, commonly measured as body mass index (BMI), has been on a rapid rise around the world and is an underlying cause of several chronic non-communicable diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition to the environmental factors, genetic factors may also contribute to the ongoing obesity epidemic in Saudi Arabia. This study investigated the association between variants of 36 previously established T2DM SNPs and obesity phenotypes in a population of Saudi subjects. Study subjects consisted of 975 obese (BMI: ?30), 825 overweight (25-30) and 423 lean controls (18-25) and of these 927 had a history of T2DM. Subjects were genotyped for 36 SNPs, which have been previously proved to be T2DM linked, using the KASPar method and the means of BMI and waist circumference (WC) corresponding to each of the genotypes were compared by additive, recessive and dominant genetic models. Five and seven of 36 T2DM-related SNPs were significantly associated with the BMI and WC, respectively. Variants of SNPs rs7903146, rs1552224 and rs11642841 in the control group and rs7903146 in T2DM group showed significant association with both BMI and WC. Variant of SNP rs10440833 was significantly associated with BMI in T2DM group of both males [OR = 1.8 (1.0, 3.3); P = 0.04] and females [OR = 2.0 (1.0, 3.9); P = 0.04]. Genetic risk scores explained 19 and 14% of WC and hip size variance in this population. Variants of a number of established T2DM related SNPs were associated with obesity phenotypes and may be significant hereditary factors in the pathogenesis of T2DM.
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Bacterial bloodstream infections and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in pediatric hematology/oncology patients after anticancer chemotherapy.
Infect Drug Resist
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bloodstream infections in pediatric hematology and oncology represent a major problem worldwide, but this has not been studied in Qatar. In this study, we investigated the burden of infection and the resistance pattern in the bacterial etiology, in the only tertiary pediatric hematology and oncology center in Qatar.
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Inflammatory and bone turnover markers in relation to PTH and vitamin D status among Saudi postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the post-menopausal period. The bone loss predominantly involves the trabecular bone and is brought about by an imbalance between the bone remodeling process which can be influenced by factors that could cause or contribute to osteoporosis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-1?, Il-6, IL-8 and TNF-?) have been implicated in the regulation of bone cells and play a critical role in bone remodeling. They act both directly and indirectly to increase bone resorption, and/or inhibit bone formation. The aim of the study is to determine whether pro-inflammatory cytokines correlate with bone turnover markers (BTM) in a cohort of Saudi post-menopausal women with or without osteoporosis and which BTMs will correlate with PTH and Vitamin D for use in osteoporosis diagnosis. The study is composed of 100 post-menopausal patients and 100 controls aged 50 years and above. Serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory and BTMs as well as PTH and vitamin D were determined by ELISA, Luminex and electrochemiluminescence. Serum calcium, phosphorus, glucose, and lipid profile were measured by using a chemical analyzer. There was a significant increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, PTH, CTx, and glucose. A significantly lower vitamin D and osteocalcin levels were observed in subjects with osteoporosis than those without. No significant differences were recorded in the circulating lipid profile between groups. The present study proved that the pro-inflammatory cytokines accelerate the bone loss in postmenopausal women.
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Th1/Th2 cytokine pattern in Arab children with severe asthma.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bronchial Asthma has recently emerged as one of the most prevalent diseases in Arab countries. Environmental and geographical influences were shown to be the reasons of the variations in the rates of prevalence; no analyses have nevertheless yet been performed on the immunologic background associated with this condition in Arabic children.
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Cognitive profiles in patients with multi-infarct dementia: an omani study.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Studies on neurocognitive impairment among patients presenting with multi-infarct dementia (MID) have received little attention from non-Western societies, and the Arab world is no exception. To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize neurocognitive, affective and vegetative functioning in patients with MID in Oman.
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Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity and inflammosome activity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To explore the mechanisms underlying the suggested role of the vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) complex in the pathogenesis of obesity we performed genetic and immunologic analyses in obese and non-obese Saudi individuals without other concomitant chronic diseases. Genomic DNA was genotyped for gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of VDR by allelic discrimination in 402 obese (body mass index -BMI?30 kg/m2) and 489 non-obese (BMI<30 kg/m2) Saudis. Q-PCR analyses were performed using an ABI Prism 7000 Sequence Detection System. The inflammosome pathway was analysed by PCR, cytokines and plasma lipopolysaccaride (LPS) concentrations with ELISA assays. Results showed that the VDR SNPs rs731236 (G) (TaqI) and rs1544410 (T) (Bsm-I) minor allele polymorphisms are significantly more frequent in obese individuals (p?=?0.009, ??=?0.086 and p?=?0.028, ??=?0.072, respectively). VDR haplotypes identified are positively (GTA) (p?=?0.008, ??=?1.560); or negatively (ACC) (p?=?0.044, ??=?0.766) associated with obesity and higher BMI scores. The GTA "risk" haplotype was characterized by an up-regulation of inflammosome components, a higher production of proinflammatory cytokines (p<0.05) and a lower VDR expression. Plasma LPS concentration was also increased in GTA obese individuals (p<0.05), suggesting an alteration of gut permeability leading to microbial translocation. Data herein indicate that polymorphisms affecting the vitamin D/VDR axis play a role in obesity that is associated with an ongoing degree of inflammation, possibly resulting from alterations of gut permeability and microbial translocation. These results could help the definition of VDR fingerprints that predict an increased risk of developing obesity and might contribute to the identification of novel therapeutic strategies for this metabolic condition.
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Rare case of reversible acute symmetrical lesions of the bilateral Basal Ganglia associated with diabetic nephropathy and chronic renal failure.
J Clin Imaging Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Reversible acute symmetrical basal ganglial lesion on magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography in cases of diabetic nephropathy and chronic renal failure exhibiting acute onset of movement abnormalities like chorea is a very rare entity. It has characteristic clinical and imaging features. Only 29 cases are described in the literature, including the current one. These cases are predominantly Asian patients from the Far East and only one Asian Indian patient has been described. We report the second Asian Indian case of this condition and describe its various clinical and imaging features. Our aim is to educate the clinicians and radiologists about this condition, so that more such cases can be detected.
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Rare case of pneumorrhachis, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and surgical emphysema secondary to bronchial asthma.
Int Med Case Rep J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Air localized within the spinal canal is called pneumorrhachis. In the case of pneumorrhachis, air can be present in the extradural, the intradural, or the subarachnoid space of the spinal canal. The air within the soft tissue of the posterior mediastinum may dissect along fascial planes, through the intervertebral neural foramina, and into the extradural or the subarachnoid space. Nontraumatic pneumorrhachis is a rare presentation. Most of the time, pneumorrhachis is asymptomatic, remains localized, and resolves spontaneously. There are very few reports of combined presence of pneumomediastinum and extradural pneumorrhachis not associated with thoracic injury in the published literature. We report a rare case of pneumorrhachis, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and surgical emphysema in an adult female patient developed after a bout of violent cough related to bronchial asthma.
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Metabolic Benefits of Six-month Thiamine Supplementation in Patients With and Without Diabetes Mellitus Type 2.
Clin Med Insights Endocrinol Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Thiamine deficiency has been documented to be prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus, and correction of thiamine deficiency in this population may provide beneficial effects in several cardiometabolic parameters, including prevention of impending complications secondary to chronic hyperglycemia. In this interventional study, we aim to determine whether thiamine supplementation is associated with cardiometabolic improvements in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2). A total of 86 subjects (60 DMT2 and 26 age- and BMI-matched controls) were included and were given thiamine supplements (100 mg/day) for six months. Anthropometrics and metabolic profiles were measured routinely. Serum thiamine and its derivatives were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. In all groups, there was a significant decrease in total cholesterol after three months (p = 0.03) as well as in HDL cholesterol after six months of thiamine supplementation (p = 0.009). Significant improvements were also observed in the mean serum levels of creatinine (p = 0.001), as well as thiamine and its derivatives in both serum and urinary levels across follow-up visits (p-values 0.002 and <0.001, respectively). In the DMT2 group, improvements were observed in lipid profile (mean serum LDL and total cholesterol with p-values 0.008 and 0.006, respectively), serum thiamine (p < 0.001), TMP (p < 0.001), TDP (p < 0.001), urinary thiamine (p < 0.001) and serum creatinine (p < 0.001). Thiamine supplementation is a promising adjuvant therapy for patients with DMT2. Longer clinical trials are needed to determine its protective effect in DMT2 complications.
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ABCA1 C69T gene polymorphism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Saudi population.
J. Biosci.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease induced by complex interactions between environmental factors and certain genetic factors. Genetic variants in the Adenosine Binding Cassette Transporter Proteins 1 (ABCA1) have been associated with abnormalities of serum lipid levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C). Decreased serum levels of HDL-C have often been observed in T2DM cases, and this condition has been considered to be involved in the mechanism of insulin resistance (IR). Therefore, we investigated possible association between ABCA1 C69T gene polymorphism and T2DMin a Saudi population. This study was carried out with 380 healthy control subjects and 376 T2DM patients. Genotyping of ABCA1 C69T polymorphism was carried out by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique. We observed that the frequency of the T allele of the ABCA1 C69T gene was significantly higher in healthy subjects compared to T2DMpatients (0.28 vs 0.45; p less than 0.0001; OR (95 percent CI) = 0.4624 (0.3732-0.5729), and therefore the T allele may be a protective factor against T2DM in the Saudi population.
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Oral lichen planus in Arab countries : a review.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease of unknown etiology with a potential for malignant transformation. Little is known about the epidemiology of this condition in the Arab world. A computer-based literature search was conducted using relevant keywords to retrieve studies conducted in Arab world pertaining to OLP, 28 articles were identified initially. After screening for exclusion criteria/retrieving full texts, a total of 15 articles were used for this review. Three studies were cross-sectional and found a prevalence ranging from 0.35% to 1.7%. Studies about risk factors and prognostic markers were conducted in clinical settings, using a case-control design mostly (n = 9), cohort (n = 2), and clinical trial (n = 1). Genetic expressions of various proteins (e.g., BCL family), cultural determinants (Deram chewing), bacterial and viral infections [Helicobacter pylori and Hepatitis C virus (HCV)] were among factors investigated. Evidence extracted from these studies shows a possible link between OLP and Deram use, H. pylori and HCV Infections with a prevalence of the latter infection ranging from 14.7% to 26.3% in patients with OLP. However, paucity of population-based studies limits generalizability of such evidence. Future studies in the Arab world should focus upon surveying the extent of OLP, identifying cultural risk factors, utilization of OLP genetic markers in diagnostic, and prognostic applications.
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Selected dietary nutrients and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult males and females in Saudi Arabia: a pilot study.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females.
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Validation of a non-invasive pulse CO-oximetry based hemoglobin estimation in normal blood donors.
Transfus. Apher. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2013
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Non-invasive hemoglobin estimation may increase the recruitment of blood donors. CO-oximetry hemoglobin estimation is a non-invasive method used to estimate the hemoglobin level. The primary objective of this study is to validate the pulse CO-oximetry based hemoglobin estimation in normal blood donors.
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Irisin as a predictor of glucose metabolism in children: sexually dimorphic effects.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Irisin, a novel myokine, increases energy expenditure and glucose tolerance and, thus, improves carbohydrate homeostasis in humans. This hormone has potential therapeutic applications for weight loss and improvement in insulin resistance in subjects with obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to associate circulating levels of irisin and several anthropometric and metabolic parameters among Arab children.
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Thiamine and its phosphate esters in relation to cardiometabolic risk factors in Saudi Arabs.
Eur. J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Thiamine deficiency has suggested to be linked to several insulin-resistance complications. In this study, we aim to associate circulating thiamine levels among cardiometabolic parameters in an Arab cohort using a simple, sensitive, rapid and selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method that has recently been developed.
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Outcome after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis compared to mucosal ulcerative colitis in a Middle Eastern population.
Ann Saudi Med
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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To compare the complications and outcome after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for mucosal ulcerative colitis (MUC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
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Differences and associations of metabolic and vitamin D status among patients with and without sub-clinical hypothyroid dysfunction.
BMC Endocr Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Sub-clinical hypothyroid dysfunction, a relatively understudied disorder in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), has significant clinical implications if not properly monitored. Also from KSA, more than 50% of the population suffer from hypovitaminosis D (<50 nmol/l). In this cross-sectional case-control study, we described the differences and associations in the metabolic patterns of adult Saudis with and without hypothyroid dysfunction in relation to their vitamin D status, PTH, calcium and lipid profile.
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Identification and characterization of novel Kirrel isoform during myogenesis.
Physiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Somatic cell fusion is an essential component of skeletal muscle development and growth and repair from injury. Additional cell types such as trophoblasts and osteoclasts also require somatic cell fusion events to perform their physiological functions. Currently we have rudimentary knowledge on molecular mechanisms regulating somatic cell fusion events in mammals. We therefore investigated during in vitro murine myogenesis a mammalian homolog, Kirrel, of the Drosophila Melanogaster genes Roughest (Rst) and Kin of Irre (Kirre) which regulate somatic muscle cell fusion during embryonic development. Our results demonstrate the presence of a novel murine Kirrel isoform containing a truncated cytoplasmic domain which we term Kirrel B. Protein expression levels of Kirrel B are inverse to the occurrence of cell fusion events during in vitro myogenesis which is in stark contrast to the expression profile of Rst and Kirre during myogenesis in Drosophila. Furthermore, chemical inhibition of cell fusion confirmed the inverse expression pattern of Kirrel B protein levels in relation to cell fusion events. The discovery of a novel Kirrel B protein isoform during myogenesis highlights the need for more thorough investigation of the similarities and potential differences between fly and mammals with regards to the muscle cell fusion process.
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Childrens glycemic control: mothers knowledge and socioeconomic status.
Glob J Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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The present study was designed to examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) of the mothers knowledge about different aspects of diabetes and the glycemic control of type 1 children with diabetes. Samples were taken from successive admissions to the outpatient diabetes clinics in Prince Sultan Medical Military City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well designed questionnaire covering different aspects including demographic data, educational background, and socioeconomic status of the care providers was used to collect information from mothers of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) children. The questionnaire was designed on the basis of the Michigan diabetes knowledge scale and also on the basis of food habits of Saudi Arabia and it was validated. The questionnaire was completed after interviewing the mothers during visits to the PSMMC hospital. Every mother was asked with those particular questions. Glycemic control was assessed by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). The socio-demographic data of mothers was recorded by self-report. It was found that, there was significant variation in the knowledge of diabetes among mothers with different ages (P 0.05). No significant results were observed between family income and diabetes knowledge (p>0.05).However, a positive relationship was observed with higher income and higher knowledge. There was a significant association between mothers knowledge of diabetes and HbA1C level (r = -0.1739, p.<0.05) indicating that, higher knowledge ultimately leads to greater control of HbA1c level. A significant association was also observed between education and HbA1c level (r=-02538, p<0.05) with children of mothers with higher level of education showing a better control of glycated haemoglobin levels. However, no significant association was found between monthly family income and HbA1C level. In conclusion, the current study illustrated that, mothers with more knowledge of diabetes and with better education were maintaining a better glycemic control of their children, irrespective of the socio-economic status. It was found that, to improve glycemic control and to decrease acute and chronic complications of diabetes in children, mothers knowledge and education is needed.
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Effect of non-pharmacologic vitamin D status correction on circulating bone markers in healthy overweight and obese Saudis.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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While moderate to severe vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Saudi Arabia, skeletal effects associated with this deficiency are not common in this population. In this interventional study we measured the effects of improving vitamin D status on bone biochemical markers in overweight and obese adult Saudis. A total of 47 volunteers (21 males, 26 females) out of the initial 95 subjects were given verbal advice to expose themselves to sunlight for 5-30 min twice weekly and were encouraged to increase their intake of vitamin D-rich foods. Serum 25(OH)D, osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTx), were measured at baseline and after one year. A significant decrease in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was observed (44% to 27%) after one year follow-up (p = 0.025). Also, a parallel significant increase in osteocalcin and a decrease in CTX and osteoprotegerin were observed. The results suggest that a modest increase in vitamin D levels among overweight and obese subjects through the promotion of lifestyle changes for one year have marginal effects in bone turnover markers as well as obesity itself.
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Vitamin D supplementation in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 on different therapeutic regimens: a one-year prospective study.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
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Little or no research has determined the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation in conjunction with pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches in the diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) patients. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation in a cohort of Saudi DMT2 population on diet, insulin and/or different oral hypoglycemic agents and compare them with a non-DMT2 control cohort.
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NF?B as a potent regulator of inflammation in human adipose tissue, influenced by depot, adiposity, T2DM status, and TNF?
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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OBJECTIVE: Central obesity and sub-clinical inflammation increase metabolic risk, this study examined the intracellular inflammatory pathways in adipose tissue (AT) that contribute to this risk. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study therefore addressed the influence of NF?B and JNK activation in human abdominal subcutaneous (AbdSc) and omental (Om) AT, the effect of adiposity, T2DM status and the role of TNF? in vitro, using molecular biology techniques. RESULTS: Our data showed NF?B activity is increased in Om AT versus AbdSc AT (P<0.01), which was reversed with respect to depot specific activation of JNK (P<0.01). However, T2DM status appeared to preferentially activate NF?B (P<0.001) over JNK. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed recombinant human (rh) TNF? treated AbdSc adipocytes increased NF?B activity over time (2-48 h, P<0.05) whilst JNK activity reduced (2 h, 4 h, P<0.05); inhibitor studies supported a preferential role for NF?B as a modulator of TNF? secretion. CONCLUSIONS: These studies suggest distinct changes in NF?B and JNK activation, dependent upon AT depot, adiposity and T2DM status, with in vitro use of rh TNF? leading to activation of NF?B. Consequently NF?B appears to play a central role in inflammatory mediated metabolic disease over JNK, highlighting NF?B as a potential key target for therapeutic intervention.
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Does Visceral Adiposity Index signify early metabolic risk in children and adolescents? Association with insulin resistance, adipokines and subclinical inflammation.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Background:Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a novel gender-specific index based on waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and lipid parameters. Although VAI does not actually estimate visceral adiposity, it reflects accurately visceral fat function and insulin resistance. This index has not been studied in children. This study aims to fill this gap.Methods:In a cohort of Saudi children and adolescents anthropometric measurements and metabolic/hormonal profile were obtained.Results:A total of 543 subjects were included (mean age: 11.9±3.3years, BMI: 19.8±5.6?kg/m(2), 292 boys). In all subjects, VAI was inferior than BMI and WC regarding its correlations with adiponectin, leptin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and systolic blood pressure, but exhibited a stronger association with glucose in boys (r=0.23, p<0.01). In stepwise multivariate analyses, only BMI was consistent as an independent predictor of adiponectin, leptin, HOMA and CRP. VAI was the only index independently associated with glucose.Conclusions:Although VAI is related to glucose in children, it seems to be inferior to BMI in terms of association with insulin resistance, adipokines and subclinical inflammation. Until specific studies can be performed in children, VAI should be extrapolated with caution in this age range.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.229.
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Dietary factors and type 2 diabetes in the Middle East: what is the evidence for an association?--a systematic review.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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This review aims to search and summarise the available evidence on the association between dietary factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Middle Eastern populations, where diabetes prevalence is among the highest in the world. Electronic databases were searched; authors, libraries, and research centres in the Middle East were contacted for further studies and unpublished literature. Included studies assessed potential dietary factors for T2DM in Middle Eastern adults. Two reviewers assessed studies independently. Extensive searching yielded 17 studies which met the inclusion criteria for this review. The findings showed that whole-grain intake reduces the risk of T2DM, and potato consumption was positively correlated with T2DM. Vegetables and vegetable oil may play a protective role against T2DM. Dietary patterns that are associated with diabetes were identified, such as Fast Food and Refined Grains patterns. Two studies demonstrated that lifestyle interventions decreased the risk of T2DM. In summary, the identified studies support an association between some dietary factors and T2DM; however, many of the included studies were of poor methodological quality so the findings should be interpreted with caution. The review draws attention to major gaps in current evidence and the need for well-designed studies in this area.
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Influence of vitamin D treatment on transcriptional regulation of insulin-sensitive genes.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which are characterized by insulin resistance. Inflammation is a co-morbid condition associated with obesity. Vitamin D, besides being a transcriptional regulator, is an inflammation suppressor. However, the role of vitamin D in alleviating obesity-induced insulin resistance is still not well understood.
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Academic and socio-demographic factors influencing students performance in a new Saudi medical school.
Med Teach
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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The objective of this study is to examine factors such as the students demographic data, motivation, educational factors and socio-cultural factors, and identify whether these factors affect the academic performance of undergraduate medical students.
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Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L.
Asian Pac J Trop Biomed
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L (T. vulgaris) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
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Outcome of posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens procedure to correct myopia.
Saudi J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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To assess the safety and efficacy of the implantable contact lens (ICL™) to treat myopia.
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Anthropometric risk factors and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population - a national survey.
J Epidemiol Glob Health
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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This cross-sectional study aimed at determining the anthropometric predictors of hypertension among adults in Saudi Arabia. Multi-stage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. The average of three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer was considered the real blood pressure. Anthropometric measurements and socio-demographics were obtained from participants. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Hypertension was significantly positively associated with selected anthropometric measurements. Selected anthropometric measures were significant predictors of systolic and diastolic blood pressures except for hip measurements. Waist for height ratio was a significant predictor for isolated diastolic hypertension and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension. Waist circumference was the significant predictor for isolated systolic hypertension. Body mass index was a significant predictor for the combined systolic diastolic type. Waist for Hip Ratio was not a significant predictor for any of the hypertension subtypes. Conclusion: Waist for height ratio is the most important predictor for blood pressure level and hypertension disease.
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A nonsense polymorphism (R392X) in TLR5 protects from obesity but predisposes to diabetes.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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The TLR5 gene encodes an innate immunity receptor. Mice lacking Tlr5 (T5KO) develop insulin resistance and increased adiposity. Owing to the segregation of a dominant nonsense polymorphism (R392X, rs5744168), a portion of humans lack TLR5 function. We investigated whether the nonsense polymorphism influences obesity and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D). R392X was genotyped in two cohorts from Saudi Arabia, a region where obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are highly prevalent. The nonsense allele was found to protect from obesity (p(combined) = 0.0062; odds ratio, 0.51) and to associate with lower body mass index (BMI) (p(combined) = 0.0061); this allele also correlated with a reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines. A significant interaction was noted between rs5744168 and sex in affecting BMI (p(interaction) = 0.006), and stratification by gender revealed that the association is driven by females (p(combined) = 0.0016 and 0.0006 for obesity and BMI, respectively). The nonsense polymorphism also associated with BMI in nonobese women. After correction for BMI, the 392X allele was found to represent a risk factor for T2D with a sex-specific effect (p(interaction) = 0.023) mediated by females (p = 0.021; odds ratio, 2.60). Fasting plasma glucose levels in nondiabetic individuals were also higher in women carrying the nonsense allele (p = 0.012). Thus, in contrast to T5KO mice, loss of human TLR5 function protects from weight gain, but in analogy to the animal model, the nonsense allele predisposes to T2D. These effects are apparently sex-specific. Data in this study reinforce the hypothesis that metabolic diseases, including T2D, are associated with immune dysregulation.
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The Q192R polymorphism of the paraoxonase 1 gene is a risk factor for coronary artery disease in Saudi subjects.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a HDL-bound antioxidant enzyme that protects LDL from oxidative modification. Discovery of the antioxidant properties of PON1 led to extensive research on its role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The Q192R (rs662; A/G) polymorphism, which results in the glutamine to arginine substitution at position 192, of the PON1 gene has been linked to increased atherosclerosis risk in several but not all population studies. Besides genetic factors, environmental variables and ethnicity have been implicated as factors responsible for the ambiguity in relating the PON1 gene with atherosclerotic risk. Here, we tested the association of the Q192R polymorphism with coronary artery disease (CAD) in Saudi ethnic subjects taking environmental factors into consideration. The genomic DNA samples from 121 angiographically confirmed CAD cases and 108 normal healthy control subjects were genotyped by PCR-RFLP analysis. The distribution of QQ, QR, and RR genotypes was significantly different between cases and controls (p < 0.005). The RR genotype was associated with CAD risk independently of several established risk factors including age, gender, smoking, obesity, and diabetes (OR 2.2, 1.4-7.4, p < 0.01). Genotype-based stratification of demographic and biochemical data revealed that the RR genotype has proatherogenic properties. This study, thus, identifies the Q192R polymorphism as an additional risk factor for CAD in the Saudi population and suggests that it may have prognostic value. The negative effect of this genetic variant is presumably due to the diminished ability of the RR variant genotype of PON1 to blunt LDL oxidation.
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